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16F877中文资料(完整)

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16F877中文资料(完整)

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元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 28/40-pin 8-Bit CMOS FLASH Microcontrollers Devices Included in this Data Sheet: • PIC16F873 • PIC16F874 • PIC16F876 • PIC16F877 Microcontroller Core Features: • High-performance RISC CPU • Only 35 single word instructions to learn • All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycle • Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input DC - 200 ns instruction cycle • Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM data memory • Pinout compatible to the PIC16C73B/74B/76/77 • Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources) • Eight level deep hardware stack • Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes • Power-on Reset (POR) • Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) • Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation • Programmable code-protection • Power saving SLEEP mode • Selectable oscillator options • Low-power, high-speed CMOS FLASH/EEPROM technology • Fully static design • In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP) via two pins • Single 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming capability • In-Circuit Debugging via two pins • Processor read/write access to program memory • Wide operating voltage range: 2.0V to 5.5V • High Sink/Source Current: 25 mA • Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges • Low-power consumption: - < 2 mA typical @ 5V, 4 MHz - 20 µA typical @ 3V, 32 kHz - < 1 µA typical standby current Pin Diagram PDIP MCLR/VPP/THV 1 RA0/AN0 2 RA1/AN1 3 RA2/AN2/VREF- 4 RA3/AN3/VREF+ 5 RA4/T0CKI 6 RA5/AN4/SS 7 RE0/RD/AN5 8 RE1/WR/AN6 9 RE2/CS/AN7 10 VDD 11 VSS 12 OSC1/CLKIN 13 OSC2/CLKOUT 14 RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI 15 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 16 RC2/CCP1 17 RC3/SCK/SCL 18 RD0/PSP0 19 RD1/PSP1 20 PIC16F877/874 40 RB7/PGD 39 RB6/PGC 38 RB5 37 RB4 36 RB3/PGM 35 RB2 34 RB1 33 RB0/INT 32 VDD 31 VSS 30 RD7/PSP7 29 RD6/PSP6 28 RD5/PSP5 27 RD4/PSP4 26 RC7/RX/DT 25 RC6/TX/CK 24 RC5/SDO 23 RC4/SDI/SDA 22 RD3/PSP3 21 RD2/PSP2 Peripheral Features: • Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler • Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler, can be incremented during sleep via external crystal/clock • Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler • Two Capture, Compare, PWM modules - Capture is 16-bit, max. resolution is 12.5 ns - Compare is 16-bit, max. resolution is 200 ns - PWM max. resolution is 10-bit • 10-bit multi-channel Analog-to-Digital converter • Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI™ (Master Mode) and I2C™ (Master/Slave) • Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART/SCI) with 9-bit address detection • Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8-bits wide, with external RD, WR and CS controls (40/44-pin only) • Brown-out detection circuitry for Brown-out Reset (BOR) © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 1 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X Pin Diagrams DIP, SOIC MCLR/VPP/THV 1 RA0/AN0 2 RA1/AN1 3 RA2/AN2/VREF- 4 RA3/AN3/VREF+ 5 RA4/T0CKI 6 RA5/AN4/SS 7 VSS 8 OSC1/CLKIN 9 OSC2/CLKOUT 10 RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI 11 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 12 RC2/CCP1 13 RC3/SCK/SCL 14 PIC16F876/873 28 RB7/PGD 27 RB6/PGC 26 RB5 25 RB4 24 RB3/PGM 23 RB2 22 RB1 21 RB0/INT 20 VDD 19 VSS 18 RC7/RX/DT 17 RC6/TX/CK 16 RC5/SDO 15 RC4/SDI/SDA RB6/PGC RB7/PGD MCLR/VPP/THV RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREF- RA3/AN3/VREF+ NC RB4 RB5 PLCC NC 40 41 42 43 44 1 2 3 4 5 6 RA4/T0CKI RA5/AN4/SS RE0/RD/AN5 RE1/WR/AN6 RE2/CS/AN7 VDD VSS OSC1/CLKIN OSC2/CLKOUT RC0/T1OSO/T1CK1 NC 7 39 8 38 9 37 10 36 11 PIC16F877 35 12 13 PIC16F874 34 33 14 32 15 31 16 30 17 29 RB3/PGM RB2 RB1 RB0/INT VDD VSS RD7/PSP7 RD6/PSP6 RD5/PSP5 RD4/PSP4 RC7/RX/DT 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 NC RC6/TX/CK RC5/SDO RC4/SDI/SDA RD3/PSP3 RD2/PSP2 RD1/PSP1 RD0/PSP0 RC3/SCK/SCL RC2/CCP1 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RC2/CCP1 RC3/SCK/SCL RD0/PSP0 RD1/PSP1 RD2/PSP2 RD3/PSP3 RC4/SDI/SDA RC5/SDO RC6/TX/CK NC QFP 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 RC7/RX/DT RD4/PSP4 RD5/PSP5 RD6/PSP6 RD7/PSP7 VSS VDD RB0/INT RB1 RB2 RB3/PGM 1 33 2 32 3 31 4 30 5 PIC16F877 29 6 7 PIC16F874 28 27 8 26 9 25 10 24 11 23 NC RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI OSC2/CLKOUT OSC1/CLKIN VSS VDD RE2/AN7/CS RE1/AN6/WR RE0/AN5/RD RA5/AN4/SS RA4/T0CKI 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA2/AN2/VREF- RA1/AN1 RA0/AN0 MCLR/VPP/THV RB7/PGD RB6/PGC RB5 RB4 NC NC DS30292B-page 2 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X Key Features PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual (DS33023) Operating Frequency Resets (and Delays) FLASH Program Memory (14-bit words) Data Memory (bytes) EEPROM Data Memory Interrupts I/O Ports Timers Capture/Compare/PWM modules Serial Communications Parallel Communications 10-bit Analog-to-Digital Module Instruction Set PIC16F873 PIC16F874 PIC16F876 PIC16F877 DC - 20 MHz POR, BOR (PWRT, OST) 4K DC - 20 MHz POR, BOR (PWRT, OST) 4K DC - 20 MHz POR, BOR (PWRT, OST) 8K DC - 20 MHz POR, BOR (PWRT, OST) 8K 192 128 13 Ports A,B,C 3 2 MSSP, USART — 5 input channels 35 Instructions 192 128 14 Ports A,B,C,D,E 3 2 MSSP, USART PSP 8 input channels 35 Instructions 368 256 13 Ports A,B,C 3 2 MSSP, USART — 5 input channels 35 Instructions 368 256 14 Ports A,B,C,D,E 3 2 MSSP, USART PSP 8 input channels 35 Instructions © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 3 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X Table of Contents 1.0 Device Overview ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5 2.0 Memory Organization.................................................................................................................................................................. 11 3.0 I/O Ports ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 29 4.0 Data EEPROM and FLASH Program Memory ........................................................................................................................... 41 5.0 Timer0 Module ............................................................................................................................................................................ 47 6.0 Timer1 Module ............................................................................................................................................................................ 51 7.0 Timer2 Module ........................................................................................................................................................................... 55 8.0 Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) Module(s).................................................................................................................................. 57 9.0 Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) Module ....................................................................................................................... 63 10.0 Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) ..................................................................................... 95 11.0 Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Module................................................................................................................................. 111 12.0 Special Features of the CPU..................................................................................................................................................... 121 13.0 Instruction Set Summary........................................................................................................................................................... 137 14.0 Development Support ............................................................................................................................................................... 145 15.0 Electrical Characteristics........................................................................................................................................................... 151 16.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Tables........................................................................................................................ 173 17.0 Packaging Information .............................................................................................................................................................. 175 Appendix A: Revision History ......................................................................................................................................................... 183 Appendix B: Device Differences..................................................................................................................................................... 183 Appendix C: Conversion Considerations........................................................................................................................................ 183 Index ................................................................................................................................................................................... 185 On-Line Support................................................................................................................................................................................. 191 Product Identification System............................................................................................................................................................. 193 To Our Valued Customers Most Current Data Sheet To obtain the most up-to-date version of this data sheet, please register at our Worldwide Web site at: http://www.microchip.com You can determine the version of a data sheet by examining its literature number found on the bottom outside corner of any page. The last character of the literature number is the version number. e.g., DS30000A is version A of document DS30000. New Customer Notification System Register on our web site (www.microchip.com/cn) to receive the most current information on our products. Errata An errata sheet may exist for current devices, describing minor operational differences (from the data sheet) and recommended workarounds. As device/documentation issues become known to us, we will publish an errata sheet. The errata will specify the revision of silicon and revision of document to which it applies. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please check with one of the following: • Microchip’s Worldwide Web site; http://www.microchip.com • Your local Microchip sales office (see last page) • The Microchip Corporate Literature Center; U.S. FAX: (480) 786-7277 When contacting a sales office or the literature center, please specify which device, revision of silicon and data sheet (include literature number) you are using. Corrections to this Data Sheet We constantly strive to improve the quality of all our products and documentation. We have spent a great deal of time to ensure that this document is correct. However, we realize that we may have missed a few things. If you find any information that is missing or appears in error, please: • Fill out and mail in the reader response form in the back of this data sheet. • E-mail us at webmaster@microchip.com. We appreciate your assistance in making this a better document. DS30292B-page 4 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 1.0 DEVICE OVERVIEW This document contains device-specific information. Additional information may be found in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual, (DS33023), which may be obtained from your local Microchip Sales Representative or downloaded from the Microchip website. The Reference Manual should be considered a complementary document to this data sheet, and is highly recommended reading for a better understanding of the device architecture and operation of the peripheral modules. There are four devices (PIC16F873, PIC16F874, PIC16F876 and PIC16F877) covered by this data sheet. The PIC16F876/873 devices come in 28-pin packages and the PIC16F877/874 devices come in 40pin packages. The 28-pin devices do not have a Parallel Slave Port implemented. The following two figures are device block diagrams sorted by pin number; 28-pin for Figure 1-1 and 40-pin for Figure 1-2. The 28-pin and 40-pin pinouts are listed in Table 1-1 and Table 1-2, respectively. FIGURE 1-1: PIC16F873 AND PIC16F876 BLOCK DIAGRAM Device PIC16F873 PIC16F876 Program FLASH 4K 8K Data Memory 192 Bytes 368 Bytes Data EEPROM 128 Bytes 256 Bytes FLASH Program Memory 13 Program Counter 8 Level Stack (13-bit) Data Bus 8 RAM File Registers Program Bus 14 Instruction reg RAM Addr (1) 9 Addr MUX Direct Addr 7 Indirect 8 Addr FSR reg STATUS reg 8 Instruction Decode & Control OSC1/CLKIN OSC2/CLKOUT Timing Generation Power-up Timer Oscillator Start-up Timer Power-on Reset Watchdog Timer Brown-out Reset In-Circuit Debugger Low-Voltage Programming 3 MUX ALU 8 W reg PORTA PORTB PORTC RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREFRA3/AN3/VREF+ RA4/T0CKI RA5/AN4/SS RB0/INT RB1 RB2 RB3/PGM RB4 RB5 RB6/PGC RB7/PGD RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RC2/CCP1 RC3/SCK/SCL RC4/SDI/SDA RC5/SDO RC6/TX/CK RC7/RX/DT Timer0 Timer1 MCLR VDD, VSS Timer2 10-bit A/D Data EEPROM CCP1,2 Synchronous Serial Port Note 1: Higher order bits are from the STATUS register. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. USART DS30292B-page 5 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 1-2: Device PIC16F874 PIC16F877 PIC16F874 AND PIC16F877 BLOCK DIAGRAM Program FLASH 4K 8K Data Memory 192 Bytes 368 Bytes Data EEPROM 128 Bytes 256 Bytes FLASH Program Memory 13 Program Counter 8 Level Stack (13-bit) Data Bus 8 RAM File Registers Program Bus 14 Instruction reg RAM Addr (1) 9 Addr MUX Direct Addr 7 Indirect 8 Addr FSR reg STATUS reg 8 Instruction Decode & Control OSC1/CLKIN OSC2/CLKOUT Timing Generation Power-up Timer Oscillator Start-up Timer Power-on Reset Watchdog Timer Brown-out Reset In-Circuit Debugger Low-Voltage Programming 3 MUX ALU 8 W reg Parallel Slave Port Timer0 MCLR VDD, VSS Timer1 Timer2 10-bit A/D PORTA PORTB PORTC PORTD PORTE RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREFRA3/AN3/VREF+ RA4/T0CKI RA5/AN4/SS RB0/INT RB1 RB2 RB3/PGM RB4 RB5 RB6/PGC RB7/PGD RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RC2/CCP1 RC3/SCK/SCL RC4/SDI/SDA RC5/SDO RC6/TX/CK RC7/RX/DT RD7/PSP7:RD0/PSP0 RE0/AN5/RD RE1/AN6/WR RE2/AN7/CS Data EEPROM CCP1,2 Synchronous Serial Port Note 1: Higher order bits are from the STATUS register. USART DS30292B-page 6 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X TABLE 1-1: PIC16F873 AND PIC16F876 PINOUT DESCRIPTION Pin Name DIP Pin# SOIC Pin# I/O/P Type Buffer Type Description OSC1/CLKIN 9 9 I ST/CMOS(3) Oscillator crystal input/external clock source input. OSC2/CLKOUT 10 10 O — Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in crystal oscillator mode. In RC mode, the OSC2 pin outputs CLKOUT which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1, and denotes the instruction cycle rate. MCLR/VPP/THV 1 1 I/P ST Master clear (reset) input or programming voltage input or high voltage test mode control. This pin is an active low reset to the device. PORTA is a bi-directional I/O port. RA0/AN0 2 2 I/O TTL RA0 can also be analog input0 RA1/AN1 3 3 I/O TTL RA1 can also be analog input1 RA2/AN2/VREF- 4 4 I/O TTL RA2 can also be analog input2 or negative analog reference voltage RA3/AN3/VREF+ 5 5 I/O TTL RA3 can also be analog input3 or positive analog reference voltage RA4/T0CKI 6 6 I/O ST RA4 can also be the clock input to the Timer0 module. Output is open drain type. RA5/SS/AN4 7 7 I/O TTL RA5 can also be analog input4 or the slave select for the synchronous serial port. PORTB is a bi-directional I/O port. PORTB can be software programmed for internal weak pull-up on all inputs. RB0/INT 21 21 I/O TTL/ST(1) RB0 can also be the external interrupt pin. RB1 22 22 I/O TTL RB2 23 23 I/O TTL RB3/PGM 24 24 I/O TTL RB3 can also be the low voltage programming input RB4 25 25 I/O TTL Interrupt on change pin. RB5 26 26 I/O TTL Interrupt on change pin. RB6/PGC 27 27 I/O TTL/ST(2) Interrupt on change pin or In-Circuit Debugger pin. Serial programming clock. RB7/PGD 28 28 I/O TTL/ST(2) Interrupt on change pin or In-Circuit Debugger pin. Serial programming data. PORTC is a bi-directional I/O port. RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI 11 11 I/O ST RC0 can also be the Timer1 oscillator output or Timer1 clock input. RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 12 12 I/O ST RC1 can also be the Timer1 oscillator input or Capture2 input/ Compare2 output/PWM2 output. RC2/CCP1 13 13 I/O ST RC2 can also be the Capture1 input/Compare1 output/PWM1 output. RC3/SCK/SCL 14 14 I/O ST RC3 can also be the synchronous serial clock input/output for both SPI and I2C modes. RC4/SDI/SDA 15 15 I/O ST RC4 can also be the SPI Data In (SPI mode) or data I/O (I2C mode). RC5/SDO 16 16 I/O ST RC5 can also be the SPI Data Out (SPI mode). RC6/TX/CK 17 17 I/O ST RC6 can also be the USART Asynchronous Transmit or Synchronous Clock. RC7/RX/DT 18 18 I/O ST RC7 can also be the USART Asynchronous Receive or Synchronous Data. VSS 8, 19 8, 19 P — Ground reference for logic and I/O pins. VDD 20 20 P — Positive supply for logic and I/O pins. Legend: Note 1: 2: 3: I = input O = output I/O = input/output P = power — = Not used TTL = TTL input ST = Schmitt Trigger input This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt. This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode. This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 7 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 1-2: PIC16F874 AND PIC16F877 PINOUT DESCRIPTION Pin Name DIP PLCC Pin# Pin# QFP I/O/P Pin# Type Buffer Type Description OSC1/CLKIN 13 14 30 I ST/CMOS(4) Oscillator crystal input/external clock source input. OSC2/CLKOUT 14 15 31 O — Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in crystal oscillator mode. In RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs CLK- OUT which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1, and denotes the instruction cycle rate. MCLR/VPP/THV 1 2 18 I/P ST Master clear (reset) input or programming voltage input or high voltage test mode control. This pin is an active low reset to the device. PORTA is a bi-directional I/O port. RA0/AN0 2 3 19 I/O TTL RA0 can also be analog input0 RA1/AN1 3 4 20 I/O TTL RA1 can also be analog input1 RA2/AN2/VREF- 4 5 21 I/O TTL RA2 can also be analog input2 or negative analog reference voltage RA3/AN3/VREF+ 5 6 22 I/O TTL RA3 can also be analog input3 or positive analog reference voltage RA4/T0CKI 6 7 23 I/O ST RA4 can also be the clock input to the Timer0 timer/ counter. Output is open drain type. RA5/SS/AN4 7 8 24 I/O TTL RA5 can also be analog input4 or the slave select for the synchronous serial port. PORTB is a bi-directional I/O port. PORTB can be software programmed for internal weak pull-up on all inputs. RB0/INT 33 36 8 I/O TTL/ST(1) RB0 can also be the external interrupt pin. RB1 34 37 9 I/O TTL RB2 35 38 10 I/O TTL RB3/PGM 36 39 11 I/O TTL RB3 can also be the low voltage programming input RB4 37 41 14 I/O TTL Interrupt on change pin. RB5 38 42 15 I/O TTL Interrupt on change pin. RB6/PGC 39 43 16 I/O TTL/ST(2) Interrupt on change pin or In-Circuit Debugger pin. Serial programming clock. RB7/PGD 40 44 17 I/O TTL/ST(2) Interrupt on change pin or In-Circuit Debugger pin. Serial programming data. PORTC is a bi-directional I/O port. RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI 15 16 32 I/O ST RC0 can also be the Timer1 oscillator output or a Timer1 clock input. RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 16 18 35 I/O ST RC1 can also be the Timer1 oscillator input or Capture2 input/Compare2 output/PWM2 output. RC2/CCP1 17 19 36 I/O ST RC2 can also be the Capture1 input/Compare1 output/ PWM1 output. RC3/SCK/SCL 18 20 37 I/O ST RC3 can also be the synchronous serial clock input/output for both SPI and I2C modes. RC4/SDI/SDA 23 25 42 I/O ST RC4 can also be the SPI Data In (SPI mode) or data I/O (I2C mode). RC5/SDO 24 26 43 I/O ST RC5 can also be the SPI Data Out (SPI mode). RC6/TX/CK 25 27 44 I/O ST RC6 can also be the USART Asynchronous Transmit or Synchronous Clock. RC7/RX/DT 26 29 1 I/O ST RC7 can also be the USART Asynchronous Receive or Synchronous Data. Legend: Note 1: 2: 3: 4: I = input O = output I/O = input/output P = power — = Not used TTL = TTL input ST = Schmitt Trigger input This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as an external interrupt. This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode. This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as general purpose I/O and a TTL input when used in the Parallel Slave Port mode (for interfacing to a microprocessor bus). This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise. DS30292B-page 8 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X TABLE 1-2: PIC16F874 AND PIC16F877 PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED) Pin Name DIP PLCC Pin# Pin# QFP I/O/P Pin# Type Buffer Type Description PORTD is a bi-directional I/O port or parallel slave port when interfacing to a microprocessor bus. RD0/PSP0 19 21 38 I/O ST/TTL(3) RD1/PSP1 20 22 39 I/O ST/TTL(3) RD2/PSP2 21 23 40 I/O ST/TTL(3) RD3/PSP3 22 24 41 I/O ST/TTL(3) RD4/PSP4 27 30 2 I/O ST/TTL(3) RD5/PSP5 28 31 3 I/O ST/TTL(3) RD6/PSP6 29 32 4 I/O ST/TTL(3) RD7/PSP7 30 33 5 I/O ST/TTL(3) PORTE is a bi-directional I/O port. RE0/RD/AN5 8 9 25 I/O ST/TTL(3) RE0 can also be read control for the parallel slave port, or analog input5. RE1/WR/AN6 9 10 26 I/O ST/TTL(3) RE1 can also be write control for the parallel slave port, or analog input6. RE2/CS/AN7 10 11 27 I/O ST/TTL(3) RE2 can also be select control for the parallel slave port, or analog input7. VSS 12,31 13,34 6,29 P — Ground reference for logic and I/O pins. VDD 11,32 12,35 7,28 P — Positive supply for logic and I/O pins. NC — 1,17,28, 12,13, — These pins are not internally connected. These pins should be 40 33,34 left unconnected. Legend: Note 1: 2: 3: 4: I = input O = output I/O = input/output P = power — = Not used TTL = TTL input ST = Schmitt Trigger input This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as an external interrupt. This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode. This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as general purpose I/O and a TTL input when used in the Parallel Slave Port mode (for interfacing to a microprocessor bus). This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 9 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292B-page 10 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 2.0 MEMORY ORGANIZATION There are three memory blocks in each of these PICmicro MCUs. The Program Memory and Data Memory have separate buses so that concurrent access can occur and is detailed in this section. The EEPROM data memory block is detailed in Section 4.0. Additional information on device memory may be found in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual, (DS33023). 2.1 Program Memory Organization The PIC16F87X devices have a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing an 8K x 14 program memory space. The PIC16F877/876 devices have 8K x 14 words of FLASH program memory and the PIC16F873/ 874 devices have 4K x 14. Accessing a location above the physically implemented address will cause a wraparound. The reset vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is at 0004h. FIGURE 2-1: PIC16F877/876 PROGRAM MEMORY MAP AND STACK PC<12:0> CALL, RETURN 13 RETFIE, RETLW Stack Level 1 Stack Level 2 Stack Level 8 Reset Vector 0000h PIC16F87X FIGURE 2-2: PIC16F874/873 PROGRAM MEMORY MAP AND STACK PC<12:0> CALL, RETURN 13 RETFIE, RETLW Stack Level 1 Stack Level 2 Stack Level 8 Reset Vector 0000h On-Chip Program Memory Interrupt Vector Page 0 Page 1 0004h 0005h 07FFh 0800h 0FFFh 1000h 1FFFh On-Chip Program Memory Interrupt Vector Page 0 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 0004h 0005h 07FFh 0800h 0FFFh 1000h 17FFh 1800h 1FFFh © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 11 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 2.2 Data Memory Organization The data memory is partitioned into multiple banks which contain the General Purpose Registers and the Special Function Registers. Bits RP1(STATUS<6>) and RP0 (STATUS<5>) are the bank select bits. RP1:RP0 00 01 10 11 Bank 0 1 2 3 Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The lower locations of each bank are reserved for the Special Function Registers. Above the Special Function Registers are General Purpose Registers, implemented as static RAM. All implemented banks contain Special Function Registers. Some “high use” Special Function Registers from one bank may be mirrored in another bank for code reduction and quicker access. Note: EEPROM Data Memory description can be found in Section 4.0 of this Data Sheet 2.2.1 GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER FILE The register file can be accessed either directly, or indirectly through the File Select Register FSR. DS30292B-page 12 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X FIGURE 2-3: PIC16F877/876 REGISTER FILE MAP Indirect addr.(*) 00h TMR0 01h PCL 02h STATUS 03h FSR 04h PORTA 05h PORTB 06h PORTC 07h PORTD (1) 08h PORTE (1) 09h PCLATH 0Ah INTCON 0Bh PIR1 0Ch PIR2 0Dh TMR1L 0Eh TMR1H 0Fh T1CON 10h TMR2 11h T2CON 12h SSPBUF 13h SSPCON 14h CCPR1L 15h CCPR1H 16h CCP1CON 17h RCSTA 18h TXREG 19h RCREG 1Ah CCPR2L 1Bh CCPR2H 1Ch CCP2CON 1Dh ADRESH 1Eh ADCON0 1Fh 20h Indirect addr.(*) 80h OPTION_REG 81h PCL 82h STATUS 83h FSR 84h TRISA 85h TRISB 86h TRISC 87h TRISD (1) 88h TRISE (1) 89h PCLATH 8Ah INTCON 8Bh PIE1 8Ch PIE2 8Dh PCON 8Eh 8Fh 90h SSPCON2 91h PR2 92h SSPADD 93h SSPSTAT 94h 95h 96h 97h TXSTA 98h SPBRG 99h 9Ah 9Bh 9Ch 9Dh ADRESL 9Eh ADCON1 9Fh A0h Indirect addr.(*) TMR0 PCL STATUS FSR PORTB PCLATH INTCON EEDATA EEADR EEDATH EEADRH General Purpose Register 16 Bytes 100h 101h 102h 103h 104h 105h 106h 107h 108h 109h 10Ah 10Bh 10Ch 10Dh 10Eh 10Fh 110h 111h 112h 113h 114h 115h 116h 117h 118h 119h 11Ah 11Bh 11Ch 11Dh 11Eh 11Fh 120h File Address Indirect addr.(*) OPTION_REG PCL STATUS FSR TRISB PCLATH INTCON EECON1 EECON2 Reserved(2) Reserved(2) General Purpose Register 16 Bytes 180h 181h 182h 183h 184h 185h 186h 187h 188h 189h 18Ah 18Bh 18Ch 18Dh 18Eh 18Fh 190h 191h 192h 193h 194h 195h 196h 197h 198h 199h 19Ah 19Bh 19Ch 19Dh 19Eh 19Fh 1A0h General Purpose Register 96 Bytes 7Fh Bank 0 General Purpose Register 80 Bytes EFh accesses F0h 70h-7Fh FFh Bank 1 General Purpose Register 80 Bytes accesses 70h-7Fh Bank 2 16Fh 170h 17Fh General Purpose Register 80 Bytes accesses 70h - 7Fh Bank 3 1EFh 1F0h 1FFh Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ’0’. * Not a physical register. Note 1: These registers are not implemented on 28-pin devices. 2: These registers are reserved, maintain these registers clear. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 13 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 2-4: PIC16F874/873 REGISTER FILE MAP Indirect addr.(*) 00h TMR0 01h PCL 02h STATUS 03h FSR 04h PORTA 05h PORTB 06h PORTC 07h PORTD (1) 08h PORTE (1) 09h PCLATH 0Ah INTCON 0Bh PIR1 0Ch PIR2 0Dh TMR1L 0Eh TMR1H 0Fh T1CON 10h TMR2 11h T2CON 12h SSPBUF 13h SSPCON 14h CCPR1L 15h CCPR1H 16h CCP1CON 17h RCSTA 18h TXREG 19h RCREG 1Ah CCPR2L 1Bh CCPR2H 1Ch CCP2CON 1Dh ADRESH 1Eh ADCON0 1Fh 20h Indirect addr.(*) 80h OPTION_REG 81h PCL 82h STATUS 83h FSR 84h TRISA 85h TRISB 86h TRISC 87h TRISD (1) 88h TRISE (1) 89h PCLATH 8Ah INTCON 8Bh PIE1 8Ch PIE2 8Dh PCON 8Eh 8Fh 90h SSPCON2 91h PR2 92h SSPADD 93h SSPSTAT 94h 95h 96h 97h TXSTA 98h SPBRG 99h 9Ah 9Bh 9Ch 9Dh ADRESL 9Eh ADCON1 9Fh A0h Indirect addr.(*) TMR0 PCL STATUS FSR PORTB PCLATH INTCON EEDATA EEADR EEDATH EEADRH 100h 101h 102h 103h 104h 105h 106h 107h 108h 109h 10Ah 10Bh 10Ch 10Dh 10Eh 10Fh 110h 120h File Address Indirect addr.(*) OPTION_REG PCL STATUS FSR TRISB PCLATH INTCON EECON1 EECON2 Reserved(2) Reserved(2) 180h 181h 182h 183h 184h 185h 186h 187h 188h 189h 18Ah 18Bh 18Ch 18Dh 18Eh 18Fh 190h 1A0h General Purpose Register 96 Bytes General Purpose Register 96 Bytes accesses 20h-7Fh 7Fh Bank 0 FFh Bank 1 Bank 2 Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ’0’. * Not a physical register. Note 1: These registers are not implemented on 28-pin devices. 2: These registers are reserved, maintain these registers clear. 16Fh 170h 17Fh accesses A0h - FFh Bank 3 1EFh 1F0h 1FFh DS30292B-page 14 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 2.2.2 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS The Special Function Registers are registers used by the CPU and peripheral modules for controlling the desired operation of the device. These registers are implemented as static RAM. A list of these registers is given in Table 2-1. The Special Function Registers can be classified into two sets; core (CPU) and peripheral. Those registers associated with the core functions are described in detail in this section. Those related to the operation of the peripheral features are described in detail in the peripheral feature section. TABLE 2-1: SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY Addres s Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other resets (2) Bank 0 00h(4) INDF Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) 0000 0000 0000 0000 01h TMR0 Timer0 module’s register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 02h(4) PCL Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte 0000 0000 0000 0000 03h(4) STATUS IRP RP1 RP0 TO PD Z DC C 0001 1xxx 000q quuu 04h(4) FSR Indirect data memory address pointer xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 05h PORTA — — PORTA Data Latch when written: PORTA pins when read --0x 0000 --0u 0000 06h PORTB PORTB Data Latch when written: PORTB pins when read xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 07h PORTC PORTC Data Latch when written: PORTC pins when read xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 08h(5) PORTD PORTD Data Latch when written: PORTD pins when read xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 09h(5) PORTE — — — — — RE2 RE1 RE0 ---- -xxx ---- -uuu 0Ah(1,4) PCLATH — — — Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter ---0 0000 ---0 0000 0Bh(4) INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE RBIE T0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u 0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(3) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 0Dh PIR2 — (6) — EEIF BCLIF — — CCP2IF -r-0 0--0 -r-0 0--0 0Eh TMR1L Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 0Fh TMR1H Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 10h T1CON — — T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON --00 0000 --uu uuuu 11h TMR2 Timer2 module’s register 0000 0000 0000 0000 12h T2CON — TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000 13h SSPBUF Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 14h SSPCON WCOL SSPOV SSPEN CKP SSPM3 SSPM2 SSPM1 SSPM0 0000 0000 0000 0000 15h CCPR1L Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (LSB) xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 16h CCPR1H Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (MSB) xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 17h CCP1CON — — CCP1X CCP1Y CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 --00 0000 --00 0000 18h RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 0000 000x 0000 000x 19h TXREG USART Transmit Data Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 1Ah RCREG USART Receive Data Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 1Bh CCPR2L Capture/Compare/PWM Register2 (LSB) xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 1Ch CCPR2H Capture/Compare/PWM Register2 (MSB) xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 1Dh CCP2CON — — CCP2X CCP2Y CCP2M3 CCP2M2 CCP2M1 CCP2M0 --00 0000 --00 0000 1Eh ADRESH A/D Result Register High Byte xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 1Fh ADCON0 ADCS1 ADCS0 CHS2 CHS1 CHS0 GO/ DONE — ADON 0000 00-0 0000 00-0 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented read as ’0’, r = reserved. Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> whose contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter. 2: Other (non power-up) resets include external reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset. 3: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. 4: These registers can be addressed from any bank. 5: PORTD, PORTE, TRISD, and TRISE are not physically implemented on the 28-pin devices, read as ‘0’. 6: PIR2<6> and PIE2<6> are reserved on these devices; always maintain these bits clear. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 15 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 2-1: SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED) Addres s Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other resets (2) Bank 1 80h(4) INDF Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) 0000 0000 0000 0000 81h OPTION_R EG RBPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 1111 1111 1111 1111 82h(4) PCL Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte 0000 0000 0000 0000 83h(4) STATUS IRP RP1 RP0 TO PD Z DC C 0001 1xxx 000q quuu 84h(4) FSR Indirect data memory address pointer xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 85h TRISA — — PORTA Data Direction Register --11 1111 --11 1111 86h TRISB PORTB Data Direction Register 1111 1111 1111 1111 87h TRISC PORTC Data Direction Register 1111 1111 1111 1111 88h(5) TRISD PORTD Data Direction Register 1111 1111 1111 1111 89h(5) TRISE IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE — PORTE Data Direction Bits 0000 -111 0000 -111 8Ah(1,4) PCLATH — — — Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter ---0 0000 ---0 0000 8Bh(4) INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE RBIE T0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(3) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 8Dh PIE2 — (6) — EEIE BCLIE — — CCP2IE -r-0 0--0 -r-0 0--0 8Eh PCON — — — — — — POR BOR ---- --qq ---- --uu 8Fh — Unimplemented — — 90h — Unimplemented — — 91h SSPCON2 GCEN ACKSTAT ACKDT ACKEN RCEN PEN RSEN SEN 0000 0000 0000 0000 92h PR2 Timer2 Period Register 1111 1111 1111 1111 93h SSPADD Synchronous Serial Port (I2C mode) Address Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 94h SSPSTAT SMP CKE D/A P S R/W UA BF 0000 0000 0000 0000 95h — Unimplemented — — 96h — Unimplemented — — 97h — Unimplemented — — 98h TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC — BRGH TRMT TX9D 0000 -010 0000 -010 99h SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 9Ah — Unimplemented — — 9Bh — Unimplemented — — 9Ch — Unimplemented — — 9Dh — Unimplemented — — 9Eh ADRESL A/D Result Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 9Fh ADCON1 ADFM — — — PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 0--- 0000 0--- 0000 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented read as ’0’, r = reserved. Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> whose contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter. 2: Other (non power-up) resets include external reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset. 3: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. 4: These registers can be addressed from any bank. 5: PORTD, PORTE, TRISD, and TRISE are not physically implemented on the 28-pin devices, read as ‘0’. 6: PIR2<6> and PIE2<6> are reserved on these devices; always maintain these bits clear. DS30292B-page 16 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X TABLE 2-1: SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED) Addres s Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other resets (2) Bank 2 100h(4) INDF 101h TMR0 102h(4) PCL 103h(4) STATUS 104h(4) FSR 105h — 106h PORTB 107h — 108h — 109h — 10Ah(1,4) PCLATH 10Bh(4) INTCON 10Ch EEDATA 10Dh EEADR 10Eh EEDATH 10Fh EEADRH Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) Timer0 module’s register Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte IRP RP1 RP0 TO PD Z DC C Indirect data memory address pointer Unimplemented PORTB Data Latch when written: PORTB pins when read Unimplemented Unimplemented Unimplemented — — — Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter GIE PEIE T0IE INTE RBIE T0IF INTF RBIF EEPROM data register EEPROM address register — — EEPROM data register high byte — — — EEPROM address register high byte 0000 0000 0000 0000 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 1xxx 000q quuu xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu — — xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu — — — — — — ---0 0000 ---0 0000 0000 000x 0000 000u xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu Bank 3 180h(4) INDF Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) 0000 0000 0000 0000 181h OPTION_R EG RBPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 1111 1111 1111 1111 182h(4) PCL Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte 0000 0000 0000 0000 183h(4) STATUS IRP RP1 RP0 TO PD Z DC C 0001 1xxx 000q quuu 184h(4) FSR Indirect data memory address pointer xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 185h — Unimplemented — — 186h TRISB PORTB Data Direction Register 1111 1111 1111 1111 187h — Unimplemented — — 188h — Unimplemented — — 189h — Unimplemented — — 18Ah(1,4) PCLATH — — — Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter ---0 0000 ---0 0000 18Bh(4) INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE RBIE T0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u 18Ch EECON1 EEPGD — — — WRERR WREN WR RD x--- x000 x--- u000 18Dh EECON2 EEPROM control register2 (not a physical register) ---- ---- ---- ---- 18Eh — Reserved maintain clear 0000 0000 0000 0000 18Fh — Reserved maintain clear 0000 0000 0000 0000 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented read as ’0’, r = reserved. Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> whose contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter. 2: Other (non power-up) resets include external reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset. 3: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. 4: These registers can be addressed from any bank. 5: PORTD, PORTE, TRISD, and TRISE are not physically implemented on the 28-pin devices, read as ‘0’. 6: PIR2<6> and PIE2<6> are reserved on these devices; always maintain these bits clear. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 17 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 2.2.2.1 STATUS REGISTER The STATUS register contains the arithmetic status of the ALU, the RESET status and the bank select bits for data memory. The STATUS register can be the destination for any instruction, as with any other register. If the STATUS register is the destination for an instruction that affects the Z, DC or C bits, then the write to these three bits is disabled. These bits are set or cleared according to the device logic. Furthermore, the TO and PD bits are not writable, therefore, the result of an instruction with the STATUS register as destination may be different than intended. For example, CLRF STATUS will clear the upper-three bits and set the Z bit. This leaves the STATUS register as 000u u1uu (where u = unchanged). It is recommended, therefore, that only BCF, BSF, SWAPF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the STATUS register, because these instructions do not affect the Z, C or DC bits from the STATUS register. For other instructions not affecting any status bits, see the "Instruction Set Summary." Note 1: The C and DC bits operate as a borrow and digit borrow bit, respectively, in subtraction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF instructions for examples. REGISTER 2-1: STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS 03h, 83h, 103h, 183h) R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R-1 R-1 R/W-x R/W-x R/W-x IRP RP1 RP0 TO PD Z bit7 DC C bit0 R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n= Value at POR reset bit 7: IRP: Register Bank Select bit (used for indirect addressing) 1 = Bank 2, 3 (100h - 1FFh) 0 = Bank 0, 1 (00h - FFh) bit 6-5: RP1:RP0: Register Bank Select bits (used for direct addressing) 11 = Bank 3 (180h - 1FFh) 10 = Bank 2 (100h - 17Fh) 01 = Bank 1 (80h - FFh) 00 = Bank 0 (00h - 7Fh) Each bank is 128 bytes bit 4: TO: Time-out bit 1 = After power-up, CLRWDT instruction, or SLEEP instruction 0 = A WDT time-out occurred bit 3: PD: Power-down bit 1 = After power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction 0 = By execution of the SLEEP instruction bit 2: Z: Zero bit 1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero 0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero bit 1: DC: Digit carry/borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions) (for borrow the polarity is reversed) 1 = A carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result occurred 0 = No carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result bit 0: C: Carry/borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions) 1 = A carry-out from the most significant bit of the result occurred 0 = No carry-out from the most significant bit of the result occurred Note: For borrow the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the two’s complement of the second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either the high or low order bit of the source register. DS30292B-page 18 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 2.2.2.2 OPTION_REG REGISTER The OPTION_REG Register is a readable and writable register, which contains various control bits to configure the TMR0 prescaler/WDT postscaler (single assignable register known also as the prescaler), the External INT Interrupt, TMR0 and the weak pull-ups on PORTB. Note: To achieve a 1:1 prescaler assignment for the TMR0 register, assign the prescaler to the Watchdog Timer. REGISTER 2-2: OPTION_REG REGISTER (ADDRESS 81h, 181h) R/W-1 RBPU bit7 R/W-1 INTEDG R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 T0CS T0SE PSA R/W-1 PS2 R/W-1 PS1 R/W-1 PS0 bit0 bit 7: bit 6: RBPU: PORTB Pull-up Enable bit 1 = PORTB pull-ups are disabled 0 = PORTB pull-ups are enabled by individual port latch values INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit 1 = Interrupt on rising edge of RB0/INT pin 0 = Interrupt on falling edge of RB0/INT pin bit 5: T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit 1 = Transition on RA4/T0CKI pin 0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKOUT) bit 4: T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit 1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on RA4/T0CKI pin 0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on RA4/T0CKI pin bit 3: PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit 1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT 0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module bit 2-0: PS2:PS0: Prescaler Rate Select bits Bit Value TMR0 Rate WDT Rate 000 1:2 1:1 001 1:4 1:2 010 1:8 1:4 011 1 : 16 1:8 100 1 : 32 1 : 16 101 1 : 64 1 : 32 110 1 : 128 1 : 64 111 1 : 256 1 : 128 R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n= Value at POR reset Note: When using low voltage ICSP programming (LVP) and the pull-ups on PORTB are enabled, bit 3 in the TRISB register must be cleared to disable the pull-up on RB3 and ensure the proper operation of the device. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 19 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 2.2.2.3 INTCON REGISTER The INTCON Register is a readable and writable register, which contains various enable and flag bits for the TMR0 register overflow, RB Port change and External RB0/INT pin interrupts. Note: Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt condition occurs, regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the global enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. REGISTER 2-3: INTCON REGISTER (ADDRESS 0Bh, 8Bh, 10Bh, 18Bh) R/W-0 GIE bit7 bit 7: bit 6: bit 5: bit 4: bit 3: bit 2: bit 1: bit 0: R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-x PEIE T0IE INTE RBIE T0IF INTF RBIF bit0 R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n= Value at POR reset GIE: Global Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables all un-masked interrupts 0 = Disables all interrupts PEIE: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables all un-masked peripheral interrupts 0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts T0IE: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the TMR0 interrupt 0 = Disables the TMR0 interrupt INTE: RB0/INT External Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the RB0/INT external interrupt 0 = Disables the RB0/INT external interrupt RBIE: RB Port Change Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the RB port change interrupt 0 = Disables the RB port change interrupt T0IF: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit 1 = TMR0 register has overflowed (must be cleared in software) 0 = TMR0 register did not overflow INTF: RB0/INT External Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The RB0/INT external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = The RB0/INT external interrupt did not occur RBIF: RB Port Change Interrupt Flag bit 1 = At least one of the RB7:RB4 pins changed state (must be cleared in software) 0 = None of the RB7:RB4 pins have changed state DS30292B-page 20 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 2.2.2.4 PIE1 REGISTER The PIE1 register contains the individual enable bits for the peripheral interrupts. REGISTER 2-4: PIE1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Ch) Note: Bit PEIE (INTCON<6>) must be set to enable any peripheral interrupt. R/W-0 R/W-0 PSPIE(1) ADIE bit7 R/W-0 RCIE R/W-0 TXIE R/W-0 SSPIE R/W-0 CCP1IE R/W-0 R/W-0 TMR2IE TMR1IE bit0 bit 7: bit 6: bit 5: bit 4: bit 3: bit 2: bit 1: bit 0: PSPIE(1): Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the PSP read/write interrupt 0 = Disables the PSP read/write interrupt ADIE: A/D Converter Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the A/D converter interrupt 0 = Disables the A/D converter interrupt RCIE: USART Receive Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the USART receive interrupt 0 = Disables the USART receive interrupt TXIE: USART Transmit Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the USART transmit interrupt 0 = Disables the USART transmit interrupt SSPIE: Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the SSP interrupt 0 = Disables the SSP interrupt CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt 0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt TMR2IE: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt 0 = Disables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt TMR1IE: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the TMR1 overflow interrupt 0 = Disables the TMR1 overflow interrupt R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n= Value at POR reset Note 1: PSPIE is reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain this bit clear. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 21 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 2.2.2.5 PIR1 REGISTER The PIR1 register contains the individual flag bits for the peripheral interrupts. REGISTER 2-5: PIR1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 0Ch) Note: Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt condition occurs, regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the global enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. R/W-0 R/W-0 PSPIF(1) ADIF bit7 R-0 RCIF R-0 TXIF R/W-0 SSPIF R/W-0 CCP1IF R/W-0 R/W-0 TMR2IF TMR1IF bit0 bit 7: PSPIF(1): Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Flag bit 1 = A read or a write operation has taken place (must be cleared in software) 0 = No read or write has occurred R = Readable bit W = Writable bit - n= Value at POR reset bit 6: ADIF: A/D Converter Interrupt Flag bit 1 = An A/D conversion completed 0 = The A/D conversion is not complete bit 5: RCIF: USART Receive Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The USART receive buffer is full 0 = The USART receive buffer is empty bit 4: TXIF: USART Transmit Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The USART transmit buffer is empty 0 = The USART transmit buffer is full bit 7: SSPIF: Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) Interrupt Flag 1 = The SSP interrupt condition has occurred, and must be cleared in software before returning from the interrupt service routine. The conditions that will set this bit are: SPI A transmission/reception has taken place. I2C Slave A transmission/reception has taken place. I2C Master A transmission/reception has taken place. The initiated start condition was completed by the SSP module. The initiated stop condition was completed by the SSP module. The initiated restart condition was completed by the SSP module. The initiated acknowledge condition was completed by the SSP module. A start condition occurred while the SSP module was idle (Multimaster system). A stop condition occurred while the SSP module was idle (Multimaster system). 0 = No SSP interrupt condition has occurred. bit 2: CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit Capture Mode 1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred Compare Mode 1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred PWM Mode Unused in this mode bit 1: TMR2IF: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit 1 = TMR2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR2 to PR2 match occurred bit 0: TMR1IF: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit 1 = TMR1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software) 0 = TMR1 register did not overflow Note 1: PSPIF is reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain this bit clear. DS30292B-page 22 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 2.2.2.6 PIE2 REGISTER The PIE2 register contains the individual enable bits for the CCP2 peripheral interrupt, the SSP bus collision interrupt, and the EEPROM write operation interrupt. REGISTER 2-6: PIE2 REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Dh) U-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 — — — EEIE BCLIE — bit7 bit 7: Unimplemented: Read as '0' bit 6: Reserved: Always maintain this bit clear bit 5: Unimplemented: Read as '0' bit 4: EEIE: EEPROM Write Operation Interrupt Enable 1 = Enable EE Write Interrupt 0 = Disable EE Write Interrupt bit 3: BCLIE: Bus Collision Interrupt Enable 1 = Enable Bus Collision Interrupt 0 = Disable Bus Collision Interrupt bit 2-1: Unimplemented: Read as '0' bit 0: CCP2IE: CCP2 Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the CCP2 interrupt 0 = Disables the CCP2 interrupt U-0 R/W-0 — CCP2IE R = Readable bit bit0 W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n= Value at POR reset © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 23 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 2.2.2.7 PIR2 REGISTER The PIR2 register contains the flag bits for the CCP2 interrupt, the SSP bus collision interrupt and the EEPROM write operation interrupt. . Note: Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt condition occurs, regardless of the state of its corresponding enable bit or the global enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt. REGISTER 2-7: PIR2 REGISTER (ADDRESS 0Dh) U-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 — — — EEIF BCLIF — bit7 — CCP2IF R = Readable bit bit0 W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n= Value at POR reset bit 7: Unimplemented: Read as '0' bit 6: Reserved: Always maintain this bit clear bit 5: Unimplemented: Read as '0' bit 4: EEIF: EEPROM Write Operation Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The write operation completed (must be cleared in software) 0 = The write operation is not complete or has not been started bit 3: BCLIF: Bus Collision Interrupt Flag 1 = A bus collision has occurred in the SSP, when configured for I2C master mode 0 = No bus collision has occurred bit 2-1: Unimplemented: Read as '0' bit 0: CCP2IF: CCP2 Interrupt Flag bit Capture Mode 1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred Compare Mode 1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred PWM Mode Unused DS30292B-page 24 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 2.2.2.8 PCON REGISTER The Power Control (PCON) Register contains flag bits to allow differentiation between a Power-on Reset (POR), a Brown-out Reset (BOR), a Watch-dog Reset (WDT) and an external MCLR Reset. PIC16F87X Note: BOR is unknown on POR. It must be set by the user and checked on subsequent rests to see if BOR is clear, indicating a brownout has occurred. The BOR status bit is a don’t care and is not predictable if the brown-out circuit is disabled (by clearing the BODEN bit in the configuration word). REGISTER 2-8: PCON REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Eh) U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-1 — — — — — bit7 — POR BOR R = Readable bit bit0 W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n= Value at POR reset bit 7-2: Unimplemented: Read as '0' bit 1: POR: Power-on Reset Status bit 1 = No Power-on Reset occurred 0 = A Power-on Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset occurs) bit 0: BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit 1 = No Brown-out Reset occurred 0 = A Brown-out Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs) © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 25 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 2.3 PCL and PCLATH The program counter (PC) is 13-bits wide. The low byte comes from the PCL register, which is a readable and writable register. The upper bits (PC<12:8>) are not readable, but are indirectly writable through the PCLATH register. On any reset, the upper bits of the PC will be cleared. Figure 2-5 shows the two situations for the loading of the PC. The upper example in the figure shows how the PC is loaded on a write to PCL (PCLATH<4:0> → PCH). The lower example in the figure shows how the PC is loaded during a CALL or GOTO instruction (PCLATH<4:3> → PCH). FIGURE 2-5: LOADING OF PC IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS 12 PC PCH PCL 87 PCLATH<4:0> 5 0 8 Instruction with PCL as Destination ALU PCLATH PCH 12 11 10 PC 87 2 PCLATH<4:3> PCL 0 GOTO,CALL 11 Opcode <10:0> PCLATH 2.3.1 COMPUTED GOTO A computed GOTO is accomplished by adding an offset to the program counter (ADDWF PCL). When doing a table read using a computed GOTO method, care should be exercised if the table location crosses a PCL memory boundary (each 256 byte block). Refer to the application note, “Implementing a Table Read" (AN556). 2.3.2 STACK The PIC16CXX family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack. The stack space is not part of either program or data space and the stack pointer is not readable or writable. The PC is PUSHed onto the stack when a CALL instruction is executed or an interrupt causes a branch. The stack is POPed in the event of a RETURN,RETLW or a RETFIE instruction execution. PCLATH is not affected by a PUSH or POP operation. The stack operates as a circular buffer. This means that after the stack has been PUSHed eight times, the ninth push overwrites the value that was stored from the first push. The tenth push overwrites the second push (and so on). Note 1: There are no status bits to indicate stack overflow or stack underflow conditions. 2: There are no instructions/mnemonics called PUSH or POP. These are actions that occur from the execution of the CALL, RETURN, RETLW and RETFIE instructions or the vectoring to an interrupt address. 2.4 Program Memory Paging PIC16CXX devices are capable of addressing a continuous 8K word block of program memory. The CALL and GOTO instructions provide only 11 bits of address to allow branching within any 2K program memory page. When doing a CALL or GOTO instruction, the upper 2 bits of the address are provided by PCLATH<4:3>. When doing a CALL or GOTO instruction, the user must ensure that the page select bits are programmed so that the desired program memory page is addressed. If a return from a CALL instruction (or interrupt) is executed, the entire 13-bit PC is popped off the stack. Therefore, manipulation of the PCLATH<4:3> bits are not required for the return instructions (which POPs the address from the stack) Example 2-1 shows the calling of a subroutine in page 1 of the program memory. This example assumes that PCLATH is saved and restored by the interrupt service routine (if interrupts are used). EXAMPLE 2-1: CALL OF A SUBROUTINE IN PAGE 1 FROM PAGE 0 ORG 0x500 BCF PCLATH,4 BSF PCLATH,3 CALL SUB1_P1 : ;Select page 1 (800h-FFFh) ;Call subroutine in ;page 1 (800h-FFFh) : ORG 0x900 ;page 1 (800h-FFFh) SUB1_P1 : : : RETURN ;called subroutine ;page 1 (800h-FFFh) ;return to Call subroutine ;in page 0 (000h-7FFh) DS30292B-page 26 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 2.5 Indirect Addressing, INDF and FSR Registers The INDF register is not a physical register. Addressing the INDF register will cause indirect addressing. Indirect addressing is possible by using the INDF register. Any instruction using the INDF register actually accesses the register pointed to by the File Select Register, FSR. Reading the INDF register itself indirectly (FSR = ’0’) will read 00h. Writing to the INDF register indirectly results in a no-operation (although status bits may be affected). An effective 9-bit address is obtained by concatenating the 8-bit FSR register and the IRP bit (STATUS<7>), as shown in Figure 2-6. A simple program to clear RAM locations 20h-2Fh using indirect addressing is shown in Example 2-2. FIGURE 2-6: DIRECT/INDIRECT ADDRESSING EXAMPLE 2-2: INDIRECT ADDRESSING NEXT CONTINUE movlw movwf clrf incf btfss goto 0x20 FSR INDF FSR,F FSR,4 NEXT ;initialize pointer ;to RAM ;clear INDF register ;inc pointer ;all done? ;no clear next : ;yes continue Direct Addressing RP1:RP0 6 from opcode 0 Indirect Addressing IRP 7 FSR register 0 bank select location select 00 00h 01 80h 10 100h 11 180h bank select location select Data Memory(1) 7Fh FFh 17Fh 1FFh Bank 0 Bank 1 Bank 2 Bank 3 Note 1: For register file map detail see Figure 2-3. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 27 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292B-page 28 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 3.0 I/O PORTS Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. In general, when a peripheral is enabled, that pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin. Additional information on I/O ports may be found in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual, (DS33023). 3.1 PORTA and the TRISA Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. Setting a TRISA bit (=1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a hi-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISA bit (=0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins, whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. All write operations are read-modify-write operations. Therefore, a write to a port implies that the port pins are read, the value is modified and then written to the port data latch. Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open drain output. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and analog VREF input. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the control bits in the ADCON1 register (A/D Control Register1). Note: On a Power-on Reset, these pins are configured as analog inputs and read as '0'. The TRISA register controls the direction of the RA pins, even when they are being used as analog inputs. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. EXAMPLE 3-1: INITIALIZING PORTA BCF STATUS, RP0 ; BCF STATUS, RP1 ; Bank0 CLRF PORTA ; Initialize PORTA by ; clearing output ; data latches BSF STATUS, RP0 ; Select Bank 1 MOVLW 0x06 ; Configure all pins MOVWF ADCON1 ; as digital inputs MOVLW 0xCF ; Value used to ; initialize data ; direction MOVWF TRISA ; Set RA<3:0> as inputs ; RA<5:4> as outputs ; TRISA<7:6> are always ; read as ’0’. PIC16F87X FIGURE 3-1: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA3:RA0 AND RA5 PINS Data Bus WR Port D Q CK Q Data Latch D Q VDD P N I/O pin(1) WR TRIS CK Q TRIS Latch VSS Analog Input Mode RD TRIS Q D TTL Input Buffer EN RD PORT To A/D Converter Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and VSS. FIGURE 3-2: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA4/ T0CKI PIN Data Bus WR PORT WR TRIS DQ CK Q Data Latch DQ CK Q TRIS Latch N I/O pin(1) VSS Schmitt Trigger Input Buffer RD PORT RD TRIS QD ENEN TMR0 clock input Note 1: I/O pin has protection diodes to VSS only. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 29 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 3-1: PORTA FUNCTIONS Name Bit# Buffer Function RA0/AN0 bit0 TTL Input/output or analog input RA1/AN1 bit1 TTL Input/output or analog input RA2/AN2 bit2 TTL Input/output or analog input RA3/AN3/VREF bit3 TTL Input/output or analog input or VREF RA4/T0CKI bit4 ST Input/output or external clock input for Timer0 Output is open drain type RA5/SS/AN4 bit5 TTL Input/output or slave select input for synchronous serial port or analog input Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input TABLE 3-2: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTA Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: Value on all POR, other BOR resets 05h PORTA — — RA5 RA4 RA3 RA2 RA1 RA0 --0x 0000 --0u 0000 85h TRISA — — PORTA Data Direction Register --11 1111 --11 1111 9Fh ADCON1 ADFM — — — PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 --0- 0000 --0- 0000 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by PORTA. Note: When using the SSP module in SPI slave mode and SS enabled, the A/D converter must be set to one of the following modes where PCFG3:PCFG0 = 0100,0101, 011x, 1101, 1110, 1111. DS30292B-page 30 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 3.2 PORTB and the TRISB Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide, bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. Setting a TRISB bit (=1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a hi-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISB bit (=0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the Low Voltage Programming function; RB3/PGM, RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD. The alternate functions of these pins are described in the Special Features Section. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is configured as an output. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset. FIGURE 3-3: RBPU(2) Data Bus WR Port WR TRIS BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RB3:RB0 PINS VDD Data Latch DQ weak P pull-up CK TRIS Latch DQ CK TTL Input Buffer I/O pin(1) RD TRIS RD Port QD EN RB0/INT RB3/PGM Schmitt Trigger Buffer RD Port Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS. 2: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s) and clear the RBPU bit (OPTION_REG<7>). This interrupt can wake the device from SLEEP. The user, in the interrupt service routine, can clear the interrupt in the following manner: a) Any read or write of PORTB. This will end the mismatch condition. b) Clear flag bit RBIF. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. The interrupt on change feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt on change feature. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt on change feature. This interrupt on mismatch feature, together with software configureable pull-ups on these four pins, allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key-depression. Refer to the Embedded Control Handbook, “Implementing Wake-Up on Key Stroke” (AN552). RB0/INT is an external interrupt input pin and is configured using the INTEDG bit (OPTION_REG<6>). RB0/INT is discussed in detail in Section 12.10.1. FIGURE 3-4: RBPU(2) Data Bus WR Port BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RB7:RB4 PINS VDD Data Latch DQ CK P weak pull-up I/O pin(1) TRIS Latch DQ WR TRIS CK TTL Input Buffer ST Buffer RD TRIS Latch QD Set RBIF RD Port EN Q1 Four of PORTB’s pins, RB7:RB4, have an interrupt on change feature. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i.e. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupt on change comparison). The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. The “mismatch” outputs of RB7:RB4 are OR’ed together to generate the RB Port Change Interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). From other RB7:RB4 pins QD EN RB7:RB6 in serial programming mode RD Port Q3 Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS. 2: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s) and clear the RBPU bit (OPTION_REG<7>). Note: When using Low Voltage ICSP Programming (LVP) and the pull-ups on PORTB are enabled, bit 3 in the TRISB register must be cleared to disable the pull-up on RB3 and ensure the proper operation of the device. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 31 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 3-3: PORTB FUNCTIONS Name Bit# Buffer Function RB0/INT bit0 TTL/ST(1) Input/output pin or external interrupt input. Internal software programmable weak pull-up. RB1 bit1 TTL Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up. RB2 bit2 TTL Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up. RB3/PGM bit3 TTL Input/output pin or programming pin in LVP mode. Internal software programmable weak pull-up. RB4 bit4 TTL Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable weak pull-up. RB5 bit5 TTL Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable weak pull-up. RB6/PGC bit6 TTL/ST(2) Input/output pin (with interrupt on change) or In-Circuit Debugger pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up. Serial programming clock. RB7/PGD bit7 TTL/ST(2) Input/output pin (with interrupt on change) or In-Circuit Debugger pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up. Serial programming data. Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt. 2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode. TABLE 3-4: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTB Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: Value on all POR, other BOR resets 06h, 106h PORTB RB7 RB6 RB5 RB4 RB3 RB2 RB1 RB0 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 86h, 186h TRISB PORTB Data Direction Register 1111 1111 1111 1111 81h, 181h OPTION_REG RBPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 1111 1111 1111 1111 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged. Shaded cells are not used by PORTB. DS30292B-page 32 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 3.3 PORTC and the TRISC Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide, bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. Setting a TRISC bit (=1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a hi-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISC bit (=0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions (Table 3-5). PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. When the I2C module is enabled, the PORTC (3:4) pins can be configured with normal I2C levels or with SMBUS levels by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT <6>). When enabling peripheral functions, care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output, while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled, read-modifywrite instructions (BSF, BCF, XORWF) with TRISC as destination should be avoided. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings. FIGURE 3-5: PORTC BLOCK DIAGRAM (PERIPHERAL OUTPUT OVERRIDE) RC<0:2> RC<5:7> PORT/PERIPHERAL Select(2) Peripheral Data Out Data Bus 0 DQ WR 1 PORT CK Q WR TRIS Data Latch DQ CK Q TRIS Latch VDD P I/O pin(1) N VSS Peripheral OE(3) RD TRIS Schmitt Trigger QD RD EN PORT Peripheral Input Note 1: 2: 3: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS. Port/Peripheral select signal selects between port data and peripheral output. Peripheral OE (output enable) is only activated if peripheral select is active. PIC16F87X FIGURE 3-6: PORTC BLOCK DIAGRAM (PERIPHERAL OUTPUT OVERRIDE) RC<3:4> PORT/PERIPHERAL Select(2) Peripheral Data Out 0 Data Bus DQ WR 1 PORT CK Q WR TRIS Data Latch DQ CK Q TRIS Latch VDD P I/O pin(1) N Vss Peripheral OE(3) RD TRIS RD PORT SSPl Input Schmitt Trigger QD EN Schmitt Trigger with SMBus 0 levels 1 CKE SSPSTAT<6> Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS. 2: Port/Peripheral select signal selects between port data and peripheral output. 3: Peripheral OE (output enable) is only activated if peripheral select is active. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 33 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 3-5: PORTC FUNCTIONS Name Bit# Buffer Type Function RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI bit0 ST RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 bit1 ST RC2/CCP1 bit2 ST RC3/SCK/SCL bit3 ST RC4/SDI/SDA bit4 ST RC5/SDO bit5 ST RC6/TX/CK bit6 ST RC7/RX/DT bit7 ST Legend: ST = Schmitt Trigger input Input/output port pin or Timer1 oscillator output/Timer1 clock input Input/output port pin or Timer1 oscillator input or Capture2 input/ Compare2 output/PWM2 output Input/output port pin or Capture1 input/Compare1 output/PWM1 output RC3 can also be the synchronous serial clock for both SPI and I2C modes. RC4 can also be the SPI Data In (SPI mode) or data I/O (I2C mode). Input/output port pin or Synchronous Serial Port data output Input/output port pin or USART Asynchronous Transmit or Synchronous Clock Input/output port pin or USART Asynchronous Receive or Synchronous Data TABLE 3-6: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTC Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other resets 07h PORTC RC7 RC6 RC5 RC4 87h TRISC PORTC Data Direction Register Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged. RC3 RC2 RC1 RC0 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 1111 1111 1111 1111 DS30292B-page 34 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 3.4 PORTD and TRISD Registers This section is not applicable to the PIC16F873 or PIC16F876. PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (parallel slave port) by setting control bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). In this mode, the input buffers are TTL. FIGURE 3-7: PORTD BLOCK DIAGRAM (IN I/O PORT MODE) Data Bus WR PORT D Q CK I/O pin(1) WR TRIS Data Latch DQ CK TRIS Latch Schmitt Trigger Input Buffer RD TRIS Q D RD PORT ENEN Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and VSS. TABLE 3-7: PORTD FUNCTIONS Name Bit# Buffer Type Function RD0/PSP0 bit0 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit0 RD1/PSP1 bit1 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit1 RD2/PSP2 bit2 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit2 RD3/PSP3 bit3 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit3 RD4/PSP4 bit4 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit4 RD5/PSP5 bit5 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit5 RD6/PSP6 bit6 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit6 RD7/PSP7 bit7 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or parallel slave port bit7 Legend: ST = Schmitt Trigger input TTL = TTL input Note 1: Input buffers are Schmitt Triggers when in I/O mode and TTL buffer when in Parallel Slave Port Mode. TABLE 3-8: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTD Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other resets 08h PORTD RD7 RD6 RD5 RD4 RD3 RD2 RD1 RD0 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 88h TRISD PORTD Data Direction Register 1111 1111 1111 1111 89h TRISE IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE — PORTE Data Direction Bits 0000 -111 0000 -111 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as ’0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTD. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 35 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 3.5 PORTE and TRISE Register This section is not applicable to the PIC16F873 or PIC16F876. PORTE has three pins, RE0/RD/AN5, RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7, which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. I/O PORTE becomes control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. In this mode, the user must make sure that the TRISE<2:0> bits are set (pins are configured as digital inputs). Ensure ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. In this mode, the input buffers are TTL. Register 3-1 shows the TRISE register, which also controls the parallel slave port operation. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. When selected as an analog input, these pins will read as ’0’s. TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins, even when they are being used as analog inputs. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. Note: On a Power-on Reset, these pins are configured as analog inputs. FIGURE 3-8: PORTE BLOCK DIAGRAM (IN I/O PORT MODE) Data Bus WR PORT DQ CK I/O pin(1) WR TRIS Data Latch DQ CK TRIS Latch Schmitt Trigger input buffer RD TRIS Q D RD PORT ENEN Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and VSS. REGISTER 3-1: TRISE REGISTER (ADDRESS 89h) R-0 IBF bit7 bit 7 : bit 6: bit 5: bit 4: bit 3: bit 2: bit 1: bit 0: R-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 OBF IBOV PSPMODE — bit2 bit1 bit0 R = Readable bit bit0 W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n= Value at POR reset Parallel Slave Port Status/Control Bits IBF: Input Buffer Full Status bit 1 = A word has been received and is waiting to be read by the CPU 0 = No word has been received OBF: Output Buffer Full Status bit 1 = The output buffer still holds a previously written word 0 = The output buffer has been read IBOV: Input Buffer Overflow Detect bit (in microprocessor mode) 1 = A write occurred when a previously input word has not been read (must be cleared in software) 0 = No overflow occurred PSPMODE: Parallel Slave Port Mode Select bit 1 = Parallel slave port mode 0 = General purpose I/O mode Unimplemented: Read as ’0’ PORTE Data Direction Bits Bit2: Direction Control bit for pin RE2/CS/AN7 1 = Input 0 = Output Bit1: Direction Control bit for pin RE1/WR/AN6 1 = Input 0 = Output Bit0: Direction Control bit for pin RE0/RD/AN5 1 = Input 0 = Output DS30292B-page 36 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X TABLE 3-9: PORTE FUNCTIONS Name Bit# Buffer Type Function RE0/RD/AN5 bit0 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or read control input in parallel slave port mode or analog input: RD 1 = Not a read operation 0 = Read operation. Reads PORTD register (if chip selected) RE1/WR/AN6 bit1 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or write control input in parallel slave port mode or analog input: WR 1 = Not a write operation 0 = Write operation. Writes PORTD register (if chip selected) RE2/CS/AN7 bit2 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or chip select control input in parallel slave port mode or analog input: CS 1 = Device is not selected 0 = Device is selected Legend: ST = Schmitt Trigger input TTL = TTL input Note 1: Input buffers are Schmitt Triggers when in I/O mode and TTL buffers when in Parallel Slave Port Mode. TABLE 3-10: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTE Addr Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other resets 09h PORTE — — — — — RE2 RE1 RE0 ---- -xxx 89h TRISE IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE — PORTE Data Direction Bits 0000 -111 9Fh ADCON1 ADFM — — — PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 --0- 0000 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by PORTE. ---- -uuu 0000 -111 --0- 0000 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 37 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 3.6 Parallel Slave Port The Parallel Slave Port is not implemented on the PIC16F873 or PIC16F876. PORTD operates as an 8-bit wide Parallel Slave Port or microprocessor port when control bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. In slave mode, it is asynchronously readable and writable by the external world through RD control input pin RE0/RD and WR control input pin RE1/WR. It can directly interface to an 8-bit microprocessor data bus. The external microprocessor can read or write the PORTD latch as an 8-bit latch. Setting bit PSPMODE enables port pin RE0/RD to be the RD input, RE1/WR to be the WR input and RE2/CS to be the CS (chip select) input. For this functionality, the corresponding data direction bits of the TRISE register (TRISE<2:0>) must be configured as inputs (set). The A/D port configuration bits PCFG3:PCFG0 (ADCON1<3:0>) must be set to configure pins RE2:RE0 as digital I/O. There are actually two 8-bit latches. One for data-out and one for data input. The user writes 8-bit data to the PORTD data latch and reads data from the port pin latch (note that they have the same address). In this mode, the TRISD register is ignored, since the microprocessor is controlling the direction of data flow. A write to the PSP occurs when both the CS and WR lines are first detected low. When either the CS or WR lines become high (level triggered), the Input Buffer Full (IBF) status flag bit (TRISE<7>) is set on the Q4 clock cycle, following the next Q2 cycle, to signal the write is complete (Figure 3-10). The interrupt flag bit PSPIF (PIR1<7>) is also set on the same Q4 clock cycle. IBF can only be cleared by reading the PORTD input latch. The Input Buffer Overflow (IBOV) status flag bit (TRISE<5>) is set if a second write to the PSP is attempted when the previous byte has not been read out of the buffer. A read from the PSP occurs when both the CS and RD lines are first detected low. The Output Buffer Full (OBF) status flag bit (TRISE<6>) is cleared immediately (Figure 3-11) indicating that the PORTD latch is waiting to be read by the external bus. When either the CS or RD pin becomes high (level triggered), the interrupt flag bit PSPIF is set on the Q4 clock cycle, following the next Q2 cycle, indicating that the read is complete. OBF remains low until data is written to PORTD by the user firmware. When not in PSP mode, the IBF and OBF bits are held clear. However, if flag bit IBOV was previously set, it must be cleared in firmware. An interrupt is generated and latched into flag bit PSPIF when a read or write operation is completed. PSPIF must be cleared by the user in firmware and the interrupt can be disabled by clearing the interrupt enable bit PSPIE (PIE1<7>). FIGURE 3-9: PORTD AND PORTE BLOCK DIAGRAM (PARALLEL SLAVE PORT) Data Bus DQ WR PORT CK Q D RD PORT ENEN One bit of PORTD Set interrupt flag PSPIF (PIR1<7>) RDx pin TTL Read TTL RD Chip Select TTL CS Write TTL WR Note: I/O pin has protection diodes to VDD and VSS. DS30292B-page 38 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X FIGURE 3-10: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT WRITE WAVEFORMS Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 CS WR RD PORTD<7:0> IBF OBF PSPIF FIGURE 3-11: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT READ WAVEFORMS Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 CS WR RD PORTD<7:0> IBF OBF PSPIF TABLE 3-11: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PARALLEL SLAVE PORT Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other resets 08h PORTD Port data latch when written: Port pins when read xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 09h PORTE — —— — — RE2 RE1 RE0 ---- -xxx ---- -uuu 89h TRISE IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE — PORTE Data Direction Bits 0000 -111 0000 -111 0Ch PIR1 PSPIF ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 9Fh ADCON1 ADFM — — — PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 --0- 0000 --0- 0000 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the Parallel Slave Port. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 39 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292B-page 40 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 4.0 DATA EEPROM AND FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY The Data EEPROM and FLASH Program Memory are readable and writable during normal operation over the entire VDD range. A bulk erase operation may not be issued from user code (which includes removing code protection). The data memory is not directly mapped in the register file space. Instead it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function Registers (SFR). There are six SFRs used to read and write the program and data EEPROM memory. These registers are: • EECON1 • EECON2 • EEDATA • EEDATH • EEADR • EEADRH The EEPROM data memory allows byte read and write. When interfacing to the data memory block, EEDATA holds the 8-bit data for read/write and EEADR holds the address of the EEPROM location being accessed. The registers EEDATH and EEADRH are not used for data EEPROM access. These devices have up to 256 bytes of data EEPROM with an address range from 0h to FFh. The EEPROM data memory is rated for high erase/ write cycles. The write time is controlled by an on-chip timer. The write time will vary with voltage and temperature, as well as from chip-to-chip. Please refer to the specifications for exact limits. The program memory allows word reads and writes. Program memory access allows for checksum calculation and calibration table storage. A byte or word write automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase before write). Writing to program memory will cease operation until the write is complete. The program memory cannot be accessed during the write, therefore code cannot execute. During the write operation, the oscillator continues to clock the peripherals, and therefore they continue to operate. Interrupt events will be detected and essentially “queued” until the write is completed. When the write completes, the next instruction in the pipeline is executed and the branch to the interrupt vector address will occur. When interfacing to the program memory block, the EEDATH:EEDATA registers form a two byte word, which holds the 14-bit data for read/write. The EEADRH:EEADR registers form a two byte word, which holds the 13-bit address of the EEPROM location being accessed. These devices can have up to 8K words of program EEPROM with an address range from 0h to 3FFFh. The unused upper bits in both the EEDATH and EEDATA registers all read as “0’s”. PIC16F87X The value written to program memory does not need to be a valid instruction. Therefore, up to 14-bit numbers can be stored in memory for use as calibration parameters, serial numbers, packed 7-bit ASCII, etc. Executing a program memory location containing data that forms an invalid instruction results in a NOP. 4.1 EEADR The address registers can address up to a maximum of 256 bytes of data EEPROM or up to a maximum of 8K words of program FLASH. When selecting a program address value, the MSByte of the address is written to the EEADRH register and the LSByte is written to the EEADR register. When selecting a data address value, only the LSByte of the address is written to the EEADR register. On the PIC16F873/874 devices with 128 bytes of EEPROM, the MSbit of the EEADR must always be cleared to prevent inadvertent access to the wrong location. This also applies to the program memory. The upper MSbits of EEADRH must always be clear. 4.2 EECON1 and EECON2 Registers EECON1 is the control register for memory accesses. EECON2 is not a physical register. Reading EECON2 will read all '0's. The EECON2 register is used exclusively in the memory write sequence. Control bit EEPGD determines if the access will be a program or a data memory access. When clear, any subsequent operations will operate on the data memory. When set, any subsequent operations will operate on the program memory. Control bits RD and WR initiate read and write operations, respectively. These bits cannot be cleared, only set, in software. They are cleared in hardware at the completion of the read or write operation. The inability to clear the WR bit in software prevents the accidental or premature termination of a write operation. The WREN bit, when set, will allow a write operation. On power-up, the WREN bit is clear. The WRERR bit is set when a write operation is interrupted by a MCLR reset or a WDT time-out reset during normal operation. In these situations, following reset, the user can check the WRERR bit and rewrite the location. The value of the data and address registers and the EEPGD bit remains unchanged. Interrupt flag bit EEIF, in the PIR2 register, is set when write is complete. It must be cleared in software. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 41 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm REGISTER 4-1: EECON1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 18Ch) R/W-x U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-x R/W-0 R/S-0 R/S-0 EEPGD — — — WRERR WREN WR RD R = Readable bit bit7 bit0 W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n= Value at POR reset bit 7: EEPGD: Program / Data EEPROM Select bit 1 = Accesses Program memory 0 = Accesses data memory (This bit cannot be changed while a read or write operation is in progress) bit 6:4: Unimplemented: Read as '0' bit 3: WRERR: EEPROM Error Flag bit 1 = A write operation is prematurely terminated (any MCLR reset or any WDT reset during normal operation) 0 = The write operation completed bit 2: WREN: EEPROM Write Enable bit 1 = Allows write cycles 0 = Inhibits write to the EEPROM bit 1: WR: Write Control bit 1 = initiates a write cycle. (The bit is cleared by hardware once write is complete. The WR bit can only be set (not cleared) in software. 0 = Write cycle to the EEPROM is complete bit 0: RD: Read Control bit 1 = Initiates an EEPROM read RD is cleared in hardware. The RD bit can only be set (not cleared) in software. 0 = Does not initiate an EEPROM read DS30292B-page 42 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 4.3 Reading the Data EEPROM Memory To read a data memory location, the user must write the address to the EEADR register, clear the EEPGD control bit (EECON1<7>) and then set control bit RD (EECON1<0>). The data is available in the very next instruction cycle of the EEDATA register, therefore it can be read by the next instruction. EEDATA will hold this value until another read operation or until it is written to by the user (during a write operation). 4.4 Writing to the Data EEPROM Memory To write an EEPROM data location, the address must first be written to the EEADR register and the data written to the EEDATA register. Then the sequence in Example 4-2 must be followed to initiate the write cycle. EXAMPLE 4-1: DATA EEPROM READ BSF STATUS, RP1 ; BCF STATUS, RP0 ;Bank 2 MOVLW DATA_EE_ADDR ; MOVWF EEADR ;Data Memory Address to read BSF STATUS, RP0 ;Bank 3 BCF EECON1, EEPGD ;Point to DATA memory BSF EECON1, RD ;EEPROM Read BCF STATUS, RP0 ;Bank 2 MOVF EEDATA, W ;W = EEDATA EXAMPLE 4-2: DATA EEPROM WRITE BSF STATUS, RP1 ; BCF STATUS, RP0 ; Bank 2 MOVLW DATA_EE_ADDR ; MOVWF EEADR ; Data Memory Address to write MOVLW DATA_EE_DATA ; MOVWF EEDATA ; Data Memory Value to write BSF STATUS, RP0 ; Bank 3 BCF EECON1, EEPGD ; Point to DATA memory BSF EECON1, WREN ; Enable writes Required Sequence BCF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF BSF BSF INTCON, GIE 55h EECON2 AAh EECON2 EECON1, WR INTCON, GIE ; Disable Interrupts ; ; Write 55h ; ; Write AAh ; Set WR bit to begin write ; Enable Interrupts SLEEP ; Wait for interrupt to signal write complete BCF EECON1, WREN ; Disable writes The write will not initiate if the above sequence is not exactly followed (write 55h to EECON2, write AAh to EECON2, then set WR bit) for each byte. It is strongly recommended that interrupts be disabled during this code segment. Additionally, the WREN bit in EECON1 must be set to enable writes. This mechanism prevents accidental writes to data EEPROM due to unexpected code execution (i.e., runaway programs). The WREN bit should be kept clear at all times, except when updating the EEPROM. The WREN bit is not cleared by hardware is set. The WREN bit must be set on a previous instruction. Both WR and WREN cannot be set with the same instruction. At the completion of the write cycle, the WR bit is cleared in hardware and the EEPROM Write Complete Interrupt Flag bit (EEIF) is set. EEIF must be cleared by software. After a write sequence has been initiated, clearing the WREN bit will not affect the current write cycle. The WR bit will be inhibited from being set unless the WREN bit © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 43 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 4.5 Reading the FLASH Program Memory A program memory location may be read by writing two bytes of the address to the EEADR and EEADRH registers, setting the EEPGD control bit (EECON1<7>) and then setting control bit RD (EECON1<0>). Once the read control bit is set, the microcontroller will use the next two instruction cycles to read the data. The data is available in the EEDATA and EEDATH registers after the second NOP instruction. Therefore, it can be read as two bytes in the following instructions. The EEDATA and EEDATH registers will hold this value until another read operation or until it is written to by the user (during a write operation). EXAMPLE 4-3: FLASH PROGRAM READ BSF STATUS, RP1 ; BCF STATUS, RP0 ; Bank 2 MOVLW ADDRH ; MOVWF EEADRH ; MSByte of Program Address to read MOVLW ADDRL ; MOVWF EEADR ; LSByte of Program Address to read BSF STATUS, RP0 ; Bank 3 BSF EECON1, EEPGD ; Point to PROGRAM memory Required BSF EECON1, RD ; EEPROM Read Sequence NOP ; memory is read in the next two cycles after BSF EECON1,RD NOP ; BCF STATUS, RP0 ; Bank 2 MOVF MOVF EEDATA, W EEDATH, W ; W = LSByte of Program EEDATA ; W = MSByte of Program EEDATA DS30292B-page 44 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 4.6 Writing to the FLASH Program Memory A word of the FLASH program memory may only be written to if the word is in a non-code protected segment of memory and the WRT configuration bit is set. To write a FLASH program location, the first two bytes of the address must be written to the EEADR and EEADRH registers and two bytes of the data to the EEDATA and EEDATH registers, set the EEPGD con- trol bit (EECON1<7>), and then set control bit WR (EECON1<1>). The sequence in Example 4-4 must be followed to initiate a write to program memory. The microcontroller will then halt internal operations during the next two instruction cycles for the TPEW (parameter D133) in which the write takes place. This is not SLEEP mode, as the clocks and peripherals will continue to run. Therefore, the two instructions following the “BSF EECON, WR” should be NOP instructions. After the write cycle, the microcontroller will resume operation with the 3rd instruction after the EECON1 write instruction. EXAMPLE 4-4: FLASH PROGRAM WRITE BSF STATUS, RP1 ; BCF STATUS, RP0 ; Bank 2 MOVLW ADDRH ; MOVWF EEADRH ; MSByte of Program Address to read MOVLW ADDRL ; MOVWF EEADR ; LSByte of Program Address to read MOVLW DATAH ; MOVWF EEDATH ; MS Program Memory Value to write MOVLW DATAL ; MOVWF EEDATA ; LS Program Memory Value to write BSF STATUS, RP0 ; Bank 3 BSF EECON1, EEPGD ; Point to PROGRAM memory BSF EECON1, WREN ; Enable writes Required Sequence BCF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF BSF INTCON, GIE 55h EECON2 AAh EECON2 EECON1, WR ; Disable Interrupts ; ; Write 55h ; ; Write AAh ; Set WR bit to begin write NOP NOP BSF INTCON, GIE BCF EECON1, WREN ; Instructions here are ignored by the microcontroller ; Microcontroller will halt operation and wait for ; a write complete. After the write ; the microcontroller continues with 3rd instruction ; Enable Interrupts ; Disable writes 4.7 Write Verify Depending on the application, good programming practice may dictate that the value written to the memory should be verified against the original value. This should be used in applications where excessive writes can stress bits near the specification limit. Generally a write failure will be a bit which was written as a '1', but reads back as a '0' (due to leakage off the bit). © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 45 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 4.8 Protection Against Spurious Write 4.8.1 EEPROM DATA MEMORY There are conditions when the device may not want to write to the data EEPROM memory. To protect against spurious EEPROM writes, various mechanisms have been built-in. On power-up, the WREN bit is cleared. Also, the Power-up Timer (72 ms duration) prevents EEPROM write. The write initiate sequence and the WREN bit together help prevent an accidental write during brown-out, power glitch, or software malfunction. 4.8.2 PROGRAM FLASH MEMORY To protect against spurious writes to FLASH program memory, the WRT bit in the configuration word may be programmed to ‘0’ to prevent writes. The write initiate sequence must also be followed. WRT and the configuration word cannot be programmed by user code, only through the use of an external programmer. 4.9 Operation during Code Protect Each reprogrammable memory block has its own code protect mechanism. External Read and Write operations are disabled if either of these mechanisms are enabled. 4.9.1 DATA EEPROM MEMORY The microcontroller itself can both read and write to the internal Data EEPROM, regardless of the state of the code protect configuration bit. 4.9.2 PROGRAM FLASH MEMORY The microcontroller can read and execute instructions out of the internal FLASH program memory, regardless of the state of the code protect configuration bits. However the WRT configuration bit and the code protect bits have different effects on writing to program memory. Table 4-1 shows the various configurations and status of reads and writes. To erase the WRT or code protection bits in the configuration word requires that the device be fully erased. TABLE 4-1: READ/WRITE STATE OF INTERNAL FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY Configuration Bits CP1 CP0 WRT Memory Location Internal Read Internal Write ICSP Read ICSP Write 0 0 x All program memory 0 1 0 Unprotected areas 0 1 0 Protected areas 0 1 1 Unprotected areas 0 1 1 Protected areas 1 0 0 Unprotected areas 1 0 0 Protected areas 1 0 1 Unprotected areas 1 0 1 Protected areas 1 1 0 All program memory 1 1 1 All program memory Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes TABLE 4-2: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH DATA EEPROM/PROGRAM FLASH Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other resets 0Bh, 8Bh, INTCON GIE 10Bh, 18Bh PEIE T0IE 10Dh EEADR EEPROM address register 10Fh EEADRH — — — 10Ch EEDATA EEPROM data resister INTE RBIE T0IF EEPROM address high INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu 10Eh 18Ch 18Dh 8Dh EEDATH — — EEPROM data resister high EECON1 EEPGD — — — WRERR EECON2 EEPROM control resister2 (not a physical resister) PIE2 — (1) — EEIE BCLIE WREN — xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu WR RD x--- x000 x--- u000 — CCP2IE -r-0 0--0 -r-0 0--0 0Dh PIR2 — (1) — EEIF BCLIF — — CCP2IF -r-0 0--0 -r-0 0--0 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, r = reserved, - = unimplemented read as ’0’. Shaded cells are not used during FLASH/ EEPROM access. Note 1: These bits are reserved; always maintain these bits clear. DS30292B-page 46 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 5.0 TIMER0 MODULE The Timer0 module timer/counter has the following features: • 8-bit timer/counter • Readable and writable • 8-bit software programmable prescaler • Internal or external clock select • Interrupt on overflow from FFh to 00h • Edge select for external clock Figure 5-1 is a block diagram of the Timer0 module and the prescaler shared with the WDT. Additional information on the Timer0 module is available in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual (DS33023). Timer mode is selected by clearing bit T0CS (OPTION_REG<5>). In timer mode, the Timer0 module will increment every instruction cycle (without prescaler). If the TMR0 register is written, the increment is inhibited for the following two instruction cycles. The user can work around this by writing an adjusted value to the TMR0 register. Counter mode is selected by setting bit T0CS (OPTION_REG<5>). In counter mode, Timer0 will increment either on every rising or falling edge of pin RA4/T0CKI. The incrementing edge is determined by the Timer0 Source Edge Select bit T0SE (OPTION_REG<4>). Clearing bit T0SE selects the rising edge. Restrictions on the external clock input are discussed in detail in Section 5.2. The prescaler is mutually exclusively shared between the Timer0 module and the watchdog timer. The prescaler is not readable or writable. Section 5.3 details the operation of the prescaler. 5.1 Timer0 Interrupt The TMR0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0 register overflows from FFh to 00h. This overflow sets bit T0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be masked by clearing bit T0IE (INTCON<5>). Bit T0IF must be cleared in software by the Timer0 module interrupt service routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The TMR0 interrupt cannot awaken the processor from SLEEP since the timer is shut off during SLEEP. FIGURE 5-1: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TIMER0/WDT PRESCALER CLKOUT (= FOSC/4) Data Bus RA4/T0CKI Pin T0SE 0M U X 1 T0CS 1 M 0 U X PSA PRESCALER SYNC 2 Cycles 8 TMR0 reg Set Flag Bit T0IF on Overflow Watchdog Timer WDT Enable bit 0 M U 1X PSA 8-bit Prescaler 8 8 - to - 1MUX PS2:PS0 0 1 MUX PSA WDT Time-out Note: T0CS, T0SE, PSA, PS2:PS0 are (OPTION_REG<5:0>). © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 47 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 5.2 Using Timer0 with an External Clock When no prescaler is used, the external clock input is the same as the prescaler output. The synchronization of T0CKI with the internal phase clocks is accomplished by sampling the prescaler output on the Q2 and Q4 cycles of the internal phase clocks. Therefore, it is necessary for T0CKI to be high for at least 2Tosc (and a small RC delay of 20 ns) and low for at least 2Tosc (and a small RC delay of 20 ns). Refer to the electrical specification of the desired device. 5.3 Prescaler There is only one prescaler available, which is mutually exclusively shared between the Timer0 module and the watchdog timer. A prescaler assignment for the Timer0 REGISTER 5-1: OPTION_REG REGISTER module means that there is no prescaler for the watchdog timer, and vice-versa. This prescaler is not readable or writable (see Figure 5-1). The PSA and PS2:PS0 bits (OPTION_REG<3:0>) determine the prescaler assignment and prescale ratio. When assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions writing to the TMR0 register (e.g. CLRF 1, MOVWF 1, BSF 1,x....etc.) will clear the prescaler. When assigned to WDT, a CLRWDT instruction will clear the prescaler along with the Watchdog Timer. The prescaler is not readable or writable. Note: Writing to TMR0, when the prescaler is assigned to Timer0, will clear the prescaler count, but will not change the prescaler assignment. R/W-1 RBPU bit 7 R/W-1 INTEDG R/W-1 T0CS R/W-1 T0SE R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 PSA PS2 PS1 bit 7: RBPU bit 6: INTEDG bit 5: T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit 1 = Transition on T0CKI pin 0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKOUT) bit 4: T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit 1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on T0CKI pin 0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on T0CKI pin bit 3: PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit 1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT 0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module bit 2-0: PS2:PS0: Prescaler Rate Select bits Bit Value TMR0 Rate WDT Rate 000 1:2 1:1 001 1:4 1:2 010 1:8 1:4 011 1 : 16 1:8 100 1 : 32 1 : 16 101 1 : 64 1 : 32 110 1 : 128 1 : 64 111 1 : 256 1 : 128 R/W-1 PS0 bit 0 R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n = Value at POR reset Note: To avoid an unintended device RESET, the instruction sequence shown in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual (DS33023) must be executed when changing the prescaler assignment from Timer0 to the WDT. This sequence must be followed even if the WDT is disabled. DS30292B-page 48 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X TABLE 5-1: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0 Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other resets 01h,101h TMR0 Timer0 module’s register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 0Bh,8Bh, 10Bh,18Bh INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE RBIE T0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u 81h,181h OPTION_REG RBPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 1111 1111 1111 1111 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by Timer0. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 49 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292B-page 50 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 6.0 TIMER1 MODULE The Timer1 module is a 16-bit timer/counter consisting of two 8-bit registers (TMR1H and TMR1L), which are readable and writable. The TMR1 Register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) increments from 0000h to FFFFh and rolls over to 0000h. The TMR1 Interrupt, if enabled, is generated on overflow, which is latched in interrupt flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>). This interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing TMR1 interrupt enable bit TMR1IE (PIE1<0>). Timer1 can operate in one of two modes: • As a timer • As a counter The operating mode is determined by the clock select bit, TMR1CS (T1CON<1>). In timer mode, Timer1 increments every instruction cycle. In counter mode, it increments on every rising edge of the external clock input. Timer1 can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing control bit TMR1ON (T1CON<0>). Timer1 also has an internal “reset input”. This reset can be generated by either of the two CCP modules (Section 8.0). Register 6-1 shows the Timer1 control register. When the Timer1 oscillator is enabled (T1OSCEN is set), the RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 and RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI pins become inputs. That is, the TRISC<1:0> value is ignored. Additional information on timer modules is available in the PICmicro™ Mid-range MCU Family Reference Manual (DS33023). REGISTER 6-1: T1CON: TIMER1 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 10h) U-0 — bit7 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC bit 7-6: Unimplemented: Read as ’0’ R/W-0 R/W-0 TMR1CS TMR1ON bit0 R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n = Value at POR reset bit 5-4: T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0: Timer1 Input Clock Prescale Select bits 11 = 1:8 Prescale value 10 = 1:4 Prescale value 01 = 1:2 Prescale value 00 = 1:1 Prescale value bit 3: T1OSCEN: Timer1 Oscillator Enable Control bit 1 = Oscillator is enabled 0 = Oscillator is shut off (The oscillator inverter is turned off to eliminate power drain) bit 2: T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit TMR1CS = 1 1 = Do not synchronize external clock input 0 = Synchronize external clock input bit 1: bit 0: TMR1CS = 0 This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock when TMR1CS = 0. TMR1CS: Timer1 Clock Source Select bit 1 = External clock from pin RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI (on the rising edge) 0 = Internal clock (FOSC/4) TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit 1 = Enables Timer1 0 = Stops Timer1 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 51 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 6.1 Timer1 Operation in Timer Mode Timer mode is selected by clearing the TMR1CS (T1CON<1>) bit. In this mode, the input clock to the timer is FOSC/4. The synchronize control bit T1SYNC (T1CON<2>) has no effect since the internal clock is always in sync. FIGURE 6-1: TIMER1 INCREMENTING EDGE T1CKI (Default high) 6.2 Timer1 Counter Operation Timer1 may operate in asynchronous or usynchronous mode depnding on the setting of the TMR1CS bit. When Timer1 is being incremented via an external source, increments occur on a rising edge. After Timer1 is enabled in counter mode, the module must first have a falling edge before the counter begins to increment. T1CKI (Default low) Note: Arrows indicate counter increments. 6.3 Timer1 Operation in Synchronized Counter Mode Counter mode is selected by setting bit TMR1CS. In this mode, the timer increments on every rising edge of clock input on pin RC1/T1OSI/CCP2, when bit T1OSCEN is set, or on pin RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI, when bit T1OSCEN is cleared. If T1SYNC is cleared, then the external clock input is synchronized with internal phase clocks. The synchronization is done after the prescaler stage. The prescaler stage is an asynchronous ripple-counter. In this configuration, during SLEEP mode, Timer1 will not increment even if the external clock is present, since the synchronization circuit is shut off. The prescaler however will continue to increment. FIGURE 6-2: TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM Set flag bit TMR1IF on Overflow RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(2) TMR1 0 Synchronized clock input TMR1H TMR1L 1 T1OSC TMR1ON on/off (2) 1 T1OSCEN FOSC/4 Enable Oscillator(1) Internal Clock 0 T1SYNC Prescaler 1, 2, 4, 8 2 T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0 Synchronize det Q Clock TMR1CS Note 1: When the T1OSCEN bit is cleared, the inverter is turned off. This eliminates power drain. 2: For the PIC16F873/876, the Schmitt Trigger is not implemented in external clock mode. DS30292B-page 52 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 6.4 Timer1 Operation in Asynchronous Counter Mode If control bit T1SYNC (T1CON<2>) is set, the external clock input is not synchronized. The timer continues to increment asynchronous to the internal phase clocks. The timer will continue to run during SLEEP and can generate an interrupt on overflow, which will wake-up the processor. However, special precautions in software are needed to read/write the timer (Section 6.4.1). In asynchronous counter mode, Timer1 can not be used as a time-base for capture or compare operations. 6.4.1 READING AND WRITING TIMER1 IN ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTER MODE Reading TMR1H or TMR1L while the timer is running from an external asynchronous clock will guarantee a valid read (taken care of in hardware). However, the user should keep in mind that reading the 16-bit timer in two 8-bit values itself poses certain problems, since the timer may overflow between the reads. For writes, it is recommended that the user simply stop the timer and write the desired values. A write contention may occur by writing to the timer registers, while the register is incrementing. This may produce an unpredictable value in the timer register. Reading the 16-bit value requires some care. Examples 12-2 and 12-3 in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual (DS33023) show how to read and write Timer1 when it is running in asynchronous mode. 6.5 Timer1 Oscillator A crystal oscillator circuit is built-in between pins T1OSI (input) and T1OSO (amplifier output). It is enabled by setting control bit T1OSCEN (T1CON<3>). The oscillator is a low power oscillator rated up to 200 kHz. It will continue to run during SLEEP. It is primarily intended for use with a 32 kHz crystal. Table 6-1 shows the capacitor selection for the Timer1 oscillator. The Timer1 oscillator is identical to the LP oscillator. The user must provide a software time delay to ensure proper oscillator start-up. PIC16F87X TABLE 6-1: CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR THE TIMER1 OSCILLATOR Osc Type Freq C1 C2 LP 32 kHz 33 pF 33 pF 100 kHz 15 pF 15 pF 200 kHz 15 pF 15 pF These values are for design guidance only. Crystals Tested: 32.768 kHz Epson C-001R32.768K-A ± 20 PPM 100 kHz Epson C-2 100.00 KC-P ± 20 PPM 200 kHz STD XTL 200.000 kHz ± 20 PPM Note 1: 2: Higher capacitance increases the stability of oscillator but also increases the start-up time. Since each resonator/crystal has its own characteristics, the user should consult the resonator/ crystal manufacturer for appropriate values of external components. 6.6 Resetting Timer1 using a CCP Trigger Output If the CCP1 or CCP2 module is configured in compare mode to generate a “special event trigger” (CCP1M3:CCP1M0 = 1011), this signal will reset Timer1. Note: The special event triggers from the CCP1 and CCP2 modules will not set interrupt flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>). Timer1 must be configured for either timer or synchronized counter mode to take advantage of this feature. If Timer1 is running in asynchronous counter mode, this reset operation may not work. In the event that a write to Timer1 coincides with a special event trigger from CCP1 or CCP2, the write will take precedence. In this mode of operation, the CCPRxH:CCPRxL register pair effectively becomes the period register for Timer1. 6.7 Resetting of Timer1 Register Pair (TMR1H, TMR1L) TMR1H and TMR1L registers are not reset to 00h on a POR or any other reset except by the CCP1 and CCP2 special event triggers. T1CON register is reset to 00h on a Power-on Reset or a Brown-out Reset, which shuts off the timer and leaves a 1:1 prescale. In all other resets, the register is unaffected. 6.8 Timer1 Prescaler The prescaler counter is cleared on writes to the TMR1H or TMR1L registers. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 53 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 6-2: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER1 AS A TIMER/COUNTER Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other resets 0Bh,8Bh, INTCON GIE 10Bh, 18Bh 0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(1) 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) PEIE ADIF ADIE T0IE RCIF RCIE INTE TXIF TXIE RBIE T0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 0Eh TMR1L Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 0Fh TMR1H Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 10h T1CON — — T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON --00 0000 --uu uuuu Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer1 module. Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16F873/874; always maintain these bits clear. DS30292B-page 54 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 7.0 TIMER2 MODULE Timer2 is an 8-bit timer with a prescaler and a postscaler. It can be used as the PWM time-base for the PWM mode of the CCP module(s). The TMR2 register is readable and writable, and is cleared on any device reset. The input clock (FOSC/4) has a prescale option of 1:1, 1:4 or 1:16, selected by control bits T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0 (T2CON<1:0>). The Timer2 module has an 8-bit period register PR2. Timer2 increments from 00h until it matches PR2 and then resets to 00h on the next increment cycle. PR2 is a readable and writable register. The PR2 register is initialized to FFh upon reset. The match output of TMR2 goes through a 4-bit postscaler (which gives a 1:1 to 1:16 scaling inclusive) to generate a TMR2 interrupt (latched in flag bit TMR2IF, (PIR1<1>)). Timer2 can be shut off by clearing control bit TMR2ON (T2CON<2>) to minimize power consumption. Register 7-1 shows the Timer2 control register. Additional information on timer modules is available in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual (DS33023). 7.1 Timer2 Prescaler and Postscaler The prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared when any of the following occurs: • a write to the TMR2 register • a write to the T2CON register • any device reset (POR, MCLR reset, WDT reset or BOR) TMR2 is not cleared when T2CON is written. 7.2 Output of TMR2 The output of TMR2 (before the postscaler) is fed to the SSPort module, which optionally uses it to generate shift clock. FIGURE 7-1: TIMER2 BLOCK DIAGRAM Sets flag bit TMR2IF TMR2 output (1) Reset TMR2 reg Prescaler 1:1, 1:4, 1:16 FOSC/4 Postscaler Comparator 1:1 to 1:16 EQ 4 T2OUTPS3: T2OUTPS0 PR2 reg 2 T2CKPS1: T2CKPS0 Note 1: TMR2 register output can be software selected by the SSP module as a baud clock. REGISTER 7-1: T2CON: TIMER2 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 12h) U-0 — bit7 bit 7: bit 6-3: bit 2: bit 1-0: R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 bit0 Unimplemented: Read as '0' TOUTPS3:TOUTPS0: Timer2 Output Postscale Select bits 0000 = 1:1 Postscale 0001 = 1:2 Postscale 0010 = 1:3 Postscale • • • 1111 = 1:16 Postscale TMR2ON: Timer2 On bit 1 = Timer2 is on 0 = Timer2 is off T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0: Timer2 Clock Prescale Select bits 00 = Prescaler is 1 01 = Prescaler is 4 1x = Prescaler is 16 R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n = Value at POR reset © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 55 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 7-1: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER2 AS A TIMER/COUNTER Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other resets 0Bh,8Bh, INTCON GIE 10Bh,18Bh PEIE T0IE INTE RBIE T0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u 0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 11h TMR2 Timer2 module’s register 0000 0000 0000 0000 12h T2CON — TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000 92h PR2 Timer2 Period Register 1111 1111 1111 1111 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer2 module. Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16F873/874; always maintain these bits clear. DS30292B-page 56 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 8.0 CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM MODULES Each Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) module contains a 16-bit register which can operate as a: • 16-bit Capture register • 16-bit Compare register • PWM master/slave Duty Cycle register Both the CCP1 and CCP2 modules are identical in operation, with the exception being the operation of the special event trigger. Table 8-1 and Table 8-2 show the resources and interactions of the CCP module(s). In the following sections, the operation of a CCP module is described with respect to CCP1. CCP2 operates the same as CCP1, except where noted. CCP1 Module: Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (CCPR1) is comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR1L (low byte) and CCPR1H (high byte). The CCP1CON register controls the operation of CCP1. The special event trigger is generated by a compare match and will reset Timer1. CCP2 Module: Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (CCPR2) is comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR2L (low byte) and CCPR2H (high byte). The CCP2CON register controls the operation of CCP2. The special event trigger is generated by a compare match and will reset Timer1 and start an A/D conversion (if the A/D module is enabled). Additional information on CCP modules is available in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual (DS33023) and in Application Note 594, “Using the CCP Modules” (DS00594). TABLE 8-1: CCP MODE - TIMER RESOURCES REQUIRED CCP Mode Timer Resource Capture Compare PWM Timer1 Timer1 Timer2 TABLE 8-2: INTERACTION OF TWO CCP MODULES CCPx Mode CCPy Mode Interaction Capture Capture Compare PWM PWM PWM Capture Compare Compare PWM Capture Compare Same TMR1 time-base. The compare should be configured for the special event trigger, which clears TMR1. The compare(s) should be configured for the special event trigger, which clears TMR1. The PWMs will have the same frequency and update rate (TMR2 interrupt). None. None. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 57 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm REGISTER 8-1: CCP1CON REGISTER/CCP2CON REGISTER (ADDRESS: 17h/1dh) U-0 — bit7 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — CCPxX CCPxY CCPxM3 bit 7-6: Unimplemented: Read as ’0’ R/W-0 CCPxM2 R/W-0 CCPxM1 R/W-0 CCPxM0 bit0 R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n = Value at POR reset bit 5-4: CCPxX:CCPxY: PWM Least Significant bits Capture Mode: Unused Compare Mode: Unused PWM Mode: These bits are the two LSbs of the PWM duty cycle. The eight MSbs are found in CCPRxL. bit 3-0: CCPxM3:CCPxM0: CCPx Mode Select bits 0000 = Capture/Compare/PWM off (resets CCPx module) 0100 = Capture mode, every falling edge 0101 = Capture mode, every rising edge 0110 = Capture mode, every 4th rising edge 0111 = Capture mode, every 16th rising edge 1000 = Compare mode, set output on match (CCPxIF bit is set) 1001 = Compare mode, clear output on match (CCPxIF bit is set) 1010 = Compare mode, generate software interrupt on match (CCPxIF bit is set, CCPx pin is unaffected) 1011 = Compare mode, trigger special event (CCPxIF bit is set, CCPx pin is unaffected); CCP1 resets TMR1; CCP2 resets TMR1 and starts an A/D conversion (if A/D module is enabled) 11xx = PWM mode DS30292A-page 58 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 8.1 Capture Mode In Capture mode, CCPR1H:CCPR1L captures the 16-bit value of the TMR1 register when an event occurs on pin RC2/CCP1. An event is defined as: • Every falling edge • Every rising edge • Every 4th rising edge • Every 16th rising edge An event is selected by control bits CCP1M3:CCP1M0 (CCP1CON<3:0>). When a capture is made, the interrupt request flag bit CCP1IF (PIR1<2>) is set. The interrupt flag must be cleared in software. If another capture occurs before the value in register CCPR1 is read, the old captured value will be lost. 8.1.1 CCP PIN CONFIGURATION In Capture mode, the RC2/CCP1 pin should be configured as an input by setting the TRISC<2> bit. Note: If the RC2/CCP1 pin is configured as an output, a write to the port can cause a capture condition. FIGURE 8-1: CAPTURE MODE OPERATION BLOCK DIAGRAM RC2/CCP1 Pin Set flag bit CCP1IF Prescaler (PIR1<2>) ÷ 1, 4, 16 CCPR1H and edge detect Capture Enable CCP1CON<3:0> Q’s TMR1H CCPR1L TMR1L PIC16F87X 8.1.2 TIMER1 MODE SELECTION Timer1 must be running in timer mode or synchronized counter mode for the CCP module to use the capture feature. In asynchronous counter mode, the capture operation may not work. 8.1.3 SOFTWARE INTERRUPT When the capture mode is changed, a false capture interrupt may be generated. The user should keep bit CCP1IE (PIE1<2>) clear to avoid false interrupts and should clear the flag bit CCP1IF following any such change in operating mode. 8.1.4 CCP PRESCALER There are four prescaler settings, specified by bits CCP1M3:CCP1M0. Whenever the CCP module is turned off, or the CCP module is not in capture mode, the prescaler counter is cleared. Any reset will clear the prescaler counter. Switching from one capture prescaler to another may generate an interrupt. Also, the prescaler counter will not be cleared, therefore, the first capture may be from a non-zero prescaler. Example 8-1 shows the recommended method for switching between capture prescalers. This example also clears the prescaler counter and will not generate the “false” interrupt. EXAMPLE 8-1: CHANGING BETWEEN CAPTURE PRESCALERS CLRF CCP1CON ;Turn CCP module off MOVLW NEW_CAPT_PS ;Load the W reg with ; the new precscaler ; move value and CCP ON MOVWF CCP1CON ;Load CCP1CON with this ; value © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 59 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 8.2 Compare Mode In Compare mode, the 16-bit CCPR1 register value is constantly compared against the TMR1 register pair value. When a match occurs, the RC2/CCP1 pin is: • Driven high • Driven low • Remains unchanged The action on the pin is based on the value of control bits CCP1M3:CCP1M0 (CCP1CON<3:0>). At the same time, interrupt flag bit CCP1IF is set. FIGURE 8-2: COMPARE MODE OPERATION BLOCK DIAGRAM Special event trigger will: reset Timer1, but not set interrupt flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>), and set bit GO/DONE (ADCON0<2>). Special Event Trigger Set flag bit CCP1IF (PIR1<2>) CCPR1H CCPR1L Q RC2/CCP1 Pin TRISC<2> Output Enable S Output R Logic match CCP1CON<3:0> Mode Select Comparator TMR1H TMR1L 8.2.1 CCP PIN CONFIGURATION The user must configure the RC2/CCP1 pin as an output by clearing the TRISC<2> bit. Note: Clearing the CCP1CON register will force the RC2/CCP1 compare output latch to the default low level. This is not the data latch. 8.2.2 TIMER1 MODE SELECTION Timer1 must be running in Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode if the CCP module is using the compare feature. In Asynchronous Counter mode, the compare operation may not work. 8.2.3 SOFTWARE INTERRUPT MODE When Generate Software Interrupt mode is chosen, the CCP1 pin is not affected. The CCPIF bit is set causing a CCP interrupt (if enabled). 8.2.4 SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER In this mode, an internal hardware trigger is generated, which may be used to initiate an action. The special event trigger output of CCP1 resets the TMR1 register pair. This allows the CCPR1 register to effectively be a 16-bit programmable period register for Timer1. The special event trigger output of CCP2 resets the TMR1 register pair and starts an A/D conversion (if the A/D module is enabled). Note: The special event trigger from the CCP1and CCP2 modules will not set interrupt flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>). 8.3 PWM Mode (PWM) In pulse width modulation mode, the CCPx pin produces up to a 10-bit resolution PWM output. Since the CCP1 pin is multiplexed with the PORTC data latch, the TRISC<2> bit must be cleared to make the CCP1 pin an output. Note: Clearing the CCP1CON register will force the CCP1 PWM output latch to the default low level. This is not the PORTC I/O data latch. Figure 8-3 shows a simplified block diagram of the CCP module in PWM mode. For a step-by-step procedure on how to set up the CCP module for PWM operation, see Section 8.3.3. FIGURE 8-3: SIMPLIFIED PWM BLOCK DIAGRAM Duty Cycle Registers CCPR1L CCP1CON<5:4> CCPR1H (Slave) Comparator R TMR2 (Note 1) S Comparator PR2 Clear Timer, CCP1 pin and latch D.C. Q RC2/CCP1 TRISC<2> Note 1: 8-bit timer is concatenated with 2-bit internal Q clock or 2 bits of the prescaler to create 10-bit time-base. DS30292A-page 60 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com A PWM output (Figure 8-4) has a time-base (period) and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle). The frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period (1/period). FIGURE 8-4: PWM OUTPUT Period Duty Cycle TMR2 = PR2 TMR2 = Duty Cycle TMR2 = PR2 8.3.1 PWM PERIOD The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2 register. The PWM period can be calculated using the following formula: PWM period = [(PR2) + 1] • 4 • TOSC • (TMR2 prescale value) PWM frequency is defined as 1 / [PWM period]. When TMR2 is equal to PR2, the following three events occur on the next increment cycle: • TMR2 is cleared • The CCP1 pin is set (exception: if PWM duty cycle = 0%, the CCP1 pin will not be set) • The PWM duty cycle is latched from CCPR1L into CCPR1H Note: The Timer2 postscaler (see Section 8.1) is not used in the determination of the PWM frequency. The postscaler could be used to have a servo update rate at a different frequency than the PWM output. 8.3.2 PWM DUTY CYCLE The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the CCPR1L register and to the CCP1CON<5:4> bits. Up to 10-bit resolution is available. The CCPR1L contains the eight MSbs and the CCP1CON<5:4> contains the two LSbs. This 10-bit value is represented by CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>. The following equation is used to calculate the PWM duty cycle in time: PWM duty cycle = (CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>) • Tosc • (TMR2 prescale value) CCPR1L and CCP1CON<5:4> can be written to at any time, but the duty cycle value is not latched into CCPR1H until after a match between PR2 and TMR2 occurs (i.e., the period is complete). In PWM mode, CCPR1H is a read-only register. PIC16F87X The CCPR1H register and a 2-bit internal latch are used to double buffer the PWM duty cycle. This double buffering is essential for glitchless PWM operation. When the CCPR1H and 2-bit latch match TMR2 concatenated with an internal 2-bit Q clock or 2 bits of the TMR2 prescaler, the CCP1 pin is cleared. Maximum PWM resolution (bits) for a given PWM frequency: ( ) FOSC = Resolution log FPWM bits log(2) Note: If the PWM duty cycle value is longer than the PWM period, the CCP1 pin will not be cleared. 8.3.3 SET-UP FOR PWM OPERATION The following steps should be taken when configuring the CCP module for PWM operation: 1. Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2 register. 2. Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the CCPR1L register and CCP1CON<5:4> bits. 3. Make the CCP1 pin an output by clearing the TRISC<2> bit. 4. Set the TMR2 prescale value and enable Timer2 by writing to T2CON. 5. Configure the CCP1 module for PWM operation. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 61 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 8-3: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTURE, COMPARE, AND TIMER1 Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other resets 0Bh,8Bh, INTCON 10Bh,18Bh 0Ch PIR1 GIE PEIE PSPIF(1) ADIF T0IE RCIF INTE TXIF RBIE T0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 0Dh PIR2 — — — — — — — CCP2IF ---- ---0 ---- ---0 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 8Dh PIE2 — — — — — — — CCP2IE ---- ---0 ---- ---0 87h TRISC PORTC Data Direction Register 1111 1111 1111 1111 0Eh TMR1L Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 0Fh TMR1H Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 10h T1CON — — T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON --00 0000 --uu uuuu 15h CCPR1L Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (LSB) xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 16h CCPR1H Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (MSB) xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 17h CCP1CON — — CCP1X CCP1Y CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 --00 0000 --00 0000 1Bh CCPR2L Capture/Compare/PWM register2 (LSB) xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 1Ch CCPR2H Capture/Compare/PWM register2 (MSB) xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 1Dh CCP2CON — — CCP2X CCP2Y CCP2M3 CCP2M2 CCP2M1 CCP2M0 --00 0000 --00 0000 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as ’0’. Shaded cells are not used by Capture and Timer1. Note 1: The PSP is not implemented on the PIC16F873/876; always maintain these bits clear. TABLE 8-4: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PWM AND TIMER2 Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other resets 0Bh,8Bh, INTCON 10Bh,18Bh 0Ch PIR1 GIE PSPIF(1) PEIE ADIF T0IE RCIF INTE RBIE T0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 0Dh PIR2 — — — — — — — CCP2IF ---- ---0 ---- ---0 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 8Dh PIE2 — — — — — — — CCP2IE ---- ---0 ---- ---0 87h TRISC PORTC Data Direction Register 1111 1111 1111 1111 11h TMR2 Timer2 module’s register 0000 0000 0000 0000 92h PR2 Timer2 module’s period register 1111 1111 1111 1111 12h T2CON — TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000 15h CCPR1L Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (LSB) xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 16h CCPR1H Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (MSB) xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 17h CCP1CON — — CCP1X CCP1Y CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 --00 0000 --00 0000 1Bh CCPR2L Capture/Compare/PWM register2 (LSB) xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 1Ch CCPR2H Capture/Compare/PWM register2 (MSB) xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 1Dh CCP2CON — — CCP2X CCP2Y CCP2M3 CCP2M2 CCP2M1 CCP2M0 --00 0000 --00 0000 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by PWM and Timer2. Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16F873/876; always maintain these bits clear. DS30292A-page 62 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 9.0 MASTER SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL PORT (MSSP) MODULE The Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) module is a serial interface useful for communicating with other peripheral or microcontroller devices. These peripheral devices may be serial EEPROMs, shift registers, display drivers, A/D converters, etc. The MSSP module can operate in one of two modes: • Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) • Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) Figure 9-1 shows a block diagram for the SPI mode, while Figure 9-5 and Figure 9-9 show the block diagrams for the two different I2C modes of operation. PIC16F87X © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 63 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm REGISTER 9-1: SSPSTAT: SYNC SERIAL PORT STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS: 94h) R/W-0 SMP bit7 bit 7: bit 6: bit 5: bit 4: bit 3: bit 2: bit 1: bit 0: R/W-0 R-0 R-0 R-0 R-0 R-0 R-0 CKE D/A P S R/W UA BF R = Readable bit bit0 W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n = Value at POR reset SMP: Sample bit SPI Master Mode 1 = Input data sampled at end of data output time 0 = Input data sampled at middle of data output time SPI Slave Mode SMP must be cleared when SPI is used in slave mode In I2C master or slave mode: 1= Slew rate control disabled for standard speed mode (100 kHz and 1 MHz) 0= Slew rate control enabled for high speed mode (400 kHz) CKE: SPI Clock Edge Select (Figure 9-4, Figure 9-5 and Figure 9-6) SPI Mode: CKP = 0 1 = Transmit happens on transistion from active clock state to idle clock state 0 = Transmit happens on transistion from idle clock state to active clock state CKP = 1 1 = Data transmitted on falling edge of SCK 0 = Data transmitted on rising edge of SCK In I2C Master or Slave Mode: 1 = Input levels conform to SMBUS spec 0 = Input levels conform to I2C specs D/A: Data/Address bit (I2C mode only) 1 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was data 0 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was address P: Stop bit (I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the MSSP module is disabled, SSPEN is cleared) 1 = Indicates that a stop bit has been detected last (this bit is '0' on RESET) 0 = Stop bit was not detected last S: Start bit (I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the MSSP module is disabled, SSPEN is cleared) 1 = Indicates that a start bit has been detected last (this bit is '0' on RESET) 0 = Start bit was not detected last R/W: Read/Write bit information (I2C mode only) This bit holds the R/W bit information following the last address match. This bit is only valid from the address match to the next start bit, stop bit or not ACK bit. In I2C slave mode: 1 = Read 0 = Write In I2C master mode: 1 = Transmit is in progress 0 = Transmit is not in progress. Or’ing this bit with SEN, RSEN, PEN, RCEN or ACKEN will indicate if the MSSP is in IDLE mode. UA: Update Address (10-bit I2C mode only) 1 = Indicates that the user needs to update the address in the SSPADD register 0 = Address does not need to be updated BF: Buffer Full Status bit Receive (SPI and I2C modes) 1 = Receive complete, SSPBUF is full 0 = Receive not complete, SSPBUF is empty Transmit (I2C mode only) 1 = Data Transmit in progress (does not include the ACK and stop bits), SSPBUF is full 0 = Data Transmit complete (does not include the ACK and stop bits), SSPBUF is empty DS30292A-page 64 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X REGISTER 9-2: SSPCON: SYNC SERIAL PORT CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 14h) R/W-0 WCOL bit7 R/W-0 SSPOV R/W-0 SSPEN R/W-0 CKP R/W-0 SSPM3 R/W-0 SSPM2 R/W-0 SSPM1 R/W-0 SSPM0 bit0 R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n = Value at POR reset bit 7: WCOL: Write Collision Detect bit Master Mode: 1 = A write to SSPBUF was attempted while the I2C conditions were not valid 0 = No collision Slave Mode: 1 = SSPBUF register is written while still transmitting the previous word (must be cleared in software) 0 = No collision bit 6: SSPOV: Receive Overflow Indicator bit In SPI mode 1 = A new byte is received while SSPBUF holds previous data. Data in SSPSR is lost on overflow. . In slave mode the user must read the SSPBUF, even if only transmitting data, to avoid overflows. In master mode the overflow bit is not set since each operation is initiated by writing to the SSPBUF register. (Must be cleared in software). 0 = No overflow In I2C mode 1 = A byte is received while the SSPBUF is holding the previous byte. SSPOV is a "don’t care" in transmit mode. (Must be cleared in software). 0 = No overflow bit 5: SSPEN: Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit In SPI mode, when enabled, these pins must be properly configured as input or output. 1 = Enables serial port and configures SCK, SDO, SDI, and SS as the source of the serial port pins 0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins In I2C mode, when enabled, these pins must be properly configured as input or output. 1 = Enables the serial port and configures the SDA and SCL pins as the source of the serial port pins 0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins bit 4: CKP: Clock Polarity Select bit In SPI mode 1 = Idle state for clock is a high level 0 = Idle state for clock is a low level In I2C slave mode, SCK release control 1 = Enable clock 0 = Holds clock low (clock stretch) (Used to ensure data setup time) In I2C master mode Unused in this mode bit 3-0: SSPM3:SSPM0: Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits 0000 = SPI master mode, clock = FOSC/4 0001 = SPI master mode, clock = FOSC/16 0010 = SPI master mode, clock = FOSC/64 0011 = SPI master mode, clock = TMR2 output/2 0100 = SPI slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control enabled. 0101 = SPI slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control disabled. SS can be used as I/O pin 0110 = I2C slave mode, 7-bit address 0111 = I2C slave mode, 10-bit address 1000 = I2C master mode, clock = FOSC / (4 * (SSPADD+1) ) 1011 = I2C firmware controlled master mode (slave idle) 1110 = I2C firmware controlled master mode, 7-bit address with start and stop bit interrupts enabled 1111 = I2C firmware controlled master mode, 10-bit address with start and stop bit interrupts enabled. 1001, 1010, 1100, 1101 = reserved © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 65 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm REGISTER 9-3: SSPCON2: SYNC SERIAL PORT CONTROL REGISTER2 (ADDRESS 91h) R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 GCEN bit7 bit 7: ACKSTAT ACKDT ACKEN RCEN PEN RSEN SEN bit0 R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, Read as ‘0’ - n =Value at POR reset GCEN: General Call Enable bit (In I2C slave mode only) 1 = Enable interrupt when a general call address (0000h) is received in the SSPSR. 0 = General call address disabled. bit 6: ACKSTAT: Acknowledge Status bit (In I2C master mode only) In master transmit mode: 1 = Acknowledge was not received from slave 0 = Acknowledge was received from slave bit 5: ACKDT: Acknowledge Data bit (In I2C master mode only) In master receive mode: Value that will be transmitted when the user initiates an Acknowledge sequence at the end of a receive. 1 = Not Acknowledge 0 = Acknowledge bit 4: ACKEN: Acknowledge Sequence Enable bit (In I2C master mode only). In master receive mode: 1 = Initiate Acknowledge sequence on SDA and SCL pins, and transmit ACKDT data bit. Automatically cleared by hardware. 0 = Acknowledge sequence idle bit 3: RCEN: Receive Enable bit (In I2C master mode only). 1 = Enables Receive mode for I2C 0 = Receive idle bit 2: PEN: Stop Condition Enable bit (In I2C master mode only). SCK release control 1 = Initiate Stop condition on SDA and SCL pins. Automatically cleared by hardware. 0 = Stop condition idle bit 1: RSEN: Repeated Start Condition Enabled bit (In I2C master mode only) 1 = Initiate Repeated Start condition on SDA and SCL pins. Automatically cleared by hardware. 0 = Repeated Start condition idle. bit 0: SEN: Start Condition Enabled bit (In I2C master mode only) 1 = Initiate Start condition on SDA and SCL pins. Automatically cleared by hardware. 0 = Start condition idle. Note: For bits ACKEN, RCEN, PEN, RSEN, SEN: If the I2C module is not in the idle mode, this bit may not be set (no spooling), and the SSPBUF may not be written (or writes to the SSPBUF are disabled). DS30292A-page 66 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 9.1 SPI Mode The SPI mode allows 8 bits of data to be synchronously transmitted and received simultaneously. All four modes of SPI are supported. To accomplish communication, typically three pins are used: • Serial Data Out (SDO) • Serial Data In (SDI) • Serial Clock (SCK) Additionally, a fourth pin may be used when in a slave mode of operation: • Slave Select (SS) When initializing the SPI, several options need to be specified. This is done by programming the appropriate control bits (SSPCON<5:0> and SSPSTAT<7:6>). These control bits allow the following to be specified: • Master Mode (SCK is the clock output) • Slave Mode (SCK is the clock input) • Clock Polarity (Idle state of SCK) • Data input sample phase (middle or end of data output time) • Clock edge (output data on rising/falling edge of SCK) • Clock Rate (Master mode only) • Slave Select Mode (Slave mode only) Figure 9-4 shows the block diagram of the MSSP module when in SPI mode. PIC16F87X FIGURE 9-1: MSSP BLOCK DIAGRAM (SPI MODE) Internal Data Bus Read Write SSPBUF reg SDI SDO SSPSR reg bit0 Shift Clock SS SCK SS Control Enable Edge Select 2 Clock Select SSPM3:SSPM0 SMP:CKE 4 2 TMR2 output 2 Edge Select Prescaler TOSC 4, 16, 64 Data to TX/RX in SSPSR Data direction bit To enable the serial port, MSSP Enable bit, SSPEN (SSPCON<5>) must be set. To reset or reconfigure SPI mode, clear bit SSPEN, re-initialize the SSPCON registers, and then set bit SSPEN. This configures the SDI, SDO, SCK and SS pins as serial port pins. For the pins to behave as the serial port function, some must have their data direction bits (in the TRIS register) appropriately programmed. That is: • SDI is automatically controlled by the SPI module • SDO must have TRISC<5> cleared • SCK (Master mode) must have TRISC<3> cleared • SCK (Slave mode) must have TRISC<3> set • SS must have TRISA<5> set Any serial port function that is not desired may be overridden by programming the corresponding data direction (TRIS) register to the opposite value. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 67 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 9.1.1 MASTER MODE The master can initiate the data transfer at any time because it controls the SCK. The master determines when the slave (Processor 2, Figure 9-5) is to broadcast data by the software protocol. In master mode, the data is transmitted/received as soon as the SSPBUF register is written to. If the SPI module is only going to receive, the SDO output could be disabled (programmed as an input). The SSPSR register will continue to shift in the signal present on the SDI pin at the programmed clock rate. As each byte is received, it will be loaded into the SSPBUF register as if a normal received byte (interrupts and status bits appropriately set). This could be useful in receiver applications as a “line activity monitor”. The clock polarity is selected by appropriately programming bit CKP (SSPCON<4>). This then would give waveforms for SPI communication as shown in Figure 9-6, Figure 9-8 and Figure 9-9 where the MSb is transmitted first. In master mode, the SPI clock rate (bit rate) is user programmable to be one of the following: • FOSC/4 (or TCY) • FOSC/16 (or 4 • TCY) • FOSC/64 (or 16 • TCY) • Timer2 output/2 This allows a maximum bit clock frequency (at 20 MHz) of 5.0 MHz. Figure 9-6 shows the waveforms for Master mode. When CKE = 1, the SDO data is valid before there is a clock edge on SCK. The change of the input sample is shown based on the state of the SMP bit. The time when the SSPBUF is loaded with the received data is shown. FIGURE 9-2: SPI MODE TIMING, MASTER MODE SCK (CKP = 0, CKE = 0) SCK (CKP = 0, CKE = 1) SCK (CKP = 1, CKE = 0) SCK (CKP = 1, CKE = 1) SDO bit7 bit6 bit5 bit4 bit3 bit2 bit1 bit0 SDI (SMP = 0) SDI (SMP = 1) SSPIF bit7 bit7 bit0 bit0 DS30292A-page 68 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 9.1.2 SLAVE MODE In slave mode, the data is transmitted and received as the external clock pulses appear on SCK. When the last bit is latched, the interrupt flag bit SSPIF (PIR1<3>) is set. While in slave mode, the external clock is supplied by the external clock source on the SCK pin. This external clock must meet the minimum high and low times as specified in the electrical specifications. While in sleep mode, the slave can transmit/receive data. When a byte is received, the device will wake-up from sleep. Note: Note: When the SPI module is in Slave Mode with SS pin control enabled, (SSPCON<3:0> = 0100) the SPI module will reset if the SS pin is set to VDD. If the SPI is used in Slave Mode with CKE = ’1’, then SS pin control must be enabled. FIGURE 9-3: SPI MODE TIMING (SLAVE MODE WITH CKE = 0) SS (optional) SCK (CKP = 0) SCK (CKP = 1) SDO SDI (SMP = 0) SSPIF bit7 bit6 bit5 bit4 bit3 bit2 bit1 bit0 bit7 bit0 FIGURE 9-4: SPI MODE TIMING (SLAVE MODE WITH CKE = 1) SS SCK (CKP = 0) SCK (CKP = 1) SDO SDI (SMP = 0) SSPIF bit7 bit6 bit5 bit4 bit3 bit2 bit1 bit0 bit7 bit0 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 69 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 9-1 REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SPI OPERATION Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 POR, BOR MCLR, WDT 0Bh, 8Bh, 10Bh,18Bh 0Ch 8Ch INTCON PIR1 PIE1 GIE PSPIF(1) PSPIE(1) PEIE ADIF ADIE T0IE INTE RBIE T0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u RCIF RCIE TXIF TXIE SSPIF SSPIE CCP1IF CCP1IE TMR2IF TMR2IE TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 13h SSPBUF Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 14h SSPCON WCOL SSPOV SSPEN CKP SSPM3 SSPM2 SSPM1 SSPM0 0000 0000 0000 0000 94h SSPSTAT SMP CKE D/A P S R/W UA BF 0000 0000 0000 0000 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as ’0’. Shaded cells are not used by the SSP in SPI mode. Note 1: These bits are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. DS30292A-page 70 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 9.2 MSSP I2C Operation The MSSP module in I2C mode fully implements all master and slave functions (including general call support) and provides interrupts-on-start and stop bits in hardware to determine a free bus (multi-master function). The MSSP module implements the standard mode specifications, as well as 7-bit and 10-bit addressing. Refer to Application Note AN578, "Use of the SSP Module in the I 2C Multi-Master Environment." A "glitch" filter is on the SCL and SDA pins when the pin is an input. This filter operates in both the 100 kHz and 400 kHz modes. In the 100 kHz mode, when these pins are an output, there is a slew rate control of the pin that is independant of device frequency. FIGURE 9-5: I2C SLAVE MODE BLOCK DIAGRAM Internal Data Bus Read Write SCL SDA SSPBUF reg Shift Clock SSPSR reg MSb LSb Match detect Addr Match SSPADD reg Start and Stop bit detect Set, Reset S, P bits (SSPSTAT reg) PIC16F87X Two pins are used for data transfer. These are the SCL pin, which is the clock, and the SDA pin, which is the data. The SDA and SCL pins are automatically configured when the I2C mode is enabled. The SSP module functions are enabled by setting SSP Enable bit SSPEN (SSPCON<5>). The MSSP module has six registers for I2C operation. They are the: • SSP Control Register (SSPCON) • SSP Control Register2 (SSPCON2) • SSP Status Register (SSPSTAT) • Serial Receive/Transmit Buffer (SSPBUF) • SSP Shift Register (SSPSR) - Not directly acces- sible • SSP Address Register (SSPADD) The SSPCON register allows control of the I2C operation. Four mode selection bits (SSPCON<3:0>) allow one of the following I2C modes to be selected: • I2C Slave mode (7-bit address) • I2C Slave mode (10-bit address) • I2C Master mode, clock = OSC/4 (SSPADD +1) Before selecting any I2C mode, the SCL and SDA pins must be programmed to inputs by setting the appropriate TRIS bits. Selecting an I2C mode, by setting the SSPEN bit, enables the SCL and SDA pins to be used as the clock and data lines in I2C mode. The CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6:7>) sets the levels of the SDA and SCL pins in either master or slave mode. When CKE = 1, the levels will conform to the SMBUS specification. When CKE = 0, the levels will conform to the I2C specification. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 71 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm The SSPSTAT register gives the status of the data transfer. This information includes detection of a START (S) or STOP (P) bit, specifies if the received byte was data or address, if the next byte is the completion of 10-bit address, and if this will be a read or write data transfer. SSPBUF is the register to which the transfer data is written to or read from. The SSPSR register shifts the data in or out of the device. In receive operations, the SSPBUF and SSPSR create a doubled buffered receiver. This allows reception of the next byte to begin before reading the last byte of received data. When the complete byte is received, it is transferred to the SSPBUF register and flag bit SSPIF is set. If another complete byte is received before the SSPBUF register is read, a receiver overflow has occurred and bit SSPOV (SSPCON<6>) is set and the byte in the SSPSR is lost. The SSPADD register holds the slave address. In 10-bit mode, the user needs to write the high byte of the address (1111 0 A9 A8 0). Following the high byte address match, the low byte of the address needs to be loaded (A7:A0). 9.2.1 SLAVE MODE In slave mode, the SCL and SDA pins must be configured as inputs. The MSSP module will override the input state with the output data when required (slavetransmitter). When an address is matched or the data transfer after an address match is received, the hardware automatically will generate the acknowledge (ACK) pulse, and then load the SSPBUF register with the received value currently in the SSPSR register. There are certain conditions that will cause the MSSP module not to give this ACK pulse. These are if either (or both): a) The buffer full bit BF (SSPSTAT<0>) was set before the transfer was received. b) The overflow bit SSPOV (SSPCON<6>) was set before the transfer was received. If the BF bit is set, the SSPSR register value is not loaded into the SSPBUF, but bit SSPIF and SSPOV are set. Table 9-2 shows what happens when a data transfer byte is received, given the status of bits BF and SSPOV. The shaded cells show the condition where user software did not properly clear the overflow condition. Flag bit BF is cleared by reading the SSPBUF register, while bit SSPOV is cleared through software. The SCL clock input must have a minimum high and low time for proper operation. The high and low times of the I2C specification, as well as the requirement of the MSSP module, is shown in timing parameter #100 and parameter #101 of the electrical specifications. 9.2.1.1 ADDRESSING Once the MSSP module has been enabled, it waits for a START condition to occur. Following the START condition, the 8-bits are shifted into the SSPSR register. All incoming bits are sampled with the rising edge of the clock (SCL) line. The value of register SSPSR<7:1> is compared to the value of the SSPADD register. The address is compared on the falling edge of the eighth clock (SCL) pulse. If the addresses match, and the BF and SSPOV bits are clear, the following events occur: a) The SSPSR register value is loaded into the SSPBUF register on the falling edge of the 8th SCL pulse. b) The buffer full bit, BF, is set on the falling edge of the 8th SCL pulse. c) An ACK pulse is generated. d) SSP interrupt flag bit, SSPIF (PIR1<3>), is set (interrupt is generated if enabled) on the falling edge of the 9th SCL pulse. In 10-bit address mode, two address bytes need to be received by the slave. The five Most Significant bits (MSbs) of the first address byte specify if this is a 10-bit address. Bit R/W (SSPSTAT<2>) must specify a write so the slave device will receive the second address byte. For a 10-bit address the first byte would equal ‘1111 0 A9 A8 0’, where A9 and A8 are the two MSbs of the address. The sequence of events for a 10-bit address is as follows, with steps 7- 9 for slave-transmitter: 1. Receive first (high) byte of Address (bits SSPIF, BF and UA (SSPSTAT<1>) are set). 2. Update the SSPADD register with the second (low) byte of Address (clears bit UA and releases the SCL line). 3. Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and clear flag bit SSPIF. 4. Receive second (low) byte of Address (bits SSPIF, BF and UA are set). 5. Update the SSPADD register with the first (high) byte of Address. This will clear bit UA and release the SCL line. 6. Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and clear flag bit SSPIF. 7. Receive Repeated Start condition. 8. Receive first (high) byte of Address (bits SSPIF and BF are set). 9. Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and clear flag bit SSPIF. Note: Following the Repeated Start condition (step 7) in 10-bit mode, the user only needs to match the first 7-bit address. The user does not update the SSPADD for the second half of the address. DS30292A-page 72 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 9.2.1.2 SLAVE RECEPTION When the R/W bit of the address byte is clear and an address match occurs, the R/W bit of the SSPSTAT register is cleared. The received address is loaded into the SSPBUF register. When the address byte overflow condition exists, then no acknowledge (ACK) pulse is given. An overflow condition is defined as either bit BF (SSPSTAT<0>) is set or bit SSPOV (SSPCON<6>) is set. An SSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer byte. Flag bit SSPIF (PIR1<3>) must be cleared in software. The SSPSTAT register is used to determine the status of the received byte. Note: The SSPBUF will be loaded if the SSPOV bit is set and the BF flag is cleared. If a read of the SSPBUF was performed, but the user did not clear the state of the SSPOV bit before the next receive occurred, the ACK is not sent and the SSPBUF is updated. TABLE 9-2 DATA TRANSFER RECEIVED BYTE ACTIONS Status Bits as Data Transfer is Received BF SSPOV SSPSR → SSPBUF Generate ACK Pulse Set bit SSPIF (SSP Interrupt occurs if enabled) 0 0 Yes Yes Yes 1 0 No No Yes 1 1 No No Yes 0 1 Yes No Yes Note 1: Shaded cells show the conditions where the user software did not properly clear the overflow condition. 9.2.1.3 SLAVE TRANSMISSION When the R/W bit of the incoming address byte is set and an address match occurs, the R/W bit of the SSPSTAT register is set. The received address is loaded into the SSPBUF register. The ACK pulse will be sent on the ninth bit, and the SCL pin is held low. The transmit data must be loaded into the SSPBUF register, which also loads the SSPSR register. Then the SCL pin should be enabled by setting bit CKP (SSPCON<4>). The master must monitor the SCL pin prior to asserting another clock pulse. The slave devices may be holding off the master by stretching the clock. The eight data bits are shifted out on the falling edge of the SCL input. This ensures that the SDA signal is valid during the SCL high time (Figure 9-7). An SSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer byte. The SSPIF flag bit must be cleared in software and the SSPSTAT register is used to determine the status of the byte transfer. The SSPIF flag bit is set on the falling edge of the ninth clock pulse. As a slave-transmitter, the ACK pulse from the master receiver is latched on the rising edge of the ninth SCL input pulse. If the SDA line is high (not ACK), then the data transfer is complete. When the not ACK is latched by the slave, the slave logic is reset and the slave then monitors for another occurrence of the START bit. If the SDA line was low (ACK), the transmit data must be loaded into the SSPBUF register, which also loads the SSPSR register. Then the SCL pin should be enabled by setting the CKP bit. FIGURE 9-6: I2C WAVEFORMS FOR RECEPTION (7-BIT ADDRESS) SDA Receiving Address R/W=0 ACK Receiving Data ACK Receiving Data Not ACK A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 SCL S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 P SSPIF BF (SSPSTAT<0>) SSPOV (SSPCON<6>) Cleared in software SSPBUF register is read Bit SSPOV is set because the SSPBUF register is still full. ACK is not sent. Bus Master terminates transfer © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 73 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 9-7: I2C WAVEFORMS FOR TRANSMISSION (7-BIT ADDRESS) SDA Receiving Address R/W = 1 ACK A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 R/W = 0 Transmitting Data Not ACK D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 SCL S 1 23456789 1 2 34 56 789 Data in SCL held low P sampled while CPU responds to SSPIF SSPIF BF (SSPSTAT<0>) cleared in software From SSP interrupt SSPBUF is written in software service routine CKP (SSPCON<4>) Set bit after writing to SSPBUF (the SSPBUF must be written-to before the CKP bit can be set) 9.2.2 GENERAL CALL ADDRESS SUPPORT The addressing procedure for the I2C bus is such that the first byte after the START condition usually determines which device will be the slave addressed by the master. The exception is the general call address, which can address all devices. When this address is used, all devices should, in theory, respond with an acknowledge. The general call address is one of eight addresses reserved for specific purposes by the I2C protocol. It consists of all 0’s with R/W = 0 The general call address is recognized when the General Call Enable bit (GCEN) is enabled (SSPCON2<7> is set). Following a start-bit detect, 8-bits are shifted into SSPSR and the address is compared against SSPADD. It is also compared to the general call address and fixed in hardware. If the general call address matches, the SSPSR is transferred to the SSPBUF, the BF flag is set (eighth bit), and on the falling edge of the ninth bit (ACK bit), the SSPIF flag is set. When the interrupt is serviced, the source for the interrupt can be checked by reading the contents of the SSPBUF to determine if the address was device specific or a general call address. In 10-bit mode, the SSPADD is required to be updated for the second half of the address to match, and the UA bit is set (SSPSTAT<1>). If the general call address is sampled when GCEN is set while the slave is configured in 10-bit address mode, then the second half of the address is not necessary, the UA bit will not be set, and the slave will begin receiving data after the acknowledge (Figure 9-8). FIGURE 9-8: SLAVE MODE GENERAL CALL ADDRESS SEQUENCE (7 OR 10-BIT MODE) SDA SCL S SSPIF BF (SSPSTAT<0>) SSPOV (SSPCON<6>) GCEN (SSPCON2<7>) General Call Address Address is compared to General Call Address after ACK, set interrupt flag R/W = 0 Receiving data ACK ACK D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 1 2 34 5 6 78 91 2 34 5 6 78 9 Cleared in software SSPBUF is read ’0’ ’1’ DS30292A-page 74 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 9.2.3 SLEEP OPERATION 9.2.4 EFFECTS OF A RESET While in sleep mode, the I2C module can receive addresses or data. When an address match or complete byte transfer occurs, wake the processor from sleep (if the SSP interrupt is enabled). A reset disables the SSP module and terminates the current transfer. TABLE 9-3 REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH I2C OPERATION Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 POR, BOR MCLR, WDT 0Bh, 8Bh, 10Bh,18Bh 0Ch 8Ch INTCON PIR1 PIE1 GIE PSPIF(1) PSPIE(1) PEIE ADIF ADIE T0IE RCIF RCIE INTE TXIF TXIE RBIE T0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u SSPIF SSPIE CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 0Dh PIR2 — (2) — EEIF BCLIF — — CCP2IF -r-0 0--0 -r-0 0--0 8Dh PIE2 — (2) — EEIE BCLIE — — CCP2IE -r-0 0--0 -r-0 0--0 13h SSPBUF Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu 14h SSPCON WCOL SSPOV SSPEN CKP SSPM3 SSPM2 SSPM1 SSPM0 0000 0000 0000 0000 91h SSPCON2 GCEN ACKSTAT ACKDT ACKEN RCEN PEN RSEN SEN 0000 0000 0000 0000 94h SSPSTAT SMP CKE D/A P S R/W UA BF 0000 0000 0000 0000 Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as ’0’. Shaded cells are not used by the SSP in I2C mode. Note 1: These bits are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. 2: These bits are reserved on these devices; always maintain these bits clear. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 75 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 9.2.5 MASTER MODE Master mode of operation is supported by interrupt generation on the detection of the START and STOP conditions. The STOP (P) and START (S) bits are cleared from a reset or when the MSSP module is disabled. Control of the I2C bus may be TACKEN when the P bit is set, or the bus is idle with both the S and P bits clear. In master mode, the SCL and SDA lines are manipulated by the MSSP hardware. The following events will cause the SSP Interrupt Flag bit, SSPIF, to be set (SSP Interrupt if enabled): • START condition • STOP condition • Data transfer byte transmitted/received • Acknowledge transmit • Repeated Start FIGURE 9-9: SSP BLOCK DIAGRAM (I2C MASTER MODE) SDA SDA in Read Internal Data Bus Write SSPBUF SSPSR MSb Shift Clock LSb SSPM3:SSPM0, SSPADD<6:0> Baud Rate Generator SCL Start bit, Stop bit, Acknowledge Generate Receive Enable clock cntl clock arbitrate/WCOL detect (hold off clock source) SCL in Bus Collision Start bit detect, Stop bit detect Write collision detect Clock Arbitration State counter for end of XMIT/RCV Set/Reset, S, P, WCOL (SSPSTAT) Set SSPIF, BCLIF Reset ACKSTAT, PEN (SSPCON2) DS30292A-page 76 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 9.2.6 MULTI-MASTER MODE In multi-master mode, the interrupt generation on the detection of the START and STOP conditions allows the determination of when the bus is free. The STOP (P) and START (S) bits are cleared from a reset or when the MSSP module is disabled. Control of the I2C bus may be taken when bit P (SSPSTAT<4>) is set, or the bus is idle with both the S and P bits clear. When the bus is busy, enabling the SSP Interrupt will generate the interrupt when the STOP condition occurs. In multi-master operation, the SDA line must be monitored for abitration to see if the signal level is the expected output level. This check is performed in hardware, with the result placed in the BCLIF bit. The states where arbitration can be lost are: • Address Transfer • Data Transfer • A Start Condition • A Repeated Start Condition • An Acknowledge Condition 9.2.7 I2C MASTER MODE SUPPORT Master Mode is enabled by setting and clearing the appropriate SSPM bits in SSPCON and by setting the SSPEN bit. Once master mode is enabled, the user has six options. - Assert a start condition on SDA and SCL. - Assert a Repeated Start condition on SDA and SCL. - Write to the SSPBUF register initiating trans- mission of data/address. - Generate a stop condition on SDA and SCL. - Configure the I2C port to receive data. - Generate an Acknowledge condition at the end of a received byte of data. Note: The MSSP Module, when configured in I2C Master Mode, does not allow queueing of events. For instance, the user is not allowed to initiate a start condition and immediately write the SSPBUF register to initiate transmission before the START condition is complete. In this case, the SSPBUF will not be written to and the WCOL bit will be set, indicating that a write to the SSPBUF did not occur. PIC16F87X 9.2.7.1 I2C MASTER MODE OPERATION The master device generates all of the serial clock pulses and the START and STOP conditions. A transfer is ended with a STOP condition or with a Repeated Start condition. Since the Repeated Start condition is also the beginning of the next serial transfer, the I2C bus will not be released. In Master Transmitter mode serial data is output through SDA, while SCL outputs the serial clock. The first byte transmitted contains the slave address of the receiving device (7 bits) and the Read/Write (R/W) bit. In this case, the R/W bit will be logic '0'. Serial data is transmitted 8 bits at a time. After each byte is transmitted, an acknowledge bit is received. START and STOP conditions are output to indicate the beginning and the end of a serial transfer. In Master receive mode, the first byte transmitted contains the slave address of the transmitting device (7 bits) and the R/W bit. In this case, the R/W bit will be logic '1'. Thus the first byte transmitted is a 7-bit slave address followed by a '1' to indicate receive bit. Serial data is received via SDA, while SCL outputs the serial clock. Serial data is received 8 bits at a time. After each byte is received, an acknowledge bit is transmitted. START and STOP conditions indicate the beginning and end of transmission. The baud rate generator used for SPI mode operation is now used to set the SCL clock frequency for either 100 kHz, 400 kHz or 1 MHz I2C operation. The baud rate generator reload value is contained in the lower 7 bits of the SSPADD register. The baud rate generator will automatically begin counting on a write to the SSPBUF. Once the given operation is complete (i.e. transmission of the last data bit is followed by ACK) the internal clock will automatically stop counting and the SCL pin will remain in its last state A typical transmit sequence would go as follows: a) The user generates a Start Condition by setting the START enable bit (SEN) in SSPCON2. b) SSPIF is set. The module will wait the required start time before any other operation takes place. c) The user loads the SSPBUF with address to transmit. d) Address is shifted out the SDA pin until all 8 bits are transmitted. e) The MSSP Module shifts in the ACK bit from the slave device and writes its value into the SSPCON2 register ( SSPCON2<6>). f) The module generates an interrupt at the end of the ninth clock cycle by setting SSPIF. g) The user loads the SSPBUF with eight bits of data. h) DATA is shifted out the SDA pin until all 8 bits are transmitted. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 77 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm i) The MSSP module shifts in the ACK bit from the slave device, and writes its value into the SSPCON2 register ( SSPCON2<6>). j) The MSSP module generates an interrupt at the end of the ninth clock cycle by setting the SSPIF bit. k) The user generates a STOP condition by setting the STOP enable bit PEN in SSPCON2. l) Interrupt is generated once the STOP condition is complete. 9.2.8 BAUD RATE GENERATOR In I2C master mode, the reload value for the BRG is located in the lower 7 bits of the SSPADD register (Figure 9-10). When the BRG is loaded with this value, the BRG counts down to 0 and stops until another reload has taken place. The BRG count is decremented twice per instruction cycle (TCY), on the Q2 and Q4 clock. In I2C master mode, the BRG is reloaded automatically. If Clock Arbitration is taking place for instance, the BRG will be reloaded when the SCL pin is sampled high (Figure 9-11). FIGURE 9-10: BAUD RATE GENERATOR BLOCK DIAGRAM SSPM3:SSPM0 SSPADD<6:0> SSPM3:SSPM0 SCL Reload Reload Control CLKOUT FOSC/4 BRG Down Counter FIGURE 9-11: BAUD RATE GENERATOR TIMING WITH CLOCK ARBITRATION SDA SCL BRG value BRG reload DX DX-1 SCL deasserted but slave holds SCL low (clock arbitration) SCL allowed to transition high BRG decrements (on Q2 and Q4 cycles) 03h 02h 01h 00h (hold off) 03h 02h SCL is sampled high, reload takes place, and BRG starts its count. DS30292A-page 78 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 9.2.9 I2C MASTER MODE START CONDITION TIMING To initiate a START condition, the user sets the start condition enable bit, SEN (SSPCON2<0>). If the SDA and SCL pins are sampled high, the baud rate generator is re-loaded with the contents of SSPADD<6:0> and starts its count. If SCL and SDA are both sampled high when the baud rate generator times out (TBRG), the SDA pin is driven low. The action of the SDA being driven low while SCL is high is the START condition, and causes the S bit (SSPSTAT<3>) to be set. Following this, the baud rate generator is reloaded with the contents of SSPADD<6:0> and resumes its count. When the baud rate generator times out (TBRG), the SEN bit (SSPCON2<0>) will be automatically cleared by hardware. The baud rate generator is suspended leaving the SDA line held low, and the START condition is complete. FIGURE 9-12: FIRST START BIT TIMING Note: If at the beginning of START condition the SDA and SCL pins are already sampled low, or if during the START condition the SCL line is sampled low before the SDA line is driven low, a bus collision occurs, the Bus Collision Interrupt Flag (BCLIF) is set, the START condition is aborted, and the I2C module is reset into its IDLE state. 9.2.9.1 WCOL STATUS FLAG If the user writes the SSPBUF when an START sequence is in progress, then WCOL is set and the contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur). Note: Because queueing of events is not allowed, writing to the lower 5 bits of SSPCON2 is disabled until the START condition is complete. Write to SEN bit occurs here. SDA = 1, SCL = 1 TBRG Set S bit (SSPSTAT<3>) At completion of start bit, Hardware clears SEN bit and sets SSPIF bit TBRG Write to SSPBUF occurs here SDA 1st Bit TBRG 2nd Bit SCL TBRG S © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 79 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 9.2.10 I2C MASTER MODE REPEATED START CONDITION TIMING A Repeated Start condition occurs when the RSEN bit (SSPCON2<1>) is programmed high and the I2C module is in the idle state. When the RSEN bit is set, the SCL pin is asserted low. When the SCL pin is sampled low, the baud rate generator is loaded with the contents of SSPADD<6:0> and begins counting. The SDA pin is released (brought high) for one baud rate generator count (TBRG). When the baud rate generator times out if SDA is sampled high, the SCL pin will be deasserted (brought high). When SCL is sampled high the baud rate generator is reloaded with the contents of SSPADD<6:0> and begins counting. SDA and SCL must be sampled high for one TBRG. This action is then followed by assertion of the SDA pin (SDA is low) for one TBRG, while SCL is high. Following this, the RSEN bit in the SSPCON2 register will be automatically cleared and the baud rate generator will not be reloaded, leaving the SDA pin held low. As soon as a start condition is detected on the SDA and SCL pins, the S bit (SSPSTAT<3>) will be set. The SSPIF bit will not be set until the baud rate generator has timed-out. Note 1: If RSEN is programmed while any other event is in progress, it will not take effect. Note 2: A bus collision during the Repeated Start condition occurs if: • SDA is sampled low when SCL goes from low to high. • SCL goes low before SDA is asserted low. This may indicate that another master is attempting to transmit a data "1". Immediately following the SSPIF bit getting set, the user may write the SSPBUF with the 7-bit address in 7-bit mode, or the default first address in 10-bit mode. After the first eight bits are transmitted and an ACK is received, the user may then transmit an additional eight bits of address (10-bit mode) or eight bits of data (7-bit mode). 9.2.10.1 WCOL STATUS FLAG If the user writes the SSPBUF when a Repeated Start sequence is in progress, then WCOL is set and the contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur). Note: Because queueing of events is not allowed, writing of the lower 5 bits of SSPCON2 is disabled until the Repeated Start condition is complete. FIGURE 9-13: REPEAT START CONDITION WAVEFORM Write to SSPCON2 occurs here. SDA = 1, SCL(no change) SDA = 1, SCL = 1 Set S (SSPSTAT<3>) At completion of start bit, hardware clear RSEN bit and set SSPIF TBRG TBRG TBRG SDA Falling edge of ninth clock End of Xmit 1st Bit Write to SSPBUF occurs here. TBRG SCL TBRG Sr = Repeated Start DS30292A-page 80 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 9.2.11 I2C MASTER MODE TRANSMISSION Transmission of a data byte, a 7-bit address or either half of a 10-bit address is accomplished by simply writing a value to SSPBUF register. This action will set the buffer full flag (BF) and allow the baud rate generator to begin counting and start the next transmission. Each bit of address/data will be shifted out onto the SDA pin after the falling edge of SCL is asserted (see data hold time spec). SCL is held low for one baud rate generator rollover count (TBRG). Data should be valid before SCL is released high (see data setup time spec). When the SCL pin is released high, it is held that way for TBRG. The data on the SDA pin must remain stable for that duration and some hold time after the next falling edge of SCL. After the eighth bit is shifted out (the falling edge of the eighth clock), the BF flag is cleared and the master releases SDA allowing the slave device being addressed to respond with an ACK bit during the ninth bit time, if an address match occurs or if data was received properly. The status of ACK is read into the ACKDT on the falling edge of the ninth clock. If the master receives an acknowledge, the acknowledge status bit (ACKSTAT) is cleared. If not, the bit is set. After the ninth clock, the SSPIF is set and the master clock (baud rate generator) is suspended until the next data byte is loaded into the SSPBUF, leaving SCL low and SDA unchanged (Figure 9-14). After the write to the SSPBUF, each bit of address will be shifted out on the falling edge of SCL until all seven address bits and the R/W bit are completed. On the falling edge of the eighth clock, the master will de-assert the SDA pin allowing the slave to respond with an acknowledge. On the falling edge of the ninth clock, the master will sample the SDA pin to see if the address was recognized by a slave. The status of the ACK bit is loaded into the ACKSTAT status bit (SSPCON2<6>). Following the falling edge of the ninth clock transmission of the address, the SSPIF is set, the BF flag is cleared, and the baud rate generator is turned off until another write to the SSPBUF takes place, holding SCL low and allowing SDA to float. 9.2.11.1 BF STATUS FLAG In transmit mode, the BF bit (SSPSTAT<0>) is set when the CPU writes to SSPBUF and is cleared when all 8 bits are shifted out. 9.2.11.2 WCOL STATUS FLAG If the user writes the SSPBUF when a transmit is already in progress (i.e. SSPSR is still shifting out a data byte), then WCOL is set and the contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur). WCOL must be cleared in software. PIC16F87X 9.2.11.3 ACKSTAT STATUS FLAG In transmit mode, the ACKSTAT bit (SSPCON2<6>) is cleared when the slave has sent an acknowledge (ACK = 0), and is set when the slave does not acknowledge (ACK = 1). A slave sends an acknowledge when it has recognized its address (including a general call), or when the slave has properly received its data. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 81 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 9-14: I2C MASTER MODE TIMING (TRANSMISSION, 7 OR 10-BIT ADDRESS) DS30292A-page 82 SDA SCL SSPIF Write SSPCON2<0> SEN = 1 START condition begins SEN = 0 Transmit Address to Slave R/W = 0 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 ACK = 0 From slave clear ACKSTAT bit SSPCON2<6> ACKSTAT in SSPCON2 = 1 Transmitting Data or Second Half of 10-bit address D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 ACK D0 SSPBUF written with 7-bit address and R/W start transmit S 1 23456789 1 2 34 56 789 P SCL held low while CPU responds to SSPIF Cleared in software Cleared in software service routine From SSP interrupt Cleared in software BF (SSPSTAT<0>) SEN SSPBUF written After start condition SEN cleared by hardware. SSPBUF is written in software PEN © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. R/W 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 9.2.12 I2C MASTER MODE RECEPTION Master mode reception is enabled by programming the receive enable bit, RCEN (SSPCON2<3>). Note: The SSP module must be in an IDLE STATE before the RCEN bit is set or the RCEN bit will be disregarded. The baud rate generator begins counting, and on each rollover, the state of the SCL pin changes (high to low/low to high), and data is shifted into the SSPSR. After the falling edge of the eighth clock, the receive enable flag is automatically cleared, the contents of the SSPSR are loaded into the SSPBUF, the BF flag is set, the SSPIF is set, and the baud rate generator is suspended from counting, holding SCL low. The SSP is now in IDLE state, awaiting the next command. When the buffer is read by the CPU, the BF flag is automatically cleared. The user can then send an acknowledge bit at the end of reception, by setting the acknowledge sequence enable bit, ACKEN (SSPCON2<4>). 9.2.12.1 BF STATUS FLAG In receive operation, BF is set when an address or data byte is loaded into SSPBUF from SSPSR. It is cleared when SSPBUF is read. 9.2.12.2 SSPOV STATUS FLAG In receive operation, SSPOV is set when 8 bits are received into the SSPSR, and the BF flag is already set from a previous reception. 9.2.12.3 WCOL STATUS FLAG If the user writes the SSPBUF when a receive is already in progress (i.e. SSPSR is still shifting in a data byte), then WCOL is set and the contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur). PIC16F87X © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 83 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 9-15: I2C MASTER MODE TIMING (RECEPTION 7-BIT ADDRESS) DS30292A-page 84 SDA Write to SSPCON2<0> (SEN = 1) Begin Start Condition SEN = 0 Write to SSPBUF occurs here Start XMIT Write to SSPCON2<4> to start acknowledge sequence SDA = ACKDT (SSPCON2<5>) = 0 Master configured as a receiver by programming SSPCON2<3>, (RCEN = 1) ACK from Slave RCEN cleared automatically ACK from Master SDA = ACKDT = 0 RCEN = 1 start next receive Set ACKEN start acknowledge sequence SDA = ACKDT = 1 RCEN cleared automatically PEN bit = 1 written here Transmit Address to Slave R/W = 1 Receiving Data from Slave A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 ACK D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 Receiving Data from Slave ACK D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 ACK SCL S 1 23 456 789 SSPIF SDA = 0, SCL = 1 while CPU responds to SSPIF Cleared in software 1 23 45 6 78 9 Set SSPIF interrupt at end of receive Cleared in software Cleared in software ACK is not sent 1 2 34 567 8 9 Data shifted in on falling edge of CLK Set SSPIF at end of receive Set SSPIF interrupt at end of acknowledge sequence Cleared in software Cleared in software Bus Master terminates transfer P Set SSPIF interrupt at end of acknowledge sequence Set P bit (SSPSTAT<4>) and SSPIF BF (SSPSTAT<0>) Last bit is shifted into SSPSR and contents are unloaded into SSPBUF © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. SSPOV ACKEN SSPOV is set because SSPBUF is still full 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 9.2.13 ACKNOWLEDGE SEQUENCE TIMING An acknowledge sequence is enabled by setting the acknowledge sequence enable bit, ACKEN (SSPCON2<4>). When this bit is set, the SCL pin is pulled low and the contents of the acknowledge data bit is presented on the SDA pin. If the user wishes to generate an acknowledge, the ACKDT bit should be cleared. If not, the user should set the ACKDT bit before starting an acknowledge sequence. The baud rate generator then counts for one rollover period (TBRG), and the SCL pin is deasserted (pulled high). When the SCL pin is sampled high (clock arbitration), the baud rate generator counts for TBRG. The SCL pin is then pulled low. Following this, the ACKEN bit is automatically cleared, the baud rate generator is turned off, and the SSP module then goes into IDLE mode. (Figure 9-16) 9.2.13.1 WCOL STATUS FLAG If the user writes the SSPBUF when an acknowledege sequence is in progress, the WCOL is set and the contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur). FIGURE 9-16: ACKNOWLEDGE SEQUENCE WAVEFORM Acknowledge sequence starts here, Write to SSPCON2 ACKEN = 1, ACKDT = 0 ACKEN automatically cleared SDA TBRG TBRG D0 ACK SCL 8 9 SSPIF Set SSPIF at the end of receive Cleared in software Note: TBRG = one baud rate generator period. Cleared in software Set SSPIF at the end of acknowledge sequence © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 85 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 9.2.14 STOP CONDITION TIMING A stop bit is asserted on the SDA pin at the end of a receive/transmit by setting the Stop Sequence Enable bit PEN (SSPCON2<2>). At the end of a receive/transmit, the SCL line is held low after the falling edge of the ninth clock. When the PEN bit is set, the master will assert the SDA line low . When the SDA line is sampled low, the baud rate generator is reloaded and counts down to 0. When the baud rate generator times out, the SCL pin will be brought high, and one TBRG (baud rate generator rollover count) later, the SDA pin will be deasserted. When the SDA pin is sampled high while SCL is high, the P bit (SSPSTAT<4>) is set. A TBRG later, the PEN bit is cleared and the SSPIF bit is set (Figure 9-17). Whenever the firmware decides to take control of the bus, it will first determine if the bus is busy by checking the S and P bits in the SSPSTAT register. If the bus is busy, then the CPU can be interrupted (notified) when a Stop bit is detected (i.e. bus is free). 9.2.14.1 WCOL STATUS FLAG If the user writes the SSPBUF when a STOP sequence is in progress, then WCOL is set and the contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur). FIGURE 9-17: STOP CONDITION RECEIVE OR TRANSMIT MODE Write to SSPCON2 Set PEN Falling edge of 9th clock SCL TBRG SCL = 1 for TBRG, followed by SDA = 1 for TBRG after SDA sampled high. P bit (SSPSTAT<4>) is set PEN bit (SSPCON2<2>) is cleared by hardware and the SSPIF bit is set SDA ACK TBRG P TBRG TBRG SCL brought high after TBRG SDA asserted low before rising edge of clock to setup stop condition. Note: TBRG = one baud rate generator period. DS30292A-page 86 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 9.2.15 CLOCK ARBITRATION Clock arbitration occurs when the master, during any receive, transmit, or repeated start/stop condition, deasserts the SCL pin (SCL allowed to float high). When the SCL pin is allowed to float high, the baud rate generator (BRG) is suspended from counting until the SCL pin is actually sampled high. When the SCL pin is sampled high, the baud rate generator is reloaded with the contents of SSPADD<6:0> and begins counting. This ensures that the SCL high time will always be at least one BRG rollover count in the event that the clock is held low by an external device (Figure 9-18). 9.2.16 SLEEP OPERATION While in sleep mode, the I2C module can receive addresses or data, and when an address match or complete byte transfer occurs, wake the processor from sleep (if the SSP interrupt is enabled). 9.2.17 EFFECTS OF A RESET A reset disables the SSP module and terminates the current transfer. FIGURE 9-18: CLOCK ARBITRATION TIMING IN MASTER TRANSMIT MODE BRG overflow, Release SCL, If SCL = 1 Load BRG with SSPADD<6:0>, and start count to measure high time interval BRG overflow occurs, Release SCL, Slave device holds SCL low. SCL = 1 BRG starts counting clock high interval. SCL SCL line sampled once every machine cycle (TOSC • 4). Hold off BRG until SCL is sampled high. SDA TBRG TBRG TBRG © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 87 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 9.2.18 MULTI -MASTER COMMUNICATION, BUS COLLISION, AND BUS ARBITRATION Multi-Master mode support is achieved by bus arbitration. When the master outputs address/data bits onto the SDA pin, arbitration takes place when the master outputs a ’1’ on SDA by letting SDA float high and another master asserts a ’0’. When the SCL pin floats high, data should be stable. If the expected data on SDA is a ’1’ and the data sampled on the SDA pin = ’0’, a bus collision has TACKEN place. The master will set the Bus Collision Interrupt Flag, BCLIF and reset the I2C port to its IDLE state. (Figure 9-19). If a transmit was in progress when the bus collision occurred, the transmission is halted, the BF flag is cleared, the SDA and SCL lines are deasserted, and the SSPBUF can be written to. When the user services the bus collision interrupt service routine, and if the I2C bus is free, the user can resume communication by asserting a START condition. If a START, Repeated Start, STOP or Acknowledge condition was in progress when the bus collision occurred, the condition is aborted, the SDA and SCL lines are deasserted, and the respective control bits in the SSPCON2 register are cleared. When the user services the bus collision interrupt service routine, and if the I2C bus is free, the user can resume communication by asserting a START condition. The Master will continue to monitor the SDA and SCL pins, and if a STOP condition occurs, the SSPIF bit will be set. A write to the SSPBUF will start the transmission of data at the first data bit, regardless of where the transmitter left off when the bus collision occurred. In multi-master mode, the interrupt generation on the detection of start and stop conditions allows the determination of when the bus is free. Control of the I2C bus can be TACKEN when the P bit is set in the SSPSTAT register, or the bus is idle and the S and P bits are cleared. FIGURE 9-19: BUS COLLISION TIMING FOR TRANSMIT AND ACKNOWLEDGE Data changes while SCL = 0 SDA line pulled low by another source SDA released by master Sample SDA. While SCL is high, data doesn’t match what is driven by the master. Bus collision has occurred. SDA SCL BCLIF Set bus collision interrupt. DS30292A-page 88 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 9.2.18.1 BUS COLLISION DURING A START CONDITION During a START condition, a bus collision occurs if: a) SDA or SCL are sampled low at the beginning of the START condition (Figure 9-20). b) SCL is sampled low before SDA is asserted low. (Figure 9-21). During a START condition both the SDA and the SCL pins are monitored. If: the SDA pin is already low or the SCL pin is already low, then: the START condition is aborted, and the BCLIF flag is set, and the SSP module is reset to its IDLE state (Figure 9-20). The START condition begins with the SDA and SCL pins deasserted. When the SDA pin is sampled high, the baud rate generator is loaded from SSPADD<6:0> and counts down to 0. If the SCL pin is sampled low while SDA is high, a bus collision occurs, because it is assumed that another master is attempting to drive a data ’1’ during the START condition. If the SDA pin is sampled low during this count, the BRG is reset and the SDA line is asserted early (Figure 9-22). If however a ’1’ is sampled on the SDA pin, the SDA pin is asserted low at the end of the BRG count. The baud rate generator is then reloaded and counts down to 0. During this time, if the SCL pins are sampled as ’0’, a bus collision does not occur. At the end of the BRG count ,the SCL pin is asserted low. Note: The reason that bus collision is not a factor during a START condition is that no two bus masters can assert a START condition at the exact same time. Therefore, one master will always assert SDA before the other. This condition does not cause a bus collision, because the two masters must be allowed to arbitrate the first address following the START condition. If the address is the same, arbitration must be allowed to continue into the data portion, REPEATED START or STOP conditions. FIGURE 9-20: BUS COLLISION DURING START CONDITION (SDA ONLY) SDA SDA goes low before the SEN bit is set. Set BCLIF, S bit and SSPIF set because SDA = 0, SCL = 1 SCL SEN BCLIF S Set SEN, enable start condition if SDA = 1, SCL=1 SDA sampled low before START condition. Set BCLIF. S bit and SSPIF set because SDA = 0, SCL = 1 SEN cleared automatically because of bus collision. SSP module reset into idle state. SSPIF and BCLIF are cleared in software. SSPIF SSPIF and BCLIF are cleared in software. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 89 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 9-21: BUS COLLISION DURING START CONDITION (SCL = 0) SDA SDA = 0, SCL = 1 TBRG TBRG SCL Set SEN, enable start sequence if SDA = 1, SCL = 1 SEN BCLIF SCL = 0 before BRG time out, Bus collision occurs, Set BCLIF. S ’0’ SSPIF ’0’ SCL = 0 before SDA = 0, Bus collision occurs, Set BCLIF. Interrupts cleared in software. ’0’ ’0’ FIGURE 9-22: BRG RESET DUE TO SDA COLLISION DURING START CONDITION SDA SDA = 0, SCL = 1 Set S Less than TBRG TBRG SDA pulled low by other master. Reset BRG and assert SDA Set SSPIF SCL SEN BCLIF ’0’ s SCL pulled low after BRG Timeout Set SEN, enable start sequence if SDA = 1, SCL = 1 S SSPIF SDA = 0, SCL = 1 Set SSPIF Interrupts cleared in software. DS30292A-page 90 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 9.2.18.2 BUS COLLISION DURING A REPEATED START CONDITION During a Repeated Start condition, a bus collision occurs if: a) A low level is sampled on SDA when SCL goes from low level to high level. b) SCL goes low before SDA is asserted low, indicating that another master is attempting to transmit a data ’1’. When the user deasserts SDA and the pin is allowed to float high, the BRG is loaded with SSPADD<6:0> and counts down to 0. The SCL pin is then deasserted, and when sampled high, the SDA pin is sampled. If SDA is low, a bus collision has occurred (i.e. another master is attempting to transmit a data ’0’). If however SDA is sampled high, the BRG is reloaded and begins counting. If SDA goes from high to low before the BRG times out, no bus collision occurs, because no two masters can assert SDA at exactly the same time. If, however, SCL goes from high to low before the BRG times out and SDA has not already been asserted, a bus collision occurs. In this case, another master is attempting to transmit a data ’1’ during the Repeated Start condition. If at the end of the BRG time out both SCL and SDA are still high, the SDA pin is driven low, the BRG is reloaded and begins counting. At the end of the count, regardless of the status of the SCL pin, the SCL pin is driven low and the Repeated Start condition is complete (Figure 9-23). FIGURE 9-23: BUS COLLISION DURING A REPEATED START CONDITION (CASE 1) SDA SCL RSEN Sample SDA when SCL goes high. If SDA = 0, set BCLIF and release SDA and SCL BCLIF S ’0’ SSPIF ’0’ Cleared in software ’0’ ’0’ FIGURE 9-24: BUS COLLISION DURING REPEATED START CONDITION (CASE 2) TBRG TBRG SDA SCL BCLIF RSEN SCL goes low before SDA, Set BCLIF. Release SDA and SCL Interrupt cleared in software S ’0’ ’0’ SSPIF ’0’ ’0’ © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 91 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 9.2.18.3 BUS COLLISION DURING A STOP CONDITION Bus collision occurs during a STOP condition if: a) After the SDA pin has been deasserted and allowed to float high, SDA is sampled low after the BRG has timed out. b) After the SCL pin is deasserted, SCL is sampled low before SDA goes high. The STOP condition begins with SDA asserted low. When SDA is sampled low, the SCL pin is allow to float. When the pin is sampled high (clock arbitration), the baud rate generator is loaded with SSPADD<6:0> and counts down to 0. After the BRG times out, SDA is sampled. If SDA is sampled low, a bus collision has occurred. This is due to another master attempting to drive a data ’0’. If the SCL pin is sampled low before SDA is allowed to float high, a bus collision occurs. This is a case of another master attempting to drive a data ’0’ (Figure 9-25). FIGURE 9-25: BUS COLLISION DURING A STOP CONDITION (CASE 1) TBRG TBRG TBRG SDA SDA sampled low after TBRG, Set BCLIF SDA asserted low SCL PEN BCLIF P ’0’ ’0’ SSPIF ’0’ ’0’ FIGURE 9-26: BUS COLLISION DURING A STOP CONDITION (CASE 2) TBRG TBRG TBRG SDA SCL Assert SDA SCL goes low before SDA goes high Set BCLIF PEN BCLIF P ’0’ SSPIF ’0’ DS30292A-page 92 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 9.3 Connection Considerations for I2C Bus For standard-mode I2C bus devices, the values of resistors Rp and Rs in Figure 9-27 depend on the following parameters: • Supply voltage • Bus capacitance • Number of connected devices (input current + leakage current). The supply voltage limits the minimum value of resistor Rp due to the specified minimum sink current of 3 mA at VOL max = 0.4V for the specified output stages. For example, with a supply voltage of VDD = 5V+10% and VOL max = 0.4V at 3 mA, Rp min = (5.5-0.4)/0.003 = 1.7 kΩ. VDD as a function of Rp is shown in Figure 9-27. The desired noise margin of 0.1VDD for the low level limits the maximum value of Rs. Series resistors are optional and used to improve ESD susceptibility. The bus capacitance is the total capacitance of wire, connections, and pins. This capacitance limits the maximum value of Rp due to the specified rise time (Figure 9-27). The SMP bit is the slew rate control enabled bit. This bit is in the SSPSTAT register, and controls the slew rate of the I/O pins when in I2C mode (master or slave). FIGURE 9-27: SAMPLE DEVICE CONFIGURATION FOR I2C BUS VDD + 10% Rp Rp DEVICE SDA SCL Rs Rs Note: I2C devices with input levels related to VDD must have one common supply line to which the pull-up resistor is also connected. Cb=10 - 400 pF © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292A-page 93 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292A-page 94 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 10.0 ADDRESSABLE UNIVERSAL SYNCHRONOUS ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER TRANSMITTER (USART) The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). The USART can be configured as a full duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices such as CRT terminals and personal computers, or it can be configured as a half duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits, serial EEPROMs etc. The USART can be configured in the following modes: • Asynchronous (full duplex) • Synchronous - Master (half duplex) • Synchronous - Slave (half duplex) Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. The USART module also has a multi-processor communication capability using 9-bit address detection. REGISTER 10-1: TXSTA: TRANSMIT STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 98h) R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R-1 R/W-0 CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC — BRGH TRMT TX9D bit7 bit0 bit 7: bit 6: bit 5: bit 4: bit 3: bit 2: bit 1: bit 0: CSRC: Clock Source Select bit Asynchronous mode Don’t care Synchronous mode 1 = Master mode (Clock generated internally from BRG) 0 = Slave mode (Clock from external source) TX9: 9-bit Transmit Enable bit 1 = Selects 9-bit transmission 0 = Selects 8-bit transmission TXEN: Transmit Enable bit 1 = Transmit enabled 0 = Transmit disabled Note: SREN/CREN overrides TXEN in SYNC mode. SYNC: USART Mode Select bit 1 = Synchronous mode 0 = Asynchronous mode Unimplemented: Read as '0' BRGH: High Baud Rate Select bit Asynchronous mode 1 = High speed 0 = Low speed Synchronous mode Unused in this mode TRMT: Transmit Shift Register Status bit 1 = TSR empty 0 = TSR full TX9D: 9th bit of transmit data. Can be parity bit. R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n = Value at POR reset © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 95 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm REGISTER 10-2: RCSTA: RECEIVE STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 18h) R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R-0 R-0 R-x SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D R = Readable bit bit7 bit0 W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n = Value at POR reset bit 7: SPEN: Serial Port Enable bit 1 = Serial port enabled (Configures RC7/RX/DT and RC6/TX/CK pins as serial port pins) 0 = Serial port disabled bit 6: RX9: 9-bit Receive Enable bit 1 = Selects 9-bit reception 0 = Selects 8-bit reception bit 5: SREN: Single Receive Enable bit Asynchronous mode Don’t care Synchronous mode - master 1 = Enables single receive 0 = Disables single receive This bit is cleared after reception is complete. Synchronous mode - slave Unused in this mode bit 4: CREN: Continuous Receive Enable bit Asynchronous mode 1 = Enables continuous receive 0 = Disables continuous receive Synchronous mode 1 = Enables continuous receive until enable bit CREN is cleared (CREN overrides SREN) 0 = Disables continuous receive bit 3: ADDEN: Address Detect Enable bit Asynchronous mode 9-bit (RX9 = 1) 1 = Enables address detection, enable interrupt and load of the receive burffer when RSR<8> is set 0 = Disables address detection, all bytes are received, and ninth bit can be used as parity bit bit 2: FERR: Framing Error bit 1 = Framing error (Can be updated by reading RCREG register and receive next valid byte) 0 = No framing error bit 1: OERR: Overrun Error bit 1 = Overrun error (Can be cleared by clearing bit CREN) 0 = No overrun error bit 0: RX9D: 9th bit of received data (Can be parity bit) DS30292B-page 96 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 10.1 USART Baud Rate Generator (BRG) The BRG supports both the asynchronous and synchronous modes of the USART. It is a dedicated 8-bit baud rate generator. The SPBRG register controls the period of a free running 8-bit timer. In asynchronous mode, bit BRGH (TXSTA<2>) also controls the baud rate. In synchronous mode, bit BRGH is ignored. Table 10-1 shows the formula for computation of the baud rate for different USART modes which only apply in master mode (internal clock). Given the desired baud rate and Fosc, the nearest integer value for the SPBRG register can be calculated using the formula in Table 10-1. From this, the error in baud rate can be determined. It may be advantageous to use the high baud rate (BRGH = 1) even for slower baud clocks. This is because the FOSC/(16(X + 1)) equation can reduce the baud rate error in some cases. Writing a new value to the SPBRG register causes the BRG timer to be reset (or cleared). This ensures the BRG does not wait for a timer overflow before outputting the new baud rate. 10.1.1 SAMPLING The data on the RC7/RX/DT pin is sampled three times by a majority detect circuit to determine if a high or a low level is present at the RX pin. TABLE 10-1: BAUD RATE FORMULA SYNC BRGH = 0 (Low Speed) BRGH = 1 (High Speed) 0 (Asynchronous) Baud Rate = FOSC/(64(X+1)) 1 (Synchronous) Baud Rate = FOSC/(4(X+1)) X = value in SPBRG (0 to 255) Baud Rate= FOSC/(16(X+1)) NA TABLE 10-2: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH BAUD RATE GENERATOR Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Value on: Value on all Bit 0 POR, other BOR resets 98h TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC — BRGH TRMT TX9D 0000 -010 0000 -010 18h RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 0000 000x 0000 000x 99h SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the BRG. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 97 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 10-3: BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODE (BRGH = 0) BAUD RATE (K) FOSC = 20 MHz KBAUD % ERROR SPBRG value (decimal) FOSC = 16 MHz KBAUD % ERROR SPBRG value (decimal) FOSC = 10 MHz KBAUD % ERROR SPBRG value (decimal) 0.3 - - - - - - - - - 1.2 1.221 1.75 255 1.202 0.17 207 1.202 0.17 129 2.4 2.404 0.17 129 2.404 0.17 103 2.404 0.17 64 9.6 9.766 1.73 31 9.615 0.16 25 9.766 1.73 15 19.2 19.531 1.72 15 19.231 0.16 12 19.531 1.72 7 28.8 31.250 8.51 9 27.778 3.55 8 31.250 8.51 4 33.6 34.722 3.34 8 35.714 6.29 6 31.250 6.99 4 57.6 62.500 8.51 4 62.500 8.51 3 52.083 9.58 2 HIGH 1.221 - 255 0.977 - 255 0.610 - 255 LOW 312.500 - 0 250.000 - 0 156.250 - 0 BAUD RATE (K) FOSC = 4 MHz KBAUD % ERROR SPBRG value (decimal) FOSC = 3.6864 MHz KBAUD % ERROR SPBRG value (decimal) 0.3 0.300 1.2 1.202 2.4 2.404 9.6 8.929 19.2 20.833 28.8 31.250 33.6 - 57.6 62.500 HIGH 0.244 LOW 62.500 - TABLE 10-4: 0 207 0.301 0.33 185 0.17 51 1.216 1.33 46 0.17 25 2.432 1.33 22 6.99 6 9.322 2.90 5 8.51 2 18.643 2.90 2 8.51 1 - - - - - - - - 8.51 0 55.930 2.90 0 - 255 0.218 - 255 - 0 55.930 - 0 BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODE (BRGH = 1) BAUD RATE (K) 0.3 1.2 2.4 9.6 19.2 28.8 33.6 57.6 HIGH LOW FOSC = 20 MHz FOSC = 16 MHz KBAUD 9.615 19.231 29.070 33.784 59.524 4.883 1250.000 % ERROR 0.16 0.16 0.94 0.55 3.34 - SPBRG value (decimal) KBAUD - - - - - - 129 9.615 64 19.231 42 29.412 36 33.333 20 58.824 255 3.906 0 1000.000 % ERROR 0.16 0.16 2.13 0.79 2.13 - SPBRG value (decimal) 103 51 33 29 16 255 0 FOSC = 10 MHz KBAUD 2.441 9.615 19.531 28.409 32.895 56.818 2.441 625.000 % ERROR 1.71 0.16 1.72 1.36 2.10 1.36 - SPBRG value (decimal) 255 64 31 21 18 10 255 0 BAUD RATE (K) 0.3 1.2 2.4 9.6 19.2 28.8 33.6 57.6 HIGH LOW FOSC = 4 MHz KBAUD 1.202 2.404 9.615 19.231 27.798 35.714 62.500 0.977 250.000 % ERROR 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.16 3.55 6.29 8.51 - SPBRG value (decimal) 207 103 25 12 8 6 3 255 0 FOSC = 3.6864 MHz KBAUD 1.203 2.406 9.727 18.643 27.965 31.960 55.930 0.874 273.722 % ERROR 0.25 0.25 1.32 2.90 2.90 4.88 2.90 - SPBRG value (decimal) 185 92 22 11 7 6 3 255 0 DS30292B-page 98 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 10.2 USART Asynchronous Mode In this mode, the USART uses standard non-return-tozero (NRZ) format (one start bit, eight or nine data bits, and one stop bit). The most common data format is 8 bits. An on-chip, dedicated, 8-bit baud rate generator can be used to derive standard baud rate frequencies from the oscillator. The USART transmits and receives the LSb first. The USART’s transmitter and receiver are functionally independent, but use the same data format and baud rate. The baud rate generator produces a clock either x16 or x64 of the bit shift rate, depending on bit BRGH (TXSTA<2>). Parity is not supported by the hardware, but can be implemented in software (and stored as the ninth data bit). Asynchronous mode is stopped during SLEEP. Asynchronous mode is selected by clearing bit SYNC (TXSTA<4>). The USART Asynchronous module consists of the following important elements: • Baud Rate Generator • Sampling Circuit • Asynchronous Transmitter • Asynchronous Receiver 10.2.1 USART ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMITTER The USART transmitter block diagram is shown in Figure 10-1. The heart of the transmitter is the transmit (serial) shift register (TSR). The shift register obtains its data from the read/write transmit buffer, TXREG. The TXREG register is loaded with data in software. The TSR register is not loaded until the STOP bit has been transmitted from the previous load. As soon as the STOP bit is transmitted, the TSR is loaded with new data from the TXREG register (if available). Once the TXREG register transfers the data to the TSR register (occurs in one TCY), the TXREG register is empty and flag bit TXIF (PIR1<4>) is set. This interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit TXIE ( PIE1<4>). Flag bit TXIF will be set, regardless of the state of enable bit TXIE and cannot be cleared in software. It will reset only when new data is loaded into the TXREG register. While flag bit TXIF indicates the status of the TXREG register, another bit TRMT (TXSTA<1>) shows the status of the TSR register. Status bit TRMT is a read only bit, which is set when the TSR register is empty. No interrupt logic is tied to this bit, so the user has to poll this bit in order to determine if the TSR register is empty. Note 1: The TSR register is not mapped in data memory, so it is not available to the user. 2: Flag bit TXIF is set when enable bit TXEN is set. TXIF is cleared by loading TXREG. Transmission is enabled by setting enable bit TXEN (TXSTA<5>). The actual transmission will not occur until the TXREG register has been loaded with data and the baud rate generator (BRG) has produced a shift clock (Figure 10-2). The transmission can also be started by first loading the TXREG register and then setting enable bit TXEN. Normally, when transmission is first started, the TSR register is empty. At that point, transfer to the TXREG register will result in an immediate transfer to TSR, resulting in an empty TXREG. A back-to-back transfer is thus possible (Figure 10-3). Clearing enable bit TXEN during a transmission will cause the transmission to be aborted and will reset the transmitter. As a result, the RC6/TX/CK pin will revert to hi-impedance. In order to select 9-bit transmission, transmit bit TX9 (TXSTA<6>) should be set and the ninth bit should be written to TX9D (TXSTA<0>). The ninth bit must be written before writing the 8-bit data to the TXREG register. This is because a data write to the TXREG register can result in an immediate transfer of the data to the TSR register (if the TSR is empty). In such a case, an incorrect ninth data bit may be loaded in the TSR register. FIGURE 10-1: USART TRANSMIT BLOCK DIAGRAM TXIE TXIF Interrupt MSb (8) Data Bus TXREG register 8 LSb ••• 0 TSR register Pin Buffer and Control RC6/TX/CK pin TXEN Baud Rate CLK SPBRG Baud Rate Generator TX9 TX9D TRMT SPEN © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 99 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm Steps to follow when setting up an Asynchronous Transmission: 1. Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate baud rate. If a high speed baud rate is desired, set bit BRGH. (Section 10.1) 2. Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing bit SYNC and setting bit SPEN. 3. If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit TXIE. 4. If 9-bit transmission is desired, then set transmit bit TX9. 5. Enable the transmission by setting bit TXEN, which will also set bit TXIF. 6. If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit should be loaded in bit TX9D. 7. Load data to the TXREG register (starts transmission). FIGURE 10-2: ASYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION Write to TXREG BRG output (shift clock) RC6/TX/CK (pin) TXIF bit (Transmit buffer reg. empty flag) Word 1 Start Bit Bit 0 Bit 1 Word 1 Bit 7/8 Stop Bit TRMT bit (Transmit shift reg. empty flag) Word 1 Transmit Shift Reg FIGURE 10-3: ASYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION (BACK TO BACK) Write to TXREG BRG output (shift clock) RC6/TX/CK (pin) TXIF bit (interrupt reg. flag) Word 1 Word 2 Start Bit Bit 0 Bit 1 Word 1 Bit 7/8 Stop Bit Start Bit Bit 0 Word 2 TRMT bit (Transmit shift reg. empty flag) Word 1 Transmit Shift Reg. Word 2 Transmit Shift Reg. Note: This timing diagram shows two consecutive transmissions. TABLE 10-5: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other Resets 0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 18h RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN — FERR OERR RX9D 0000 -00x 0000 -00x 19h TXREG USART Transmit Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 98h TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC — BRGH TRMT TX9D 0000 -010 0000 -010 99h SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for asynchronous transmission. Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16F873/876; always maintain these bits clear. DS30292B-page 100 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 10.2.2 USART ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER The receiver block diagram is shown in Figure 10-4. The data is received on the RC7/RX/DT pin and drives the data recovery block. The data recovery block is actually a high speed shifter operating at x16 times the baud rate, whereas the main receive serial shifter operates at the bit rate or at FOSC. Once asynchronous mode is selected, reception is enabled by setting bit CREN (RCSTA<4>). The heart of the receiver is the receive (serial) shift register (RSR). After sampling the STOP bit, the received data in the RSR is transferred to the RCREG register (if it is empty). If the transfer is complete, flag bit RCIF (PIR1<5>) is set. The actual interrupt can be enabled/ disabled by setting/clearing enable bit RCIE (PIE1<5>). Flag bit RCIF is a read only bit which is cleared by the hardware. It is cleared when the RCREG register has been read and is empty. The RCREG is a double buffered register (i.e. it is a two deep FIFO). It is possible for two bytes of data to be received and transferred to the RCREG FIFO and a third byte to begin shifting to the RSR register. On the detection of the STOP bit of the third byte, if the RCREG register is still full, the overrun error bit OERR (RCSTA<1>) will be set. The word in the RSR will be lost. The RCREG register can be read twice to retrieve the two bytes in the FIFO. Overrun bit OERR has to be cleared in software. This is done by resetting the receive logic (CREN is cleared and then set). If bit OERR is set, transfers from the RSR register to the RCREG register are inhibited, so it is essential to clear error bit OERR if it is set. Framing error bit FERR (RCSTA<2>) is set if a stop bit is detected as clear. Bit FERR and the 9th receive bit are buffered the same way as the receive data. Reading the RCREG will load bits RX9D and FERR with new values, therefore it is essential for the user to read the RCSTA register before reading RCREG register in order not to lose the old FERR and RX9D information. FIGURE 10-4: USART RECEVE BLOCK DIAGRAM x64 Baud Rate CLK CREN SPBRG ÷64 or Baud Rate Generator ÷16 RC7/RX/DT Pin Buffer and Control Data Recovery OERR FERR MSb RSR register LSb Stop (8) 7 • • • 1 0 Start RX9 SPEN RX9D RCREG Register FIFO Interrupt RCIF RCIE 8 Data Bus FIGURE 10-5: ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION RX (pin) Rcv shift reg Rcv buffer reg Read Rcv buffer reg RCREG Start bit bit0 bit1 Start bit7/8 Stop bit bit0 bit WORD 1 RCREG RCIF (interrupt flag) OERR bit CREN Start bit7/8 Stop bit bit WORD 2 RCREG bit7/8 Stop bit Note: This timing diagram shows three words appearing on the RX input. The RCREG (receive buffer) is read after the third word, causing the OERR (overrun) bit to be set. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 101 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm Steps to follow when setting up an Asynchronous Reception: 1. Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate baud rate. If a high speed baud rate is desired, set bit BRGH. (Section 10.1). 2. Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing bit SYNC and setting bit SPEN. 3. If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit RCIE. 4. If 9-bit reception is desired, then set bit RX9. 5. Enable the reception by setting bit CREN. 6. Flag bit RCIF will be set when reception is complete and an interrupt will be generated if enable bit RCIE is set. 7. Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit (if enabled) and determine if any error occurred during reception. 8. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the RCREG register. 9. If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing enable bit CREN. TABLE 10-6: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other Resets 0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 18h RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN — FERR OERR RX9D 0000 -00x 0000 -00x 1Ah RCREG USART Receive Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 98h TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC — BRGH TRMT TX9D 0000 -010 0000 -010 99h SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for asynchronous reception. Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. DS30292B-page 102 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 10.2.3 SETTING UP 9-BIT MODE WITH ADDRESS DETECT Steps to follow when setting up an Asynchronous Reception with Address Detect Enabled: • Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate baud rate. If a high speed baud rate is desired, set bit BRGH. • Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing bit SYNC and setting bit SPEN. • If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit RCIE. • Set bit RX9 to enable 9-bit reception. • Set ADDEN to enable address detect. • Enable the reception by setting enable bit CREN. • Flag bit RCIF will be set when reception is complete, and an interrupt will be generated if enable bit RCIE was set. • Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit and determine if any error occurred during reception. • Read the 8-bit received data by reading the RCREG register, to determine if the device is being addressed. • If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing enable bit CREN. • If the device has been addressed, clear the ADDEN bit to allow data bytes and address bytes to be read into the receive buffer, and interrupt the CPU. FIGURE 10-6: USART RECEIVE BLOCK DIAGRAM x64 Baud Rate CLK SPBRG Baud Rate Generator CREN ÷ 64 or ÷ 16 RC7/RX/DT Pin Buffer and Control Data Recovery OERR FERR MSb RSR register Stop (8) 7 • • • 1 LSb 0 Start RX9 8 SPEN RX9 ADDEN RX9 ADDEN RSR<8> Enable Load of Receive Buffer 8 RX9D RCREG Register FIFO Interrupt RCIF RCIE 8 Data Bus © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 103 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 10-7: ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION WITH ADDRESS DETECT RC7/RX/DT (pin) Start bit bit0 bit1 Start bit8 Stop bit bit0 bit bit8 Stop bit Load RSR Read Bit8 = 0, Data Byte Bit8 = 1, Address Byte WORD 1 RCREG RCIF Note: This timing diagram shows a data byte followed by an address byte. The data byte is not read into the RCREG (receive buffer) because ADDEN = 1. FIGURE 10-8: ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION WITH ADDRESS BYTE FIRST RC7/RX/DT (pin) Start bit bit0 bit1 Start bit8 Stop bit bit0 bit bit8 Stop bit Load RSR Read Bit8 = 1, Address Byte Bit8 = 0, Data Byte WORD 1 RCREG RCIF Note: This timing diagram shows a data byte followed by an address byte. The data byte is not read into the RCREG (receive buffer) because ADDEN was not updated and still = 0. TABLE 10-7: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other Resets 0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 18h RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 0000 000x 0000 000x 1Ah RCREG USART Receive Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 98h TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC — BRGH TRMT TX9D 0000 -010 0000 -010 99h SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for Asynchronous Reception. Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. DS30292B-page 104 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 10.3 USART Synchronous Master Mode In Synchronous Master mode, the data is transmitted in a half-duplex manne (i.e., transmission and reception do not occur at the same time). When transmitting data, the reception is inhibited and vice versa. Synchronous mode is entered by setting bit SYNC (TXSTA<4>). In addition, enable bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) is set in order to configure the RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT I/O pins to CK (clock) and DT (data) lines respectively. The Master mode indicates that the processor transmits the master clock on the CK line. The Master mode is entered by setting bit CSRC (TXSTA<7>). 10.3.1 USART SYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION The USART transmitter block diagram is shown in Figure 10-6. The heart of the transmitter is the transmit (serial) shift register (TSR). The shift register obtains its data from the read/write transmit buffer register TXREG. The TXREG register is loaded with data in software. The TSR register is not loaded until the last bit has been transmitted from the previous load. As soon as the last bit is transmitted, the TSR is loaded with new data from the TXREG (if available). Once the TXREG register transfers the data to the TSR register (occurs in one Tcycle), the TXREG is empty and interrupt bit TXIF (PIR1<4>) is set. The interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit TXIE (PIE1<4>). Flag bit TXIF will be set regardless of the state of enable bit TXIE and cannot be cleared in software. It will reset only when new data is loaded into the TXREG register. While flag bit TXIF indicates the status of the TXREG register, another bit TRMT (TXSTA<1>) shows the status of the TSR register. TRMT is a read only bit which is set when the TSR is empty. No interrupt logic is tied to this bit, so the user has to poll this bit in order to determine if the TSR register is empty. The TSR is not mapped in data memory, so it is not available to the user. Transmission is enabled by setting enable bit TXEN (TXSTA<5>). The actual transmission will not occur until the TXREG register has been loaded with data. The first data bit will be shifted out on the next available rising edge of the clock on the CK line. Data out is stable around the falling edge of the synchronous clock (Figure 10-9). The transmission can also be started by first loading the TXREG register and then setting bit TXEN (Figure 10-10). This is advantageous when slow baud rates are selected, since the BRG is kept in reset when bits TXEN, CREN and SREN are clear. Setting enable bit TXEN will start the BRG, creating a shift clock immediately. Normally, when transmission is first started, the TSR register is empty, so a transfer to the TXREG register will result in an immediate transfer to TSR resulting in an empty TXREG. Back-to-back transfers are possible. Clearing enable bit TXEN during a transmission will cause the transmission to be aborted and will reset the transmitter. The DT and CK pins will revert to hi-impedance. If either bit CREN or bit SREN is set during a transmission, the transmission is aborted and the DT © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. PIC16F87X pin reverts to a hi-impedance state (for a reception). The CK pin will remain an output if bit CSRC is set (internal clock). The transmitter logic, however, is not reset, although it is disconnected from the pins. In order to reset the transmitter, the user has to clear bit TXEN. If bit SREN is set (to interrupt an on-going transmission and receive a single word), then after the single word is received, bit SREN will be cleared and the serial port will revert back to transmitting, since bit TXEN is still set. The DT line will immediately switch from hi-impedance receive mode to transmit and start driving. To avoid this, bit TXEN should be cleared. In order to select 9-bit transmission, the TX9 (TXSTA<6>) bit should be set and the ninth bit should be written to bit TX9D (TXSTA<0>). The ninth bit must be written before writing the 8-bit data to the TXREG register. This is because a data write to the TXREG can result in an immediate transfer of the data to the TSR register (if the TSR is empty). If the TSR was empty and the TXREG was written before writing the “new” TX9D, the “present” value of bit TX9D is loaded. Steps to follow when setting up a Synchronous Master Transmission: 1. Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate baud rate (Section 10.1). 2. Enable the synchronous master serial port by setting bits SYNC, SPEN and CSRC. 3. If interrupts are desired, set enable bit TXIE. 4. If 9-bit transmission is desired, set bit TX9. 5. Enable the transmission by setting bit TXEN. 6. If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit should be loaded in bit TX9D. 7. Start transmission by loading data to the TXREG register. DS30292B-page 105 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 10-8: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other Resets 0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 18h RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN — FERR OERR RX9D 0000 -00x 0000 -00x 19h TXREG USART Transmit Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 98h TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC — BRGH TRMT TX9D 0000 -010 0000 -010 99h SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented, read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous master transmission. Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. FIGURE 10-9: SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION Q1Q2 Q3Q4 Q1 Q2Q3 Q4Q1 Q2Q3 Q4Q1 Q2Q3 Q4Q1 Q2 Q3Q4 RC7/RX/DT pin RC6/TX/CK pin Write to TXREG reg TXIF bit (Interrupt flag) TRMT bTitRMT Write word1 bit 0 bit 1 bit 2 WORD 1 Write word2 Q3Q4 Q1Q2 Q3Q4 Q1Q2 Q3Q4 Q1Q2 Q3 Q4Q1 Q2Q3 Q4Q1 Q2Q3 Q4Q1 Q2Q3 Q4 bit 7 bit 0 bit 1 bit 7 WORD 2 TXEN bit ’1’ ’1’ Note: Sync master mode; SPBRG = '0'. Continuous transmission of two 8-bit words FIGURE 10-10: SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (THROUGH TXEN) RC7/RX/DT pin bit0 bit1 bit2 bit6 bit7 RC6/TX/CK pin Write to TXREG reg TXIF bit TRMT bit TXEN bit DS30292B-page 106 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 10.3.2 USART SYNCHRONOUS MASTER RECEPTION Once synchronous mode is selected, reception is enabled by setting either enable bit SREN (RCSTA<5>) or enable bit CREN (RCSTA<4>). Data is sampled on the RC7/RX/DT pin on the falling edge of the clock. If enable bit SREN is set, then only a single word is received. If enable bit CREN is set, the reception is continuous until CREN is cleared. If both bits are set, CREN takes precedence. After clocking the last bit, the received data in the Receive Shift Register (RSR) is transferred to the RCREG register (if it is empty). When the transfer is complete, interrupt flag bit RCIF (PIR1<5>) is set. The actual interrupt can be enabled/ disabled by setting/clearing enable bit RCIE (PIE1<5>). Flag bit RCIF is a read only bit, which is reset by the hardware. In this case, it is reset when the RCREG register has been read and is empty. The RCREG is a double buffered register (i.e., it is a two deep FIFO). It is possible for two bytes of data to be received and transferred to the RCREG FIFO and a third byte to begin shifting into the RSR register. On the clocking of the last bit of the third byte, if the RCREG register is still full, then overrun error bit OERR (RCSTA<1>) is set. The word in the RSR will be lost. The RCREG register can be read twice to retrieve the two bytes in the FIFO. Bit OERR has to be cleared in software (by clearing bit CREN). If bit OERR is set, transfers from the RSR to the RCREG are inhibited, so it is essential to clear bit OERR if it is set. The ninth receive bit is buffered the same way as the receive data. Reading the RCREG register will load bit RX9D with a new value, therefore it is essential for the user to read the RCSTA register before reading RCREG in order not to lose the old RX9D information. Steps to follow when setting up a Synchronous Master Reception: 1. Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate baud rate. (Section 10.1) 2. Enable the synchronous master serial port by setting bits SYNC, SPEN and CSRC. 3. Ensure bits CREN and SREN are clear. 4. If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit RCIE. 5. If 9-bit reception is desired, then set bit RX9. 6. If a single reception is required, set bit SREN. For continuous reception set bit CREN. 7. Interrupt flag bit RCIF will be set when reception is complete and an interrupt will be generated if enable bit RCIE was set. 8. Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit (if enabled) and determine if any error occurred during reception. 9. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the RCREG register. 10. If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing bit CREN. TABLE 10-9: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER RECEPTION Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other Resets 0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 18h RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN — FERR OERR RX9D 0000 -00x 0000 -00x 1Ah RCREG USART Receive Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 98h TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC — BRGH TRMT TX9D 0000 -010 0000 -010 99h SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous master reception. Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. FIGURE 10-11: SYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION (MASTER MODE, SREN) Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 RC7/RX/DT pin bit0 bit1 bit2 bit3 bit4 bit5 bit6 bit7 RC6/TX/CK pin Write to bit SREN SREN bit CREN bit ’0’ ’0’ RCIF bit (interrupt) Read RXREG Note: Timing diagram demonstrates SYNC master mode with bit SREN = '1' and bit BRG = '0'. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 107 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 10.4 USART Synchronous Slave Mode Synchronous slave mode differs from the Master mode in the fact that the shift clock is supplied externally at the RC6/TX/CK pin (instead of being supplied internally in master mode). This allows the device to transfer or receive data while in SLEEP mode. Slave mode is entered by clearing bit CSRC (TXSTA<7>). 10.4.1 USART SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE TRANSMIT The operation of the synchronous master and slave modes are identical except in the case of the SLEEP mode. If two words are written to the TXREG and then the SLEEP instruction is executed, the following will occur: a) The first word will immediately transfer to the TSR register and transmit. b) The second word will remain in TXREG register. c) Flag bit TXIF will not be set. d) When the first word has been shifted out of TSR, the TXREG register will transfer the second word to the TSR and flag bit TXIF will now be set. e) If enable bit TXIE is set, the interrupt will wake the chip from SLEEP and if the global interrupt is enabled, the program will branch to the interrupt vector (0004h). Steps to follow when setting up a Synchronous Slave Transmission: 1. Enable the synchronous slave serial port by setting bits SYNC and SPEN and clearing bit CSRC. 2. Clear bits CREN and SREN. 3. If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit TXIE. 4. If 9-bit transmission is desired, then set bit TX9. 5. Enable the transmission by setting enable bit TXEN. 6. If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit should be loaded in bit TX9D. 7. Start transmission by loading data to the TXREG register. 10.4.2 USART SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE RECEPTION The operation of the synchronous master and slave modes is identical, except in the case of the SLEEP mode. Bit SREN is a “don't care” in slave mode. If receive is enabled by setting bit CREN prior to the SLEEP instruction, then a word may be received during SLEEP. On completely receiving the word, the RSR register will transfer the data to the RCREG register and if enable bit RCIE bit is set, the interrupt generated will wake the chip from SLEEP. If the global interrupt is enabled, the program will branch to the interrupt vector (0004h). Steps to follow when setting up a Synchronous Slave Reception: 1. Enable the synchronous master serial port by setting bits SYNC and SPEN and clearing bit CSRC. 2. If interrupts are desired, set enable bit RCIE. 3. If 9-bit reception is desired, set bit RX9. 4. To enable reception, set enable bit CREN. 5. Flag bit RCIF will be set when reception is complete and an interrupt will be generated, if enable bit RCIE was set. 6. Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit (if enabled) and determine if any error occurred during reception. 7. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the RCREG register. 8. If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing bit CREN. DS30292B-page 108 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X TABLE 10-10: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE TRANSMISSION Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other Resets 0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 18h RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 0000 000x 0000 000x 19h TXREG USART Transmit Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 98h TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC — BRGH TRMT TX9D 0000 -010 0000 -010 99h SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for Synchronous Slave Transmission. Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear. TABLE 10-11: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE RECEPTION Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on: POR, BOR Value on all other Resets 0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000 18h RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 0000 000x 0000 000x 1Ah RCRE USART Receive Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 G 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000 98h TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC — BRGH TRMT TX9D 0000 -010 0000 -010 99h SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register 0000 0000 0000 0000 Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for Synchronous Slave Reception. Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the 28-pin devices, always maintain these bits clear. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 109 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292B-page 110 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 11.0 ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER (A/D) MODULE The Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter module has five inputs for the 28-pin devices and eight for the other devices. The analog input charges a sample and hold capacitor. The output of the sample and hold capacitor is the input into the converter. The converter then generates a digital result of this analog level via successive approximation. The A/D conversion of the analog input signal results in a corresponding 10-bit digital number. The A/D module has high and low voltage reference input that is software selectable to some combination of VDD, VSS, RA2 or RA3. The A/D converter has a unique feature of being able to operate while the device is in SLEEP mode. To operate in sleep, the A/D clock must be derived from the A/D’s internal RC oscillator. The A/D module has four registers. These registers are: • A/D Result High Register (ADRESH) • A/D Result Low Register (ADRESL) • A/D Control Register0 (ADCON0) • A/D Control Register1 (ADCON1) The ADCON0 register, shown in Register 11-1, controls the operation of the A/D module. The ADCON1 register, shown in Register 11-2, configures the functions of the port pins. The port pins can be configured as analog inputs (RA3 can also be the voltage reference) or as digital I/O. Additional information on using the A/D module can be found in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual (DS33023). REGISTER 11-1: ADCON0 REGISTER (ADDRESS: 1Fh) R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 ADCS1 ADCS0 CHS2 CHS1 CHS0 GO/DONE — bit7 ADON bit0 R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n = Value at POR reset bit 7-6: ADCS1:ADCS0: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits 00 = FOSC/2 01 = FOSC/8 10 = FOSC/32 11 = FRC (clock derived from an RC oscillation) bit 5-3: CHS2:CHS0: Analog Channel Select bits 000 = channel 0, (RA0/AN0) 001 = channel 1, (RA1/AN1) 010 = channel 2, (RA2/AN2) 011 = channel 3, (RA3/AN3) 100 = channel 4, (RA5/AN4) 101 = channel 5, (RE0/AN5)(1) 110 = channel 6, (RE1/AN6)(1) 111 = channel 7, (RE2/AN7)(1) bit 2: GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit If ADON = 1 1 = A/D conversion in progress (setting this bit starts the A/D conversion) 0 = A/D conversion not in progress (This bit is automatically cleared by hardware when the A/D conversion is complete) bit 1: Unimplemented: Read as '0' bit 0: ADON: A/D On bit 1 = A/D converter module is operating 0 = A/D converter module is shutoff and consumes no operating current Note 1: These channels are not available on the 28-pin devices. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 111 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm REGISTER 11-2: ADCON1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 9Fh) U-0 U-0 ADFM — bit7 R/W-0 — U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 — PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 bit0 bit 7: bit 6-4: bit 3-0: ADFM: A/D Result format select 1 = Right Justified. 6 most significant bits of ADRESH are read as ‘0’. 0 = Left Justified. 6 least significant bits of ADRESL are read as ‘0’. Unimplemented: Read as ’0’ PCFG3:PCFG0: A/D Port Configuration Control bits R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’ - n = Value at POR reset PCFG3: AN7(1) AN6(1) AN5(1) AN4 PCFG0 RE2 RE1 RE0 RA5 AN3 RA3 AN2 RA2 AN1 RA1 AN0 RA0 VREF+ VREF- CHAN / Refs(2) 0000 A A A A A A A A VDD VSS 8/0 0001 A A A A VREF+ A A A RA3 VSS 7/1 0010 D D D A A A A A VDD VSS 5/0 0011 D D D A VREF+ A A A RA3 VSS 4/1 0100 D D D D A D A A VDD VSS 3/0 0101 D D D D VREF+ D A A RA3 VSS 2/1 011x D D D D D D D D VDD VSS 0/0 1000 A A A A VREF+ VREF- A A RA3 RA2 6/2 1001 D D A A A A A A VDD VSS 6/0 1010 D D A A VREF+ A A A RA3 VSS 5/1 1011 D D A A VREF+ VREF- A A RA3 RA2 4/2 1100 D D D A VREF+ VREF- A A RA3 RA2 3/2 1101 D D D D VREF+ VREF- A A RA3 RA2 2/2 1110 D D D D D D D A VDD VSS 1/0 1111 D D D D VREF+ VREF- D A RA3 RA2 1/2 A = Analog input D = Digital I/O Note 1: These channels are not available on the 28-pin devices. 2: This column indicates the number of analog channels available as A/D inputs and the numer of analog channels used as voltage reference inputs. DS30292B-page 112 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com The ADRESH:ADRESL registers contain the 10-bit result of the A/D conversion. When the A/D conversion is complete, the result is loaded into this A/D result register pair, the GO/DONE bit (ADCON0<2>) is cleared and the A/D interrupt flag bit ADIF is set. The block diagram of the A/D module is shown in Figure 11-1. After the A/D module has been configured as desired, the selected channel must be acquired before the conversion is started. The analog input channels must have their corresponding TRIS bits selected as inputs. To determine sample time, see Section 11.1. After this acquisition time has elapsed, the A/D conversion can be started. The following steps should be followed for doing an A/D conversion: 1. Configure the A/D module: • Configure analog pins / voltage reference / and digital I/O (ADCON1) • Select A/D input channel (ADCON0) • Select A/D conversion clock (ADCON0) • Turn on A/D module (ADCON0) 2. Configure A/D interrupt (if desired): • Clear ADIF bit • Set ADIE bit • Set GIE bit 3. Wait the required acquisition time. 4. Start conversion: • Set GO/DONE bit (ADCON0) 5. Wait for A/D conversion to complete, by either: • Polling for the GO/DONE bit to be cleared OR • Waiting for the A/D interrupt 6. Read A/D Result register pair (ADRESH:ADRESL), clear bit ADIF if required. 7. For next conversion, go to step 1 or step 2 as required. The A/D conversion time per bit is defined as TAD. A minimum wait of 2TAD is required before next acquisition starts. PIC16F87X © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 113 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 11-1: A/D BLOCK DIAGRAM A/D Converter VAIN (Input voltage) VDD VREF+ (Reference voltage) PCFG3:PCFG0 CHS2:CHS0 111 110 101 100 011 010 001 000 RE2/AN7(1) RE1/AN6(1) RE0/AN5(1) RA5/AN4 RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA2/AN2/VREFRA1/AN1 RA0/AN0 VREF- (Reference voltage) VSS PCFG3:PCFG0 Note 1: Not available on 28-pin devices. 11.1 A/D Acquisition Requirements For the A/D converter to meet its specified accuracy, the charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) must be allowed to fully charge to the input channel voltage level. The analog input model is shown in Figure 11-2. The source impedance (RS) and the internal sampling switch (RSS) impedance directly affect the time required to charge the capacitor CHOLD. The sampling switch (RSS) impedance varies over the device voltage (VDD), Figure 11-2. The maximum recommended impedance for analog sources is 10 kΩ. As the impedance is decreased, the acquisition time may be decreased. After the analog input channel is selected (changed), this acquisition must be done before the conversion can be started. To calculate the minimum acquisition time, Equation 11-1 may be used. This equation assumes that 1/2 LSb error is used (1024 steps for the A/D). The 1/2 LSb error is the maximum error allowed for the A/D to meet its specified resolution. To calculate the minimum acquisition time, TACQ, see the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual (DS33023). DS30292B-page 114 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X EQUATION 11-1: ACQUISITION TIME TACQ = Amplifier Settling Time + Hold Capacitor Charging Time + Temperature Coefficient = = TC = = = TACQ = = TAMP + TC + TCOFF 2µS + TC + [(Temperature -25°C)(0.05µS/°C)] CHOLD (RIC + RSS + RS) In(1/2047) - 120pF (1kΩ + 7kΩ + 10kΩ) In(0.0004885) 16.47µS 2µS + 16.47µS + [(50°C -25×C)(0.05µS/×C) 19.72µS Note 1: The reference voltage (VREF) has no effect on the equation, since it cancels itself out. 2: The charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) is not discharged after each conversion. 3: The maximum recommended impedance for analog sources is 10 kΩ. This is required to meet the pin leakage specification. 4: After a conversion has completed, a 2.0TAD delay must complete before acquisition can begin again. During this time, the holding capacitor is not connected to the selected A/D input channel. FIGURE 11-2: ANALOG INPUT MODEL RS ANx VDD VT = 0.6V VA CPIN 5 pF VT = 0.6V Sampling Switch RIC ≤ 1k SS RSS I LEAKAGE ± 500 nA CHOLD = DAC capacitance = 120 pF VSS Legend CPIN = input capacitance VT = threshold voltage I LEAKAGE = leakage current at the pin due to various junctions RIC SS CHOLD = interconnect resistance = sampling switch = sample/hold capacitance (from DAC) 6V 5V VDD 4V 3V 2V 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Sampling Switch ( kΩ ) © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 115 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 11.2 Selecting the A/D Conversion Clock The A/D conversion time per bit is defined as TAD. The A/D conversion requires a minimum 12TAD per 10-bit conversion. The source of the A/D conversion clock is software selected. The four possible options for TAD are: • 2TOSC • 8TOSC • 32TOSC • Internal RC oscillator For correct A/D conversions, the A/D conversion clock (TAD) must be selected to ensure a minimum TAD time of 1.6 µs. Table 11-1shows the resultant TAD times derived from the device operating frequencies and the A/D clock source selected. TABLE 11-1: TAD vs. MAXIMUM DEVICE OPERATING FREQUENCIES (STANDARD DEVICES (C)) AD Clock Source (TAD) Maximum Device Frequency Operation ADCS1:ADCS0 Max. 2TOSC 00 1.25 MHz 8TOSC 01 5 MHz 32TOSC 10 20 MHz RC(1, 2, 3) 11 Note 1 Note 1: The RC source has a typical TAD time of 4 µs but can vary between 2-6 µs. 2: When the device frequencies are greater than 1 MHz, the RC A/D conversion clock source is only recommended for sleep operation. 3: For extended voltage devices (LC), please refer to the Electrical Specifications section. 11.3 Configuring Analog Port Pins The ADCON1, and TRIS registers control the operation of the A/D port pins. The port pins that are desired as analog inputs must have their corresponding TRIS bits set (input). If the TRIS bit is cleared (output), the digital output level (VOH or VOL) will be converted. The A/D operation is independent of the state of the CHS2:CHS0 bits and the TRIS bits. Note 1: When reading the port register, any pin configured as an analog input channel will read as cleared (a low level). Pins configured as digital inputs will convert an analog input. Analog levels on a digitally configured input will not affect the conversion accuracy. 2: Analog levels on any pin that is defined as a digital input (including the AN7:AN0 pins), may cause the input buffer to consume current that is out of the device specifications. DS30292B-page 116 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 11.4 A/D Conversions Clearing the GO/DONE bit during a conversion will abort the current conversion. The A/D result register pair will NOT be updated with the partially completed A/D conversion sample. That is, the ADRESH:ADRESL registers will continue to contain the value of the last completed conversion (or the last value written to the ADRESH:ADRESL registers). After the A/D conversion is aborted, a 2TAD wait is required before the next acquisition is started. After this 2TAD wait, acquisition on the selected channel is automatically started. In Figure 11-3, after the GO bit is set, the first time segmant has a minimum of TCY and a maximum of TAD. Note: The GO/DONE bit should NOT be set in the same instruction that turns on the A/D. FIGURE 11-3: A/D CONVERSION TAD CYCLES TCY to TAD TAD1 TAD2 TAD3 TAD4 TAD5 TAD6 TAD7 TAD8 TAD9 TAD10 TAD11 b9 b8 b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0 Conversion Starts Holding capacitor is disconnected from analog input (typically 100 ns) Set GO bit ADRES is loaded, GO bit is cleared, ADIF bit is set, holding capacitor is connected to analog input. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 117 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 11.4.1 A/D RESULT REGISTERS The ADRESH:ADRESL register pair is the location where the 10-bit A/D result is loaded at the completion of the A/D conversion. This register pair is 16-bits wide. The A/D module gives the flexibility to left or right justify the 10-bit result in the 16-bit result register. The A/D Format Select bit (ADFM) controls this justification. Figure 11-4 shows the operation of the A/D result justification. The extra bits are loaded with ’0’s’. When an A/D result will not overwrite these locations (A/D disable), these registers may be used as two general purpose 8-bit registers. 11.5 A/D Operation During Sleep The A/D module can operate during SLEEP mode. This requires that the A/D clock source be set to RC (ADCS1:ADCS0 = 11). When the RC clock source is selected, the A/D module waits one instruction cycle before starting the conversion. This allows the SLEEP instruction to be executed, which eliminates all digital switching noise from the conversion. When the conversion is completed the GO/DONE bit will be cleared and the result loaded into the ADRES register. If the A/D interrupt is enabled, the device will wake-up from FIGURE 11-4: A/D RESULT JUSTIFICATION SLEEP. If the A/D interrupt is not enabled, the A/D module will then be turned off, although the ADON bit will remain set. When the A/D clock source is another clock option (not RC), a SLEEP instruction will cause the present conversion to be aborted and the A/D module to be turned off, though the ADON bit will remain set. Turning off the A/D places the A/D module in its lowest current consumption state. Note: For the A/D module to operate in SLEEP, the A/D clock source must be set to RC (ADCS1:ADCS0 = 11). To allow the conversion to occur during SLEEP, ensure the SLEEP instruction immediately follows the instruction that sets the GO/DONE bit. 11.6 Effects of a Reset A device reset forces all registers to their reset state. This forces the A/D module to be turned off, and any conversion is aborted. The value that is in the ADRESH:ADRESL registers is not modified for a Power-on Reset. The ADRESH:ADRESL registers will contain unknown data after a Power-on Reset. 10-Bit Result ADFM = 1 ADFM = 0 7 2107 0 0000 00 ADRESH ADRESL 10-bit Result Right Justified 7 0765 0 0000 00 ADRESH ADRESL 10-bit Result Left Justified DS30292B-page 118 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X TABLE 11-2: REGISTERS/BITS ASSOCIATED WITH A/D Addr Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 POR, BOR 0Bh INTCON GIE PEIE T0IE INTE RBIE T0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 1Eh ADRESH A/D Result Register High Byte xxxx xxxx 9Eh ADRESL A/D Result Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx 1Fh ADCON0 ADCS1 ADCS0 CHS2 CHS1 CHS0 GO/DONE — ADON 0000 00-0 9Fh ADCON1 ADFM — — — PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 --0- 0000 85h TRISA — — PORTA Data Direction Register --11 1111 05h PORTA — — PORTA Data Latch when written: PORTA pins when read --0x 0000 89h(1) TRISE IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE — PORTE Data Direction Bits 0000 -111 09h(1) PORTE — — — — — RE2 RE1 RE0 ---- -xxx Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for A/D conversion. Note 1: These registers/bits are not available on the 28-pin devices. MCLR, WDT 0000 000u 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu 0000 00-0 --0- 0000 --11 1111 --0u 0000 0000 -111 ---- -uuu © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 119 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292B-page 120 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 12.0 SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE CPU These devices have a host of features intended to maximize system reliability, minimize cost through elimination of external components, provide power saving operating modes and offer code protection. These are: • OSC Selection • Reset - Power-on Reset (POR) - Power-up Timer (PWRT) - Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) - Brown-out Reset (BOR) • Interrupts • Watchdog Timer (WDT) • SLEEP • Code protection • ID locations • In-Circuit Serial Programming • Low Voltage In-Circuit Serial Programming • In-Circuit Debugger These devices have a watchdog timer, which can be shut off only through configuration bits. It runs off its own RC oscillator for added reliability. There are two timers that offer necessary delays on power-up. One is the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST), intended to keep the chip in reset until the crystal oscillator is stable. The other is the Power-up Timer (PWRT), which provides a fixed delay of 72 ms (nominal) on power-up only. It is designed to keep the part in reset while the power supply stabilizes. With these two timers on-chip, most applications need no external reset circuitry. SLEEP mode is designed to offer a very low current power-down mode. The user can wake-up from SLEEP through external reset, Watchdog Timer Wake-up, or through an interrupt. Several oscillator options are also made available to allow the part to fit the application. The RC oscillator option saves system cost while the LP crystal option saves power. A set of configuration bits are used to select various options. Additional information on special features is available in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual, (DS33023). PIC16F87X 12.1 Configuration Bits The configuration bits can be programmed (read as '0') or left unprogrammed (read as '1') to select various device configurations. These bits are mapped in program memory location 2007h. The user will note that address 2007h is beyond the user program memory space. In fact, it belongs to the special test/configuration memory space (2000h 3FFFh), which can be accessed only during programming. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 121 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm REGISTER 12-1: CONFIGURATION WORD CP1 CP0 DEBUG — WRT CPD LVP BODEN CP1 CP0 PWRTE WDTE F0SC1 F0SC0 bit13 bit0 bit 13-12: bit 5-4: CP1:CP0: Flash Program Memory Code Protection bits (2) 11 = Code protection off 10 = 1F00h to 1FFFh code protected (PIC16F877, 876) 10 = 0F00h to 0FFFh code protected (PIC16F874, 873) 01 = 1000h to 1FFFh code protected (PIC16F877, 876) 01 = 0800h to 0FFFh code protected (PIC16F874, 873) 00 = 0000h to 1FFFh code protected (PIC16F877, 876) 00 = 0000h to 0FFFh code protected (PIC16F874, 873) bit 11: DEBUG: In-Circuit Debugger Mode 1 = In-Circuit Debugger disabled, RB6 and RB7 are general purpose I/O pins. 0 = In-Circuit Debugger enabled, RB6 and RB7 are dedicated to the debugger. bit 10: Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’ bit 9: WRT: Flash Program Memory Write Enable 1 = Unprotected program memory may be written to by EECON control 0 = Unprotected program memory may not be written to by EECON control bit 8: CPD: Data EE Memory Code Protection 1 = Code protection off 0 = Data EEPROM memory code protected bit 7: bit 6: bit 3: LVP: Low Voltage In-Circuit Serial Programming Enable bit 1 = RB3/PGM pin has PGM function, low voltage programming enabled 0 = RB3 is digital I/O, HV on MCLR must be used for programming BODEN: Brown-out Reset Enable bit (1) 1 = BOR enabled 0 = BOR disabled PWRTE: Power-up Timer Enable bit (1) 1 = PWRT disabled 0 = PWRT enabled bit 2: WDTE: Watchdog Timer Enable bit 1 = WDT enabled 0 = WDT disabled bit 1-0: FOSC1:FOSC0: Oscillator Selection bits 11 = RC oscillator 10 = HS oscillator 01 = XT oscillator 00 = LP oscillator Register: CONFIG Address 2007h Note 1: Enabling Brown-out Reset automatically enables Power-up Timer (PWRT), regardless of the value of bit PWRTE. Ensure the Power-up Timer is enabled anytime Brown-out Reset is enabled. 2: All of the CP1:CP0 pairs have to be given the same value to enable the code protection scheme listed. DS30292B-page 122 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 12.2 Oscillator Configurations 12.2.1 OSCILLATOR TYPES The PIC16F87X can be operated in four different oscillator modes. The user can program two configuration bits (FOSC1 and FOSC0) to select one of these four modes: • LP • XT • HS • RC Low Power Crystal Crystal/Resonator High Speed Crystal/Resonator Resistor/Capacitor 12.2.2 CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR/CERAMIC RESONATORS In XT, LP or HS modes, a crystal or ceramic resonator is connected to the OSC1/CLKIN and OSC2/CLKOUT pins to establish oscillation (Figure 12-1). The PIC16F87X oscillator design requires the use of a parallel cut crystal. Use of a series cut crystal may give a frequency out of the crystal manufacturers specifications. When in XT, LP or HS modes, the device can have an external clock source to drive the OSC1/ CLKIN pin (Figure 12-2). FIGURE 12-1: CRYSTAL/CERAMIC RESONATOR OPERATION (HS, XT OR LP OSC CONFIGURATION) C1(1) OSC1 XTAL C2(1) OSC2 RS(2) RF(3) To internal logic SLEEP PIC16F87X Note 1: See Table 12-1 and Table 12-2 for recommended values of C1 and C2. 2: A series resistor (RS) may be required for AT strip cut crystals. 3: RF varies with the crystal chosen. FIGURE 12-2: EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT OPERATION (HS, XT OR LP OSC CONFIGURATION) Clock from ext. system Open OSC1 PIC16F87X OSC2 PIC16F87X TABLE 12-1: CERAMIC RESONATORS Ranges Tested: Mode Freq OSC1 OSC2 XT 455 kHz 68 - 100 pF 68 - 100 pF 2.0 MHz 15 - 68 pF 15 - 68 pF 4.0 MHz 15 - 68 pF 15 - 68 pF HS 8.0 MHz 10 - 68 pF 10 - 68 pF 16.0 MHz 10 - 22 pF 10 - 22 pF These values are for design guidance only. See notes at bottom of page. Resonators Used: 455 kHz Panasonic EFO-A455K04B ± 0.3% 2.0 MHz Murata Erie CSA2.00MG ± 0.5% 4.0 MHz Murata Erie CSA4.00MG ± 0.5% 8.0 MHz Murata Erie CSA8.00MT ± 0.5% 16.0 MHz Murata Erie CSA16.00MX ± 0.5% All resonators used did not have built-in capacitors. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 123 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 12-2: CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR Osc Type Crystal Freq Cap. Range C1 Cap. Range C2 LP 32 kHz 33 pF 33 pF 200 kHz 15 pF 15 pF XT 200 kHz 47-68 pF 47-68 pF 1 MHz 15 pF 15 pF 4 MHz 15 pF 15 pF HS 4 MHz 15 pF 15 pF 8 MHz 15-33 pF 15-33 pF 20 MHz 15-33 pF 15-33 pF These values are for design guidance only. See notes at bottom of page. Crystals Used 32 kHz Epson C-001R32.768K-A ± 20 PPM 200 kHz STD XTL 200.000KHz ± 20 PPM 1 MHz ECS ECS-10-13-1 ± 50 PPM 4 MHz ECS ECS-40-20-1 ± 50 PPM 8 MHz EPSON CA-301 8.000M-C ± 30 PPM 20 MHz EPSON CA-301 20.000M-C ± 30 PPM Note 1: Higher capacitance increases the stability of oscillator but also increases the start-up time. 2: Since each resonator/crystal has its own characteristics, the user should consult the resonator/crystal manufacturer for appropriate values of external components. 3: Rs may be required in HS mode, as well as XT mode, to avoid overdriving crystals with low drive level specification. 4: When migrating from other PICmicro devices, oscillator performance should be verified. 12.2.3 RC OSCILLATOR For timing insensitive applications, the “RC” device option offers additional cost savings. The RC oscillator frequency is a function of the supply voltage, the resistor (REXT) and capacitor (CEXT) values, and the operating temperature. In addition to this, the oscillator frequency will vary from unit to unit due to normal process parameter variation. Furthermore, the difference in lead frame capacitance between package types will also affect the oscillation frequency, especially for low CEXT values. The user also needs to take into account variation due to tolerance of external R and C components used. Figure 12-3 shows how the R/C combination is connected to the PIC16F87X. FIGURE 12-3: RC OSCILLATOR MODE VDD Rext OSC1 Internal Clock Cext PIC16F87X VSS OSC2/CLKOUT FOSC/4 Recommended values: 3 kΩ ≤ Rext ≤ 100 kΩ Cext > 20pF DS30292B-page 124 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 12.3 Reset The PIC16F87X differentiates between various kinds of reset: • Power-on Reset (POR) • MCLR reset during normal operation • MCLR reset during SLEEP • WDT Reset (during normal operation) • WDT Wake-up (during SLEEP) • Brown-out Reset (BOR) Some registers are not affected in any reset condition. Their status is unknown on POR and unchanged in any other reset. Most other registers are reset to a “reset state” on Power-on Reset (POR), on the MCLR and WDT Reset, on MCLR reset during SLEEP, and Brownout Reset (BOR). They are not affected by a WDT Wake-up, which is viewed as the resumption of normal operation. The TO and PD bits are set or cleared differently in different reset situations as indicated in Table 12-4. These bits are used in software to determine the nature of the reset. See Table 12-6 for a full description of reset states of all registers. A simplified block diagram of the on-chip reset circuit is shown in Figure 12-4. These devices have a MCLR noise filter in the MCLR reset path. The filter will detect and ignore small pulses. It should be noted that a WDT Reset does not drive MCLR pin low. FIGURE 12-4: SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT External Reset MCLR VDD OSC1 WDT Module VDD rise detect SLEEP WDT Time-out Reset Power-on Reset Brown-out Reset BODEN OST/PWRT OST 10-bit Ripple counter (1) On-chip RC OSC PWRT 10-bit Ripple counter S Chip_Reset R Q Enable PWRT Enable OST Note 1: This is a separate oscillator from the RC oscillator of the CLKIN pin. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 125 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 12.4 Power-On Reset (POR) A Power-on Reset pulse is generated on-chip when VDD rise is detected (in the range of 1.2V - 1.7V). To take advantage of the POR, tie the MCLR pin directly (or through a resistor) to VDD. This will eliminate external RC components usually needed to create a Poweron Reset. A maximum rise time for VDD is specified. See Electrical Specifications for details. When the device starts normal operation (exits the reset condition), device operating parameters (voltage, frequency, temperature,...) must be met to ensure operation. If these conditions are not met, the device must be held in reset until the operating conditions are met. Brown-out Reset may be used to meet the start-up conditions. For additional information, refer to Application Note, AN007, “Power-up Trouble Shooting”, (DS00007). 12.5 Power-up Timer (PWRT) The Power-up Timer provides a fixed 72 ms nominal time-out on power-up only from the POR. The Powerup Timer operates on an internal RC oscillator. The chip is kept in reset as long as the PWRT is active. The PWRT’s time delay allows VDD to rise to an acceptable level. A configuration bit is provided to enable/disable the PWRT. The power-up time delay will vary from chip to chip due to VDD, temperature and process variation. See DC parameters for details (TPWRT, parameter #33). 12.6 Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) The Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) provides 1024 oscillator cycle (from OSC1 input) delay after the PWRT delay is over. This ensures that the crystal oscillator or resonator has started and stabilized. The OST time-out is invoked only for XT, LP and HS modes and only on Power-on Reset or wake-up from SLEEP. 12.7 Brown-Out Reset (BOR) The configuration bit, BODEN, can enable or disable the Brown-out Reset circuit. If VDD falls below VBOR (parameter D005, about 4V) for longer than TBOR (parameter #35, about 100µS), the brown-out situation will reset the device. If VDD falls below VBOR for less than TBOR, a reset may not occur. Once the brown-out occurs, the device will remain in brown-out reset until VDD rises above VBOR. The power-up timer then keeps the device in reset for TPWRT (parameter #33, about 72mS). If VDD should fall below VBOR during TPWRT, the brown-out reset process will restart when VDD rises above VBOR with the power-up timer reset. The power-up timer is always enabled when the brown-out reset circuit is enabled regardless of the state of the PWRT configuration bit. 12.8 Time-out Sequence On power-up, the time-out sequence is as follows: The PWRT delay starts (if enabled) when a POR reset occurs. Then OST starts counting 1024 oscillator cycles when PWRT ends (LP, XT, HS). When the OST ends, the device comes out of RESET. If MCLR is kept low long enough, the time-outs will expire. Bringing MCLR high will begin execution immediately. This is useful for testing purposes or to synchronize more than one PIC16CXX device operating in parallel. Table 12-5 shows the reset conditions for the STATUS, PCON and PC registers, while Table 12-6 shows the reset conditions for all the registers. 12.9 Power Control/Status Register (PCON) The Power Control/Status Register, PCON, has up to two bits depending upon the device. Bit0 is Brown-out Reset Status bit, BOR. Bit BOR is unknown on a Power-on Reset. It must then be set by the user and checked on subsequent resets to see if bit BOR cleared, indicating a BOR occurred. The BOR bit is a "don’t care" bit and is not necessarily predictable if the Brown-out Reset circuitry is disabled (by clearing bit BODEN in the Configuration Word). Bit1 is POR (Power-on Reset Status bit). It is cleared on a Power-on Reset and unaffected otherwise. The user must set this bit following a Power-on Reset. DS30292B-page 126 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X TABLE 12-3: TIME-OUT IN VARIOUS SITUATIONS Oscillator Configuration Power-up PWRTE = 0 PWRTE = 1 XT, HS, LP 72 ms + 1024TOSC 1024TOSC RC 72 ms — Brown-out 72 ms + 1024TOSC 72 ms Wake-up from SLEEP 1024TOSC — TABLE 12-4: STATUS BITS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE POR BOR TO PD 0 x 1 1 Power-on Reset 0 x 0 x Illegal, TO is set on POR 0 x x 0 Illegal, PD is set on POR 1 0 1 1 Brown-out Reset 1 1 0 1 WDT Reset 1 1 0 0 WDT Wake-up 1 1 u u MCLR Reset during normal operation 1 1 1 0 MCLR Reset during SLEEP or interrupt wake-up from SLEEP TABLE 12-5: RESET CONDITION FOR SPECIAL REGISTERS Condition Program Counter STATUS Register PCON Register Power-on Reset 000h 0001 1xxx ---- --0x MCLR Reset during normal operation 000h 000u uuuu ---- --uu MCLR Reset during SLEEP 000h 0001 0uuu ---- --uu WDT Reset 000h 0000 1uuu ---- --uu WDT Wake-up PC + 1 uuu0 0uuu ---- --uu Brown-out Reset Interrupt wake-up from SLEEP 000h PC + 1(1) 0001 1uuu uuu1 0uuu ---- --u0 ---- --uu Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit read as '0'. Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0004h). © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 127 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 12-6: INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS Register Devices Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset MCLR Resets WDT Reset Wake-up via WDT or Interrupt W 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu INDF 873 874 876 877 N/A N/A N/A TMR0 PCL STATUS 873 874 876 877 873 874 876 877 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx 0000h 0001 1xxx uuuu uuuu 0000h 000q quuu(3) uuuu uuuu PC + 1(2) uuuq quuu(3) FSR 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu PORTA 873 874 876 877 --0x 0000 --0u 0000 --uu uuuu PORTB 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu PORTC 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu PORTD 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu PORTE 873 874 876 877 ---- -xxx ---- -uuu ---- -uuu PCLATH INTCON PIR1 PIR2 873 874 876 877 873 874 876 877 873 874 876 877 873 874 876 877 873 874 876 877 ---0 0000 0000 000x r000 0000 0000 0000 -r-0 0--0 ---0 0000 0000 000u r000 0000 0000 0000 -r-0 0--0 ---u uuuu uuuu uuuu(1) ruuu uuuu(1) uuuu uuuu(1) -r-u u--u(1) TMR1L 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu TMR1H 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu T1CON 873 874 876 877 --00 0000 --uu uuuu --uu uuuu TMR2 873 874 876 877 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu T2CON 873 874 876 877 -000 0000 -000 0000 -uuu uuuu SSPBUF 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu SSPCON 873 874 876 877 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu CCPR1L 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCPR1H 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCP1CON 873 874 876 877 --00 0000 --00 0000 --uu uuuu RCSTA 873 874 876 877 0000 000x 0000 000x uuuu uuuu TXREG 873 874 876 877 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu RCREG 873 874 876 877 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu CCPR2L 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCPR2H 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu CCP2CON 873 874 876 877 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu ADRESH 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu ADCON0 873 874 876 877 0000 00-0 0000 00-0 uuuu uu-u OPTION_REG 873 874 876 877 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu TRISA 873 874 876 877 --11 1111 --11 1111 --uu uuuu TRISB 873 874 876 877 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu TRISC 873 874 876 877 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu TRISD 873 874 876 877 1111 1111 1111 1111 uuuu uuuu TRISE 873 874 876 877 0000 -111 0000 -111 uuuu -uuu PIE1 873 874 876 877 r000 0000 r000 0000 ruuu uuuu 873 874 876 877 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu PIE2 873 874 876 877 -r-0 0--0 -r-0 0--0 -r-u u--u Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ’0’, q = value depends on condition, r = reserved maintain clear. Note 1: One or more bits in INTCON, PIR1 and/or PIR2 will be affected (to cause wake-up). 2: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0004h). 3: See Table 12-5 for reset value for specific condition. DS30292B-page 128 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X TABLE 12-6: INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED) Register Devices Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset MCLR Resets WDT Reset Wake-up via WDT or Interrupt PCON 873 874 876 877 ---- --qq ---- --uu ---- --uu PR2 873 874 876 877 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 SSPADD 873 874 876 877 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu SSPSTAT 873 874 876 877 --00 0000 --00 0000 --uu uuuu TXSTA 873 874 876 877 0000 -010 0000 -010 uuuu -uuu SPBRG 873 874 876 877 0000 0000 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu ADRESL 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu ADCON1 873 874 876 877 0--- 0000 0--- 0000 u--- uuuu EEDATA 873 874 876 877 0--- 0000 0--- 0000 u--- uuuu EEADR 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu EEDATH 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu EEADRH 873 874 876 877 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu EECON1 873 874 876 877 x--- x000 u--- u000 u--- uuuu EECON2 873 874 876 877 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ’0’, q = value depends on condition, r = reserved maintain clear. Note 1: One or more bits in INTCON, PIR1 and/or PIR2 will be affected (to cause wake-up). 2: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0004h). 3: See Table 12-5 for reset value for specific condition. FIGURE 12-5: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD) VDD MCLR INTERNAL POR PWRT TIME-OUT OST TIME-OUT INTERNAL RESET TPWRT TOST © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 129 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 12-6: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 1 VDD MCLR INTERNAL POR TPWRT PWRT TIME-OUT TOST OST TIME-OUT INTERNAL RESET FIGURE 12-7: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 2 VDD MCLR INTERNAL POR PWRT TIME-OUT TPWRT OST TIME-OUT INTERNAL RESET FIGURE 12-8: SLOW RISE TIME (MCLR TIED TO VDD) 5V VDD 0V 1V MCLR INTERNAL POR PWRT TIME-OUT OST TIME-OUT TPWRT TOST INTERNAL RESET TOST DS30292B-page 130 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 12.10 Interrupts The PIC16F87X family has up to 14 sources of interrupt. The interrupt control register (INTCON) records individual interrupt requests in flag bits. It also has individual and global interrupt enable bits. Note: Individual interrupt flag bits are set, regardless of the status of their corresponding mask bit or the GIE bit. A global interrupt enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>) enables (if set) all un-masked interrupts or disables (if cleared) all interrupts. When bit GIE is enabled, and an interrupt’s flag bit and mask bit are set, the interrupt will vector immediately. Individual interrupts can be disabled through their corresponding enable bits in various registers. Individual interrupt bits are set regardless of the status of the GIE bit. The GIE bit is cleared on reset. The “return from interrupt” instruction, RETFIE, exits the interrupt routine, as well as sets the GIE bit, which re-enables interrupts. FIGURE 12-9: INTERRUPT LOGIC EEIF EEIE PSPIF PSPIE ADIF ADIE RCIF RCIE TXIF TXIE SSPIF SSPIE CCP1IF CCP1IE TMR2IF TMR2IE TMR1IF TMR1IE CCP2IF CCP2IE BCLIF BCLIE The RB0/INT pin interrupt, the RB port change interrupt and the TMR0 overflow interrupt flags are contained in the INTCON register. The peripheral interrupt flags are contained in the special function registers, PIR1 and PIR2. The corresponding interrupt enable bits are contained in special function registers, PIE1 and PIE2, and the peripheral interrupt enable bit is contained in special function register INTCON. When an interrupt is responded to, the GIE bit is cleared to disable any further interrupt, the return address is pushed onto the stack and the PC is loaded with 0004h. Once in the interrupt service routine, the source(s) of the interrupt can be determined by polling the interrupt flag bits. The interrupt flag bit(s) must be cleared in software before re-enabling interrupts to avoid recursive interrupts. For external interrupt events, such as the INT pin or PORTB change interrupt, the interrupt latency will be three or four instruction cycles. The exact latency depends when the interrupt event occurs. The latency is the same for one or two cycle instructions. Individual interrupt flag bits are set regardless of the status of their corresponding mask bit or the GIE bit T0IF T0IE INTF INTE RBIF RBIE PEIE GIE Wake-up (If in SLEEP mode) Interrupt to CPU The following table shows which devices have which interrupts. Device T0IF INTF RBIF PSPIF ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF EEIF BCLIF CCP2IF PIC16F876/873 Yes Yes Yes - Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PIC16F877/874 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 131 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 12.10.1 INT INTERRUPT External interrupt on the RB0/INT pin is edge triggered, either rising, if bit INTEDG (OPTION_REG<6>) is set, or falling, if the INTEDG bit is clear. When a valid edge appears on the RB0/INT pin, flag bit INTF (INTCON<1>) is set. This interrupt can be disabled by clearing enable bit INTE (INTCON<4>). Flag bit INTF must be cleared in software in the interrupt service routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The INT interrupt can wake-up the processor from SLEEP, if bit INTE was set prior to going into SLEEP. The status of global interrupt enable bit GIE decides whether or not the processor branches to the interrupt vector following wake-up. See Section 12.13 for details on SLEEP mode. 12.10.2 TMR0 INTERRUPT An overflow (FFh → 00h) in the TMR0 register will set flag bit T0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit T0IE (INTCON<5>). (Section 5.0) 12.10.3 PORTB INTCON CHANGE An input change on PORTB<7:4> sets flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). The interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit RBIE (INTCON<4>). (Section 3.2) 12.11 Context Saving During Interrupts During an interrupt, only the return PC value is saved on the stack. Typically, users may wish to save key registers during an interrupt, (i.e., W register and STATUS register). This will have to be implemented in software. For the PIC16F873/874 devices, the register W_TEMP must be defined in both banks 0 and 1 and must be defined at the same offset from the bank base address (i.e., If W_TEMP is defined at 0x20 in bank 0, it must also be defined at 0xA0 in bank 1.). The registers, PCLATH_TEMP and STATUS_TEMP, are only defined in bank 0. Since the upper 16 bytes of each bank are common in the PIC16F876/877 devices, temporary holding registers W_TEMP, STATUS_TEMP and PCLATH_TEMP should be placed in here. These 16 locations don’t require banking and therefore, make it easier for context save and restore. The same basic code in Example 12-1 can be used. EXAMPLE 12-1: SAVING STATUS, W, AND PCLATH REGISTERS IN RAM MOVWF W_TEMP ;Copy W to TEMP register SWAPF STATUS,W ;Swap status to be saved into W CLRF STATUS ;bank 0, regardless of current bank, Clears IRP,RP1,RP0 MOVWF STATUS_TEMP ;Save status to bank zero STATUS_TEMP register MOVF PCLATH, W ;Only required if using pages 1, 2 and/or 3 MOVWF PCLATH_TEMP ;Save PCLATH into W CLRF PCLATH ;Page zero, regardless of current page : :(ISR) : MOVF PCLATH_TEMP, W ;Restore PCLATH MOVWF PCLATH ;Move W into PCLATH SWAPF STATUS_TEMP,W ;Swap STATUS_TEMP register into W ;(sets bank to original state) MOVWF STATUS ;Move W into STATUS register SWAPF W_TEMP,F ;Swap W_TEMP SWAPF W_TEMP,W ;Swap W_TEMP into W DS30292B-page 132 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 12.12 Watchdog Timer (WDT) The Watchdog Timer is as a free running on-chip RC oscillator which does not require any external components. This RC oscillator is separate from the RC oscillator of the OSC1/CLKIN pin. That means that the WDT will run, even if the clock on the OSC1/CLKIN and OSC2/CLKOUT pins of the device has been stopped, for example, by execution of a SLEEP instruction. During normal operation, a WDT time-out generates a device RESET (Watchdog Timer Reset). If the device is in SLEEP mode, a WDT time-out causes the device to wake-up and continue with normal operation (Watchdog Timer Wake-up). The TO bit in the STATUS register will be cleared upon a Watchdog Timer time-out. The WDT can be permanently disabled by clearing configuration bit WDTE (Section 12.1). WDT time-out period values may be found in the Electrical Specifications section under parameter #31. Values for the WDT prescaler (actually a postscaler, but shared with the Timer0 prescaler) may be assigned using the OPTION_REG register. Note: . The CLRWDT and SLEEP instructions clear the WDT and the postscaler, if assigned to the WDT, and prevent it from timing out and generating a device RESET condition. Note: When a CLRWDT instruction is executed and the prescaler is assigned to the WDT, the prescaler count will be cleared, but the prescaler assignment is not changed. FIGURE 12-10: WATCHDOG TIMER BLOCK DIAGRAM From TMR0 Clock Source (Figure 5-1) WDT Timer 0 1 M U X Postscaler 8 WDT Enable Bit PSA 8 - to - 1 MUX PS2:PS0 To TMR0 (Figure 5-1) 0 1 MUX PSA Note: PSA and PS2:PS0 are bits in the OPTION_REG register. WDT Time-out FIGURE 12-11: SUMMARY OF WATCHDOG TIMER REGISTERS Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 2007h Config. bits (1) BODEN(1) CP1 81h,181h OPTION_REG RBPU INTEDG T0CS Legend: Shaded cells are not used by the Watchdog Timer. Note 1: See Register 12-1 for operation of these bits. Bit 4 CP0 T0SE Bit 3 PWRTE(1) PSA Bit 2 WDTE PS2 Bit 1 FOSC1 PS1 Bit 0 FOSC0 PS0 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 133 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 12.13 Power-down Mode (SLEEP) Power-down mode is entered by executing a SLEEP instruction. If enabled, the Watchdog Timer will be cleared but keeps running, the PD bit (STATUS<3>) is cleared, the TO (STATUS<4>) bit is set, and the oscillator driver is turned off. The I/O ports maintain the status they had before the SLEEP instruction was executed (driving high, low, or hi-impedance). For lowest current consumption in this mode, place all I/O pins at either VDD or VSS, ensure no external circuitry is drawing current from the I/O pin, power-down the A/D and disable external clocks. Pull all I/O pins that are hi-impedance inputs, high or low externally, to avoid switching currents caused by floating inputs. The T0CKI input should also be at VDD or VSS for lowest current consumption. The contribution from on-chip pull-ups on PORTB should be considered. The MCLR pin must be at a logic high level (VIHMC). 12.13.1 WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP The device can wake up from SLEEP through one of the following events: 1. External reset input on MCLR pin. 2. Watchdog Timer wake-up (if WDT was enabled). 3. Interrupt from INT pin, RB port change or some Peripheral Interrupts. External MCLR Reset will cause a device reset. All other events are considered a continuation of program execution and cause a "wake-up". The TO and PD bits in the STATUS register can be used to determine the cause of device reset. The PD bit, which is set on power-up, is cleared when SLEEP is invoked. The TO bit is cleared if a WDT time-out occurred and caused wake-up. The following peripheral interrupts can wake the device from SLEEP: 1. PSP read or write. 2. TMR1 interrupt. Timer1 must be operating as an asynchronous counter. 3. CCP capture mode interrupt. 4. Special event trigger (Timer1 in asynchronous mode using an external clock). 5. SSP (Start/Stop) bit detect interrupt. 6. SSP transmit or receive in slave mode (SPI/I2C). 7. USART RX or TX (synchronous slave mode). 8. A/D conversion (when A/D clock source is RC). 9. EEPROM write operation completion Other peripherals cannot generate interrupts since during SLEEP, no on-chip clocks are present. When the SLEEP instruction is being executed, the next instruction (PC + 1) is pre-fetched. For the device to wake-up through an interrupt event, the corresponding DS30292B-page 134 interrupt enable bit must be set (enabled). Wake-up is regardless of the state of the GIE bit. If the GIE bit is clear (disabled), the device continues execution at the instruction after the SLEEP instruction. If the GIE bit is set (enabled), the device executes the instruction after the SLEEP instruction and then branches to the interrupt address (0004h). In cases where the execution of the instruction following SLEEP is not desirable, the user should have a NOP after the SLEEP instruction. 12.13.2 WAKE-UP USING INTERRUPTS When global interrupts are disabled (GIE cleared) and any interrupt source has both its interrupt enable bit and interrupt flag bit set, one of the following will occur: • If the interrupt occurs before the execution of a SLEEP instruction, the SLEEP instruction will complete as a NOP. Therefore, the WDT and WDT postscaler will not be cleared, the TO bit will not be set and PD bits will not be cleared. • If the interrupt occurs during or after the execution of a SLEEP instruction, the device will immediately wake up from sleep. The SLEEP instruction will be completely executed before the wake-up. Therefore, the WDT and WDT postscaler will be cleared, the TO bit will be set and the PD bit will be cleared. Even if the flag bits were checked before executing a SLEEP instruction, it may be possible for flag bits to become set before the SLEEP instruction completes. To determine whether a SLEEP instruction executed, test the PD bit. If the PD bit is set, the SLEEP instruction was executed as a NOP. To ensure that the WDT is cleared, a CLRWDT instruction should be executed before a SLEEP instruction. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X FIGURE 12-12: WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP THROUGH INTERRUPT OSC1 CLKOUT(4) Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 TOST(2) INT pin INTF flag (INTCON<1>) GIE bit (INTCON<7>) Processor in SLEEP Interrupt Latency (Note 2) INSTRUCTION FLOW PC Instruction fetched Instruction executed PC Inst(PC) = SLEEP Inst(PC - 1) PC+1 Inst(PC + 1) SLEEP PC+2 PC+2 Inst(PC + 2) Inst(PC + 1) PC + 2 Dummy cycle 0004h Inst(0004h) Dummy cycle 0005h Inst(0005h) Inst(0004h) Note 1: XT, HS or LP oscillator mode assumed. 2: TOST = 1024TOSC (drawing not to scale) This delay will not be there for RC osc mode. 3: GIE = ’1’ assumed. In this case after wake- up, the processor jumps to the interrupt routine. If GIE = ’0’, execution will continue in-line. 4: CLKOUT is not available in these osc modes, but shown here for timing reference. 12.14 In-Circuit Debugger When the DEBUG bit in the configuration word is programmed to a ’0’, the In-Circuit Debugger functionality is enabled. This function allows simple debugging functions when used with MPLAB. When the microcontroller has this feature enabled, some of the resources are not available for general use. Table 12-7 shows which features are consumed by the background debugger. TABLE 12-7: DEBUGGER RESOURCES I/O pins RB6, RB7 Stack 1 level Program Memory Address 0000h must be NOP Last 100h words Data Memory 0x070(0x0F0, 0x170, 0x1F0) 0x1EB - 0x1EF To use the In-Circuit Debugger function of the microcontroller, the design must implement In-Circuit Serial Programming connections to MCLR/VPP, VDD, GND, RB7 and RB6. This will interface to the In-Circuit Debugger module available from Microchip or one of the third party development tool companies. 12.15 Program Verification/Code Protection If the code protection bit(s) have not been programmed, the on-chip program memory can be read out for verification purposes. 12.16 ID Locations Four memory locations (2000h - 2003h) are designated as ID locations where the user can store checksum or other code-identification numbers. These locations are not accessible during normal execution but are readable and writable during program/verify. It is recommended that only the 4 least significant bits of the ID location are used. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 135 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 12.17 In-Circuit Serial Programming PIC16F87X microcontrollers can be serially programmed while in the end application circuit. This is simply done with two lines for clock and data and three other lines for power, ground, and the programming voltage. This allows customers to manufacture boards with unprogrammed devices, and then program the microcontroller just before shipping the product. This also allows the most recent firmware or a custom firmware to be programmed. When using ICSP, the part must be supplied 4.5V to 5.5V if a bulk erase will be executed. This includes reprogramming of the code protect both from an onstate to off-state. For all other cases of ICSP, the part may be programmed at the normal operating voltages. This means calibration values, unique user IDs or user code can be reprogrammed or added. For complete details of serial programming, please refer to the In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP™) Guide, (DS30277B). 12.18 Low Voltage ICSP Programming The LVP bit of the configuration word enables low voltage ICSP programming. This mode allows the microcontroller to be programmed via ICSP using a VDD source in the operating voltage range. This only means that VPP does not have to be brought to VIHH, but can instead be left at the normal operating voltage. In this mode, the RB3/PGM pin is dedicated to the programming function and ceases to be a general purpose I/O pin. During programming, VDD is applied to the MCLR pin. To enter programming mode, VDD must be applied to the RB3/PGM provided the LVP bit is set. The LVP bit defaults to on (‘1’) from the factory. Note 1: The high voltage programming mode is always available, regardless of the state of the LVP bit, by applying VIHH to the MCLR pin. 2: While in low voltage ICSP mode, the RB3 pin can no longer be used as a general purpose I/O pin. 3: When using low voltage ICSP programming (LVP) and the pull-ups on PORTB are enabled, bit 3 in the TRISB register must be cleared to disable the pull-up on RB3 and ensure the proper operation of the device. If low-voltage programming mode is not used, the LVP bit can be programmed to a '0' and RB3/PGM becomes a digital I/O pin. However, the LVP bit may only be programmed when programming is entered with VIHH on MCLR. The LVP bit can only be charged when using high voltage on MCLR. It should be noted, that once the LVP bit is programmed to 0, only the high voltage programming mode is available and only high voltage programming mode can be used to program the device. When using low voltage ICSP, the part must be supplied 4.5V to 5.5V if a bulk erase will be executed. This includes reprogramming of the code protect bits from an on-state to off-state. For all other cases of low voltage ICSP, the part may be programmed at the normal operating voltage. This means calibration values, unique user IDs or user code can be reprogrammed or added. DS30292B-page 136 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 13.0 INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY Each PIC16CXX instruction is a 14-bit word divided into an OPCODE which specifies the instruction type and one or more operands which further specify the operation of the instruction. The PIC16CXX instruction set summary in Table 13-2 lists byte-oriented, bit-oriented, and literal and control operations. Table 13-1 shows the opcode field descriptions. For byte-oriented instructions, ’f’ represents a file register designator and ’d’ represents a destination designator. The file register designator specifies which file register is to be used by the instruction. The destination designator specifies where the result of the operation is to be placed. If ’d’ is zero, the result is placed in the W register. If ’d’ is one, the result is placed in the file register specified in the instruction. For bit-oriented instructions, ’b’ represents a bit field designator which selects the number of the bit affected by the operation, while ’f’ represents the number of the file in which the bit is located. For literal and control operations, ’k’ represents an eight or eleven bit constant or literal value. TABLE 13-1: OPCODE FIELD DESCRIPTIONS Field Description f Register file address (0x00 to 0x7F) W Working register (accumulator) b Bit address within an 8-bit file register k Literal field, constant data or label x Don't care location (= 0 or 1) The assembler will generate code with x = 0. It is the recommended form of use for compatibility with all Microchip software tools. d Destination select; d = 0: store result in W, d = 1: store result in file register f. Default is d = 1 PC Program Counter TO Time-out bit PD Power-down bit The instruction set is highly orthogonal and is grouped into three basic categories: • Byte-oriented operations • Bit-oriented operations • Literal and control operations All instructions are executed within one single instruction cycle, unless a conditional test is true or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction. In this case, the execution takes two instruction cycles with the second cycle executed as a NOP. One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods. Thus, for an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, the normal instruction PIC16F87X execution time is 1 µs. If a conditional test is true or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction, the instruction execution time is 2 µs. Table 13-2 lists the instructions recognized by the MPASM assembler. Figure 13-1 shows the general formats that the instructions can have. Note: To maintain upward compatibility with future PIC16CXX products, do not use the OPTION and TRIS instructions. All examples use the following format to represent a hexadecimal number: 0xhh where h signifies a hexadecimal digit. FIGURE 13-1: GENERAL FORMAT FOR INSTRUCTIONS Byte-oriented file register operations 13 8 76 0 OPCODE d f (FILE #) d = 0 for destination W d = 1 for destination f f = 7-bit file register address Bit-oriented file register operations 13 10 9 7 6 0 OPCODE b (BIT #) f (FILE #) b = 3-bit bit address f = 7-bit file register address Literal and control operations General 13 OPCODE 87 k = 8-bit immediate value 0 k (literal) CALL and GOTO instructions only 13 11 10 0 OPCODE k (literal) k = 11-bit immediate value A description of each instruction is available in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual, (DS33023). © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 137 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 13-2: PIC16CXXX INSTRUCTION SET Mnemonic, Operands Description Cycles 14-Bit Opcode MSb Status Notes LSb Affected BYTE-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS ADDWF ANDWF CLRF CLRW COMF DECF DECFSZ INCF INCFSZ IORWF MOVF MOVWF NOP RLF RRF SUBWF SWAPF XORWF f, d Add W and f f, d AND W with f f Clear f - Clear W f, d Complement f f, d Decrement f f, d Decrement f, Skip if 0 f, d Increment f f, d Increment f, Skip if 0 f, d Inclusive OR W with f f, d Move f f Move W to f - No Operation f, d Rotate Left f through Carry f, d Rotate Right f through Carry f, d Subtract W from f f, d Swap nibbles in f f, d Exclusive OR W with f 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1(2) 00 1 00 1(2) 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 0111 0101 0001 0001 1001 0011 1011 1010 1111 0100 1000 0000 0000 1101 1100 0010 1110 0110 dfff dfff lfff 0xxx dfff dfff dfff dfff dfff dfff dfff lfff 0xx0 dfff dfff dfff dfff dfff ffff ffff ffff xxxx ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff 0000 ffff ffff ffff ffff ffff C,DC,Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z C C C,DC,Z Z 1,2 1,2 2 1,2 1,2 1,2,3 1,2 1,2,3 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 BIT-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS BCF BSF BTFSC BTFSS f, b Bit Clear f f, b Bit Set f f, b Bit Test f, Skip if Clear f, b Bit Test f, Skip if Set 1 01 00bb bfff ffff 1,2 1 01 01bb bfff ffff 1,2 1 (2) 01 10bb bfff ffff 3 1 (2) 01 11bb bfff ffff 3 LITERAL AND CONTROL OPERATIONS ADDLW k Add literal and W ANDLW k AND literal with W CALL k Call subroutine CLRWDT - Clear Watchdog Timer GOTO k Go to address IORLW k Inclusive OR literal with W MOVLW k Move literal to W RETFIE - Return from interrupt RETLW k Return with literal in W RETURN - Return from Subroutine SLEEP - Go into standby mode SUBLW k Subtract W from literal XORLW k Exclusive OR literal with W 1 11 111x kkkk kkkk C,DC,Z 1 11 1001 kkkk kkkk Z 2 10 0kkk kkkk kkkk 1 00 0000 0110 0100 TO,PD 2 10 1kkk kkkk kkkk 1 11 1000 kkkk kkkk Z 1 11 00xx kkkk kkkk 2 00 0000 0000 1001 2 11 01xx kkkk kkkk 2 00 0000 0000 1000 1 00 0000 0110 0011 TO,PD 1 11 110x kkkk kkkk C,DC,Z 1 11 1010 kkkk kkkk Z Note 1: When an I/O register is modified as a function of itself ( e.g., MOVF PORTB, 1), the value used will be that value present on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is ’1’ for a pin configured as input and is driven low by an external device, the data will be written back with a ’0’. 2: If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and, where applicable, d = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if assigned to the Timer0 Module. 3: If Program Counter (PC) is modified or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second cycle is executed as a NOP. Note: Additional information on the mid-range instruction set is available in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual (DS33023). DS30292B-page 138 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 13.1 Instruction Descriptions ADDLW Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Add Literal and W [label] ADDLW k 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 (W) + k → (W) C, DC, Z The contents of the W register are added to the eight bit literal ’k’ and the result is placed in the W register. ADDWF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Add W and f [label] ADDWF f,d 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] (W) + (f) → (destination) C, DC, Z Add the contents of the W register with register ’f’. If ’d’ is 0, the result is stored in the W register. If ’d’ is 1, the result is stored back in register ’f’. ANDLW Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: AND Literal with W [label] ANDLW k 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 (W) .AND. (k) → (W) Z The contents of W register are AND’ed with the eight bit literal 'k'. The result is placed in the W register. PIC16F87X ANDWF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: AND W with f [label] ANDWF f,d 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] (W) .AND. (f) → (destination) Z AND the W register with register 'f'. If 'd' is 0, the result is stored in the W register. If 'd' is 1, the result is stored back in register 'f'. BCF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Bit Clear f [label] BCF f,b 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 0≤b≤7 0 → (f) None Bit 'b' in register 'f' is cleared. BSF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Bit Set f [label] BSF f,b 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 0≤b≤7 1 → (f) None Bit 'b' in register 'f' is set. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 139 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm BTFSS Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Bit Test f, Skip if Set [label] BTFSS f,b 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 0≤b<7 skip if (f) = 1 None If bit ’b’ in register ’f’ is ’0’, the next instruction is executed. If bit ’b’ is ’1’, then the next instruction is discarded and a NOP is executed instead making this a 2TCY instruction. BTFSC Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Bit Test, Skip if Clear [label] BTFSC f,b 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 0≤b≤7 skip if (f) = 0 None If bit ’b’ in register ’f’ is ’1’, the next instruction is executed. If bit ’b’, in register ’f’, is ’0’, the next instruction is discarded, and a NOP is executed instead, making this a 2TCY instruction. CLRF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Clear f [label] CLRF f 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 00h → (f) 1→Z Z The contents of register ’f’ are cleared and the Z bit is set. CLRW Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Clear W [ label ] CLRW None 00h → (W) 1→Z Z W register is cleared. Zero bit (Z) is set. CALL Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Call Subroutine [ label ] CALL k 0 ≤ k ≤ 2047 (PC)+ 1→ TOS, k → PC<10:0>, (PCLATH<4:3>) → PC<12:11> None Call Subroutine. First, return address (PC+1) is pushed onto the stack. The eleven bit immediate address is loaded into PC bits <10:0>. The upper bits of the PC are loaded from PCLATH. CALL is a two cycle instruction. CLRWDT Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Clear Watchdog Timer [ label ] CLRWDT None 00h → WDT 0 → WDT prescaler, 1 → TO 1 → PD TO, PD CLRWDT instruction resets the Watchdog Timer. It also resets the prescaler of the WDT. Status bits TO and PD are set. DS30292B-page 140 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com COMF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Complement f [ label ] COMF f,d 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] (f) → (destination) Z The contents of register ’f’ are complemented. If ’d’ is 0, the result is stored in W. If ’d’ is 1, the result is stored back in register ’f’. DECF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Decrement f [label] DECF f,d 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] (f) - 1 → (destination) Z Decrement register ’f’. If ’d’ is 0, the result is stored in the W register. If ’d’ is 1, the result is stored back in register ’f’. DECFSZ Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Decrement f, Skip if 0 [ label ] DECFSZ f,d 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] (f) - 1 → (destination); skip if result = 0 None The contents of register ’f’ are decremented. If ’d’ is 0, the result is placed in the W register. If ’d’ is 1, the result is placed back in register ’f’. If the result is 1, the next instruction is executed. If the result is 0, then a NOP is executed instead making it a 2TCY instruction. PIC16F87X GOTO Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Unconditional Branch [ label ] GOTO k 0 ≤ k ≤ 2047 k → PC<10:0> PCLATH<4:3> → PC<12:11> None GOTO is an unconditional branch. The eleven bit immediate value is loaded into PC bits <10:0>. The upper bits of PC are loaded from PCLATH<4:3>. GOTO is a two cycle instruction. INCF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Increment f [ label ] INCF f,d 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] (f) + 1 → (destination) Z The contents of register ’f’ are incremented. If ’d’ is 0, the result is placed in the W register. If ’d’ is 1, the result is placed back in register ’f’. INCFSZ Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Increment f, Skip if 0 [ label ] INCFSZ f,d 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] (f) + 1 → (destination), skip if result = 0 None The contents of register ’f’ are incremented. If ’d’ is 0, the result is placed in the W register. If ’d’ is 1, the result is placed back in register ’f’. If the result is 1, the next instruction is executed. If the result is 0, a NOP is executed instead making it a 2TCY instruction. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 141 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm IORLW Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Inclusive OR Literal with W [ label ] IORLW k 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 (W) .OR. k → (W) Z The contents of the W register are OR’ed with the eight bit literal 'k'. The result is placed in the W register. MOVLW Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Move Literal to W [ label ] MOVLW k 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 k → (W) None The eight bit literal 'k' is loaded into W register. The don’t cares will assemble as 0’s. IORWF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Inclusive OR W with f [ label ] IORWF f,d 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] (W) .OR. (f) → (destination) Z Inclusive OR the W register with register 'f'. If 'd' is 0 the result is placed in the W register. If 'd' is 1 the result is placed back in register 'f'. MOVF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Move f [ label ] MOVF f,d 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] (f) → (destination) Z The contents of register f are moved to a destination dependant upon the status of d. If d = 0, destination is W register. If d = 1, the destination is file register f itself. d = 1 is useful to test a file register since status flag Z is affected. MOVWF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Move W to f [ label ] MOVWF f 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 (W) → (f) None Move data from W register to register 'f'. NOP Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: No Operation [ label ] NOP None No operation None No operation. DS30292B-page 142 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com RETFIE Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Return from Interrupt [ label ] RETFIE None TOS → PC, 1 → GIE None RETLW Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Return with Literal in W [ label ] RETLW k 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 k → (W); TOS → PC None The W register is loaded with the eight bit literal ’k’. The program counter is loaded from the top of the stack (the return address). This is a two cycle instruction. PIC16F87X RLF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Rotate Left f through Carry [ label ] RLF f,d 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] See description below C The contents of register ’f’ are rotated one bit to the left through the Carry Flag. If ’d’ is 0, the result is placed in the W register. If ’d’ is 1, the result is stored back in register ’f’. C Register f RRF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Rotate Right f through Carry [ label ] RRF f,d 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] See description below C The contents of register ’f’ are rotated one bit to the right through the Carry Flag. If ’d’ is 0, the result is placed in the W register. If ’d’ is 1, the result is placed back in register ’f’. C Register f RETURN Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Return from Subroutine [ label ] RETURN None TOS → PC None Return from subroutine. The stack is POPed and the top of the stack (TOS) is loaded into the program counter. This is a two cycle instruction. SLEEP Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: [ label SLEEP ] None 00h → WDT, 0 → WDT prescaler, 1 → TO, 0 → PD TO, PD The power-down status bit, PD is cleared. Time-out status bit, TO is set. Watchdog Timer and its prescaler are cleared. The processor is put into SLEEP mode with the oscillator stopped. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 143 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm SUBLW Syntax: Subtract W from Literal [ label ] SUBLW k Operands: 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 Operation: k - (W) → (W) Status Affected: C, DC, Z Description: The W register is subtracted (2’s complement method) from the eight bit literal 'k'. The result is placed in the W register. XORLW Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Exclusive OR Literal with W [label] XORLW k 0 ≤ k ≤ 255 (W) .XOR. k → (W) Z The contents of the W register are XOR’ed with the eight bit literal 'k'. The result is placed in the W register. SUBWF Subtract W from f Syntax: [ label ] SUBWF f,d Operands: 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] Operation: (f) - (W) → (destination) Status Affected: C, DC, Z Description: Subtract (2’s complement method) W register from register 'f'. If 'd' is 0, the result is stored in the W register. If 'd' is 1, the result is stored back in register 'f'. XORWF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Exclusive OR W with f [label] XORWF f,d 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] (W) .XOR. (f) → (destination) Z Exclusive OR the contents of the W register with register 'f'. If 'd' is 0, the result is stored in the W register. If 'd' is 1, the result is stored back in register 'f'. SWAPF Syntax: Operands: Operation: Status Affected: Description: Swap Nibbles in f [ label ] SWAPF f,d 0 ≤ f ≤ 127 d ∈ [0,1] (f<3:0>) → (destination<7:4>), (f<7:4>) → (destination<3:0>) None The upper and lower nibbles of register 'f' are exchanged. If 'd' is 0, the result is placed in W register. If 'd' is 1, the result is placed in register 'f'. DS30292B-page 144 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 14.0 DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT The PICmicro® microcontrollers are supported with a full range of hardware and software development tools: • Integrated Development Environment - MPLAB® IDE Software • Assemblers/Compilers/Linkers - MPASM Assembler - MPLAB-C17 and MPLAB-C18 C Compilers - MPLINK/MPLIB Linker/Librarian • Simulators - MPLAB-SIM Software Simulator • Emulators - MPLAB-ICE Real-Time In-Circuit Emulator - PICMASTER®/PICMASTER-CE In-Circuit Emulator - ICEPIC™ • In-Circuit Debugger - MPLAB-ICD for PIC16F877 • Device Programmers - PRO MATE® II Universal Programmer - PICSTART® Plus Entry-Level Prototype Programmer • Low-Cost Demonstration Boards - SIMICE - PICDEM-1 - PICDEM-2 - PICDEM-3 - PICDEM-17 - SEEVAL® - KEELOQ® 14.1 MPLAB Integrated Development Environment Software The MPLAB IDE software brings an ease of software development previously unseen in the 8-bit microcontroller market. MPLAB is a Windows®-based application which contains: • Multiple functionality - editor - simulator - programmer (sold separately) - emulator (sold separately) • A full featured editor • A project manager • Customizable tool bar and key mapping • A status bar • On-line help PIC16F87X MPLAB allows you to: • Edit your source files (either assembly or ‘C’) • One touch assemble (or compile) and download to PICmicro tools (automatically updates all project information) • Debug using: - source files - absolute listing file - object code The ability to use MPLAB with Microchip’s simulator, MPLAB-SIM, allows a consistent platform and the ability to easily switch from the cost-effective simulator to the full featured emulator with minimal retraining. 14.2 MPASM Assembler MPASM is a full featured universal macro assembler for all PICmicro MCU’s. It can produce absolute code directly in the form of HEX files for device programmers, or it can generate relocatable objects for MPLINK. MPASM has a command line interface and a Windows shell and can be used as a standalone application on a Windows 3.x or greater system. MPASM generates relocatable object files, Intel standard HEX files, MAP files to detail memory usage and symbol reference, an absolute LST file which contains source lines and generated machine code, and a COD file for MPLAB debugging. MPASM features include: • MPASM and MPLINK are integrated into MPLAB projects. • MPASM allows user defined macros to be created for streamlined assembly. • MPASM allows conditional assembly for multi purpose source files. • MPASM directives allow complete control over the assembly process. 14.3 MPLAB-C17 and MPLAB-C18 C Compilers The MPLAB-C17 and MPLAB-C18 Code Development Systems are complete ANSI ‘C’ compilers and integrated development environments for Microchip’s PIC17CXXX and PIC18CXXX family of microcontrollers, respectively. These compilers provide powerful integration capabilities and ease of use not found with other compilers. For easier source level debugging, the compilers provide symbol information that is compatible with the MPLAB IDE memory display. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 145 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 14.4 MPLINK/MPLIB Linker/Librarian MPLINK is a relocatable linker for MPASM and MPLAB-C17 and MPLAB-C18. It can link relocatable objects from assembly or C source files along with precompiled libraries using directives from a linker script. MPLIB is a librarian for pre-compiled code to be used with MPLINK. When a routine from a library is called from another source file, only the modules that contains that routine will be linked in with the application. This allows large libraries to be used efficiently in many different applications. MPLIB manages the creation and modification of library files. MPLINK features include: • MPLINK works with MPASM and MPLAB-C17 and MPLAB-C18. • MPLINK allows all memory areas to be defined as sections to provide link-time flexibility. MPLIB features include: • MPLIB makes linking easier because single libraries can be included instead of many smaller files. • MPLIB helps keep code maintainable by grouping related modules together. • MPLIB commands allow libraries to be created and modules to be added, listed, replaced, deleted, or extracted. 14.5 MPLAB-SIM Software Simulator The MPLAB-SIM Software Simulator allows code development in a PC host environment by simulating the PICmicro series microcontrollers on an instruction level. On any given instruction, the data areas can be examined or modified and stimuli can be applied from a file or user-defined key press to any of the pins. The execution can be performed in single step, execute until break, or trace mode. MPLAB-SIM fully supports symbolic debugging using MPLAB-C17 and MPLAB-C18 and MPASM. The Software Simulator offers the flexibility to develop and debug code outside of the laboratory environment making it an excellent multi-project software development tool. 14.6 MPLAB-ICE High Performance Universal In-Circuit Emulator with MPLAB IDE The MPLAB-ICE Universal In-Circuit Emulator is intended to provide the product development engineer with a complete microcontroller design tool set for PICmicro microcontrollers (MCUs). Software control of MPLAB-ICE is provided by the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE), which allows editing, “make” and download, and source debugging from a single environment. Interchangeable processor modules allow the system to be easily reconfigured for emulation of different processors. The universal architecture of the MPLAB-ICE allows expansion to support new PICmicro microcontrollers. The MPLAB-ICE Emulator System has been designed as a real-time emulation system with advanced features that are generally found on more expensive development tools. The PC platform and Microsoft® Windows 3.x/95/98 environment were chosen to best make these features available to you, the end user. MPLAB-ICE 2000 is a full-featured emulator system with enhanced trace, trigger, and data monitoring features. Both systems use the same processor modules and will operate across the full operating speed range of the PICmicro MCU. 14.7 PICMASTER/PICMASTER CE The PICMASTER system from Microchip Technology is a full-featured, professional quality emulator system. This flexible in-circuit emulator provides a high-quality, universal platform for emulating Microchip 8-bit PICmicro microcontrollers (MCUs). PICMASTER systems are sold worldwide, with a CE compliant model available for European Union (EU) countries. 14.8 ICEPIC ICEPIC is a low-cost in-circuit emulation solution for the Microchip Technology PIC16C5X, PIC16C6X, PIC16C7X, and PIC16CXXX families of 8-bit one-timeprogrammable (OTP) microcontrollers. The modular system can support different subsets of PIC16C5X or PIC16CXXX products through the use of interchangeable personality modules or daughter boards. The emulator is capable of emulating without target application circuitry being present. 14.9 MPLAB-ICD In-Circuit Debugger Microchip’s In-Circuit Debugger, MPLAB-ICD, is a powerful, low-cost run-time development tool. This tool is based on the flash PIC16F877 and can be used to develop for this and other PICmicro microcontrollers from the PIC16CXXX family. MPLAB-ICD utilizes the In-Circuit Debugging capability built into the PIC16F87X. This feature, along with Microchip’s In-Circuit Serial Programming protocol, offers cost-effective in-circuit flash programming and debugging from the graphical user interface of the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment. This enables a designer to develop and debug source code by watching variables, single-stepping and setting break points. Running at full speed enables testing hardware in real-time. The MPLAB-ICD is also a programmer for the flash PIC16F87X family. DS30292B-page 146 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 14.10 PRO MATE II Universal Programmer The PRO MATE II Universal Programmer is a full-featured programmer capable of operating in stand-alone mode as well as PC-hosted mode. PRO MATE II is CE compliant. The PRO MATE II has programmable VDD and VPP supplies which allows it to verify programmed memory at VDD min and VDD max for maximum reliability. It has an LCD display for instructions and error messages, keys to enter commands and a modular detachable socket assembly to support various package types. In stand-alone mode the PRO MATE II can read, verify or program PICmicro devices. It can also set code-protect bits in this mode. 14.11 PICSTART Plus Entry Level Development System The PICSTART programmer is an easy-to-use, lowcost prototype programmer. It connects to the PC via one of the COM (RS-232) ports. MPLAB Integrated Development Environment software makes using the programmer simple and efficient. PICSTART Plus supports all PICmicro devices with up to 40 pins. Larger pin count devices such as the PIC16C92X, and PIC17C76X may be supported with an adapter socket. PICSTART Plus is CE compliant. 14.12 SIMICE Entry-Level Hardware Simulator SIMICE is an entry-level hardware development system designed to operate in a PC-based environment with Microchip’s simulator MPLAB-SIM. Both SIMICE and MPLAB-SIM run under Microchip Technology’s MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) software. Specifically, SIMICE provides hardware simulation for Microchip’s PIC12C5XX, PIC12CE5XX, and PIC16C5X families of PICmicro 8-bit microcontrollers. SIMICE works in conjunction with MPLAB-SIM to provide non-real-time I/O port emulation. SIMICE enables a developer to run simulator code for driving the target system. In addition, the target system can provide input to the simulator code. This capability allows for simple and interactive debugging without having to manually generate MPLAB-SIM stimulus files. SIMICE is a valuable debugging tool for entry-level system development. 14.13 PICDEM-1 Low-Cost PICmicro Demonstration Board The PICDEM-1 is a simple board which demonstrates the capabilities of several of Microchip’s microcontrollers. The microcontrollers supported are: PIC16C5X (PIC16C54 to PIC16C58A), PIC16C61, PIC16C62X, PIC16C71, PIC16C8X, PIC17C42, PIC17C43 and PIC17C44. All necessary hardware and software is included to run basic demo programs. The users can program the sample microcontrollers provided with © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. PIC16F87X the PICDEM-1 board, on a PRO MATE II or PICSTART-Plus programmer, and easily test firmware. The user can also connect the PICDEM-1 board to the MPLAB-ICE emulator and download the firmware to the emulator for testing. Additional prototype area is available for the user to build some additional hardware and connect it to the microcontroller socket(s). Some of the features include an RS-232 interface, a potentiometer for simulated analog input, push-button switches and eight LEDs connected to PORTB. 14.14 PICDEM-2 Low-Cost PIC16CXX Demonstration Board The PICDEM-2 is a simple demonstration board that supports the PIC16C62, PIC16C64, PIC16C65, PIC16C73 and PIC16C74 microcontrollers. All the necessary hardware and software is included to run the basic demonstration programs. The user can program the sample microcontrollers provided with the PICDEM-2 board, on a PRO MATE II programmer or PICSTART-Plus, and easily test firmware. The MPLAB-ICE emulator may also be used with the PICDEM-2 board to test firmware. Additional prototype area has been provided to the user for adding additional hardware and connecting it to the microcontroller socket(s). Some of the features include a RS-232 interface, push-button switches, a potentiometer for simulated analog input, a Serial EEPROM to demonstrate usage of the I2C bus and separate headers for connection to an LCD module and a keypad. 14.15 PICDEM-3 Low-Cost PIC16CXXX Demonstration Board The PICDEM-3 is a simple demonstration board that supports the PIC16C923 and PIC16C924 in the PLCC package. It will also support future 44-pin PLCC microcontrollers with a LCD Module. All the necessary hardware and software is included to run the basic demonstration programs. The user can program the sample microcontrollers provided with the PICDEM-3 board, on a PRO MATE II programmer or PICSTART Plus with an adapter socket, and easily test firmware. The MPLAB-ICE emulator may also be used with the PICDEM-3 board to test firmware. Additional prototype area has been provided to the user for adding hardware and connecting it to the microcontroller socket(s). Some of the features include an RS-232 interface, push-button switches, a potentiometer for simulated analog input, a thermistor and separate headers for connection to an external LCD module and a keypad. Also provided on the PICDEM-3 board is an LCD panel, with 4 commons and 12 segments, that is capable of displaying time, temperature and day of the week. The PICDEM-3 provides an additional RS-232 interface and Windows 3.1 software for showing the demultiplexed LCD signals on a PC. A simple serial interface allows the user to construct a hardware demultiplexer for the LCD signals. DS30292B-page 147 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 14.16 PICDEM-17 The PICDEM-17 is an evaluation board that demonstrates the capabilities of several Microchip microcontrollers, including PIC17C752, PIC17C756, PIC17C762, and PIC17C766. All necessary hardware is included to run basic demo programs, which are supplied on a 3.5-inch disk. A programmed sample is included, and the user may erase it and program it with the other sample programs using the PRO MATE II or PICSTART Plus device programmers and easily debug and test the sample code. In addition, PICDEM-17 supports down-loading of programs to and executing out of external FLASH memory on board. The PICDEM-17 is also usable with the MPLAB-ICE or PICMASTER emulator, and all of the sample programs can be run and modified using either emulator. Additionally, a generous prototype area is available for user hardware. 14.17 SEEVAL Evaluation and Programming System The SEEVAL SEEPROM Designer’s Kit supports all Microchip 2-wire and 3-wire Serial EEPROMs. The kit includes everything necessary to read, write, erase or program special features of any Microchip SEEPROM product including Smart Serials™ and secure serials. The Total Endurance™ Disk is included to aid in tradeoff analysis and reliability calculations. The total kit can significantly reduce time-to-market and result in an optimized system. 14.18 KEELOQ Evaluation and Programming Tools KEELOQ evaluation and programming tools support Microchips HCS Secure Data Products. The HCS evaluation kit includes an LCD display to show changing codes, a decoder to decode transmissions, and a programming interface to program test transmitters. DS30292B-page 148 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC12CXXX PIC14000 PIC16C5X PIC16C6X PIC16CXXX PIC16F62X PIC16C7X PIC16C7XX PIC16C8X PIC16F8XX PIC16C9XX PIC17C4X PIC17C7XX PIC18CXX2 24CXX/ 25CXX/ 93CXX HCSXXX MCRFXXX MCP2510 Programmers Debugger Emulators Software Tools TABLE 14-1: DEVELOPMENT TOOLS FROM MICROCHIP á © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. á ááá á á ááá á á ááá á á á á á á á á á á á MPLAB® Integrated Development Environment MPLAB® C17 Compiler MPLAB® C18 Compiler áá ááá MPASM/MPLINK MPLAB®-ICE ** PICMASTER/PICMASTER-CE ICEPIC™ Low-Cost In-Circuit Emulator á á ááá á áá ááá á ááá á ááá á á á á ááá á ááá á á á á ááá á ááá á MPLAB®-ICD In-Circuit Debugger * * á áá Demo Boards and Eval Kits áá áá á á áá á áá áá á áá áá áá á á á áá áá á áá PICSTART®Plus Low-Cost Universal Dev. Kit ** PRO MATE® II Universal Programmer ** SIMICE PICDEM-1 PICDEM-2 † † † áá á á PICDEM-3 á PICDEM-14A á á PICDEM-17 KEELOQ® Evaluation Kit áá KEELOQ Transponder Kit microID™ Programmer’s Kit áá á á 125 kHz microID Developer’s Kit 125 kHz Anticollision microID Developer’s Kit 13.56 MHz Anticollision microID Developer’s Kit MCP2510 CAN Developer’s Kit * Contact the Microchip Technology Inc. web site at www.microchip.com for information on how to use the MPLAB-ICD In-Circuit Debugger (DV164001) with PIC16C62, 63, 64, 65, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77 ** Contact Microchip Technology Inc. for availability date. † Development tool is available on select devices. PIC16F87X DS30292B-page 149 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292B-page 150 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 15.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Absolute Maximum Ratings † Ambient temperature under bias................................................................................................................ .-55 to +125°C Storage temperature .............................................................................................................................. -65°C to +150°C Voltage on any pin with respect to VSS (except VDD, MCLR. and RA4).......................................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS ............................................................................................................ -0.3 to +7.5V Voltage on MCLR with respect to VSS (Note 2)..................................................................................................0 to +14V Voltage on RA4 with respect to Vss ..................................................................................................................0 to +8.5V Total power dissipation (Note 1)................................................................................................................................1.0W Maximum current out of VSS pin ...........................................................................................................................300 mA Maximum current into VDD pin ..............................................................................................................................250 mA Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD)..................................................................................................................... ± 20 mA Output clamp current, IOK (VO < 0 or VO > VDD) ............................................................................................................. ± 20 mA Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin..........................................................................................................25 mA Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin ....................................................................................................25 mA Maximum current sunk by PORTA, PORTB, and PORTE (combined) (Note 3)....................................................200 mA Maximum current sourced by PORTA, PORTB, and PORTE (combined) (Note 3) ..............................................200 mA Maximum current sunk by PORTC and PORTD (combined) (Note 3) ..................................................................200 mA Maximum current sourced by PORTC and PORTD (combined) (Note 3) .............................................................200 mA Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: Pdis = VDD x {IDD - ∑ IOH} + ∑ {(VDD - VOH) x IOH} + ∑(VOl x IOL) 2: Voltage spikes below VSS at the MCLR pin, inducing currents greater than 80 mA, may cause latch-up. Thus, a series resistor of 50-100Ω should be used when applying a “low” level to the MCLR pin, rather than pulling this pin directly to VSS. 3: PORTD and PORTE are not implemented on the 28-pin devices. † NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 151 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 15-1: PIC16FXXX-20 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH 6.0 V 5.5 V 5.0 V 4.5 V 4.0 V 3.5 V 3.0 V 2.5 V 2.0 V Voltage 16 MHz Frequency 20 MHz Voltage FIGURE 15-2: PIC16LFXXX-04 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH 6.0 V 5.5 V 5.0 V 4.5 V 4.0 V 3.5 V 3.0 V 2.5 V 2.0 V 4 MHz 10 MHz Frequency FMAX = (6.0 MHz/V) (VDDAPPMIN - 2.0 V) + 4 MHz Note 1: VDDAPPMIN is the minimum voltage of the PICmicro® device in the application. Note 2: FMAX has a maximum frequency of 10MHz. DS30292B-page 152 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com FIGURE 15-3: PIC16FXXX-04 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH Voltage 6.0 V 5.5 V 5.0 V 4.5 V 4.0 V 3.5 V 3.0 V 2.5 V 2.0 V PIC16CXXX-04 PIC16F87X 4 MHz Frequency © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 153 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 15.1 DC Characteristics: PIC16F873/874/876/877-04 (Commercial, Industrial) PIC16F873/874/876/877-20 (Commercial, Industrial) DC CHARACTERISTICS Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial and 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C for commercial Param No. Characteristic Sym Min Typ† Max Units Conditions D001 Supply Voltage D001A VDD 4.0 - 5.5 V XT, RC and LP osc configuration 4.5 - 5.5 V HS osc configuration VBOR* - 5.5 V BOR enabled, Fmax = 14MHz (Note 7) D002* RAM Data Retention VDR - 1.5 - V Voltage (Note 1) D003 VDD start voltage to VPOR ensure internal Power-on Reset signal - VSS - V See section on Power-on Reset for details D004* VDD rise rate to ensure SVDD 0.05 internal Power-on Reset signal - V/ms See section on Power-on Reset for details D005 Brown-out Reset Voltage VBOR 3.7 4.0 4.35 V BODEN bit in configuration word enabled D010 Supply Current (Note 2,5) IDD - 1.6 4 mA XT, RC osc configuration FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 5.5V (Note 4) D013 - 7 15 mA HS osc configuration FOSC = 20 MHz, VDD = 5.5V D015* Brown-out Reset Current ∆IBOR (Note 6) 85 200 µA BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V D020 Power-down Current IPD D021 (Note 3,5) D021A - 10.5 42 µA VDD = 4.0V, WDT enabled, -40°C to +85°C - 1.5 16 µA VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -0°C to +70°C - 1.5 19 µA VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +85°C D023* Brown-out Reset Current ∆IBOR (Note 6) 85 200 µA BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V Legend: * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data. 2: The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern and temperature also have an impact on the current consumption. The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified. 3: The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS. 4: For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by the formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm. 5: Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and is for design guidance only. This is not tested. 6: The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be added to the base IDD or IPD measurement. 7: When BOR is enabled, the device will operate correctly until the VBOR voltage trip point is reached. DS30292B-page 154 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 15.2 DC Characteristics: PIC16LF873/874/876/877-04 (Commercial, Industrial) DC CHARACTERISTICS Param No. Characteristic Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial and 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C for commercial Sym Min Typ† Max Units Conditions D001 D002* D003 D004* D005 D010 Supply Voltage VDD RAM Data Retention VDR Voltage (Note 1) VDD start voltage to VPOR ensure internal Power-on Reset signal VDD rise rate to ensure SVDD internal Power-on Reset signal Brown-out Reset Voltage VBOR Supply Current (Note 2,5) IDD 2.0 - 0.05 3.7 - - 5.5 1.5 - V LP, XT, RC osc configuration (DC - 4 MHz) V VSS - V See section on Power-on Reset for details - - V/ms See section on Power-on Reset for details 4.0 4.35 V BODEN bit in configuration word enabled 0.6 2.0 mA XT, RC osc configuration FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 3.0V (Note 4) D010A - 20 35 µA LP osc configuration FOSC = 32 kHz, VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled D015* Brown-out Reset Current ∆IBOR (Note 6) 85 200 µA BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V D020 Power-down Current IPD D021 (Note 3,5) D021A - 7.5 30 µA VDD = 3.0V, WDT enabled, -40°C to +85°C - 0.9 5 µA VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, 0°C to +70°C - 0.9 5 µA VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +85°C D023* Brown-out Reset Current ∆IBOR (Note 6) 85 200 µA BOR enabled VDD = 5.0V Legend: * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data. 2: The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern and temperature also have an impact on the current consumption. The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified. 3: The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS. 4: For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by the formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm. 5: Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and is for design guidance only. This is not tested. 6: The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be added to the base IDD or IPD measurement. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 155 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 15.3 DC Characteristics: PIC16F873/874/876/877-04 (Commercial, Industrial) PIC16F873/874/876/877-20 (Commercial, Industrial) PIC16LF873/874/876/877-04 (Commercial, Industrial) DC CHARACTERISTICS Param No. Characteristic D030 D030A D031 D032 D033 D034 D034A D040 D040A Input Low Voltage I/O ports with TTL buffer with Schmitt Trigger buffer MCLR, OSC1 (in RC mode) OSC1 (in XT, HS and LP) Ports RC3 and RC4 with Schmitt Trigger buffer with SMBus Input High Voltage I/O ports with TTL buffer Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial and 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C for commercial Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 15.1 and Section 15.2. Sym Min Typ† Max Units Conditions VIL VSS - 0.15VDD V For entire VDD range VSS - 0.8V V 4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V VSS - 0.2VDD V VSS - 0.2VDD V VSS - 0.3VDD V Note1 VSS - 0.3VDD V For entire VDD range -0.5 - 0.6 V for VDD = 4.5 to 5.5V VIH - 2.0 - VDD V 4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V 0.25VDD - VDD V For entire VDD range + 0.8V D041 with Schmitt Trigger buffer 0.8VDD - VDD V For entire VDD range D042 MCLR 0.8VDD - VDD V D042A OSC1 (XT, HS and LP) 0.7VDD - VDD V Note1 D043 OSC1 (in RC mode) 0.9VDD - VDD V Ports RC3 and RC4 D044 with Schmitt Trigger buffer 0.7VDD - VDD V For entire VDD range D044A with SMBus 1.4 - 5.5 V for VDD = 4.5 to 5.5V D070 PORTB weak pull-up current IPURB 50 250 400 µA VDD = 5V, VPIN = VSS Input Leakage Current (Notes 2, 3) D060 I/O ports IIL - - ±1 µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, Pin at hi-imped- ance D061 MCLR, RA4/T0CKI - - ±5 µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD D063 OSC1 - - ±5 µA Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, XT, HS and LP osc configuration Output Low Voltage D080 I/O ports VOL - - 0.6 V IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40°C to +85°C D083 OSC2/CLKOUT (RC osc config) - - 0.6 V IOL = 1.6 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40°C to +85°C Legend: * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the PIC16F87X be driven with external clock in RC mode. 2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages. 3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin. DS30292B-page 156 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated) Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial and DC CHARACTERISTICS 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C for commercial Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 15.1 and Section 15.2. Param Characteristic Sym Min Typ† Max Units Conditions No. Output High Voltage D090 I/O ports (Note 3) VOH VDD - 0.7 - - V IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40°C to +85°C D092 OSC2/CLKOUT (RC osc config) VDD - 0.7 - - V IOH = -1.3 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40°C to +85°C D150* Open-Drain High Voltage VOD - - 8.5 V RA4 pin - - Capacitive Loading Specs on Output Pins D100 OSC2 pin COSC2 - - 15 pF In XT, HS and LP modes when exter- nal clock is used to drive OSC1. D101 All I/O pins and OSC2 (in RC CIO - - 50 pF D102 mode) SCL, SDA in I2C mode CB - - 400 pF Data EEPROM Memory D120 Endurance ED 100K - - E/W 25°C at 5V D121 VDD for read/write VDRW Vmin - 5.5 V Using EECON to read/write Vmin = min operating voltage D122 Erase/write cycle time TDEW - 4 8 ms Program FLASH Memory D130 Endurance EP 1000 - - E/W 25°C at 5V D131 VDD for read VPR Vmin - 5.5 V Vmin = min operating voltage D132a VDD for erase/write Vmin - 5.5 V using EECON to read/write, Vmin = min operating voltage D133 Erase/Write cycle time TPEW - 4 8 ms Legend: * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the PIC16F87X be driven with external clock in RC mode. 2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages. 3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 157 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 15.4 Timing Parameter Symbology The timing parameter symbols have been created following one of the following formats: 1. TppS2ppS 2. TppS T F Frequency Lowercase letters (pp) and their meanings: pp cc CCP1 ck CLKOUT cs CS di SDI do SDO dt Data in io I/O port mc MCLR Uppercase letters and their meanings: S F Fall H High I Invalid (Hi-impedance) L Low I2C only AA output access BUF Bus free TCC:ST (I2C specifications only) CC HD Hold ST DAT DATA input hold STA START condition FIGURE 15-4: LOAD CONDITIONS Load condition 1 VDD/2 3. TCC:ST 4. Ts (I2C specifications only) (I2C specifications only) T Time osc OSC1 rd RD rw RD or WR sc SCK ss SS t0 T0CKI t1 T1CKI wr WR P R V Z High Low Period Rise Valid Hi-impedance High Low SU STO Setup STOP condition Load condition 2 RL Pin CL Pin CL VSS VSS RL = 464Ω CL = 50 pF for all pins except OSC2, but including PORTD and PORTE outputs as ports 15 pF for OSC2 output Note: PORTD and PORTE are not implemented on the 28-pin devices. DS30292B-page 158 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X FIGURE 15-5: EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 OSC1 CLKOUT 1 3 3 2 Q4 Q1 4 4 TABLE 15-1: EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING REQUIREMENTS Parameter Sym Characteristic No. Min Typ† Max Units Conditions FOSC External CLKIN Frequency (Note 1) DC — DC — 4 MHz XT and RC osc mode 4 MHz HS osc mode (-04) DC — 20 MHz HS osc mode (-20) DC — 200 kHz LP osc mode Oscillator Frequency (Note 1) DC — 0.1 — 4 MHz RC osc mode 4 MHz XT osc mode 4 — 20 MHz HS osc mode 5 — 200 kHz LP osc mode 1 TOSC External CLKIN Period (Note 1) 250 — 250 — — ns XT and RC osc mode — ns HS osc mode (-04) 50 — — ns HS osc mode (-20) 5 — — µs LP osc mode Oscillator Period (Note 1) 250 — — ns RC osc mode 250 — 10,000 ns XT osc mode 250 — 250 ns HS osc mode (-04) 50 — 250 ns HS osc mode (-20) 5 — — µs LP osc mode 2 TCY Instruction Cycle Time (Note 1) 200 TCY DC ns TCY = 4/FOSC 3 TosL, External Clock in (OSC1) High 100 — — ns XT oscillator TosH or Low Time 2.5 — — µs LP oscillator 15 — — ns HS oscillator 4 TosR, External Clock in (OSC1) Rise — — 25 ns XT oscillator TosF or Fall Time —— 50 ns LP oscillator —— 15 ns HS oscillator Legend: † Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time-base period. All specified values are based on characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at "min." values with an external clock applied to the OSC1/CLKIN pin. When an external clock input is used, the "Max." cycle time limit is "DC" (no clock) for all devices. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 159 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 15-6: CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING OSC1 Q4 Q1 10 CLKOUT I/O Pin (input) 13 14 17 I/O Pin (output) old value 20, 21 Note: Refer to Figure 15-4 for load conditions. Q2 19 18 15 Q3 11 12 16 new value TABLE 15-2: CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING REQUIREMENTS Param Sym No. Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions 10* TosH2ckL OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↓ — 75 200 ns 11* TosH2ckH OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↑ — 75 200 ns 12* TckR CLKOUT rise time — 35 100 ns 13* TckF CLKOUT fall time — 35 100 ns 14* TckL2ioV CLKOUT ↓ to Port out valid — — 0.5TCY + 20 ns 15* TioV2ckH Port in valid before CLKOUT ↑ TOSC + 200 — — ns 16* TckH2ioI Port in hold after CLKOUT ↑ 0 — — ns 17* TosH2ioV OSC1↑ (Q1 cycle) to Port out valid — 100 255 ns 18* TosH2ioI OSC1↑ (Q2 cycle) to Port input invalid (I/O in hold time) Standard (F) Extended (LF) 100 — — ns 200 — — ns 19* TioV2osH Port input valid to OSC1↑ (I/O in setup time) 0 — — ns 20* TioR Port output rise time Standard (F) — 10 40 ns Extended (LF) — — 145 ns 21* TioF Port output fall time Standard (F) — 10 40 ns Extended (LF) — — 145 ns 22††* Tinp INT pin high or low time TCY — — ns 23††* Trbp RB7:RB4 change INT high or low time TCY — — ns Legend: * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. †† These parameters are asynchronous events not related to any internal clock edges. Note 1: Measurements are taken in RC Mode where CLKOUT output is 4 x TOSC. Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 DS30292B-page 160 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X FIGURE 15-7: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP TIMER TIMING VDD MCLR Internal POR PWRT Time-out OSC Time-out Internal Reset Watchdog Timer Reset I/O Pins 33 32 30 31 34 34 Note: Refer to Figure 15-4 for load conditions. FIGURE 15-8: BROWN-OUT RESET TIMING VDD VBOR 35 TABLE 15-3: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER, POWER-UP TIMER, AND BROWN-OUT RESET REQUIREMENTS Parameter Sym Characteristic No. Min Typ† Max Units Conditions 30 31* 32 33* 34 35 Legend: * † TmcL MCLR Pulse Width (low) 2 — — µs VDD = 5V, -40°C to +85°C Twdt Watchdog Timer Time-out Period 7 (No Prescaler) 18 33 ms VDD = 5V, -40°C to +85°C Tost Oscillation Start-up Timer Period — 1024 TOSC — — TOSC = OSC1 period Tpwrt Power up Timer Period 28 72 132 ms VDD = 5V, -40°C to +85°C TIOZ I/O Hi-impedance from MCLR Low — — 2.1 µs or Watchdog Timer Reset TBOR Brown-out Reset pulse width 100 — — µs VDD ≤ VBOR (D005) These parameters are characterized but not tested. Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 161 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 15-9: TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS RA4/T0CKI 40 41 42 RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI 45 46 47 48 TMR0 or TMR1 Note: Refer to Figure 15-4 for load conditions. TABLE 15-4: TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions 40* Tt0H T0CKI High Pulse Width No Prescaler With Prescaler 0.5TCY + 20 10 — — ns Must also meet — — ns parameter 42 41* Tt0L T0CKI Low Pulse Width No Prescaler With Prescaler 0.5TCY + 20 10 — — ns Must also meet — — ns parameter 42 42* Tt0P T0CKI Period No Prescaler TCY + 40 — — ns With Prescaler Greater of: 20 or TCY + 40 N — — ns N = prescale value (2, 4, ..., 256) 45* Tt1H T1CKI High Time Synchronous, Prescaler = 1 Synchronous, Standard(F) 0.5TCY + 20 15 — — ns Must also meet — — ns parameter 47 Prescaler = 2,4,8 Extended(LF) 25 — — ns Asynchronous Standard(F) 30 — — ns Extended(LF) 50 — — ns 46* Tt1L T1CKI Low Time Synchronous, Prescaler = 1 Synchronous, Standard(F) 0.5TCY + 20 15 — — ns Must also meet — — ns parameter 47 Prescaler = 2,4,8 Extended(LF) 25 — — ns Asynchronous Standard(F) 30 — — ns Extended(LF) 50 — — ns 47* Tt1P T1CKI input period Synchronous Standard(F) Greater of: — — ns N = prescale value 30 OR TCY + 40 N (1, 2, 4, 8) Extended(LF) Greater of: N = prescale value 50 OR TCY + 40 (1, 2, 4, 8) N Asynchronous Standard(F) 60 — — ns Extended(LF) 100 — — ns Ft1 Timer1 oscillator input frequency range DC — 200 kHz (oscillator enabled by setting bit T1OSCEN) 48 TCKEZtmr1 Delay from external clock edge to timer increment 2Tosc — 7Tosc — * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. DS30292B-page 162 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X FIGURE 15-10: CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS (CCP1 AND CCP2) RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 and RC2/CCP1 (Capture Mode) 50 51 52 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 and RC2/CCP1 (Compare or PWM Mode) 53 54 Note: Refer to Figure 15-4 for load conditions. TABLE 15-5: CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS (CCP1 AND CCP2) Param Sym Characteristic No. 50* TccL CCP1 and CCP2 No Prescaler input low time Standard(F) With Prescaler Extended(LF) 51* TccH CCP1 and CCP2 No Prescaler input high time Standard(F) With Prescaler Extended(LF) 52* TccP CCP1 and CCP2 input period 53* TccR CCP1 and CCP2 output rise time Standard(F) Extended(LF) 54* TccF CCP1 and CCP2 output fall time Standard(F) Extended(LF) * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Min Typ† Max Units Conditions 0.5TCY + 20 — — ns 10 — — ns 20 — — ns 0.5TCY + 20 — — ns 10 — — ns 20 — — ns 3TCY + 40 — — ns N = prescale N value (1,4 or 16) — 10 25 ns — 25 50 ns — 10 25 ns — 25 45 ns © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 163 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 15-11: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT TIMING (40-PIN DEVICES ONLY) RE2/CS RE0/RD RE1/WR 65 RD7:RD0 64 Note: Refer to Figure 15-4 for load conditions. 62 63 TABLE 15-6: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT REQUIREMENTS (40-PIN DEVICES ONLY) Parameter No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions 62 TdtV2wrH Data in valid before WR↑ or CS↑ (setup time) 20 — — ns 25 — — ns Extended Range Only 63* TwrH2dtI WR↑ or CS↑ to data–in invalid (hold time) Standard(F) 20 — — ns Extended(LF) 35 — — ns 64 TrdL2dtV RD↓ and CS↓ to data–out valid — — 80 ns — — 90 ns Extended Range Only 65 TrdH2dtI RD↑ or CS↓ to data–out invalid 10 — 30 ns * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. DS30292B-page 164 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com FIGURE 15-12: SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 0, SMP = 0) PIC16F87X SS 70 SCK (CKP = 0) 71 72 78 SCK (CKP = 1) SDO 80 MSb 79 BIT6 - - - - - -1 75, 76 SDI MSb IN BIT6 - - - -1 74 73 Note: Refer to Figure 15-4 for load conditions. 79 78 LSb LSb IN FIGURE 15-13: SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 1, SMP = 1) SS SCK (CKP = 0) SCK (CKP = 1) 81 71 72 73 80 SDO SDI MSb BIT6 - - - - - -1 75, 76 MSb IN BIT6 - - - -1 74 Note: Refer to Figure 15-4 for load conditions. 79 78 LSb LSb IN © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 165 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 15-14: SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 0) SS 70 SCK (CKP = 0) 71 72 78 SCK (CKP = 1) SDO 80 MSb 79 BIT6 - - - - - -1 75, 76 SDI MSb IN BIT6 - - - -1 74 73 Note: Refer to Figure 15-4 for load conditions. FIGURE 15-15: SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 1) 82 SS SCK (CKP = 0) 70 71 72 SCK (CKP = 1) 80 83 79 78 LSb 77 LSb IN 83 SDO MSb BIT6 - - - - - -1 LSb 75, 76 77 SDI MSb IN BIT6 - - - -1 LSb IN 74 Note: Refer to Figure 15-4 for load conditions. DS30292B-page 166 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X TABLE 15-7: SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions 70* TssL2scH, SS↓ to SCK↓ or SCK↑ input TssL2scL TCY — — ns 71* TscH SCK input high time (slave mode) TCY + 20 — — ns 72* TscL SCK input low time (slave mode) TCY + 20 — — ns 73* TdiV2scH, Setup time of SDI data input to SCK edge TdiV2scL 100 — — ns 74* TscH2diL, Hold time of SDI data input to SCK edge TscL2diL 100 — — ns 75* TdoR SDO data output rise time Standard(F) — Extended(LF) — 10 25 ns 25 50 ns 76* TdoF SDO data output fall time — 10 25 ns 77* TssH2doZ SS↑ to SDO output hi-impedance 10 — 50 ns 78* TscR SCK output rise time (master mode) Standard(F) — Extended(LF) — 10 25 ns 25 50 ns 79* TscF SCK output fall time (master mode) — 10 25 ns 80* TscH2doV, SDO data output valid after SCK Standard(F) — TscL2doV edge Extended(LF) — — 50 ns — 145 81* TdoV2scH, SDO data output setup to SCK edge TdoV2scL TCY — — ns 82* TssL2doV SDO data output valid after SS↓ edge — — 50 ns 83* TscH2ssH, SS ↑ after SCK edge TscL2ssH 1.5TCY + 40 — — ns * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. FIGURE 15-16: I2C BUS START/STOP BITS TIMING SCL SDA 91 90 93 92 START Condition STOP Condition Note: Refer to Figure 15-4 for load conditions. TABLE 15-8: I2C BUS START/STOP BITS REQUIREMENTS Parameter Sym Characteristic No. Min Typ Max Units Conditions 90 TSU:STA START condition 100 kHz mode 4700 — — Only relevant for repeated START Setup time 400 kHz mode 600 — — ns condition 91 THD:STA START condition 100 kHz mode 4000 — — After this period the first clock Hold time 400 kHz mode 600 — — ns pulse is generated 92 TSU:STO STOP condition 100 kHz mode 4700 — — ns Setup time 400 kHz mode 600 — — 93 THD:STO STOP condition 100 kHz mode 4000 — — ns Hold time 400 kHz mode 600 — — © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 167 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm FIGURE 15-17: I2C BUS DATA TIMING 103 100 101 SCL SDA In 90 91 106 107 109 109 SDA Out Note: Refer to Figure 15-4 for load conditions. 102 92 110 TABLE 15-9: I2C BUS DATA REQUIREMENTS Param No. Sym Characteristic Min Max Units Conditions 100 THIGH Clock high time 100 kHz mode 4.0 — µs Device must operate at a mini- mum of 1.5 MHz 400 kHz mode 0.6 — µs Device must operate at a mini- mum of 10 MHz SSP Module 1.5TCY — 101 TLOW Clock low time 100 kHz mode 4.7 — µs Device must operate at a mini- mum of 1.5 MHz 400 kHz mode 1.3 — µs Device must operate at a mini- mum of 10 MHz SSP Module 1.5TCY — 102 TR SDA and SCL rise 100 kHz mode — 1000 ns time 400 kHz mode 20 + 0.1Cb 300 ns Cb is specified to be from 10 to 400 pF 103 TF SDA and SCL fall time 100 kHz mode — 300 ns 400 kHz mode 20 + 0.1Cb 300 ns Cb is specified to be from 10 to 400 pF 90 TSU:STA START condition setup time 100 kHz mode 400 kHz mode 91 THD:STA START condition hold 100 kHz mode time 400 kHz mode 106 THD:DAT Data input hold time 100 kHz mode 400 kHz mode 4.7 — µs Only relevant for repeated 0.6 — µs START condition 4.0 — µs After this period the first clock 0.6 — µs pulse is generated 0 — ns 0 0.9 µs 107 TSU:DAT Data input setup time 100 kHz mode 250 — ns Note 2 400 kHz mode 100 — ns 92 TSU:STO STOP condition setup 100 kHz mode time 400 kHz mode 4.7 — µs 0.6 — µs 109 TAA Output valid from 100 kHz mode clock 400 kHz mode — 3500 ns Note 1 — — ns 110 TBUF Bus free time 100 kHz mode 400 kHz mode 4.7 — µs Time the bus must be free 1.3 — µs before a new transmission can start Cb Bus capacitive loading — 400 pF Note 1: 2: As a transmitter, the device must provide this internal minimum delay time to bridge the undefined region (min. 300 ns) of the falling edge of SCL to avoid unintended generation of START or STOP conditions. A fast-mode (400 kHz) I2C-bus device can be used in a standard-mode (100 kHz) I2C-bus system, but the requirement tsu; DAT ≥ 250 ns must then be met. This will automatically be the case if the device does not stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal. If such a device does stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal, it must output the next data bit to the SDA line TR max.+tsu; DAT = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns (according to the standard-mode I2C bus specification) before the SCL line is released. DS30292B-page 168 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X FIGURE 15-18: USART SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING RC6/TX/CK Pin RC7/RX/DT Pin 121 121 120 122 Note: Refer to Figure 15-4 for load conditions. TABLE 15-10: USART SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION REQUIREMENTS Param Sym No. Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions 120 TckH2dtV SYNC XMIT (MASTER & SLAVE) Clock high to data out valid Standard(F) Extended(LF) — — 80 ns — — 100 ns 121 Tckrf Clock out rise time and fall time Standard(F) (Master Mode) Extended(LF) — — 45 ns — — 50 ns 122 Tdtrf Data out rise time and fall time Standard(F) — — 45 ns Extended(LF) — — 50 ns †: Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. FIGURE 15-19: USART SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING RC6/TX/CK pin RC7/RX/DT pin 125 126 Note: Refer to Figure 15-4 for load conditions. TABLE 15-11: USART SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE REQUIREMENTS Parameter No. Sym Characteristic Min Typ† Max Units Conditions 125 TdtV2ckL SYNC RCV (MASTER & SLAVE) Data setup before CK ↓ (DT setup time) 15 — — ns 126 TckL2dtl Data hold after CK ↓ (DT hold time) 15 — — ns †: Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 169 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TABLE 15-12: PIC16F873/874/876/877-04 (COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL) PIC16F873/874/876/877-20 (COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL) PIC16LF873/874/876/877-04 (COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL) Param Sym Characteristic No. Min Typ† Max Units Conditions A01 NR Resolution — — 10-bits bit VREF = VDD = 5.12V, VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF A03 EIL Integral linearity error — — <±1 LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V, VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF A04 EDL Differential linearity error — — <±1 LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V, VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF A06 EOFF Offset error — — <±2 LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V, VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF A07 EGN Gain error — — <±1 LSb VREF = VDD = 5.12V, VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF A10 — Monotonicity(3) — guaranteed — — VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF A20 VREF Reference voltage (VREF+ - VREF-) 2.0V — VDD + 0.3 V Absolute minimum electrical spec. To ensure 10-bit accuracy. A21 VREF+ Reference voltage High AVDD - 2.5V AVDD + 0.3V V A22 VREF- Reference voltage low AVSS - 0.3V VREF+ - 2.0V V A25 VAIN Analog input voltage VSS - 0.3 — VREF + 0.3 V A30 ZAIN Recommended impedance of — — 10.0 kΩ analog voltage source A40 IAD A/D conversion cur- Standard — 220 — µA Average current consumption rent (VDD) Extended — 90 — µA when A/D is on. (Note 1) A50 IREF VREF input current (Note 2) 10 — 1000 µA During VAIN acquisition. Based on differential of VHOLD to VAIN to charge CHOLD, see Section 11.1. — — 10 µA During A/D Conversion cycle * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Note 1: When A/D is off, it will not consume any current other than minor leakage current. The power-down current spec includes any such leakage from the A/D module. 2: VREF current is from RA3 pin or VDD pin, whichever is selected as reference input. 3: The A/D conversion result never decreases with an increase in the Input Voltage, and has no missing codes. DS30292B-page 170 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X FIGURE 15-20: A/D CONVERSION TIMING BSF ADCON0, GO Q4 A/D CLK 132 A/D DATA ADRES ADIF GO (TOSC/2)(1) 1 TCY 131 130 9 8 7 ... ... 2 1 0 OLD_DATA NEW_DATA DONE SAMPLE SAMPLING STOPPED Note 1: If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the SLEEP instruction to be executed. TABLE 15-13: A/D CONVERSION REQUIREMENTS Param Sym Characteristic No. 130 TAD A/D clock period Standard(F) Extended(LF) Standard(F) Extended(LF) 131 TCNV Conversion time (not including S/H time) (Note 1) 132 TACQ Acquisition time Min 1.6 3.0 2.0 3.0 Note 2 Typ† — — 4.0 6.0 — 40 Max Units Conditions — µs TOSC based, VREF ≥ 3.0V — µs TOSC based, VREF ≥ 2.0V 6.0 µs A/D RC Mode 9.0 µs A/D RC Mode 12 TAD — µs 10* — — µs The minimum time is the ampli- fier settling time. This may be used if the "new" input voltage has not changed by more than 1 LSb (i.e., 20.0 mV @ 5.12V) from the last sampled voltage (as stated on CHOLD). 134 TGO Q4 to A/D clock start — TOSC/2 § — — If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the SLEEP instruction to be executed. * These parameters are characterized but not tested. † Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. § This specification ensured by design. Note 1: ADRES register may be read on the following TCY cycle. 2: See Section 11.1 for min conditions. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 171 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292B-page 172 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 16.0 DC AND AC CHARACTERISTICS GRAPHS AND TABLES The graphs and tables provided in this section are for design guidance and are not tested. In some graphs or tables, the data presented are outside specified operating range (i.e., outside specified VDD range). This is for information only and devices are ensured to operate properly only within the specified range. The data presented in this section is a statistical summary of data collected on units from different lots over a period of time and matrix samples. ’Typical’ represents the mean of the distribution at 25°C. ’Max’ or ’min’ represents (mean + 3σ) or (mean - 3σ) respectively, where σ is standard deviation, over the whole temperature range. Graphs and Tables not available at this time. PIC16F87X © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 173 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292B-page 174 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 17.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 17.1 Package Marking Information 28-Lead PDIP (Skinny DIP) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX AABBCDE 28-Lead SOIC XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX AABBCDE PIC16F87X Example PIC16F876-20/SP 9917HAT Example PIC16F876-04/SO 9910SAA Legend: MM...M XX...X AA BB C D E Microchip part number information Customer specific information* Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year) Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’) Facility code of the plant at which wafer is manufactured O = Outside Vendor C = 5” Line S = 6” Line H = 8” Line Mask revision number Assembly code of the plant or country of origin in which part was assembled Note: In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will be carried over to the next line thus limiting the number of available characters for customer specific information. * Standard OTP marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code, facility code, mask rev#, and assembly code. For OTP marking beyond this, certain price adders apply. Please check with your Microchip Sales Office. For QTP devices, any special marking adders are included in QTP price. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 175 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm Package Marking Information (Cont’d) 40-Lead PDIP XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX AABBCDE 44-Lead TQFP XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX AABBCDE 44-Lead MQFP XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX AABBCDE 44-Lead PLCC XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX AABBCDE Example PIC16F877-04/P 9912SAA Example PIC16F877 -04/PT 9911HAT Example PIC16F877 -20/PQ 9904SAT Example PIC16F877 -20/L 9903SAT DS30292B-page 176 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 17.2 K04-070 28-Lead Skinny Plastic Dual In-line (SP) – 300 mil E PIC16F87X D 2 n 1 E1 A R c β A2 B1 eB B α A1 L p Units INCHES* MILLIMETERS Dimension Limits MIN NOM MAX MIN NOM MAX PCB Row Spacing 0.300 7.62 Number of Pins n 28 28 Pitch p 0.100 2.54 Lower Lead Width Upper Lead Width B 0.016 0.019 0.022 0.41 0.48 0.56 B1† 0.040 0.053 0.065 1.02 1.33 1.65 Shoulder Radius R 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.00 0.13 0.25 Lead Thickness c 0.008 0.010 0.012 0.20 0.25 0.30 Top to Seating Plane A 0.140 0.150 0.160 3.56 3.81 4.06 Top of Lead to Seating Plane A1 0.070 0.090 0.110 1.78 2.29 2.79 Base to Seating Plane A2 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.38 0.51 0.64 Tip to Seating Plane Package Length Molded Package Width L 0.125 0.130 0.135 3.18 3.30 3.43 D‡ 1.345 1.365 1.385 34.16 34.67 35.18 E‡ 0.280 0.288 0.295 7.11 7.30 7.49 Radius to Radius Width E1 0.270 0.283 0.295 6.86 7.18 7.49 Overall Row Spacing eB 0.320 0.350 0.380 8.13 8.89 9.65 Mold Draft Angle Top α 5 10 15 5 10 15 Mold Draft Angle Bottom β 5 10 15 5 10 15 * Controlling Parameter. † Dimension “B1” does not include dam-bar protrusions. Dam-bar protrusions shall not exceed 0.003” (0.076 mm) per side or 0.006” (0.152 mm) more than dimension “B1.” ‡ Dimensions “D” and “E” do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.010” (0.254 mm) per side or 0.020” (0.508 mm) more than dimensions “D” or “E.” © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 177 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 17.3 K04-052 28-Lead Plastic Small Outline (SO) – Wide, 300 mil E1 E p D B n X 45 ° c R1 β 2 1 L R2 A φ L1 A2 α A1 Units Dimension Limits INCHES* MIN NOM MAX MILLIMETERS MIN NOM MAX Pitch p Number of Pins n Overall Pack. Height A 0.050 1.27 28 28 0.093 0.099 0.104 2.36 2.50 2.64 Shoulder Height A1 Standoff A2 Molded Package Length D‡ Molded Package Width E‡ Outside Dimension E1 Chamfer Distance X 0.048 0.004 0.700 0.292 0.394 0.010 0.058 0.008 0.706 0.296 0.407 0.020 0.068 0.011 0.712 0.299 0.419 0.029 1.22 0.10 17.78 7.42 10.01 0.25 1.47 0.19 17.93 7.51 10.33 0.50 1.73 0.28 18.08 7.59 10.64 0.74 Shoulder Radius R1 Gull Wing Radius R2 Foot Length L Foot Angle φ Radius Centerline L1 Lead Thickness c Lower Lead Width B† Mold Draft Angle Top α Mold Draft Angle Bottom β 0.005 0.005 0.011 0 0.010 0.009 0.014 0 0 0.005 0.005 0.016 4 0.015 0.011 0.017 12 12 0.010 0.010 0.021 8 0.020 0.012 0.019 15 15 0.13 0.13 0.28 0 0.25 0.23 0.36 0 0 0.13 0.13 0.41 4 0.38 0.27 0.42 12 12 0.25 0.25 0.53 8 0.51 0.30 0.48 15 15 * Controlling Parameter. † Dimension “B” does not include dam-bar protrusions. Dam-bar protrusions shall not exceed 0.003” (0.076 mm) per side or 0.006” (0.152 mm) more than dimension “B.” ‡ Dimensions “D” and “E” do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.010” (0.254 mm) per side or 0.020” (0.508 mm) more than dimensions “D” or “E.” DS30292B-page 178 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com 17.4 K04-016 40-Lead Plastic Dual In-line (P) – 600 mil E PIC16F87X D 2 α n 1 E1 A1 R β eB A c A2 L B1 B p Units INCHES* MILLIMETERS Dimension Limits MIN NOM MAX MIN NOM MAX PCB Row Spacing 0.600 15.24 Number of Pins n 40 40 Pitch p 0.100 2.54 Lower Lead Width Upper Lead Width B 0.016 0.018 0.020 0.41 0.46 0.51 B1† 0.045 0.050 0.055 1.14 1.27 1.40 Shoulder Radius R 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.00 0.13 0.25 Lead Thickness c 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.23 0.25 0.28 Top to Seating Plane A 0.110 0.160 0.160 2.79 4.06 4.06 Top of Lead to Seating Plane A1 0.073 0.093 0.113 1.85 2.36 2.87 Base to Seating Plane A2 0.020 0.020 0.040 0.51 0.51 1.02 Tip to Seating Plane Package Length Molded Package Width L 0.125 0.130 0.135 3.18 3.30 3.43 D‡ 2.013 2.018 2.023 51.13 51.26 51.38 E‡ 0.530 0.535 0.540 13.46 13.59 13.72 Radius to Radius Width E1 0.545 0.565 0.585 13.84 14.35 14.86 Overall Row Spacing eB 0.630 0.610 0.670 16.00 15.49 17.02 Mold Draft Angle Top α 5 10 15 5 10 15 Mold Draft Angle Bottom β 5 10 15 5 10 15 * Controlling Parameter. † Dimension “B1” does not include dam-bar protrusions. Dam-bar protrusions shall not exceed 0.003” (0.076 mm) per side or 0.006” (0.152 mm) more than dimension “B1.” ‡ Dimensions “D” and “E” do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.010” (0.254 mm) per side or 0.020” (0.508 mm) more than dimensions “D” or “E.” © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 179 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 17.5 K04-076 44-Lead Plastic Thin Quad Flatpack (PT) 10x10x1 mm Body, 1.0/0.1 mm Lead Form E1 E # leads = n1 p D D1 2 1 B n X x 45° L R2 A α c R1 φ β L1 A2 A1 Units INCHES MILLIMETERS* Dimension Limits MIN NOM MAX MIN NOM MAX Pitch p 0.031 0.80 Number of Pins n 44 44 Pins along Width n1 11 11 Overall Pack. Height A 0.039 0.043 0.047 1.00 1.10 1.20 Shoulder Height A1 0.015 0.025 0.035 0.38 0.64 0.89 Standoff A2 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.05 0.10 0.15 Shoulder Radius R1 0.003 0.003 0.010 0.08 0.08 0.25 Gull Wing Radius R2 0.003 0.006 0.008 0.08 0.14 0.20 Foot Length L 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.13 0.25 0.38 Foot Angle φ 0 3.5 7 0 3.5 7 Radius Centerline L1 0.003 0.008 0.013 0.08 0.20 0.33 Lead Thickness Lower Lead Width c 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.09 0.15 0.20 B† 0.012 0.015 0.018 0.30 0.38 0.45 Outside Tip Length D1 0.463 0.472 0.482 11.75 12.00 12.25 Outside Tip Width E1 Molded Pack. Length D‡ Molded Pack. Width E‡ 0.463 0.390 0.390 0.472 0.394 0.394 0.482 0.398 0.398 11.75 9.90 9.90 12.00 10.00 10.00 12.25 10.10 10.10 Pin 1 Corner Chamfer X 0.025 0.035 0.045 0.64 0.89 1.14 Mold Draft Angle Top α 5 10 15 5 10 15 Mold Draft Angle Bottom β 5 12 15 5 12 15 * Controlling Parameter. † Dimension “B” does not include dam-bar protrusions. Dam-bar protrusions shall not exceed 0.003” (0.076 mm) per side or 0.006” (0.152 mm) more than dimension “B.” ‡ Dimensions “D” and “E” do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.010” (0.254 mm) per side or 0.020” (0.508 mm) more than dimensions “D” or “E.” JEDEC equivalent:MS-026 ACB DS30292B-page 180 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X 17.6 K04-071 44-Lead Plastic Quad Flatpack (PQ) 10x10x2 mm Body, 1.6/0.15 mm Lead Form E1 E # leads = n1 p D D1 2 1 B n X x 45° α L R2 c A R1 β φ L1 A2 A1 Units INCHES MILLIMETERS* Dimension Limits MIN NOM MAX MIN NOM MAX Pitch p 0.031 0.80 Number of Pins n 44 44 Pins along Width n1 11 11 Overall Pack. Height A 0.079 0.086 0.093 2.00 2.18 2.35 Shoulder Height A1 0.032 0.044 0.056 0.81 1.11 1.41 Standoff A2 0.002 0.006 0.010 0.05 0.15 0.25 Shoulder Radius R1 0.005 0.005 0.010 0.13 0.13 0.25 Gull Wing Radius R2 0.005 0.012 0.015 0.13 0.30 0.38 Foot Length L 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.38 0.51 0.64 Foot Angle φ 0 3.5 7 0 3.5 7 Radius Centerline L1 0.011 0.016 0.021 0.28 0.41 0.53 Lead Thickness Lower Lead Width c 0.005 0.007 0.009 0.13 0.18 0.23 B† 0.012 0.015 0.018 0.30 0.37 0.45 Outside Tip Length D1 0.510 0.520 0.530 12.95 13.20 13.45 Outside Tip Width E1 Molded Pack. Length D‡ Molded Pack. Width E‡ 0.510 0.390 0.390 0.520 0.394 0.394 0.530 0.398 0.398 12.95 9.90 9.90 13.20 10.00 10.00 13.45 10.10 10.10 Pin 1 Corner Chamfer X 0.025 0.035 0.045 0.635 0.89 1.143 Mold Draft Angle Top α 5 10 15 5 10 15 Mold Draft Angle Bottom β 5 12 15 5 12 15 * Controlling Parameter. † Dimension “B” does not include dam-bar protrusions. Dam-bar protrusions shall not exceed 0.003” (0.076 mm) per side or 0.006” (0.152 mm) more than dimension “B.” ‡ Dimensions “D” and “E” do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.010” (0.254 mm) per side or 0.020” (0.508 mm) more than dimensions “D” or “E.” JEDEC equivalent:MS-022 AB © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 181 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm 17.7 K04-048 44-Lead Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (L) – Square E1 E # leads = n1 D D1 n12 CH2 x 45° CH1 x 45° A3 α R1 L A1 35° A c R2 β E2 B1 B A2 p D2 Units INCHES* MILLIMETERS Dimension Limits MIN NOM MAX MIN NOM MAX Number of Pins n 44 44 Pitch p 0.050 1.27 Overall Pack. Height A 0.165 0.173 0.180 4.19 4.38 4.57 Shoulder Height A1 0.095 0.103 0.110 2.41 2.60 2.79 Standoff A2 0.015 0.023 0.030 0.38 0.57 0.76 Side 1 Chamfer Dim. A3 0.024 0.029 0.034 0.61 0.74 0.86 Corner Chamfer (1) CH1 0.040 0.045 0.050 1.02 1.14 1.27 Corner Chamfer (other) CH2 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.00 0.13 0.25 Overall Pack. Width E1 0.685 0.690 0.695 17.40 17.53 17.65 Overall Pack. Length D1 Molded Pack. Width E‡ Molded Pack. Length D‡ 0.685 0.650 0.650 0.690 0.653 0.653 0.695 0.656 0.656 17.40 16.51 16.51 17.53 16.59 16.59 17.65 16.66 16.66 Footprint Width E2 0.610 0.620 0.630 15.49 15.75 16.00 Footprint Length D2 0.610 0.620 0.630 15.49 15.75 16.00 Pins along Width n1 11 11 Lead Thickness c Upper Lead Width B1† 0.008 0.010 0.012 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.026 0.029 0.032 0.66 0.74 0.81 Lower Lead Width B 0.015 0.018 0.021 0.38 0.46 0.53 Upper Lead Length L 0.050 0.058 0.065 1.27 1.46 1.65 Shoulder Inside Radius R1 0.003 0.005 0.010 0.08 0.13 0.25 J-Bend Inside Radius R2 0.015 0.025 0.035 0.38 0.64 0.89 Mold Draft Angle Top α 0 5 10 0 5 10 Mold Draft Angle Bottom β 0 5 10 0 5 10 * Controlling Parameter. † Dimension “B1” does not include dam-bar protrusions. Dam-bar protrusions shall not exceed 0.003” (0.076 mm) per side or 0.006” (0.152 mm) more than dimension “B1.” ‡ Dimensions “D” and “E” do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.010" (0.254 mm) per side or 0.020" (0.508 mm) more than dimensions “D” or “E.” JEDEC equivalent:MO-047 AC DS30292B-page 182 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X APPENDIX A: Version A B REVISION HISTORY Date Revision Description 1998 1999 This is a new data sheet. However, these devices are similar to the PIC16C7X devices found in the PIC16C7X Data Sheet (DS30390). Data Memory Map for PIC16F873/874, moved ADFM bit from ADCON1<5> to ADCON1<7> FLASH EEPROM access information. APPENDIX B: DEVICE DIFFERENCES The differences between the devices in this data sheet are listed in Table B-1. TABLE B-1: DEVICE DIFFERENCES Difference A/D Parallel Slave Port Packages PIC16F876/873 PIC16F877/874 5 channels, 10bits 8 channels, 10bits no yes 28-pin PDIP, 28-pin windowed CERDIP, 40-pin PDIP, 44-pin TQFP, 28-pin SOIC 44-pin MQFP, 44-pin PLCC APPENDIX C: CONVERSION CONSIDERATIONS Considerations for converting from previous versions of devices to the ones listed in this data sheet are listed in Table C-1. TABLE C-1: CONVERSION CONSIDERATIONS Characteristic Pins Timers Interrupts Communication Frequency A/D CCP Program Memory RAM EEPROM data Other PIC16C7X 28/40 3 11 or 12 PSP, USART, SSP (SPI, I2C Slave) 20 MHz 8-bit 2 4K, 8K EPROM 192, 368 bytes None  PIC16F87X 28/40 3 13 or 14 PSP, USART, SSP (SPI, I2C Master/Slave) 20 MHz 10-bit 2 4K, 8K FLASH 192, 368 bytes 128, 256 bytes In-Circuit Debugger, Low Voltage Programming © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 183 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292B-page 184 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com INDEX A A/D ................................................................................... 111 ADCON0 Register .................................................... 111 ADCON1 Register .................................................... 112 ADIF bit .................................................................... 113 Analog Input Model Block Diagram .......................... 115 Analog Port Pins ...................................... 7, 8, 9, 37, 38 Block Diagram .......................................................... 114 Configuring Analog Port Pins ................................... 116 Configuring the Interrupt .......................................... 113 Configuring the Module ............................................ 113 Conversion Clock ..................................................... 116 Conversions ............................................................. 117 Delays ...................................................................... 115 Effects of a Reset ..................................................... 118 GO/DONE bit ........................................................... 113 Internal Sampling Switch (Rss) Impedence ............. 114 Operation During Sleep ........................................... 118 Sampling Requirements ........................................... 114 Source Impedence ................................................... 114 Time Delays ............................................................. 115 Absolute Maximum Ratings ............................................. 151 ACK .................................................................................... 72 Acknowledge Data bit ........................................................ 66 Acknowledge Pulse ............................................................ 72 Acknowledge Sequence Enable bit ................................... 66 Acknowledge Status bit ...................................................... 66 ADRES Register ........................................................ 15, 111 Application Note AN578, "Use of the SSP Module in the I2C Multi-Master Environment." ............................... 71 Application Notes AN552 (Implementing Wake-up on Key Strokes Using PIC16CXXX) ....................................... 31 AN556 (Table Reading Using PIC16CXX) ................. 26 Architecture PIC16F873/PIC16F876 Block Diagram ....................... 5 PIC16F874/PIC16F877 Block Diagram ....................... 6 Assembler MPASM Assembler .................................................. 145 B Banking, Data Memory ................................................ 12, 18 Baud Rate Generator ......................................................... 78 BCLIF ................................................................................. 24 BF .................................................................... 64, 72, 81, 83 Block Diagrams A/D ........................................................................... 114 Analog Input Model .................................................. 115 Baud Rate Generator ................................................. 78 Capture ...................................................................... 59 Compare .................................................................... 60 I2C Master Mode ........................................................ 76 I2C Module ................................................................. 71 PWM .......................................................................... 60 SSP (I2C Mode) ......................................................... 71 SSP (SPI Mode) ......................................................... 67 Timer0/WDT Prescaler .............................................. 47 Timer2 ........................................................................ 55 USART Receive ....................................................... 101 USART Transmit ........................................................ 99 BRG ................................................................................... 78 BRGH bit ............................................................................ 97 Brown-out Reset (BOR) ........................... 121, 125, 127, 128 BOR Status (BOR Bit) ................................................ 25 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. PIC16F87X Buffer Full bit, BF ............................................................... 72 Buffer Full Status bit, BF .................................................... 64 Bus Arbitration ................................................................... 88 Bus Collision Section ......................................................... 88 Bus Collision During a RESTART Condition ..................... 91 Bus Collision During a Start Condition ............................... 89 Bus Collision During a Stop Condition ............................... 92 Bus Collision Interrupt Flag bit, BCLIF ............................... 24 C Capture/Compare/PWM Capture Block Diagram ................................................... 59 CCP1CON Register ........................................... 58 CCP1IF .............................................................. 59 Mode ................................................................. 59 Prescaler ........................................................... 59 CCP Timer Resources ............................................... 57 Compare Block Diagram ................................................... 60 Mode ................................................................. 60 Software Interrupt Mode .................................... 60 Special Event Trigger ........................................ 60 Special Trigger Output of CCP1 ........................ 60 Special Trigger Output of CCP2 ........................ 60 Interaction of Two CCP Modules ............................... 57 Section ....................................................................... 57 Special Event Trigger and A/D Conversions ............. 60 Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) CCP1 RC2/CCP1 Pin ................................................. 7, 8 CCP2 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 Pin ..................................... 7, 8 PWM Block Diagram ................................................. 60 PWM Mode ................................................................ 60 CCP1CON ......................................................................... 17 CCP2CON ......................................................................... 17 CCPR1H Register .................................................. 15, 17, 57 CCPR1L Register ........................................................ 17, 57 CCPR2H Register ........................................................ 15, 17 CCPR2L Register ........................................................ 15, 17 CCPxM0 bit ........................................................................ 58 CCPxM1 bit ........................................................................ 58 CCPxM2 bit ........................................................................ 58 CCPxM3 bit ........................................................................ 58 CCPxX bit .......................................................................... 58 CCPxY bit .......................................................................... 58 CKE ................................................................................... 64 CKP ................................................................................... 65 Clock Polarity Select bit, CKP ............................................ 65 Code Examples Call of a Subroutine in Page 1 from Page 0 .............. 26 Indirect Addressing .................................................... 27 Code Protection ....................................................... 121, 135 Computed GOTO ............................................................... 26 Configuration Bits ............................................................ 121 Conversion Considerations .............................................. 183 D D/A ..................................................................................... 64 Data Memory ..................................................................... 12 Bank Select (RP1:RP0 Bits) ................................ 12, 18 General Purpose Registers ....................................... 12 Register File Map ................................................ 13, 14 Special Function Registers ........................................ 15 Data/Address bit, D/A ........................................................ 64 DC Characteristics ........................................................... 154 DS30292B-page 185 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm Development Support ...................................................... 145 Device Differences ........................................................... 183 Device Overview .................................................................. 5 Direct Addressing ......................................................... 27, 28 E Electrical Characteristics .................................................. 151 Errata ................................................................................... 4 F Firmware Instructions ....................................................... 137 FSR Register .................................................... 15, 16, 17, 27 G General Call Address Sequence ........................................ 74 General Call Address Support ........................................... 74 General Call Enable bit ...................................................... 66 I I/O Ports ............................................................................. 29 I2C ...................................................................................... 71 I2C Master Mode Reception ............................................... 83 I2C Master Mode Restart Condition ................................... 80 I2C Mode Selection ............................................................ 71 I2C Module Acknowledge Sequence timing .................................. 85 Addressing ................................................................. 72 Baud Rate Generator ................................................. 78 Block Diagram ............................................................ 76 BRG Block Diagram ................................................... 78 BRG Reset due to SDA Collision ............................... 90 BRG Timing ............................................................... 78 Bus Arbitration ........................................................... 88 Bus Collision .............................................................. 88 Acknowledge ...................................................... 88 Restart Condition ............................................... 91 Restart Condition Timing (Case1) ...................... 91 Restart Condition Timing (Case2) ...................... 91 Start Condition ................................................... 89 Start Condition Timing ................................. 89, 90 Stop Condition ................................................... 92 Stop Condition Timing (Case1) .......................... 92 Stop Condition Timing (Case2) .......................... 92 Transmit Timing ................................................. 88 Bus Collision timing .................................................... 88 Clock Arbitration ......................................................... 87 Clock Arbitration Timing (Master Transmit) ................ 87 Conditions to not give ACK Pulse .............................. 72 General Call Address Support ................................... 74 Master Mode .............................................................. 76 Master Mode 7-bit Reception timing .......................... 84 Master Mode Operation ............................................. 77 Master Mode Start Condition ..................................... 79 Master Mode Transmission ........................................ 81 Master Mode Transmit Sequence .............................. 77 Multi-Master Communication ..................................... 88 Multi-master Mode ..................................................... 77 Operation ................................................................... 71 Repeat Start Condition timing .................................... 80 Slave Mode ................................................................ 72 Slave Reception ......................................................... 73 Slave Transmission .................................................... 73 SSPBUF ..................................................................... 72 Stop Condition Receive or Transmit timing ................ 86 Stop Condition timing ................................................. 86 Waveforms for 7-bit Reception .................................. 73 Waveforms for 7-bit Transmission ............................. 74 DS30292B-page 186 I2C Module Address Register, SSPADD ........................... 72 I2C Slave Mode .................................................................. 72 ID Locations ............................................................. 121, 135 In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) ...................... 121, 136 INDF .................................................................................. 17 INDF Register ........................................................ 15, 16, 27 Indirect Addressing ...................................................... 27, 28 FSR Register ............................................................. 12 Instruction Format ............................................................ 137 Instruction Set .................................................................. 137 ADDLW .................................................................... 139 ADDWF .................................................................... 139 ANDLW .................................................................... 139 ANDWF .................................................................... 139 BCF ......................................................................... 139 BSF .......................................................................... 139 BTFSC ..................................................................... 140 BTFSS ..................................................................... 140 CALL ........................................................................ 140 CLRF ....................................................................... 140 CLRW ...................................................................... 140 CLRWDT ................................................................. 140 COMF ...................................................................... 141 DECF ....................................................................... 141 DECFSZ .................................................................. 141 GOTO ...................................................................... 141 INCF ........................................................................ 141 INCFSZ .................................................................... 141 IORLW ..................................................................... 142 IORWF ..................................................................... 142 MOVF ...................................................................... 142 MOVLW ................................................................... 142 MOVWF ................................................................... 142 NOP ......................................................................... 142 RETFIE .................................................................... 143 RETLW .................................................................... 143 RETURN .................................................................. 143 RLF .......................................................................... 143 RRF ......................................................................... 143 SLEEP ..................................................................... 143 SUBLW .................................................................... 144 SUBWF .................................................................... 144 SWAPF .................................................................... 144 XORLW ................................................................... 144 XORWF ................................................................... 144 Summary Table ....................................................... 138 INTCON ............................................................................. 17 INTCON Register ............................................................... 20 GIE Bit ....................................................................... 20 INTE Bit ..................................................................... 20 INTF Bit ..................................................................... 20 PEIE Bit ..................................................................... 20 RBIE Bit ..................................................................... 20 RBIF Bit ............................................................... 20, 31 T0IE Bit ...................................................................... 20 T0IF Bit ...................................................................... 20 Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) .............................................. 63 Internal Sampling Switch (Rss) Impedence ..................... 114 Interrupt Sources ..................................................... 121, 131 Block Diagram ......................................................... 131 Interrupt on Change (RB7:RB4 ) ............................... 31 RB0/INT Pin, External ...................................... 7, 8, 132 TMR0 Overflow ........................................................ 132 USART Receive/Transmit Complete ......................... 95 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com Interrupts Bus Collision Interrupt ................................................ 24 Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt .............................. 22 Interrupts, Context Saving During .................................... 132 Interrupts, Enable Bits Global Interrupt Enable (GIE Bit) ....................... 20, 131 Interrupt on Change (RB7:RB4) Enable (RBIE Bit) .......................................................... 20, 132 Peripheral Interrupt Enable (PEIE Bit) ....................... 20 RB0/INT Enable (INTE Bit) ........................................ 20 TMR0 Overflow Enable (T0IE Bit) .............................. 20 Interrupts, Flag Bits Interrupt on Change (RB7:RB4) Flag (RBIF Bit) ..................................................... 20, 31, 132 RB0/INT Flag (INTF Bit) ............................................. 20 TMR0 Overflow Flag (T0IF Bit) .......................... 20, 132 K KeeLoq® Evaluation and Programming Tools ................. 148 L Loading of PC .................................................................... 26 M Master Clear (MCLR) ....................................................... 7, 8 MCLR Reset, Normal Operation .............. 125, 127, 128 MCLR Reset, SLEEP ............................... 125, 127, 128 Memory Organization Data Memory ............................................................. 12 Program Memory ....................................................... 11 MPLAB Integrated Development Environment Software . 145 Multi-Master Communication ............................................. 88 Multi-Master Mode ............................................................. 77 O OPCODE Field Descriptions ............................................ 137 OPTION ............................................................................. 17 OPTION_REG Register ..................................................... 19 INTEDG Bit ................................................................ 19 PS2:PS0 Bits ............................................................. 19 PSA Bit ....................................................................... 19 RBPU Bit .................................................................... 19 T0CS Bit ..................................................................... 19 T0SE Bit ..................................................................... 19 OSC1/CLKIN Pin ............................................................. 7, 8 OSC2/CLKOUT Pin ......................................................... 7, 8 Oscillator Configuration ............................................ 121, 123 HS .................................................................... 123, 127 LP ..................................................................... 123, 127 RC ............................................................ 123, 124, 127 XT .................................................................... 123, 127 Oscillator, WDT ................................................................ 133 Output of TMR2 ................................................................. 55 P P ......................................................................................... 64 Packaging ........................................................................ 175 Paging, Program Memory ............................................ 11, 26 Parallel Slave Port (PSP) ......................................... 9, 35, 38 Block Diagram ............................................................ 38 RE0/RD/AN5 Pin .............................................. 9, 37, 38 RE1/WR/AN6 Pin ............................................. 9, 37, 38 RE2/CS/AN7 Pin .............................................. 9, 37, 38 Read Waveforms ....................................................... 39 Select (PSPMODE Bit) .................................. 35, 36, 38 Write Waveforms ....................................................... 39 PCL Register .................................................... 15, 16, 17, 26 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. PIC16F87X PCLATH Register ............................................ 15, 16, 17, 26 PCON Register .................................................... 17, 25, 126 BOR Bit ...................................................................... 25 POR Bit ...................................................................... 25 PIC16F876 Pinout Description ............................................ 7 PICDEM-1 Low-Cost PICmicro Demo Board .................. 147 PICDEM-2 Low-Cost PIC16CXX Demo Board ................ 147 PICDEM-3 Low-Cost PIC16CXXX Demo Board ............. 147 PICSTART® Plus Entry Level Development System ...... 147 PIE1 Register .............................................................. 17, 21 PIE2 Register .............................................................. 17, 23 Pinout Descriptions PIC16F873/PIC16F876 ............................................... 7 PIC16F874/PIC16F877 ............................................... 8 PIR1 Register .................................................................... 22 PIR2 Register .................................................................... 24 POP ................................................................................... 26 PORTA ...................................................................... 7, 8, 17 Analog Port Pins ...................................................... 7, 8 Initialization ................................................................ 29 PORTA Register ........................................................ 29 RA3, RA0 and RA5 Port Pins .................................... 29 RA4/T0CKI Pin .................................................. 7, 8, 29 RA5/SS/AN4 Pin ...................................................... 7, 8 TRISA Register .......................................................... 29 PORTA Register ................................................................ 15 PORTB ...................................................................... 7, 8, 17 PORTB Register ........................................................ 31 Pull-up Enable (RBPU Bit) ......................................... 19 RB0/INT Edge Select (INTEDG Bit) .......................... 19 RB0/INT Pin, External ..................................... 7, 8, 132 RB3:RB0 Port Pins .................................................... 31 RB7:RB4 Interrupt on Change ................................. 132 RB7:RB4 Interrupt on Change Enable (RBIE Bit) ........................................................... 20, 132 RB7:RB4 Interrupt on Change Flag (RBIF Bit) ..................................................... 20, 31, 132 RB7:RB4 Port Pins .................................................... 31 TRISB Register .......................................................... 31 PORTB Register ................................................................ 15 PORTC ...................................................................... 7, 8, 17 Block Diagram ........................................................... 33 PORTC Register ........................................................ 33 RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI Pin ........................................... 7, 8 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 Pin ............................................. 7, 8 RC2/CCP1 Pin ......................................................... 7, 8 RC3/SCK/SCL Pin ................................................... 7, 8 RC4/SDI/SDA Pin .................................................... 7, 8 RC5/SDO Pin .......................................................... 7, 8 RC6/TX/CK Pin .................................................. 7, 8, 96 RC7/RX/DT Pin ........................................... 7, 8, 96, 97 TRISC Register ................................................... 33, 95 PORTC Register ................................................................ 15 PORTD .................................................................... 9, 17, 38 Block Diagram ........................................................... 35 Parallel Slave Port (PSP) Function ............................ 35 PORTD Register ........................................................ 35 TRISD Register ......................................................... 35 PORTD Register ................................................................ 15 PORTE .......................................................................... 9, 17 Analog Port Pins .............................................. 9, 37, 38 Block Diagram ........................................................... 36 Input Buffer Full Status (IBF Bit) ................................ 36 Input Buffer Overflow (IBOV Bit) ................................ 36 Output Buffer Full Status (OBF Bit) ........................... 36 PORTE Register ........................................................ 36 DS30292B-page 187 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm PSP Mode Select (PSPMODE Bit) ................ 35, 36, 38 RE0/RD/AN5 Pin .............................................. 9, 37, 38 RE1/WR/AN6 Pin ............................................. 9, 37, 38 RE2/CS/AN7 Pin .............................................. 9, 37, 38 TRISE Register .......................................................... 36 PORTE Register ................................................................ 15 Postscaler, WDT Assignment (PSA Bit) ................................................ 19 Rate Select (PS2:PS0 Bits) ....................................... 19 Power-on Reset (POR) .................... 121, 125, 126, 127, 128 Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) ....................... 121, 126 POR Status (POR Bit) ................................................ 25 Power Control (PCON) Register .............................. 126 Power-down (PD Bit) ......................................... 18, 125 Power-up Timer (PWRT) ................................. 121, 126 Time-out (TO Bit) ............................................... 18, 125 Time-out Sequence on Power-up .................... 129, 130 PR2 .................................................................................... 17 PR2 Register ................................................................ 16, 55 Prescaler, Timer0 Assignment (PSA Bit) ................................................ 19 Rate Select (PS2:PS0 Bits) ....................................... 19 PRO MATE® II Universal Programmer ............................ 147 Product Identification System ........................................... 191 Program Counter Reset Conditions ...................................................... 127 Program Memory ............................................................... 11 Interrupt Vector .......................................................... 11 Paging .................................................................. 11, 26 Program Memory Map ............................................... 11 Reset Vector .............................................................. 11 Program Verification ......................................................... 135 Programming Pin (VPP) .................................................... 7, 8 Programming, Device Instructions ................................... 137 PUSH ................................................................................. 26 R R/W .................................................................................... 64 R/W bit ............................................................................... 72 R/W bit ............................................................................... 73 RCREG .............................................................................. 17 RCSTA Register ........................................................... 17, 96 CREN Bit .................................................................... 96 FERR Bit .................................................................... 96 OERR Bit ................................................................... 96 RX9 Bit ....................................................................... 96 RX9D Bit .................................................................... 96 SPEN Bit .............................................................. 95, 96 SREN Bit .................................................................... 96 Read/Write bit, R/W ........................................................... 64 Receive Enable bit ............................................................. 66 Receive Overflow Indicator bit, SSPOV ............................. 65 Register File ....................................................................... 12 Register File Map ......................................................... 13, 14 Registers FSR Summary ........................................................... 17 INDF Summary .......................................................... 17 INTCON Summary ..................................................... 17 OPTION Summary ..................................................... 17 PCL Summary ............................................................ 17 PCLATH Summary .................................................... 17 PORTB Summary ...................................................... 17 SSPSTAT ................................................................... 64 STATUS Summary .................................................... 17 TMR0 Summary ......................................................... 17 TRISB Summary ........................................................ 17 DS30292B-page 188 Reset ....................................................................... 121, 125 Block Diagram ......................................................... 125 Reset Conditions for All Registers ........................... 128 Reset Conditions for PCON Register ...................... 127 Reset Conditions for Program Counter .................... 127 Reset Conditions for STATUS Register ................... 127 Restart Condition Enabled bit ............................................ 66 Revision History ............................................................... 183 S SCK ................................................................................... 67 SCL .................................................................................... 72 SDA ................................................................................... 72 SDI ..................................................................................... 67 SDO ................................................................................... 67 SEEVAL® Evaluation and Programming System ............ 148 Serial Clock, SCK .............................................................. 67 Serial Clock, SCL ............................................................... 72 Serial Data Address, SDA ................................................. 72 Serial Data In, SDI ............................................................. 67 Serial Data Out, SDO ........................................................ 67 Slave Select, SS ................................................................ 67 SLEEP ............................................................. 121, 125, 134 SMP ................................................................................... 64 Software Simulator (MPLAB-SIM) ................................... 146 SPBRG .............................................................................. 17 SPBRG Register ................................................................ 16 Special Features of the CPU ........................................... 121 Special Function Registers ................................................ 15 Speed, Operating ................................................................. 1 SPI Master Mode .............................................................. 68 Master Mode Timing .................................................. 68 Serial Clock ................................................................ 67 Serial Data In ............................................................. 67 Serial Data Out .......................................................... 67 Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) ................................ 63 Slave Mode Timing .................................................... 69 Slave Mode Timing Diagram ..................................... 69 Slave Select ............................................................... 67 SPI clock .................................................................... 68 SPI Mode ................................................................... 67 SPI Clock Edge Select, CKE ............................................. 64 SPI Data Input Sample Phase Select, SMP ...................... 64 SPI Module Slave Mode ................................................................ 69 SS ...................................................................................... 67 SSP .................................................................................... 63 Block Diagram (SPI Mode) ........................................ 67 RA5/SS/AN4 Pin ...................................................... 7, 8 RC3/SCK/SCL Pin ................................................... 7, 8 RC4/SDI/SDA Pin .................................................... 7, 8 RC5/SDO Pin ........................................................... 7, 8 SPI Mode ................................................................... 67 SSPADD .................................................................... 72 SSPBUF .............................................................. 68, 72 SSPCON1 ................................................................. 65 SSPCON2 ................................................................. 66 SSPSR ................................................................ 68, 72 SSPSTAT ............................................................ 64, 72 SSP I2C SSP I2C Operation .................................................... 71 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com SSP Module SPI Master Mode ....................................................... 68 SPI Slave Mode ......................................................... 69 SSPCON1 Register ................................................... 71 SSP Overflow Detect bit, SSPOV ...................................... 72 SSPADD Register ........................................................ 16, 17 SSPBUF ....................................................................... 17, 72 SSPBUF Register .............................................................. 15 SSPCON Register ............................................................. 15 SSPCON1 .................................................................... 65, 71 SSPCON2 .......................................................................... 66 SSPEN ............................................................................... 65 SSPIF ........................................................................... 22, 73 SSPM3:SSPM0 .................................................................. 65 SSPOV ................................................................... 65, 72, 83 SSPSTAT ..................................................................... 64, 72 SSPSTAT Register ...................................................... 16, 17 Stack .................................................................................. 26 Overflows ................................................................... 26 Underflow ................................................................... 26 Start bit (S) ......................................................................... 64 Start Condition Enabled bit ................................................ 66 STATUS Register ........................................................ 17, 18 C Bit ........................................................................... 18 DC Bit ......................................................................... 18 IRP Bit ........................................................................ 18 PD Bit ................................................................. 18, 125 RP1:RP0 Bits ............................................................. 18 TO Bit ................................................................. 18, 125 Z Bit ............................................................................ 18 Stop bit (P) ......................................................................... 64 Stop Condition Enable bit .................................................. 66 Synchronous Serial Port .................................................... 63 Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit, SSPEN ..................... 65 Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt ...................................... 22 Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits, SSPM3:SSPM0 .................................................................. 65 T T1CKPS0 bit ...................................................................... 51 T1CKPS1 bit ...................................................................... 51 T1CON ............................................................................... 17 T1CON Register .......................................................... 17, 51 T1OSCEN bit ..................................................................... 51 T1SYNC bit ........................................................................ 51 T2CKPS0 bit ...................................................................... 55 T2CKPS1 bit ...................................................................... 55 T2CON Register .......................................................... 17, 55 TAD ................................................................................... 116 Timer0 Clock Source Edge Select (T0SE Bit) ........................ 19 Clock Source Select (T0CS Bit) ................................. 19 Overflow Enable (T0IE Bit) ........................................ 20 Overflow Flag (T0IF Bit) ..................................... 20, 132 Overflow Interrupt .................................................... 132 RA4/T0CKI Pin, External Clock ............................... 7, 8 Timer1 ................................................................................ 51 RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI Pin ........................................... 7, 8 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 Pin .............................................. 7, 8 PIC16F87X Timers Timer0 External Clock ................................................... 48 Interrupt ............................................................. 47 Prescaler ........................................................... 48 Prescaler Block Diagram ................................... 47 Section .............................................................. 47 T0CKI ................................................................ 48 Timer1 Asynchronous Counter Mode ............................ 53 Capacitor Selection ........................................... 53 Operation in Timer Mode ................................... 52 Oscillator ............................................................ 53 Prescaler ........................................................... 53 Resetting of Timer1 Registers ........................... 53 Resetting Timer1 using a CCP Trigger Output .. 53 Synchronized Counter Mode ............................. 52 T1CON .............................................................. 51 TMR1H .............................................................. 53 TMR1L ............................................................... 53 Timer2 Block Diagram ................................................... 55 Postscaler .......................................................... 55 Prescaler ........................................................... 55 T2CON .............................................................. 55 Timing Diagrams A/D Conversion ....................................................... 172 Acknowledge Sequence Timing ................................ 85 Baud Rate Generator with Clock Arbitration .............. 78 BRG Reset Due to SDA Collision .............................. 90 Brown-out Reset ...................................................... 162 Bus Collision Start Condition Timing ....................................... 89 Bus Collision During a Restart Condition (Case 1) .... 91 Bus Collision During a Restart Condition (Case2) ..... 91 Bus Collision During a Start Condition (SCL = 0) ...... 90 Bus Collision During a Stop Condition ....................... 92 Bus Collision for Transmit and Acknowledge ............ 88 Capture/Compare/PWM .......................................... 164 CLKOUT and I/O ..................................................... 161 I2C Bus Data ............................................................ 169 I2C Bus Start/Stop bits ............................................. 168 I2C Master Mode First Start bit timing ....................... 79 I2C Master Mode Reception timing ............................ 84 I2C Master Mode Transmission timing ...................... 82 Master Mode Transmit Clock Arbitration ................... 87 Power-up Timer ....................................................... 162 Repeat Start Condition .............................................. 80 Reset ....................................................................... 162 SPI Master Mode ....................................................... 68 SPI Slave Mode (CKE = 1) ........................................ 69 SPI Slave Mode Timing (CKE = 0) ............................ 69 Start-up Timer .......................................................... 162 Stop Condition Receive or Transmit .......................... 86 Time-out Sequence on Power-up .................... 129, 130 Timer0 ..................................................................... 163 Timer1 ..................................................................... 163 USART Asynchronous Master Transmission .......... 100 USART Asynchronous Reception ........................... 101 USART Synchronous Receive ................................ 170 USART Synchronous Reception ............................. 107 USART Synchronous Transmission ................ 106, 170 USART, Asynchronous Reception .......................... 104 Wake-up from SLEEP via Interrupt ......................... 135 Watchdog Timer ...................................................... 162 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 189 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm TMR0 ................................................................................. 17 TMR0 Register ................................................................... 15 TMR1CS bit ........................................................................ 51 TMR1H ............................................................................... 17 TMR1H Register ................................................................ 15 TMR1L ............................................................................... 17 TMR1L Register ................................................................. 15 TMR1ON bit ....................................................................... 51 TMR2 ................................................................................. 17 TMR2 Register ................................................................... 15 TMR2ON bit ....................................................................... 55 TOUTPS0 bit ...................................................................... 55 TOUTPS1 bit ...................................................................... 55 TOUTPS2 bit ...................................................................... 55 TOUTPS3 bit ...................................................................... 55 TRISA ................................................................................. 17 TRISA Register .................................................................. 16 TRISB ................................................................................. 17 TRISB Register .................................................................. 16 TRISC ................................................................................ 17 TRISC Register .................................................................. 16 TRISD ................................................................................ 17 TRISD Register .................................................................. 16 TRISE ................................................................................. 17 TRISE Register ............................................................ 16, 36 IBF Bit ........................................................................ 36 IBOV Bit ..................................................................... 36 OBF Bit ...................................................................... 36 PSPMODE Bit ................................................ 35, 36, 38 TXREG ............................................................................... 17 TXSTA ................................................................................ 17 TXSTA Register ................................................................. 95 BRGH Bit ................................................................... 95 CSRC Bit .................................................................... 95 SYNC Bit .................................................................... 95 TRMT Bit .................................................................... 95 TX9 Bit ....................................................................... 95 TX9D Bit ..................................................................... 95 TXEN Bit .................................................................... 95 U UA ...................................................................................... 64 Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) Asynchronous Receiver Setting Up Reception ....................................... 103 Timing Diagram ................................................ 104 Update Address, UA .......................................................... 64 USART ............................................................................... 95 Asynchronous Mode .................................................. 99 Receive Block Diagram .................................... 103 Asynchronous Receiver ........................................... 101 Asynchronous Reception ......................................... 102 Asynchronous Transmitter ......................................... 99 Baud Rate Generator (BRG) ...................................... 97 Baud Rate Formula ............................................ 97 Baud Rates, Asynchronous Mode (BRGH=0) ... 98 High Baud Rate Select (BRGH Bit) .................... 95 Sampling ............................................................ 97 Clock Source Select (CSRC Bit) ................................ 95 Continuous Receive Enable (CREN Bit) .................... 96 Framing Error (FERR Bit) .......................................... 96 Mode Select (SYNC Bit) ............................................ 95 Overrun Error (OERR Bit) .......................................... 96 RC6/TX/CK Pin ........................................................ 7, 8 RC7/RX/DT Pin ........................................................ 7, 8 DS30292B-page 190 RCSTA Register ........................................................ 96 Receive Block Diagram ........................................... 101 Receive Data, 9th bit (RX9D Bit) ............................... 96 Receive Enable, 9-bit (RX9 Bit) ................................. 96 Serial Port Enable (SPEN Bit) ............................. 95, 96 Single Receive Enable (SREN Bit) ............................ 96 Synchronous Master Mode ...................................... 105 Synchronous Master Reception ............................... 107 Synchronous Master Transmission ......................... 105 Synchronous Slave Mode ........................................ 108 Transmit Block Diagram ............................................ 99 Transmit Data, 9th Bit (TX9D) ................................... 95 Transmit Enable (TXEN Bit) ...................................... 95 Transmit Enable, Nine-bit (TX9 Bit) ........................... 95 Transmit Shift Register Status (TRMT Bit) ................ 95 TXSTA Register ......................................................... 95 W Wake-up from SLEEP .............................................. 121, 134 Interrupts ......................................................... 127, 128 MCLR Reset ............................................................ 128 Timing Diagram ....................................................... 135 WDT Reset .............................................................. 128 Watchdog Timer (WDT) ........................................... 121, 133 Block Diagram ......................................................... 133 Enable (WDTE Bit) .................................................. 133 Programming Considerations .................................. 133 RC Oscillator ............................................................ 133 Time-out Period ....................................................... 133 WDT Reset, Normal Operation ................ 125, 127, 128 WDT Reset, SLEEP ................................. 125, 127, 128 Waveform for General Call Address Sequence ................. 74 WCOL .................................................. 65, 79, 81, 83, 85, 86 WCOL Status Flag ............................................................. 79 Write Collision Detect bit, WCOL ....................................... 65 WWW, On-Line Support ...................................................... 4 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com ON-LINE SUPPORT Microchip provides on-line support on the Microchip World Wide Web (WWW) site. The web site is used by Microchip as a means to make files and information easily available to customers. To view the site, the user must have access to the Internet and a web browser, such as Netscape or Microsoft Explorer. Files are also available for FTP download from our FTP site. Connecting to the Microchip Internet Web Site The Microchip web site is available by using your favorite Internet browser to attach to: www.microchip.com The file transfer site is available by using an FTP service to connect to: ftp://ftp.microchip.com The web site and file transfer site provide a variety of services. Users may download files for the latest Development Tools, Data Sheets, Application Notes, User’s Guides, Articles and Sample Programs. A variety of Microchip specific business information is also available, including listings of Microchip sales offices, distributors and factory representatives. Other data available for consideration is: • Latest Microchip Press Releases • Technical Support Section with Frequently Asked Questions • Design Tips • Device Errata • Job Postings • Microchip Consultant Program Member Listing • Links to other useful web sites related to Microchip Products • Conferences for products, Development Sys- tems, technical information and more • Listing of seminars and events PIC16F87X Systems Information and Upgrade Hot Line The Systems Information and Upgrade Line provides system users a listing of the latest versions of all of Microchip's development systems software products. Plus, this line provides information on how customers can receive any currently available upgrade kits.The Hot Line Numbers are: 1-800-755-2345 for U.S. and most of Canada, and 1-480-786-7302 for the rest of the world. 981103 Trademarks: The Microchip name, logo, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, PICMASTER, PRO MATE and MPLAB are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FlexROM and fuzzyLAB are trademarks and SQTP is a service mark of Microchip in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective companies. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 191 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X READER RESPONSE It is our intention to provide you with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip product. If you wish to provide your comments on organization, clarity, subject matter, and ways in which our documentation can better serve you, please FAX your comments to the Technical Publications Manager at (480) 786-7578. Please list the following information, and use this outline to provide us with your comments about this Data Sheet. To: Technical Publications Manager RE: Reader Response Total Pages Sent From: Name Company Address City / State / ZIP / Country Telephone: (_______) _________ - _________ Application (optional): Would you like a reply? Y N FAX: (______) _________ - _________ Device: PIC16F87X Literature Number: DS30292B Questions: 1. What are the best features of this document? 2. How does this document meet your hardware and software development needs? 3. Do you find the organization of this data sheet easy to follow? If not, why? 4. What additions to the data sheet do you think would enhance the structure and subject? 5. What deletions from the data sheet could be made without affecting the overall usefulness? 6. Is there any incorrect or misleading information (what and where)? 7. How would you improve this document? 8. How would you improve our software, systems, and silicon products? DS30292B-page 192 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com PIC16F87X PIC16F87X PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office. PART NO. -XX X /XX Device Frequency Temperature Package Range Range XXX Pattern Device PIC16F87X(1), PIC16F87XT(2) ;VDD range 4.0V to 5.5V PIC16LF87X(1), PIC16LF87XT(2 );VDD range 2.0V to 5.5V Examples: f) PIC16F877 -20/P 301 = Commercial temp., PDIP package, 4 MHz, normal VDD limits, QTP pattern #301. g) PIC16F876 - 04I/SO = Industrial temp., SOIC package, 200 kHz, Extended VDD limits. h) PIC16F877 - 04I/P = Industrial temp., PDIP package, 10MHz, normal VDD limits. Frequency Range 04 = 4 MHz 20 = 20 MHz Temperature Range b(3) = 0°C to 70°C (Commercial) I = -40°C to +85°C (Industrial) Note 1: F = CMOS FLASH LF = Low Power CMOS FLASH T = in tape and reel - SOIC, PLCC, MQFP, TQFP packages only. Package PQ = MQFP (Metric PQFP) PT = TQFP (Thin Quad Flatpack) SO = SOIC SP = Skinny plastic dip P = PDIP L = PLCC Pattern QTP, SQTP, Code or Special Requirements (blank otherwise) * JW Devices are UV erasable and can be programmed to any device configuration. JW Devices meet the electrical requirement of each oscillator type (including LC devices). Sales and Support Data Sheets Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following: 1. Your local Microchip sales office 2. The Microchip Corporate Literature Center U.S. FAX: (480) 786-7277 3. The Microchip Worldwide Site (www.microchip.com) Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using. New Customer Notification System Register on our web site (www.microchip.com/cn) to receive the most current information on our products. © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 193 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292B-page 194 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com NOTES: PIC16F87X © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 195 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292B-page 196 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com NOTES: PIC16F87X © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 197 元器件交易P网ICww1w6.ceFcb82b7.coXm NOTES: DS30292B-page 198 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com NOTES: PIC16F87X © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc. DS30292B-page 199 元器件交易网www.cecb2b.com WORLDWIDE SALES AND SERVICE AMERICAS Corporate Office Microchip Technology Inc. 2355 West Chandler Blvd. Chandler, AZ 85224-6199 Tel: 480-786-7200 Fax: 480-786-7277 Technical Support: 480-786-7627 Web Address: http://www.microchip.com Atlanta Microchip Technology Inc. 500 Sugar Mill Road, Suite 200B Atlanta, GA 30350 Tel: 770-640-0034 Fax: 770-640-0307 Boston Microchip Technology Inc. 5 Mount Royal Avenue Marlborough, MA 01752 Tel: 508-480-9990 Fax: 508-480-8575 Chicago Microchip Technology Inc. 333 Pierce Road, Suite 180 Itasca, IL 60143 Tel: 630-285-0071 Fax: 630-285-0075 Dallas Microchip Technology Inc. 4570 Westgrove Drive, Suite 160 Addison, TX 75248 Tel: 972-818-7423 Fax: 972-818-2924 Dayton Microchip Technology Inc. Two Prestige Place, Suite 150 Miamisburg, OH 45342 Tel: 937-291-1654 Fax: 937-291-9175 Detroit Microchip Technology Inc. Tri-Atria Office Building 32255 Northwestern Highway, Suite 190 Farmington Hills, MI 48334 Tel: 248-538-2250 Fax: 248-538-2260 Los Angeles Microchip Technology Inc. 18201 Von Karman, Suite 1090 Irvine, CA 92612 Tel: 949-263-1888 Fax: 949-263-1338 New York Microchip Technology Inc. 150 Motor Parkway, Suite 202 Hauppauge, NY 11788 Tel: 631-273-5305 Fax: 631-273-5335 San Jose Microchip Technology Inc. 2107 North First Street, Suite 590 San Jose, CA 95131 Tel: 408-436-7950 Fax: 408-436-7955 AMERICAS (continued) Toronto Microchip Technology Inc. 5925 Airport Road, Suite 200 Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1W1, Canada Tel: 905-405-6279 Fax: 905-405-6253 ASIA/PACIFIC Hong Kong Microchip Asia Pacific Unit 2101, Tower 2 Metroplaza 223 Hing Fong Road Kwai Fong, N.T., Hong Kong Tel: 852-2-401-1200 Fax: 852-2-401-3431 Beijing Microchip Technology, Beijing Unit 915, 6 Chaoyangmen Bei Dajie Dong Erhuan Road, Dongcheng District New China Hong Kong Manhattan Building Beijing 100027 PRC Tel: 86-10-85282100 Fax: 86-10-85282104 India Microchip Technology Inc. India Liaison Office No. 6, Legacy, Convent Road Bangalore 560 025, India Tel: 91-80-229-0061 Fax: 91-80-229-0062 Japan Microchip Technology Intl. Inc. Benex S-1 6F 3-18-20, Shinyokohama Kohoku-Ku, Yokohama-shi Kanagawa 222-0033 Japan Tel: 81-45-471- 6166 Fax: 81-45-471-6122 Korea Microchip Technology Korea 168-1, Youngbo Bldg. 3 Floor Samsung-Dong, Kangnam-Ku Seoul, Korea Tel: 82-2-554-7200 Fax: 82-2-558-5934 Shanghai Microchip Technology RM 406 Shanghai Golden Bridge Bldg. 2077 Yan’an Road West, Hong Qiao District Shanghai, PRC 200335 Tel: 86-21-6275-5700 Fax: 86 21-6275-5060 ASIA/PACIFIC (continued) Singapore Microchip Technology Singapore Pte Ltd. 200 Middle Road #07-02 Prime Centre Singapore 188980 Tel: 65-334-8870 Fax: 65-334-8850 Taiwan, R.O.C Microchip Technology Taiwan 10F-1C 207 Tung Hua North Road Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Tel: 886-2-2717-7175 Fax: 886-2-2545-0139 EUROPE United Kingdom Arizona Microchip Technology Ltd. 505 Eskdale Road Winnersh Triangle Wokingham Berkshire, England RG41 5TU Tel: 44 118 921 5858 Fax: 44-118 921-5835 Denmark Microchip Technology Denmark ApS Regus Business Centre Lautrup hoj 1-3 Ballerup DK-2750 Denmark Tel: 45 4420 9895 Fax: 45 4420 9910 France Arizona Microchip Technology SARL Parc d’Activite du Moulin de Massy 43 Rue du Saule Trapu Batiment A - ler Etage 91300 Massy, France Tel: 33-1-69-53-63-20 Fax: 33-1-69-30-90-79 Germany Arizona Microchip Technology GmbH Gustav-Heinemann-Ring 125 D-81739 München, Germany Tel: 49-89-627-144 0 Fax: 49-89-627-144-44 Italy Arizona Microchip Technology SRL Centro Direzionale Colleoni Palazzo Taurus 1 V. Le Colleoni 1 20041 Agrate Brianza Milan, Italy Tel: 39-039-65791-1 Fax: 39-039-6899883 11/15/99 Microchip received QS-9000 quality system certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona in July 1999. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are QS-9000 compliant for its PICmicro® 8-bit MCUs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs and microperipheral products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001 certified. All rights reserved. © 1999 Microchip Technology Incorporated. Printed in the USA. 11/99 Printed on recycled paper. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is intended for suggestion only and may be superseded by updates. No representation or warranty is given and no liability is assumed by Microchip Technology Incorporated with respect to the accuracy or use of such information, or infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such use or otherwise. Use of Microchip’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any intellectual property rights. The Microchip logo and name are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Inc. in the U.S.A. and other countries. All rights reserved. All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective companies. DS30292B-page 200 © 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.

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