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Motor control Reference guide May 2009 www.st.com www.BDTIC.com/ST www.BDTIC.com/ST Contents Introduction 4 Product family highlights 4 Universal motor 6 AC universal motor drive 6 DC universal motor drive 6 High-frequency PWM universal motor drive 7 Brushed DC motor 8 Single-switch chopper drive 8 Full-bridge converter drive 9 Single-phase induction motor 10 Bidirectional induction motor drive 10 Multi-winding on/off induction motor drive 10 Phase-controlled induction motor drive 11 High-frequency PWM induction motor drive 11 Three-phase induction motor 12 Scalar V/F drive 12 Vector drive 13 Brushless DC PMSM 14 Scalar 6-step drive 14 Vector drive 15 Brushless AC PMSM 16 Scalar drive 16 Vector drive 17 Stepper motor 18 Unipolar stepper motor drive 18 Two-phase bipolar stepper motor drive 19 Multi-phase bipolar stepper motor drive 19 Switched reluctance motor 20 Asymmetrical half-bridge PWM drive 20 Simplified asymmetrical half-bridge PWM drive 21 STM32 motor control starter kit 22 Vector control libraries 23 www.BDTIC.com/ST High efficiency, reduced noise, extended lifetime, rapid time to market - and all at optimum cost. This is the challenge currently facing the many industries which use electric motors. Today, the demand for electronic motor control is increasing rapidly, not only in the automotive and computer peripherals markets, but also in industrial applications and home appliances such as heating and ventilation systems, power tools, vacuum cleaners and white goods. All these mass-market applications need cost-effective solutions without compromising reliability. STMicroelectronics was among the first to recognize this trend and today offers a full range of components for optimizing motor control systems. Whatever motor technology you use, this reference guide will help you to make the right choice of components. Single-chip versus multi-chip solution A V ST is universally acknowledged as offering the most comprehensive semiconductor portfolio for applications which include: n Microcontrollers n Power devices n Smart-power and dedicated ICs 1500 Discrete power switches and control ICs 100 10 Monolithic solutions 1 (smart power) 0 1 10 A driver-on-chip solution is available along with multiple-IC solutions 130 A Product family highlights Microcontrollers ST supplies 8- and 32-bit microcontrollers which meet the performance requirements for controlling electric motors in various applications. ST’s 8-bit STM8 microcontrollers feature a high-performance core (up to 20 MIPS @ 24 MHz), 3.3 V to 5.5 V power supply, embedded true EEPROM and RC oscillator and 4to 128-Kbyte Flash in 20- to 80-pin packages, and provide a robust, reliable and cost-effective solution. STMicroelectronics’ 32-bit STM32 microcontrollers offer the performance of the industrystandard Cortex™-M3 core at the service of vector (or field-oriented) control algorithms. Vector-control algorithms are widely used in highperformance drives. They provide precise and responsive torque and speed control, and guarantee optimized efficiency during transient operations. All families and products are supported by a comprehensive range of emulators, development kits, programmers and demonstration boards, plus an integrated development environment, C compilers, and graphical design aids. Flash and OTP versions are available. Amplifiers and comparators ST offers an extensive range of op-amps and comparators suitable for motor control applications. The portfolio includes high-voltage bipolar and CMOS op-amps, as well as low-voltage CMOS rail-to-rail input and output op-amps. 4 www.BDTIC.com/ST ST - committed to motor control Smart-power IC building blocks Device incorporating all necessary logic and power circuits for driving the motor Input power Controller Power circuit feeding motor including level shifters and protection circuits Driver Power stage Driving section Switch array Motor Logic signals Logic generates specific command pattern for power stage Voltage and current Linear switch-mode level shifters electronic components (gate drivers) (MOSFETs, BJTs, IGBTs) Sensor Power devices ST offers a broad selection of products for power discrete devices: MOSFET and IGBT transistors, thyristors, triacs and AC switches, fast rectifiers and protection devices ranging from 1 to 270 A and 30 to 1,600 V. With products perfectly suited to medium-power motor drive applications, ST is constantly enhancing the performance of its power devices by upgrading process capabilities and product families. ST innovations include: n enhancing the IGBT family with the new strip layout PowerMESH geometry, and the Turbo 2 diodes family with the new 300 V and 600 V STTH series n breaking the power MOSFET performance barrier by using the MDmesh/FDmesh, MDmesh II/FDmesh II, MDmesh V, SuperMESH and SuperFREDmesh technologies for high voltage applications, and the latest generation of STripFET (STripFET II, STripFET III, STripFET V) and STripFET DeepGATE technologies for low voltage applications. n embedding control features into switches with VIPower™ technology for low-voltage motors n adding overvoltage protection and a separating gate circuit with the ACS™ switch, designed around 500 V and 800 V ASD™ technology Smart power and dedicated ICs With ST’s proprietary BCD family of processes, which combine bipolar, CMOS and DMOS structures on the same substrate, it is possible to achieve high levels of integration, including monolithic 600 V gate drivers for mains-fed motor drive applications. For low-voltage applications such as automotive and PC peripherals, ST has developed a broad range of complete single-chip motor drivers incorporating control, drivers and power switches. Using a process as fine as 0.35 mm, typical of ST’s newest BCD6 process, even relatively complex digital circuits such as microcontrollers, DSP cores and non-volatile memories can be integrated into power ICs, creating advanced smart-power solutions. www.BDTIC.com/ST 5 Universal motor Universal motors may be used with an AC or DC supply current. The stator and rotor windings of the motor are connected in series through the rotor commutator so that the mechanical force generated is always in the same direction (as it is proportional to the square of the current flowing). Operating at normal power-line frequencies, the maximum output of universal motors is limited and motors exceeding a few kilowatts are rare. The advantages of universal motors are specifically high starting torque, very compact design and high running speeds. The drawback is the maintenance and short life caused by the commutator. Typical application parameters Voltage 100 to 240 Vac (or corresponding rectified voltage) Motor power 100 to 2,200 W Speed range 0 to 20,000 RPM Features High start-up and low-speed torque capability AC universal motor drive The AC universal motor drive controls the rotation speed by means of phase-angle partialization. This method consists of changing the RMS voltage applied to the motor. In this case, the voltage is a function of the firing angle of the Triac. The high commutation capability of ACST-family device switches enables reliability of operation and use of a low gate-current supply for MCU interfacing. Main applications n Vacuum cleaners n Washing machines n Power tools n Food processors Umot (motor voltage) t Imot (motor current) t AC universal motor drive DC universal motor drive Continuous speed control of a universal motor running on DC is very easily accomplished using a thyristor circuit. A thyristor supplies the motor during the positive mains half cycle. Both the thyristor and its control are connected in such a way that the motor back-EMF compensates the motor load variations to adjust the speed. Main applications n Food processors n Power and garden tools Umot t Imot t DC universal motor drive 6 www.BDTIC.com/ST High-frequency PWM universal motor drive The pulse width modulation (PWM) technique (also known as chopper drive) is used to adjust the voltage applied to the motor. With the variation of the PWM duty cycle, the effective voltage seen by the motor can be changed. The advantage of PWM modulation with respect to phase-angle partialization is higher efficiency, less acoustic noise and better EMC behavior, but it can have an impact on brush life duration. Main applications n Washing machines n Food processors n Treadmills n Industrial motion control Umot t Imot t Demonstration boards High-frequency PWM universal motor drive Order code STEVAL-IHM007V1 STEVAL-IHM013V1 STEVAL-IHT00441 Description Universal motor control starter kit (phase-angle partialization) Low-end solution for a vacuum cleaner control board up to 2 kW AC timer based on HT triacs and ST7Lite1b Product highlights Microcontrollers Power transistors Fast rectifiers Thyristors AC switches Amplifiers and comparators 8-bit STM8 microcontrollers featuring a high-performance core (up to 20 MIPS @ 24 MHz), 3.3 V to 5.5 V power supply, embedded true EEPROM and RC oscillator and 4- to 128-Kbyte Flash in 20- to 80-pin packages. The IGBT is the best 600 V rated device for the PWM brushed DC motor drive. PowerMESH™ IGBTs combine low Vce(sat) with very short turn-off times, and significantly reduce both turn-on and turn-off switching losses. The latest low-voltage STripFET generations and STripFET DeepGATE technology for power MOSFETs for hand tools are also available. Available at 300 V and 600 V, Turbo 2 diodes feature ultra-fast recovery while maintaining a low dropout voltage. They significantly cut losses in both the diode and transistor at turn-on. The thyristor (or SCR) delivers both rectification and motor voltage adjustment. A sensitive device (IGT < 200 μA) simplifies the gate drive and reduces overall control circuit dissipation. Triac and ACST switches are suited to this type of drive, offering high surge current and low conduction loss. ST’s Snubberless™, logic level Triacs require a low gate-triggering current (10 mA and 35 mA) and run safely without requiring a turn-off aid snubber. The new ACST switches are designed with intrinsic overvoltage robustness, and safely suppress the mains voltage surges described in IEC 61000-4-5. Operating at low voltage with rail-to-rail input and output capability, new op-amps bring innovation with very high merit factors and consumption below 1 mA, while offering high slew rate, 10 V/µs and large product gain bandwidth (up to 20 MHz). For high-voltage operation, standard CMOS or bipolar op-amps and comparators offer single-supply operation, with adequate speed. www.BDTIC.com/ST 7 Brushed DC motor Brushed DC motors are internally commutated electric motors designed to run from a DC power source. Generally, the rotational speed of a DC motor is proportional to the voltage applied to it, and the torque is proportional to the current. Speed can be controlled by a variable supply voltage or electronic controls. Controlling the speed of a brushed DC motor is simple - the higher the armature voltage, the faster the rotation. This relationship is linear up to the motor’s maximum speed. Here we address the permanent magnet DC motor where the stator is composed of two or more permanent-magnet pole pieces and the rotor is composed of windings that are connected to a mechanical commutator. Typical application parameters Voltage 6 to 320 Vdc Motor power Up to 20,000 W Speed range 0 to 30,000 RPM Main applications n Consumer audio/video n Shavers n Toys n Cordless tools n Automotive body functions n Traction n Servomechanisms n Factory automation n Machine tools Single-switch chopper drive A single-switch chopper can seamlessly control the speed using duty cycle modulation. Single-switch chopper drive Full-bridge converter drive A full-bridge converter drive consists of four power switches that are used to adjust the motor voltage and polarity using the pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. The current can thus be controlled to flow in either direction through the motor windings, allowing the motor to run in both directions. Full-bridge converter drive 8 www.BDTIC.com/ST Demonstration boards Order code STEVAL-IHM012V1 STEVAL-IHM015V1 EVAL6205/6/7N EVAL6205N EVAL6206N/PD EVAL6207N EVAL6225PD EVAL6227PD/QR EVAL6226QR Description Cordless-drill evaluation board based on power MOSFET and 8-pin MCU Low-voltage motor control demokit Integrated power stages with Powerspin PowerSpin with PWM current controller (L6205 + L6506) PowerSpin with PWM current controller (L6206 + L6506) PowerSpin with PWM current controller (L6207) PowerSpin with PWM current controller (L6225 + L6506) PowerSpin with PWM current controller (L6225) PowerSpin (L6226) Product highlights Microcontrollers Power transistors Smart-power ICs Gate drivers Amplifiers and comparators 8-bit STM8 microcontrollers featuring a high-performance core (up to 20 MIPS @ 24 MHz), 3.3 V to 5.5 V power supply, embedded true EEPROM and RC oscillator and 4- to 128-Kbyte Flash in 20- to 80-pin packages. The latest low-voltage STripFET generations and STripFET DeepGATE power MOSFETs are ideal for higher power applications such as cordless tools. Monolithic motor drivers can be used conveniently in applications where the input voltage does not exceed a few dozen volts and the current feeding the motor windings is limited to a few amps. These devices may include just the power stage, the control section or the full control section, including the PWM current control, plus several protection functions such as thermal shut-down, overcurrent and cross-conduction. ST has developed several types of power IC, suited to different application requirements, working in linear or switch mode. Monolithic full-bridge and half-bridge gate drivers are available and include protection, deadtime and supply circuits. Operating at low voltage with rail-to-rail input and output capability, new op-amps bring innovation with very high merit factors and consumption below 1 mA, while offering high slew rate, 10 V/µs and large product gain bandwidth (up to 20 MHz). For high-voltage operation, standard CMOS or bipolar op-amps and comparators offer single-supply operation, with adequate speed. www.BDTIC.com/ST 9 Single-phase induction motor The single-phase induction motor is a brushless motor designed either with a single stator coil plus a shaded-pole coil, or two stator coils and a phase-shift capacitor. The rotor is usually made of an aluminum squirrel cage. Speed is controlled either by varying the motor voltage or by changing the number of motor poles. Typical application parameters Voltage 100 to 240 Vac Motor power 10 to 2,000 W Speed range 0 to 3,600 RPM Features Robust, low starting torque Bidirectional induction motor drive When a motor with a phase-shift capacitor is used, the direction of rotation can be reversed by means of two AC switches which connect the phase-shift capacitor in series with either of the two stator windings. Main applications n Washing machines n Fridges and washing machines n Window and door openers Bidirectional induction motor drive Multi-winding on/off induction motor drive Here the stator coil is divided into 3 or 4 pairs of windings. The speed is adjusted stepwise by connecting different combinations of these windings to the mains through AC switches in order to change the number of active stator poles and the base speed. Main applications n Fans in home appliances Torque Pole number decrease Load Speed Multi-winding on/off induction motor drive Phase-controlled induction motor drive ST offers a silent and cost-effective variable speed drive with a simple topology to control speed. A simple phase-control switch can then be used to vary speed by changing the motor torque profile. 10 www.BDTIC.com/ST Main applications n Fans in home appliances n Domestic water pumps n Industrial fans and pumps Umot (motor voltage) Torque Voltage increase Load t Imot (motor current) Speed t Phase-controlled induction motor drive High-frequency PWM induction motor drive The induction motor is driven in high-frequency mode by an innovative single-switch topology, which delivers a silent and cost-effective variable speed drive. The speed is controlled by the motor voltage: the power switch runs in PWM mode and its duty cycle changes linearly to control the speed according to torque. Main applications n Heating, ventilation and air conditioning n Industrial blowers and compressors Umot t Duty cycle Imot t Duty cycle increase Demonstration boards High-frequency PWM induction motor drive Order code STEVAL-IHT001V1 STEVAL-IHT002V1 STEVAL-IHM006V1 Description Cold thermostat control board based on AC switches and ST7Lite39 Basic thermostat control board for cooling applications based on ST7LITEUS5 AC-AC chopper driver Product highlights Microcontrollers Power transistors AC switches 8-bit STM8 microcontrollers featuring a high-performance core (up to 20 MIPS @ 24 MHz), 3.3 V to 5.5 V power supply, embedded true EEPROM and RC oscillator and 4- to 128-Kbyte Flash in 20- to 80-pin packages. The IGBT is the best 600 V rated device for PWM induction motor drives. The PowerMESH™ IGBTs combine low Vce(sat) with very short turn-off times and significantly reduce switching losses. With high commutation performance, Snubberless™ Triacs, ACS™ and ACST switches are the best choice. In addition, the latest ACS and ACST switches offer an outstanding overvoltage robustness enabling equipment to comply with the IEC 6100-4-5 standard. The 500 V ACS, also available in array configuration, is suitable for fan drives while the 700-800 V ACST is intended for medium-power motor drives in washers, dryers and refrigerators. www.BDTIC.com/ST 11 Three-phase induction motor The three-phase induction motor is a brushless motor. Its stator is copper wound and the rotor is typically an aluminum squirrel cage. The motor is supplied with three alternating voltages which produce a rotating stator field while speed varies with the field frequency. The rotor follows this field with a lag called the slip. Typical application parameters Voltage 100 to 240 Vac Motor power 50 to 2,200 W Speed range 0 to 20,000 RPM Features Robust, silent and reliable Scalar V/f drive Scalar control is typically achieved by controlling the voltage-to-frequency (V/f) ratio, thus the stator voltage amplitude (V) is adjusted proportionally to the stator current frequency (f). If rotor-speed feedback is available, slip regulation can be implemented to optimize drive dynamics and efficiency (MTPA - maximum torque per ampere - control). Main applications n Washing machines n Heating, ventilation and air conditioning n Blowers, fans and pumps n Industrial control Motor current A B C Centered pattern switching Demonstration boards Order code STEVAL-IHM001V1 STEVAL-IHM003V1 STEVAL-IHM004V1 STEVAL-IHM005V1 STEVAL-IHM008V1 STEVAL-IHM009V1 STEVAL-IHM010V1 STEVAL-IHM011V1 STEVAL-IHM017V1 STEVAL-IHM019V1 STEVAL-IHM021V1 Scalar V/f drive Description BLDC and AC motor control board BLDC and AC motor control - 300 W power board BLDC and AC motor control - 1 kW power board BLDC and AC motor control - 3 kW power board Power board based on SEMITOP 2 Power board based on SEMITOP 3 IGBT power module kit - ST7MC control board IGBT power module kit - SEMITOP 2 power board 100 W 3-phase inverter for BLDC sensorless motor control Complete inverter for low-power 3-phase AC motors BLDC and AC sensorless motor control (L6390) - 100 W power board 12 www.BDTIC.com/ST Vector drive Vector control provides real-time processing of the stator phase current and rotor position. It provides four-quadrant operation and excellent dynamic behavior to give optimum efficiency and speed response time. In in the context of FOC (field-oriented control), if the rotor flux position is indirectly calculated using the transformed equations of the machine and the known motor parameters and stator current measurements, the controller is an indirect controller and is known as an IFOC drive. Main applications n Robotics n High-end industrial control n Servo drives FOC block diagram Demonstration boards Vector drive Order code STM3210B-MCKIT STEVAL-IHM017V1 STEVAL-IHM021V1 Description ST motor control starter kit 100 W 3-phase inverter for BLDC sensorless motor control BLDC and AC sensorless motor control (L6390) - 100 W power board Product highlights Microcontrollers Power transistors Fast rectifiers Gate drivers Amplifiers and comparators 8-bit STM8 microcontrollers featuring a high-performance core (up to 20 MIPS @ 24 MHz), 3.3 V to 5.5 V power supply, embedded true EEPROM and RC oscillator and 4- to 128-Kbyte Flash in 20- to 80-pin packages. 32-bit STM32 microcontrollers based on the breakthrough ARM Cortex™-M3 core offering new degrees of freedom to MCU users: highperformance, real-time, low-power and low-voltage operation, while maintaining full integration and ease of development; six PWM advanced control timers with embedded deadtime generation; numerous PWM outputs allowing multiple motor drives; dual sample and hold ADC, 12-bit resolution and 1 μs conversion time; up to 512 Kbytes of Flash and 64 Kbytes of RAM. Available at 600 V, PowerMESH IGBTs range from 3 to 50 A. To reduce component count on the board, they can be provided with a built-in Turbo 2 freewheeling diode. The low Vce(sat) combined with very short fall times significantly reduces both on and switching losses, while the fast-recovery diode further reduces the IGBT turn-on losses. For very low current applications, SuperMESH and SuperFREDmesh power MOSFETs are also available. Available at 300 and 600 V, Turbo 2 diodes feature ultra-fast recovery while maintaining a low dropout voltage.They significantly cut losses in both the diode and the transistor at turn-on. Half-bridge gate drivers are 600 V monolithic circuits which may include a bootstrap diode for the floating driver, deadtime circuitry, two UVLO circuits and an uncommitted comparator for protection functions. Signal and power grounds are separated to ensure high noise immunity. Operating at low voltage with rail-to-rail input and output capability, new op-amps bring innovation with very high merit factors and consumption below 1 mA, while offering high slew rate, 10 V/µs and large product gain bandwidth (up to 20 MHz). For high-voltage operation, standard CMOS or bipolar op-amps and comparators offer single-supply operation, with adequate speed. www.BDTIC.com/ST 13 Brushless DC PMSM Permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) are synchronous brushless motors composed of two main components: a rotor made of permanent magnets and a wound stator. A motor is categorized as a BLDC or brushless DC motor when the stator windings are concentrated into narrow phase belts and the resulting back-EMF voltage induced in each motor phase by the rotor spinning can be modeled quite accurately as a trapezoidal waveform. Due to the back-EMF shape, BLDC motors are specifically optimized to develop nearly constant output torque when excited with a six-step switched current waveform. Typical application parameters Voltage Up to 60 Vdc; 100 to 240 Vac Motor power 5 to 2,200 W Speed range 0 to 30,000 RPM Features High torque capability at start-up and low speed Highly efficient and compact Main applications n Heating, ventilation and air conditioning n Refrigerators n Medical equipment n Robotics n Home appliances n Fans n Pumps n Hard disk drives n CD/DVD drives n Electric traction Scalar 6-step drive The motor is supplied by three trapezoidal 6-step waveforms. During each step, two phases are active. In sensorless mode, the inactive phase is monitored to read the back-EMF. Back-EMF t Current Demonstration boards Scalar 6-step drive Order code STEVAL-IHM001V1 STEVAL-IHM003V1 STEVAL-IHM004V1 STEVAL-IHM005V1 STEVAL-IHM008V1 STEVAL-IHM009V1 STEVAL-IHM010V1 STEVAL-IHM011V1 STEVAL-IHM017V1 EVAL6235N EVAL6229PD Description BLDC and AC motor control board BLDC and AC motor control - 300 W power board BLDC and AC motor control - 1 kW power board BLDC and AC motor control - 3 kW power board Power board based on SEMITOP 2 Power board based on SEMITOP 3 IGBT power module kit - ST7MC control board IGBT power module kit - SEMITOP 2 power board 100 W 3-phase inverter for BLDC sensorless motor control Hall-effect sensor monolithic driver Hall-effect sensor monolithic driver 14 www.BDTIC.com/ST Vector drive If the application tolerates a small mechanical torque ripple a sinusoidal shaped current can be used for the drive. From this consideration and with this limitation, the advantages of a field-oriented control could also be extended to BLDC motors (reliability, noise reduction, high torque at start-up and low-speed). FOC block diagram Demonstration boards Vector drive Order code STM3210B-MCKIT STEVAL-IHM011V1 STEVAL-IHM017V1 STEVAL-IHM021V1 Description ST motor control starter kit IGBT power module kit 100 W 3-phase inverter for BLDC sensorless motor control BLDC and AC sensorless motor control (L6390) - 100 W power board Product highlights Microcontrollers Power transistors Fast rectifiers Smart power ICs Gate drivers Amplifiers and comparators 32-bit STM32 microcontrollers based on the breakthrough ARM Cortex™-M3 core offering new degrees of freedom to MCU users: highperformance, real-time, low-power and low-voltage operation, while maintaining full integration and ease of development; six PWM advanced control timers with embedded deadtime generation; numerous PWM outputs allowing multiple motor drives; dual sample and hold ADC, 12-bit resolution and 1 μs conversion time; up to 512 Kbytes of Flash and 64 Kbytes of RAM. 8-bit STM8 microcontrollers featuring a high-performance core (up to 20 MIPS @ 24 MHz), 3.3 V to 5.5 V power supply, embedded true EEPROM and RC oscillator and 4- to 128-Kbyte Flash in 20- to 80-pin packages. The latest STripFET generations and STripFET DeepGATE power MOSFETs are ideal PWM switches for low-voltage buses. As either N-channel or P-channel, they come in a large variety of SMD and through-hole packages. For high-voltage low-current applications, the standard highvoltage technologies can be usefully used as well. For the 600 V range, PowerMESH IGBTs cover all power ratings, both in single configuration or associated with a Turbo 2 fast rectifier. Available at 300 V and 600 V, Turbo 2 diodes feature ultra-fast recovery while maintaining a low dropout voltage. They significantly cut losses in both the diode and the transistor at turn-on. Monolithic motor drivers can be conveniently used in applications where the input voltage does not exceed a few dozen volts and the current feeding the motor windings is limited to a few amps. These parts may include just the power stage or include the control section. ST has developed several types of power ICs, suited to different application requirements. Some operate in linear and some in switch mode. Half-bridge gate drivers are high-voltage monolithic circuits which include a bootstrap diode for the floating driver, deadtime circuitry, two UVLO circuits and an uncommitted comparator for protection functions. Signal and power grounds are separated to ensure high noise immunity. Operating at low voltage with rail-to-rail input and output capability, new op-amps bring innovation with very high merit factors and consumption below 1 mA, while offering high slew rate, 10 V/µs and large product gain bandwidth (up to 20 MHz). For high-voltage operation, standard CMOS or bipolar op-amps and comparators offer single-supply operation, with adequate speed. www.BDTIC.com/ST 15 Brushless AC PMSM The motor is categorized as PMSM or sinusoidal PMSM or PMAC when the stator windings are sinusoidally distributed and the magnets are shaped to induce a sinusoidal back-EMF voltage waveform in each motor phase by the rotor spinning. Due to the back-EMF shape, sinusoidal PMSMs are specifically optimized to develop nearly constant output torque when excited with a 3-phase sinusoidal current waveform. Typical application parameters Voltage Up to 380 Vac Motor power Up to 3 kW Speed range Up to 30,000 rpm Features High torque capability at start-up and low speed Highly efficient and compact Main applications n Dishwashers n Electric traction n Washing machines n Robotics Scalar drive To avoid applying too high a voltage for the current frequency, a V/f limitation curve is used to fix the maximum voltage value supplied for the stator frequency. Scalar drive 16 www.BDTIC.com/ST Vector drive Vector control processes the stator phase current and rotor position in real time. It provides four-quadrant operation and excellent dynamic behavior, to give optimum efficiency, and torque and speed response times. Sensorless algorithms for rotor position detection are available. Vector drive Demonstration boards Order code STM3210B-MCKIT STEVAL-IHM011V1 STEVAL-IHM017V1 STEVAL-IHM021V1 Description ST motor control starter kit IGBT power module kit 100 W 3-phase inverter for BLDC sensorless motor control BLDC and AC sensorless motor control (L6390) - 100 W power board Product highlights Microcontrollers Power transistors Fast rectifiers Smart power ICs Gate drivers Amplifiers and comparators 32-bit STM32 microcontrollers based on the breakthrough ARM Cortex™-M3 core offering new degrees of freedom to MCU users: highperformance, real-time, low-power and low-voltage operation, while maintaining full integration and ease of development; six PWM advanced control timers with embedded deadtime generation; numerous PWM outputs allowing multiple motor drives; dual sample and hold ADC, 12-bit resolution and 1 μs conversion time; up to 512 Kbytes of Flash and 64 Kbytes of RAM. 8-bit STM8 microcontrollers featuring a high-performance core (up to 20 MIPS @ 24 MHz), 3.3 V to 5.5 V power supply, embedded true EEPROM and RC oscillator and 4- to 128-Kbyte Flash in 20- to 80-pin packages. The latest STripFET generations and STripFET DeepGATE power MOSFETs are ideal PWM switches for low-voltage buses. As either N-channel or P-channel, they come in a large variety of SMD and through-hole packages. For high-voltage low-current applications, the standard highvoltage technologies can be usefully used as well. For the 600 V range, PowerMESH IGBTs cover all power ratings, both in single configuration or associated with a Turbo 2 fast rectifier. Available at 300 V and 600 V, Turbo 2 diodes feature ultra-fast recovery while maintaining a low dropout voltage. They significantly cut losses in both the diode and the transistor at turn-on. Monolithic motor drivers can be conveniently used in applications where the input voltage does not exceed a few dozen volts and the current feeding the motor windings is limited to a few amps. These parts may include just the power stage or include the control section. ST has developed several types of power ICs, suited to different application requirements. Some operate in linear and some in switch mode. Half-bridge gate drivers are high-voltage monolithic circuits which include a bootstrap diode for the floating driver, deadtime circuitry, two UVLO circuits and an uncommitted comparator for protection functions. Signal and power grounds are separated to ensure high noise immunity. Operating at low voltage with rail-to-rail input and output capability, new op-amps bring innovation with very high merit factors and consumption below 1 mA, while offering high slew rate, 10 V/µs and large product gain bandwidth (up to 20 MHz). For high-voltage operation, standard CMOS or bipolar op-amps and comparators offer single-supply operation, with adequate speed. www.BDTIC.com/ST 17 Stepper motor A stepper motor has windings only on the stator, while the rotor usually features permanent magnets. A stepper motor converts digital pulses into fixed angular steps and, for this reason, is normally used in an open loop configuration and is the most cost-effective solution in many positioning applications. There are two basic types of stepper motor: unipolar and bipolar. In a unipolar motor, the current is allowed to flow in one direction through the motor windings, while in a bipolar motor it flows in both directions. A stepper motor driver typically works in switch mode and includes a current-control circuit allowing the current in the windings to be controlled in such a way that it follows a predetermined profile. In half and full-step modes, the current profile is rectangular, while in micro-step mode it is nearly sinusoidal. A power bridge is needed to drive bipolar stepper motors, but an array of switches is sufficient to drive unipolar stepper motors. Typical application parameters Voltage 7 to 180 Vdc Motor power Up to 300 W Speed range 0 to 1,000 RPM Features High torque at rest position Accuracy Main applications n Printers n Automotive applications n Air conditioning louvers n Factory automation n Machine tools Unipolar stepper motor drive All stator windings share a common terminal, and the free terminal of each winding is connected to a separate power switch. Diodes are used for clamping the voltage across the switches at turn-off. Unipolar stepper motor drive 18 www.BDTIC.com/ST Two-phase bipolar stepper motor drive A full-bridge converter is required to drive each of the two windings of a two-phase motor. Multi-phase bipolar stepper motor drive A three-phase inverter is needed to drive a three-phase motor. Multi-phase stepper motors with many phases tend to have much lower levels of vibration, although the cost of manufacture is higher. Two-phase bipolar stepper motor drive Demonstration boards Multi-phase bipolar stepper motor drive Order code EVAL6205/6/7N EVAL6205N EVAL6206N/PD EVAL6207N EVAL6225PD EVAL6227PD/QR EVAL6226QR EVAL6208N/PD EVAL6228QR Description Integrated power stages with PowerSpin PowerSpin with PWM current controller (L6205+L6506) PowerSpin with PWM current controller (L6206+L6506) PowerSpin with PWM current controller (L6207) PowerSpin with PWM current controller (L6225+L6506) PowerSpin with PWM current controller (L6225) PowerSpin (L6226) PowerSpin with stepper translator plus PWM current controller (L6208) PowerSpin with stepper translator plus PWM current controller (L6208) Product highlights Microcontrollers Power transistors Smart-power ICs Gate drivers 8-bit STM8 microcontrollers featuring a high-performance core (up to 20 MIPS @ 24 MHz), 3.3 V to 5.5 V power supply, embedded true EEPROM and RC oscillator and 4- to 128-Kbyte Flash in 20- to 80-pin packages. 32-bit STM32 microcontrollers based on the breakthrough ARM Cortex™-M3 core offering new degrees of freedom to MCU users: highperformance, real-time, low-power and low-voltage operation, while maintaining full integration and ease of development; six PWM advanced control timers with embedded deadtime generation; numerous PWM outputs allowing multiple motor drives; dual sample and hold ADC, 12-bit resolution and 1 μs conversion time; up to 512 Kbytes of Flash and 64 Kbytes of RAM. The latest STripFET generations and STripFET DeepGATE power MOSFETs are suitable for low-voltage stepper motors in automotive and industrial applications. They are ideal for higher power applications such as printers. Monolithic motor drivers can be conveniently used in applications where the input voltage does not exceed a few dozen volts and the current feeding the motor windings is limited to a few amps. These parts may include just the power stage or the control section as well. ST has developed several types of power IC which suit different application requirements; some work in half/full step and some in micro stepping mode. Half-bridge gate drivers are high-voltage monolithic circuits which include a bootstrap diode for the floating driver, deadtime circuitry, two UVLO circuits and an uncommitted comparator for protection functions. Signal and power grounds are separated to ensure high noise immunity. www.BDTIC.com/ST 19 Switched reluctance motor A switched reluctance motor (SRM) can be considered as a big step motor where both the stator and the rotor present salient poles. In the SRM, no permanent magnets or brushes are used, so the magnetic flux is produced by the stator coils. The rotor is composed of laminated iron sheets, which are stacked on the shaft. Motor torque is generated by using the magnetic forces between rotor and stator salient poles, and the motor is supplied by current which is switched synchronously with the rotor pole position. Typical application parameters Voltage 12 to 180 Vdc Motor power Up to 300 W Speed range 0 to 1,000 RPM Features High torque at rest position Accuracy Main applications n Traction n Industrial and automotive actuators n Home appliances n Food processors n Vacuum cleaners Asymmetrical half-bridge PWM drive This inverter topology leverages the motor’s best features. An independent current loop is implemented for each motor phase so that some phase current overlap is possible for attaining higher speeds. Asymmetrical half-bridge PWM drive 20 www.BDTIC.com/ST Simplified asymmetrical half-bridge PWM drive This inverter topology is cost-effective and well adapted to medium speed operation. Simplified asymmetrical half-bridge PWM drive Product highlights Microcontrollers Power transistors Fast rectifiers Gate drivers Amplifiers and comparators 8-bit STM8 microcontrollers featuring a high-performance core (up to 20 MIPS @ 24 MHz), 3.3 V to 5.5 V power supply, embedded true EEPROM and RC oscillator and 4- to 128-Kbyte Flash in 20- to 80-pin packages. Available at 600 V, PowerMESH IGBTs are offered in a high-frequency version for the PWM switch and a low dropout version for the phase control switch. This combination optimizes total losses of each inverter bridge leg. The latest STripFET generations and STripFET DeepGATE power MOSFETs are suitable for low-voltage operation as well. Available at 300 V and 600 V, Turbo 2 diodes have ultra-fast recovery characteristics while maintaining a low dropout voltage. They significantly cut losses in both the diode and transistor at turn-on. Half-bridge gate drivers are high-voltage monolithic circuits which include a bootstrap diode for the floating driver, deadtime circuitry, two UVLO circuits and an uncommitted comparator for protection functions. A triple low-side gate driver can also be conveniently used in this application. Operating at low voltage with rail-to-rail input and output capability, new op-amps bring innovation with very high merit factors and consumption below 1 mA, while offering high slew rate, 10 V/µs and large product gain bandwidth (up to 20 MHz). For high-voltage operation, standard CMOS or bipolar op-amps and comparators offer single-supply operation, with adequate speed. www.BDTIC.com/ST 21 STM3210B-MCKIT STM32 motor control tool ordering information STM3210B MC library AI-JTAG/OPTO-1 STM3210B-MCKIT ST7MC-MOT/IND Optimized, documented C firmware libraries for control of 3-phase PMSM or AC induction brushless motors. In torque or speed control with STM32, sensor mode, sensorless for PMSM. These are the standalone libraries of the STM3210B-MCKIT. The isolation board included in the STM3210B-MCKITcan also be ordered separately. It provides galvanic isolation between the J-Link from Segger and any high-voltage target board. The isolation board has two JTAG connectors (in/out). Available from distributors and ST sales offices. Demonstration, evaluation and development kit for STM32 includes firmware, LCD user interface, STM3210B-EVAL board (control board), 7 A three-phase inverter board, isolation board (AI-JTAG/OPTO-1), Segger J-Link debugger/programmer and 24 VDC Shinano PMSM motor. Available from distributors and ST sales offices. 240 V/800 W Selni 3-phase induction motor for use with STM3210B-MCKIT, or with the ST7MC-KIT using induction motor default values (for evaluation purposes). FOC GUI 1.0 FOC GUI helps customizing a PMSM application firmware (PMSM FOC library 2.0). It is a parameter file generation tool (FOCGUI) which, starting from the system parameters, automatically generates all that is needed by the motor control firmware library to quickly run the motor, saving time and easing the development phase. 22 www.BDTIC.com/ST Vector control libraries STM32 library Optimized and documented C firmware libraries for control of both PMSM (sensor and sensorless mode) and AC induction (sensor mode) brushless motors are available for free upon request. These libraries support IAR (EWARM), KEIL and Greenhills toolchain. These modular libraries support both types of motor in standalone mode using the hardware of the STM3210B-MCKIT. The source files are provided free of charge upon request. These libraries offer: n Different current sensing methodologies n Isolated current sensing n Three shunt resistors n Single shunt topology with dual sample and hold utilization and advanced methodology for better bus voltage exploitation n Different rotor-position feedback n Tachometer (AC motor) n Hall sensors (60° and 120° placement) n Sensorless (PMSM motor only) Total execution time of the field-oriented control in sensorless mode for PMSM motor is less than 21 μs Total CPU load at 10 kHz sampling time is below 25 % - code size is less than 14 Kbytes. Single-shunt current sensing The STM32 motor control library version 2.0 supports single-shunt current sensing, for applications requiring lowest system costs. The proposed solution maximizes the DC bus voltage use, while minimizing current distorsion and acoustical noise, and has been patented by ST. The STM32-MCKIT can be easily reconfigured in one-shunt mode, for evaluation purposes. Internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) Thanks to their higher power density and very high speed capabilities, brushless IPM motors are used in an increasing number of designs (vs. their surface mounted magnets counterpart). The STM32 MC library supports this kind of motors with specific algorithms, such as MTPA (Maximum Torque Per Ampere) control strategy. Dual motor control and triple ADC system The High-density STM32 devices embed three ADCs and two motor control capable timers. This allows to drive simultaneously two brushless motors, or to have a triple Sample & hold current acquisition for very highend control systems. These features are supported by additional interrupt vectors and a second DMA controller. Field weakening and feed-forward control The stator voltage closed loop Field Weakening control implemented is able to expand the operating limits of both surface mounted and internal PMSM, as many applications require. This algorithm strongly reduces sensitivity to motor parameter and environmental variations. On top of this, feed forward control allows improved bus voltage ripple compensation and better currents regulation during high speed flux weakening operations. Class B Compliancy - how do we help? Two key features help compliance with the EN/IEC60335-1 norm: the dual watchdog architecture and the internal clock circuitry. In order to make certification even simpler with the STM32, a set of self-test routines has been developed to fulfill most of table H11.12.7 requirements. These routines have been certified by the VDE, a worldwide recognized test institute, and do not need to be re-evaluated if left unchanged. www.BDTIC.com/ST 23 Order code: BRMOTOR0509 © STMicroelectronics - May 2009 - Printed in Italy - All rights reserved The STMicroelectronics corporate logo is a registered trademark of the STMicroelectronics group of companies. All other names are the property of their respective owners. For more information on ST products and solutions, visit www.st.com www.BDTIC.com/ST

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