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Writing Manual Shellcode by Hand

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Writing Manual  Shellcode by Hand

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Writing Manual Shellcode by Hand Overview Assembly is the language to know when developing buffer overflow exploits in software exploitation scenarios. This short document is designed to give an introduction to this sort of programming language where the Windows API will be used to demonstrate how it is possible to call a message box directly by using hardcoded memory addresses. Contents Chapter 0 – Prerequisites ..............................................................................................................2 Chapter 1 – Preparing the Environment .....................................................................................3 Chapter 2 – Writing a Dummy Popup ........................................................................................5 Chapter 3 – Writing a “LOL” Popup ........................................................................................10 Chapter 4 – Using the Stack for a Popup ..................................................................................13 Chapter 5 – The Easy Way – Part 1 ...........................................................................................17 Chapter 6 – The Easy Way – Part 2 ...........................................................................................20 Ending Words & References.......................................................................................................28 Page 1 Chapter 0 Prerequisites Tools Arwin (http://www.vividmachines.com/shellcode/arwin.c) Code::Blocks (http://www.codeblocks.org/) OllyDbg (http://www.ollydbg.de/version2.html) Goals Create minimalistic shellcode Include custom text input This is for educational purposes only. Page 2 Chapter 1 Preparing the Environment First download and install the Code Blocks IDE environment, which you’re going to use to compile the Arwin source code. Simply download “arwin.c” from the link in the previous chapter and open this in Code Blocks or your own preferred C compiler. When you’ve opened this file in Code Blocks, browse to the “Build” menu and choose “Build”. Figure 1.0.1 – Compiling Arwin.c in Code::Blocks Page 3 Now you’re ready to use Arwin, which will be located in the same directory as where the source code is located. Browse to this location in a command prompt window. If the directory is located deep within your computer, consider copying arwin.exe to a directory near the root. Then issue the following command without quotes: “arwin.exe User32.dll MessageBoxA”. When you’ve done this, you’ll be searching for the MessageBoxA function within User32.dll Figure 1.0.2 – Using Arwin.exe to find the MessageBoxA memory address If you’ve done this right, you’ll see a text string like: MessageBoxA is located at … It is important to note, that this address is not static and it is therefore usually not the same on another machine. If you’re running Windows Vista or 7, then the address will change each time you reboot your computer. If you’re running certain IPS’s on Windows XP, this will occur too. After remembering these precautions, note down the memory address Arwin returned. In our shellcode we’re going to assume User32.dll is already loaded within the given executable which we are injecting our own shellcode into directly and manually. A file which already has this DLL file loaded when it is run is: GenuineCheck.exe You can of course, use other files as well but I will be using this executable as an example. (Any executable file with a graphical user interface should have User32.dll loaded.) Page 4 Chapter 2 Writing a Dummy Popup Open OllyDbg and if you haven’t downloaded this program yet, then download it and make sure you get version 2.0 which has a lot of improvements and new features. One of the new features is the ability to change the PE header directly, which we’re going to do later on. Figure 2.0.1 – An executable file within OllyDbg Page 5 Simply open your executable file as shown in Figure 2.0.1, and take a quick look at it. Don’t try to understand what all of it means. In the lower right we have our stack, which stores values, variables, arguments, pointers, etc. Essentially the same, hexadecimal values because binary values are harder to read. In the lower left we have our “Hex Dump” window, which is useful when we’re following perhaps a dynamic change of our shellcode, such as an encoding sub-routine. The upper right is our registers and flags, while the upper left is the “disassembly window” where we can single-step aka trace through our assembly opcodes, aka (CPU) instructions. Basically when we press F7 once, then one instruction is executed by your computer. This may add or remove values from the stack, alter the registers, and of course if more opcodes aka instructions are used, then the hardware of the computer may be used along with perhaps API libraries to show pop boxes, connect to a remote attacker, or shut the computer down. In essence the only limitation with Assembly is the hardware and your imagination. Since we’re not going to use the original program behind, change a good amount of the first couple of instructions visible to NOP’s, so it is easier to see your own injected shellcode. 1. Select aka mark a region of opcodes shown in the “disassembly window”. 2. Right click and browse to "Edit" then select: "Fill with NOPs". All you should see is a lot of “NOP” instructions now. Press F7 a couple of times and see how you execute one NOP at a time. This opcode doesn’t do anything, so don’t worry if you execute many of them. As you may see, EIP changes each time you execute one NOP. This register that you can see on the right, points to the current instruction you’re going to execute next. F8 is used to jump over “CALL” opcodes but also single-step through our shellcode as well, while F9 executes the entire code until an event occurs, such as a popup box requiring attention. Our initial dummy popup code looks like this: MOV EAX, 0x7e4507ea XOR EBX, EBX PUSH EBX PUSH EBX PUSH EBX PUSH EBX CALL EAX Figure 2.0.2 – Dummy Popup Shellcode Page 6 As you can see, I’m using this memory address: 0x7e4507ea to call the MessageBoxA function. Make sure not to use this address since it will most likely be different on your system. Use the address you found with the Arwin tool mentioned earlier. The reason why we begin with a “dummy” is to make it easier to understand, how the call and assigned variables function together, inside your computer. Here is an explanation of the code: 1) Change EAX to 0x7e4507ea 2) XOR EBX with EBX. This alters EBX to 0. (zero) 3) Push the value of EBX to the stack. 4) Push the value of EBX to the stack. 5) Push the value of EBX to the stack. 6) Push the value of EBX to the stack. 7) Call the memory address which EAX is pointing to. Note: In our case, we’re calling MessageBoxA() Why push the value of EBX 4 times to the stack? Because MessageBoxA takes 4 arguments! Here’s the MSDN syntax: int WINAPI MessageBox( __in_opt HWND hWnd, __in_opt LPCTSTR lpText, __in_opt LPCTSTR lpCaption, __in UINT uType ); Figure 2.0.3 – MessageBoxA syntax Here’s the full resource: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms645505%28VS.85%29.aspx I will explain what the arguments means later on and how to use them with Assembly code. But for now you should double-click a NOP instruction after or where the current Instruction Pointer (EIP) is pointing to. If you don’t know where EIP is pointing to, look at the very left side in your debugger where the memory addresses are. The memory address which is highlighted is the next instruction which will be executed when you hit and press F7. When you’ve double-clicked a NOP instruction, begin to write the code in yourself. Make sure to use your own memory address for MessageBoxA as described earlier. When you’ve done this, press F7 once and see how EAX now contains your memory address which you used Arwin to find, if you press F7 again then EBX will become 0 and if you press F7 4 times more the stack will have 4 new values of 0 (zero) each. Now you’re at the “CALL EAX” instruction. If you want to, you can press F7 all the way through the function call, but if you just need to see your message box work or not, then press F8 and watch the beautiful yet very empty popup box. Page 7 If your popup looks like the one included in the screenshot below, then you’ve done right. Figure 2.0.4 – A Dummy Popup working in OllyDbg This is of course, not very impressive. Even a monkey can be taught how to do this, so we’ll continue onwards and learn how to provide a custom text message now, which there are two ways which you can use in order to do this. Before we do this, mark the shellcode you wrote. Then right-click it, browse to “Edit” and select “Binary copy” in order to save it. Paste the output into notepad and remove the spaces between. This is the (hexadecimal) binary version of your recently created popup box. If you re-open the executable file you used by pressing CTRL+F2, overwrite the first couple of instructions with NOPs and then select a good amount of NOPs to overwrite with your binary code, then you can enter the “Edit” menu by right-clicking again and now you select “Binary paste”. Whenever you use “Binary paste”, make sure to select enough opcodes! Page 8 If you don’t, then only a part of yo ur shellcode will be shown or some of the opcodes may be incomplete and therefore they may resemble something else which it shouldn’t. Therefore you should as previously mentioned, always select enough opcodes aka instructions. Before we continue I’d like to explain more about our dummy popup shellcode. Q: Why is XOR used? A: Because this avoids 0-bytes (00), which otherwise kills shellcode. Q: What is the Stack used for in this scenario? A: It’s used to store arguments for MessageBoxA and possibly even custom text! Q: I pressed F7 at “CALL EAX” and noticed a value was pushed onto the stack, why? A: This value is the current EIP (Instruction Pointer) which is used to return back to the original code when a “RETN” opcode is executed. If this value wasn’t pushed onto the stack, then the computer would return to whatever other value is stored on the stack, resulting in massive failure. Q: I saw something like this on the stack, what does it mean? 0006FFB4 00000000 .... ; hOwner = NULL 0006FFB8 00000000 .... ; Text = NULL 0006FFBC 00000000 .... ; Caption = NULL 0006FFC0 00000000 .... ; Type = MB_OK|MB_DEFBUTTON1|MB_APPLMODAL A: hOwner is the owner of the window, we’ll use zero since we can. Text is a pointer to ASCII text stored somewhere in the memory, caption is the same as text and type means what kind of buttons (and more) that the popup box should display, do, require, etc. An “ASCII Pointer” generally points to a memory address, containing a string in ASCII format with a 00 byte in the end to close the string. All this functionality will be explained in the next couple of chapters. Page 9 Chapter 3 Writing a “LOL” Popup It’s time for a message box with at least some words in it, so we’ll start with 3 letters including a 0-byte due to a (32-bit) register can contain 4 bytes at once. We’ll use the phrase “LOL” without quotes, which equals “4C4F4C” in hexadecimal representation. A quick note is that our arguments has to be pushed in reverse order, so the last argument we push to the stack is actually the first in the MessageBoxA (API) function call. Figure 3.0.1 – Encoding “LOL” with XOR Page 10 First we’re going to encode our string “LOL” by XOR’ing it. The complete string with a 0-byte looks like this: 004C4F4C. In Little Endian order it looks like this: 4C4F4C00, which is seen in figure 3.0.1 and afterwards XO R’d with 11111111 which alters it to: 115D5E5D We’re going to push this text string to the stack and use the stack pointer (ESP) as a reference to our string. It may sound a little bit confusing but in essence it is actually quite simple. Figure 3.0.2 – Custom “LOL” Popup Box The code used in the above figure is almost the same as our dummy popup code except that our custom string is included and that 2 more registers has been used. Very shortly described, our XOR’d string is inserted into EBX, then XOR’d with 1111 1111 which returns 004C4F4C. Then EBX (our string) is pushed onto the stack and the current stack pointer is copied into EDI for future reference, because the stack pointer changes each time something is pushed onto the stack. Then ESI (0) is pushed to the stack, then EDI twice (our string) and then ESI. Now EAX is called, and as you can see in the above figure, our arguments are correct. Page 11 You might want to try this out yourself, so copy the code below and adapt it to your needs. Address 010FBBB1 010FBBB6 010FBBB8 010FBBBA 010FBBBF 010FBBC5 010FBBC6 010FBBC8 010FBBC9 010FBBCA 010FBBCB 010FBBCC Hex dump B8 EA07457E 31F6 31FF BB 5D5E5D11 81F3 11111111 53 89E7 56 57 57 56 FFD0 Command MOV EAX,7E4507EA XOR ESI,ESI XOR EDI,EDI MOV EBX,115D5E5D XOR EBX,11111111 PUSH EBX MOV EDI,ESP PUSH ESI PUSH EDI PUSH EDI PUSH ESI CALL EAX Figure 3.0.3 – Custom “LOL” Popup Code I should mention that you actually don’t need the XOR EDI, EDI opcode but I added it to make things a bit more clear. The only thing you need to change in the above code is MOV EAX to include the memory address for MessageBoxA which you found earlier using Arwin. Do not try to copy these opcodes directly into OllyDbg, write them yourself. Pay attention to the opcode with our custom string, because if you write it wrong then our string may be displayed wrong or not at all. It’s very important you do things right, since there’s no margin for error. When you’ve created your “LOL” popup box, do a binary copy which you can use later on: B8 EA 07 45 7E 31 F6 31 FF BB 5D 5E 5D 11 81 F3 11 11 11 11 53 89 E7 56 57 57 56 FF D0 Figure 3.0.4 – Binary opcodes for a “LOL” popup As you can see for yourself, we’ve used 29 bytes to create a message box saying “LOL”. It does not get any more efficient than this so make sure you understand it before continuing onto the next chapter which will include more advanced shellcode. Page 12 Chapter 4 Using the Stack for a Popup After creating our popup with the words “LOL”, we’re ready to progress onto something a bit more advanced. The text string I’m going to use is: “Hello, this is MaXe from InterN0T.net”. In short we’re going to push the string to the stack and then point to it. Easier said than done, but it is far from impossible. All it takes is time, and you got plenty of that to learn this. You might wonder why learn how to call a popup box? Well if you can do that, then you’re able to learn by yourself how to use the rest of the API! First we have to encode our string in hexadecimal, if you use The XSSOR, make sure to use “Machine Hex Encoding” and remove these “\x” so the string looks similar to the example. 48 65 6c 6c 6f 2c 20 74 68 69 73 20 69 73 20 4d 61 58 65 20 66 72 6f 6d 20 49 6e 74 65 72 4e 30 54 2e 6e 65 74 Figure 4.0.1 – Hexadecimal Encoding of our String The above characters could be opcodes but they are in fact our string in its encoded form. Since we’re going to push the string to the stack we need to do more work with it, yes this is painful but in the end it’ll work and show the string as it should. To begin with we add a 00-byte in the end of our string. Furthermore our string should be dividable by 4, if it isn’t we add more 00-bytes. In our case after the first 00-byte we added, we notice that we need to add 2 more bytes to make our string more workable. So there’s 3x 00-bytes after the last byte (74), and to save ourselves trouble from doubling or tripling the work we have to do with the string due to the Little Endian Architecture, we read the 4 last bytes and put these in 1 row and then the next 4 bytes in the next row. The first row with the 3x 00-bytes added looks like this: 00 00 00 74, the next row: 65 6E 2E 54. Continue with this procedure until you reach the last 4 bytes and put them on the last row. The reason why we have to do this is because the last byte is read first on the IA-32 platform. Now it will probably become even more confusing later on, but if it works then you did it right. Page 13 To make it more clear, I’ve made a complete example below: 1. 00202074 2. 656E2E54 3. 304E7265 4. 746E4920 5. 6D6F7266 6. 20655861 7. 4D207369 8. 20736968 9. 74202C6F 10. 6C6C6548 Figure 4.0.2 – Our string in Little Endian format As you can see, my first 4 bytes doesn’t have 3x 00-bytes. I used “20” which equals a simple space, instead of two of the 00-bytes. I will use the example above, for the rest of this chapter. The code and technique we’re going to use is relatively the same as our “LOL” popup code, the only difference is that we have to do some XOR magic with the first line (1) in our string and then push all of it to the stack, and then use the stack pointer to point to it. Figure 4.0.3 – Our string gets pushed to the stack Page 14 In the screenshot on the previous page, you’re able to see that the string is pushed in yes, reverse order which is exactly how it should because this is how the Intel Architecture works. I know it’s seems strange, but I promise there are more obscure things out there. In essence row 2 to 10 was just pushed to the stack, while row 1 contained a 00 byte which had to be encoded which I did by XOR’ing the string with 1111 1111. Exactly the same trick I used in our “LOL” popup code, except that we’re using a longer string this time and that it’s only the first 4 bytes (actually the 4 last) that needs to be encoded. Figure 4.0.4 – Working custom popup box with no 00-bytes When our string is pushed onto the stack, the stack pointer which points to our string is copied into the EDI register for future reference, then ESI (0) is pushed onto the stack twice. Then EDI is pushed which contains our ASCII (stack) pointer to our custom string, and finally ESI again (0) in order to complete the amount of necessary arguments. Finally EAX is called and our popup box should be executed without any problems. Page 15 As per usual the code is available in the example below for you to use. 010FBBB0 010FBBB5 010FBBBA 010FBBC0 010FBBC1 010FBBC6 010FBBCB 010FBBD0 010FBBD5 010FBBDA 010FBBDF 010FBBE4 010FBBE9 010FBBEE 010FBBF0 010FBBF2 010FBBF3 010FBBF4 010FBBF5 010FBBF6 B8 EA07457E BB 65313111 81F3 11111111 53 68 542E6E65 68 65724E30 68 20496E74 68 66726F6D 68 61586520 68 6973204D 68 68697320 68 6F2C2074 68 48656C6C 89E7 31F6 56 56 57 56 FFD0 MOV EAX,7E4507EA MOV EBX,11313165 XOR EBX,11111111 PUSH EBX PUSH 656E2E54 PUSH 304E7265 PUSH 746E4920 PUSH 6D6F7266 PUSH 20655861 PUSH 4D207369 PUSH 20736968 PUSH 74202C6F PUSH 6C6C6548 MOV EDI,ESP XOR ESI,ESI PUSH ESI PUSH ESI PUSH EDI PUSH ESI CALL EAX Figure 4.0.5 – Custom Popup Box Code If you want to try this code right out of the box, on your own machine then simply edit the first instruction to the memory address pointing to MessageBoxA() on your system, and then enter each opcode manually into your debugger. All of the push arguments are a bit tedious to push, so copy these one by one and insert them. If you’re really lazy, then you can use the binary codes below which are the push opcodes that pushes row 2 to 10 of our string. Remember, to select a large amount of opcodes in your debugger before your paste it in, and afterwards double-check all of the instructions indeed were pasted correctly into your debugger. The fastest way to check this, is to check the first opcode is correct and that the last opcode is correct, and of course that the entire shellcode looks like the code in figure 4.0.5 68542E6E656865724E306820496E746866726F6D6861586520686973204D6868697320 686F2C20746848656C6C Figure 4.0.6 – Binary Push Opcodes (Row 2 to 10) Play a little with this and when you feel ready to continue onto the next chapter which is going to use another approach, then make sure you understood the previous parts because the next way is the hardest but also somewhat the most interesting. Page 16 Chapter 5 The Easy Way – Part 1 In this chapter we’re going to simply add our string to the end of our shellcode. This means that we’ll have a 00-byte in the end of our shellcode which may not work in real buffer overflow scenarios but in this test case it doesn’t really matter. We’ll solve that problem later on! Now you may remember that we need to point to our string somehow, and that this pointer uses memory addresses. Just copy “EIP” into another register, is what you may think. This isn’t possible so we actually have to calculate the EIP, no kidding. There are many ways to Rome and my method is just one of them. It’s made of pure logic and how the Assembly opcode “CALL” functions. This opcode pushes the current instruction pointer when executed and then it jumps to the memory address or register defined. We can use this to our advantage by taking this value from the stack and storing it in a register, but we have to be careful because we can’t just take a value from the stack witho ut putting it back, since this may cause unexpected errors and more in real shellcode. (I.e. backdoors) Take a look at this sub-routine I made: (Pseudo Code) PUSH ---- SOI ---- (Start of Instructions) POP EDI PUSH EDI RETN NOP ---- EOI ---- (End of Instructions) CALL ESP Figure 5.0.1 – Calculating EIP Sub-routine In short: Push the binary values between SOI and EOI to the stack, and then call the stack which jumps directly to the stack, take the EIP from the stack into EDI, push the same value back and then return to where the last pushed value on the stack is pointing to. This may seem a bit weird, but now EDI contains EIP, and we need that! Page 17 So how do we find out the binary values of POP EDI, PUSH EDI, RETN and NOP? Quite simple, we write these in our debugger one by one but don’t execute them. This results in these binary opcodes: 5F 57 C3 90 Now don’t forget that these values needs to be in Little Endian order, so reverse them till they look like this: 90 C3 57 5F and then implement them in your PUSH opcode, and write it in your debugger like this: PUSH 90C3575F We also need to create some dummy code to make things a lot easier. The code we’re going to use almost looks like all the previous examples we’ve used, where we use ESI for our null (0) values and EDI for our ASCII pointer which refers to our custom text string. 010FBBB0 010FBBB5 010FBBB7 010FBBB8 010FBBBA 010FBBBF 010FBBC3 010FBBC4 010FBBC5 010FBBC6 010FBBC7 010FBBC8 010FBBC9 68 5F57C390 FFD4 90 31F6 B8 EA07457E 66:83C7 01 90 56 56 57 56 90 FFD0 PUSH 90C3575F CALL ESP NOP XOR ESI,ESI MOV EAX,7E4507EA ADD DI,1 NOP PUSH ESI PUSH ESI PUSH EDI PUSH ESI NOP CALL EAX Figure 5.0.2 – Dummy Popup Code Now this code does not include our text string yet, but when it’s done then we need to place it after the last CALL EAX opcode. I’ve added a few NOP’s in this code to separate the different parts so it is easier to read and understand. The first 2 opcodes calculates EIP and when the first NOP is hit, EDI contains the value of EIP. This changes though as we continue to execute our code, so after we’ve written all these opcodes manually into our debugger we need to adjust “ADD DI, 1” to add the amount of bytes there is from CALL ESP till our text string. In short the space from the first NOP and till the beginning of our text string. This equals 21 in decimal and in hexadecimal, 15. This is very important to keep in mind that you’re working with hexadecimal and not ordinary decimal values. If you forget this like I occasionally do, your shellcode will fail at some point. Now our text string needs to be encoded into binary (hexadecimal) code before pasting it into our debugger. The string I’m going to use is: “Did you know InterN0T.net is the best community? ”. Page 18 When we’ve encoded it by e.g. using The XSSOR, removed \x from the string and added a 00byte it looks like the example below. 44696420796f75206b6e6f7720496e7465724e30542e6e657420697320746865 206265737420636f6d6d756e6974793f00 Figure 5.0.3 – Our string encoded in binary form You may wonder why I did not reverse it into Little Endian? Well we don’t need to do that when we’re using our text string this way. This saves us some trouble, but there’s still the 00-byte at the end which we’ll have to deal with later on. But for now let us just see if it works. Figure 5.0.4 – Working custom messagebox It works as you can see. Don’t worry about the “opcodes” after CALL EAX, since we’re going to assume that we won’t execute these afterwards. If we wanted to make sure this wouldn’t happen we could jump somewhere else in memory or perform a system exit call. There’s no need to worry about that, since you can learn this later on if it’s required. Page 19 Chapter 6 The Easy Way – Part 2 We got our custom message box working in the last chapter but we would like to eliminate the 00-byte which could cause our shellcode to be terminated in a real buffer overflow scenario. In order to do this we have to either encode that part of our shellcode or encode all of it! This is both fun and interesting to do even though it is also a bit strange at first. We’re going to encode a part of our shellcode by “XOR’ing” it, which I have also explained in my other paper about bypassing anti-virus scanners. In this case we need to use another approach since we have to assume we do not know any hard memory addresses, which means we have to either calculate the start and the end of our string, search for the start and the end and then encode that or what I find the most easy, encode the amount of bytes there is in our shellcode. First we need to know how big our previous shellcode is: 68 5F 57 C3 90 FF D4 90 31 F6 B8 EA 07 45 7E 66 83 C7 15 90 56 56 57 56 90 FF D0 20 44 69 64 20 79 6F 75 20 6B 6E 6F 77 20 49 6E 74 65 72 4E 30 54 2E 6E 65 74 20 69 73 20 74 68 65 20 62 65 73 74 20 63 6F 6D 6D 75 6E 69 74 79 3F 00 Figure 6.0.1 – Binary C ustom Popup Box The above binary code is exactly 77 bytes long aka 4D in hexadecimal. This is very useful as you’ll see when we implement our custom XOR encoder which will also function as a decoder, making things easier for us. In essence our encoder (and decoder) will have to find out the memory address of the first byte to encode and then loop through X amount of bytes which will be XOR’d. These amounts of bytes are equal to how big our custom popup box is. In order to find the first memory address of the first byte to XOR encode, we’re going to use our previous method used to calculate EIP and then add a value to it and thereby adjusting it. Page 20 Now before I go ahead and explain this, a typical proble m with XOR encoding in the “section” of the program you’re writing your custom opcodes to, is that it’s not writable by the program. If it isn’t writable you’ll get an Access Violation Error, and the “XOR” opcode won’t work. Therefore open the Memory Map in OllyDbg by pressing ALT+M or the “M” icon. Find the name of the executable file you’re injecting your code into, and look for “PE Header”. Then double-click this and scroll down to where you see “.text” mentioned again. Figure 6.0.2 – PE Header of our executable file Now double click the “Characteristics” line and edit only the first hexadecimal character to E. This will make the .text section executable, readable and most importantly: Writeable. If you want to know more about these sections and how they function, then I suggest you read my paper about bypassing anti- virus scanners but also read up on PE files since this should explain everything you may want to know about this topic. Page 21 Now in order to use this change, we need to save these changes and open the new file. Do this by right clicking the marked and changed line, browse to “Edit” and select: “Copy to Executable”. When you’re in this new window, right click and choose “Save file”. Now open the newly created file which you hopefully saved under a new filename. After we’ve done this we’re ready to write our custom encoder with the following code. 010FBBA9 010FBBAE 010FBBB0 010FBBB4 010FBBB6 010FBBB9 010FBBBC 010FBBBD 68 5F57C390 FFD4 66:83C7 10 31C9 80C1 4D 8037 0D 47 E2 FA PUSH 90C3575F CALL ESP ADD DI,10 XOR ECX,ECX ADD CL,4D XOR BYTE PTR DS:[EDI],0D INC EDI LOOP SHORT 010FBBB9 Figure 6.0.3 – Custom XOR Encoder You might remember the first line, this calculates the EIP and at the third line where EDI contain the current EIP, we add 16! Yes that’s six-teen, not 10 because we’re working with hexadecimal numbers and not decimal numbers. This is very important to keep in mind. Then ECX is zeroed out (nulled) so we can use this to count down from 77 bytes. ADD CL, 4D adds 77 to ECX and the reason why we use CL and not ECX is to avoid 00 bytes in our shellcode since ADD ECX takes 4 bytes as input while CL takes 1 byte. XOR BYTE PTR DS:[EDI],0D. Now that may be giving you headache but it’s actually quite simple. Another explanation of this instruction could be: XOR the Byte with 0D, which EDI is pointing to. This will change the byte to another value, which is good to avoid Anti-Virus scanners and also in order to avoid 00 bytes. When this XOR instruction is executed the first time, EDI is pointing to the byte right after the LOOP opcode. After XOR has been executed, EDI is increased by 1 so it points to the next byte. Then a jump is performed back to “XOR” and 1 is deducted from ECX. This procedure continues until ECX is equal to 0. When ECX is 0, the “LOOP Jump” is not taken and therefore the rest of the shellcode is executed. Now this encoder will mess up our popup box completely, but it’ll encode it and avoid the 00byte which is our goal. When this code has been encoded, we can copy this new and much obfuscated code, and when that is run it automatically decodes itself without any changes made. It isn’t that efficient in this case, but if our payload containing a lot of 00-bytes it would be very efficient in my opinion since it’s hard to write any smaller encoder than that. Page 22 First write the encoder yourself in the debugger, and if your shellcode is longer or shorter than 77 bytes then make 100% sure that you have calculated the right value for the “ADD CL” opcode. Furthermore, when you write “LOOP SHORT” in your debugger, do NOT use the memory address I used. Look to the left of your debugger at where the “XOR” opcode is, then note the memory address and write that in exactly as it is. If you want to check that you have written the right memory address, select the LOOP opcode only and you should see a long arrow pointing to the XOR instruction. If it doesn’t then you’ve written something wrong and then you need to write the right memory address of course. After this, paste your binary popup box shellcode after the LOOP SHORT opcode. Figure 6.0.4 – Custom XOR Encoder (1) When you execute the XOR instruction the first time, and you see the first byte turn into something else, then you’ve written the right value for the “ADD DI, X” instruction. Page 23 Now to get a clear overview of you encoding your shellcode, right click EDI and select “Follow in dump”. This allows you to see the shellcode change each time you pass the XOR instruction. Do NOT hold F7 too long or you will “crash” into your encoded shellcode which may alter it in a way so you can’t use it and then you’ll have to redo it all again. If you however want to encode your shellcode the quick way, then make sure you have executed XOR once. Then select the opcode right after LOOP and press F2. This sets a breakpoint and if you press F9 then all of your shellcode will be encoded instantly, do not press any more buttons because you don’t need to do that for now. Figure 6.0.5 – Custom XOR Encoder (2) If the last part of your shellcode ends with 0D, then all of your shellcode has been encoded correctly. Now select all your shellcode, including the encoder / decoder and do a binary copy. Page 24 Make sure to get everything from the beginning to the end. If the last obfuscated (encoded) instruction makes it impossible to copy the last byte of your shellcode alone, copy this too and then manually remove the unnecessary bytes (hopefully NOPs) afterwards in yo ur text editor. In my code example I had to remove a new NOP’s (90) at the end. When and if you’ve done everything correct, then you’ll see your popup box like below. Figure 6.0.6 – Custom XOR Encoder (decoder now) Working For good old times you can get the binary code below. 685F57C390FFD46683C71031C980C14E80370D47E2FA909D65525ACE9DF2D99D 3CFBB5E70A48736B8ECA189D5B5B5A5B9DF2DD2D4964692D7462782D6663627A 2D446379687F433D59236368792D647E2D7965682D6F687E792D6E6260607863 647974320D Figure 6.0.7 – Binary Code of Custom Encoder Popup Box Page 25 The entire un-encoded shellcode looks like this: Address Comments 010FBBA9 010FBBAE 010FBBB0 010FBBB4 010FBBB6 010FBBB9 010FBBBC 010FBBBD 010FBBBF 010FBBC0 010FBBC1 010FBBC6 010FBBC8 010FBBC9 010FBBCB 010FBBD0 010FBBD4 010FBBD5 010FBBD6 010FBBD7 010FBBD8 010FBBD9 010FBBDA 010FBBDC 010FBBE0 010FBBE3 010FBBE5 010FBBE9 010FBBEC 010FBBEE 010FBBF0 010FBBF4 010FBBF7 010FBBFE 010FBC01 010FBC03 010FBC06 010FBC07 010FBC09 Hex dump Command 68 5F57C390 PUSH 90C3575F FFD4 CALL ESP 66:83C7 10 ADD DI,10 31C9 XOR ECX,ECX 80C1 4D ADD CL,4D 8037 0D XOR BYTE PTR DS:[EDI],0D 47 INC EDI E2 FA LOOP SHORT 010FBBB9 90 NOP 90 NOP 68 5F57C390 PUSH 90C3575F FFD4 CALL ESP 90 NOP 31F6 XOR ESI,ESI B8 EA07457E MOV EAX,7E4507EA 66:83C7 15 ADD DI,15 90 NOP 56 PUSH ESI 56 PUSH ESI 57 PUSH EDI 56 PUSH ESI 90 NOP FFD0 CALL EAX 204469 64 AND BYTE PTR DS:[EBP*2+ECX+64],AL 2079 6F AND BYTE PTR DS:[ECX+6F],BH 75 20 JNE SHORT 010FBC05 6B6E 6F 77 IMUL EBP,DWORD PTR DS:[ESI+6F],77 2049 6E AND BYTE PTR DS:[ECX+6E],CL 74 65 JE SHORT 010FBC53 72 4E JB SHORT 010FBC3E 30542E 6E XOR BYTE PTR DS:[EBP+ESI+6E],DL 65:74 20 JE SHORT 010FBC17 6973 20 74686 IMUL ESI,DWORD PTR DS:[EBX+20],20656874 6265 73 BOUND ESP,QWORD PTR SS:[EBP+73] 74 20 JE SHORT 010FBC23 636F 6D ARPL WORD PTR DS:[EDI+6D],BP 6D INS DWORD PTR ES:[EDI],DX 75 6E JNE SHORT 010FBC77 697479 3F 009 IMUL ESI,DWORD PTR DS:[EDI*2+ECX+3F],-6F Figure 6.0.8 – Un-Encoded Shellcode Page 26 While the encoded shellcode looks like this: Address Comments 010FBBA9 010FBBAE 010FBBB0 010FBBB4 010FBBB6 010FBBB9 010FBBBC 010FBBBD 010FBBBF 010FBBC0 010FBBC1 010FBBC3 010FBBC4 010FBBC5 010FBBC6 010FBBCD 010FBBD0 010FBBD7 010FBBD8 010FBBD9 010FBBDA 010FBBDB 010FBBDC 010FBBE1 010FBBE3 010FBBE5 010FBBE9 010FBBEE 010FBBF0 010FBBF5 010FBBF7 010FBBFA 010FBBFC 010FBC01 010FBC03 010FBC04 010FBC07 010FBC09 010FBC0C Hex dump Command 68 5F57C390 PUSH 90C3575F FFD4 CALL ESP 66:83C7 10 ADD DI,10 31C9 XOR ECX,ECX 80C1 4E ADD CL,4E 8037 0D XOR BYTE PTR DS:[EDI],0D 47 INC EDI E2 FA LOOP SHORT 010FBBB9 90 NOP 9D POPFD 65:52 PUSH EDX 5A POP EDX CE INTO 9D POPFD F2:D99D 3CFBB REPNE FSTP DWORD PTR SS:[EBP+E7B5FB3C] 0A48 73 OR CL,BYTE PTR DS:[EAX+73] 6B8E CA189D5B IMUL ECX,DWORD PTR DS:[ESI+5B9D18CA],5B 5A POP EDX 5B POP EBX 9D POPFD F2 REPNE DD DB DD 2D 4964692D SUB EAX,2D696449 74 62 JE SHORT 010FBC45 78 2D JS SHORT 010FBC12 66:6362 7A ARPL WORD PTR DS:[EDX+7A],SP 2D 44637968 SUB EAX,68796344 7F 43 JG SHORT 010FBC33 3D 59236368 CMP EAX,68632359 79 2D JNS SHORT 010FBC24 64:7E 2D JLE SHORT 010FBC27 79 65 JNS SHORT 010FBC61 68 2D6F687E PUSH 7E686F2D 79 2D JNS SHORT 010FBC30 6E OUTS DX,BYTE PTR DS:[ESI] 6260 60 BOUND ESP,QWORD PTR DS:[EAX+60] 78 63 JS SHORT 010FBC6C 64:79 74 JNS SHORT 010FBC80 320D 90909090 XOR CL,BYTE PTR DS:[90909090] Figure 6.0.9 – Encoded Shellcode Page 27 Ending Words Knowing Assembly in order to write and create shellcode directly is indeed a very good idea since it allows the ethical hacker to create efficient, minimalistic and optimized shellcode for future exploitation scenarios which may require hardcore expertise. Therefore you should if you don’t already know Assembly, want to learn more. Don’t go hardcore but try to create your own shellcode which calls a socket and listens for connections, or perhaps execute a system command (calc.exe?), or maybe another function from the API. If you play long enough with the language it wo n’t be as confusing, most of the time. References [1] http://www.intern0t.net [2] http://www.ollydbg.de/ [3] http://www.uninformed.org/?v=5&a=3&t=pdf [4] http://www.offensive-security.com Page 28

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