LONWORKS FT5000

已有 445117个资源

下载专区

上传者其他资源

    文档信息举报收藏

    标    签:LONWORKS

    分    享:

    文档简介

    LONWORKS  FT5000

    文档预览

    Series 5000 Chip Data Book ® 005-0199-01A Echelon, LONWORKS, LONMARK, LonTalk, Neuron, 3120, 3150, LNS, ShortStack, LonMaker, and the Echelon logo are trademarks of Echelon Corporation registered in the United States and other countries. 3170 and FTXL are trademarks of Echelon Corporation. Other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. Smart Transceivers, Neuron Chips, and other OEM Products were not designed for use in equipment or systems which involve danger to human health or safety or a risk of property damage and Echelon assumes no responsibility or liability for use of the Smart Transceivers or Neuron Chips in such applications. Parts manufactured by vendors other than Echelon and referenced in this document have been described for illustrative purposes only, and may not have been tested by Echelon. It is the responsibility of the customer to determine the suitability of these parts for each application. ECHELON MAKES AND YOU RECEIVE NO WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS, EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY OR IN ANY COMMUNICATION WITH YOU, AND ECHELON SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Except as expressly permitted herein, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Echelon Corporation. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 1996, 2009 Echelon Corporation. Echelon Corporation www.echelon.com ii Welcome Echelon’s FT 5000 Free Topology Smart Transceiver is the successor to Echelon’s FT 3120® Smart Transceiver and FT 3150® Smart Transceiver. Likewise, Echelon’s Neuron® 5000 Processor is the successor to the Neuron 3120 Chip and Neuron 3150 Chip. Combined with the Echelon high-performance FT-X3 Communications Transformer, the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver sets new benchmarks for performance, robustness, and low cost. Ideal for use in LONWORKS® devices designed for building, industrial, transportation, home, and utility automation applications, FT 5000 Smart Transceivers can be used in both new product designs and as a means of cost reducing existing devices. The FT 5000 Smart Transceivers includes a network transceiver that is fully compatible with the TP/FT-10 channel. The free topology transceiver supports polarity insensitive cabling using a star, bus, daisy chain, loop, or combined topologies. This flexibility frees the installer from the need to adhere to a strict set of wiring rules. Free topology wiring reduces the time and expense of device installation by allowing the wiring to be installed in the most expeditious and cost-effective manner. It also simplifies network expansion by eliminating restrictions on wire routing, splicing, and device placement. The Neuron 5000 Processor has the same performance, robustness, and low cost as the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver, but you can use it with a number of different types of network transceivers so that you can integrate different channel types (such as the TP/XF-1250 channel) into a LONWORKS network. Together, the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver and the Neuron 5000 Processor are part of a family of products, collectively known as Series 5000 chips. This document provides detailed technical specifications for the electrical interfaces, mechanical interfaces, and operating environment characteristics for the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver and Neuron 5000 Processor. In some cases, example vendor sources are included to simplify the task of integrating a Series 5000 chip with application electronics. You can find contact information for the vendor sources listed in Appendix Error! Reference source not found., Vendor Contact Information, on page 153. This manual does not describe Echelon’s Power Line Smart Transceivers. For more information about that technology, see the PL 3120 / PL 3150 / PL 3170 Power Line Smart Transceiver Data Book (005-0193-01A). Audience This manual provides specifications and user instructions for engineers who develop applications and devices that use FT 5000 Smart Transceivers or Neuron 5000 Processors, and for users of network interfaces based on the FT Smart Transceivers or Neuron Chips. What’s New for Echelon’s Smart Transceivers and Neuron Chips Echelon’s FT 5000 Smart Transceiver and Neuron 5000 Processor include many new features and functions compared with Echelon’s FT 3120 Smart Transceiver, Neuron 3120 Chip, FT 3150 Smart Transceiver, and Neuron 3150 Chip. This section describes some of the major new features and functions of the Series 5000 chips. Series 5000 Chip Data Book iii 3.3 V Operation Series 5000 chips operate with a 3.3 V power supply. Series 3100 chips require a 5 V power supply. New Memory Architecture Series 5000 chips have a new memory architecture, for both the external memory interface and the internal on-chip memory. The external memory interface for external non-volatile memory is a serial interface using either the SPI or I2C protocol. The internal on-chip memory includes 64 KB of RAM, of which 44 KB is user-accessible. Series 5000 chips have no on-chip ROM or flash memory. Instead, they rely on external non-volatile memory for user application code and data. The default system firmware image is contained in on-chip ROM, but newer images can be contained in the external non-volatile memory, which allows the system firmware to be upgraded as necessary. FT 3120 Smart Transceivers and Neuron 3120 chips have no external non-volatile memory, but instead have up to 8 KB of on-chip flash memory. FT 3150 Smart Transceivers and Neuron 3150 Chips use a parallel external memory interface for external non-volatile memory. Series 3100 chips include 2 to 4 KB of RAM and 16 KB of ROM. User application code and data is loaded into the internal flash for 3120 devices and into external non-volatile memory for 3150 devices. The system firmware is contained in on-chip ROM for Series 3100 chips. Performance Enhancements Series 5000 chips support an internal system clock speed of up to 80 MHz. The internal system clock speed is user-adjustable from 5 MHz to 80 MHz, based on the device’s hardware template maintained by the NodeBuilder FX Development Tool or Mini FX Evaluation Kit. The external crystal frequency for all Series 5000 devices is 10 MHz. Series 3100 chips support an internal system clock speed that is one-half of the frequency of the external crystal or oscillator. For example, an FT 3120-E4P40 Smart Transceiver has an internal system clock speed of 20 MHz based on an external input clock rate of 40 MHz. The internal system clock speed is not user-adjustable. Interrupt Support Series 5000 chips support hardware user interrupts in addition to the support provided through I/O models. The Neuron C language includes new keywords to manage hardware user interrupts for application programs. Series 3100 chips do not support hardware user interrupts. However, for the Series 3100 power line chips, certain I/O models include interrupt support. Hardware Multiply and Divide Series 5000 chips support new Neuron assembly language instructions for multiplication and division. These instructions use hardware multiply and divide functions to provide improved performance for 8-bit multiplication and division. The older software multiplication and division system functions are still supported. Series 3100 chips have no hardware multiply and divide functions, and rely on system software multiplication and division system functions. Support for 254 Network Variables Series 5000 chips use system firmware version 18, which supports up to 254 network variables for Neuron hosted devices (that is, devices without a host microprocessor). iv Series 3100 chips with system firmware version 15 or earlier support up to 62 network variables for Neuron hosted devices. Series 3100 chips with system firmware version 16 or later support up to 254 network variables. You must use the NodeBuilder FX Development Tool to take advantage of 254 network variables. Smaller Package Series 5000 chips are packaged as a 7 mm by 7 mm 48-pin quad flat no leads (QFN) chip. Series 3100 chips come in several package types, including 32-pin small-outline integrated circuit (SOIC), 44-pin thin quad flat package (TQFP), and 64-pin plastic quad flat package (PQFP). Additional I/O Model Support Series 5000 chips include improved hardware support for the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) and Serial Communication Interface (SCI) serial I/O models, which provides increased performance for devices that use these interfaces. Series 5000 chips also support all of the I/O models previously supported only by PL 3120 Smart Transceivers and PL 3150 Smart Transceivers, including the Infrared Pattern model, Magcard Bitstream model, SCI (UART) model, and SPI model. In addition, Series 5000 devices support a new I/O model, the Stretched Triac model, which improves usability and performance for triac devices. Series 3100 free topology chips do not include hardware support for the SPI and SCI (UART) serial I/O models, although Series 3100 power line do provide hardware support for these I/O models. Related Documentation Table 1 lists related Echelon documentation that can be useful when designing or using Series 5000 chips with LONWORKS devices and LONWORKS networks. The table includes documentation for the NodeBuilder FX Development Tool and the Mini FX Evaluation Kit, the primary development tools for LONWORKS devices. It also lists related products, such as the FTXL™ transceiver and ShortStack® Micro Server, which are both host-based LONWORKS devices. All of these manuals are available from the Echelon Web site (www.echelon.com). Table 1. Related Documentation Title Part Number Description FT 5000 EVB Hardware Guide 078-0390-01A This manual describes the hardware for the FT 5000 EVB evaluation boards that are included with the NodeBuilder FX/FT Development Tool and the Mini FX/FT Evaluation Kit. Series 5000 Chip Data Book v Title Introduction to the LONWORKS Platform I/O Model Reference for Smart Transceivers and Neuron Chips LONWORKS Host Application Programmer's Guide Mini FX User’s Guide Neuron Assembly Language Reference Neuron C Programmer’s Guide Neuron C Reference Guide Part Number Description 078-0391-01A This manual provides an introduction to the ISO/IEC 14908 (ANSI/EIA/CEA-709.1 and EN 14908) Control Networking Protocol, and provides a high-level introduction to LONWORKS® networks and the tools and components that are used for developing, installing, operating, and maintaining them. 078-0392-01A This manual provides information about the I/O models used by Echelon’s Neuron Chips and Smart Transceivers. It includes hardware and software considerations for each of the I/O models. 078-0016-01B This manual describes how to create LONWORKS host applications. Host applications are application programs that run on hosts other than Neuron® Chips and use the LONTALK® protocol to communicate with devices on a LONWORKS network. 078-0398-01A This manual describes how to use the Mini FX Evaluation Kit. You can use the Mini FX Evaluation Kit to develop a prototype or production control system that requires networking, or to evaluate the development of applications for control networks using the LONWORKS platform. 078-0399-01A This manual describes the Neuron assembly language and how to write Neuron assembly language functions. 078-0002-01H This manual describes how to write programs using the Neuron C Version 2.2 programming language. 078-0140-01F This manual provides reference info for writing programs using the Neuron C Version 2.2 programming language. vi Title Part Number Description NodeBuilder FX User’s Guide 078-0405-01A This manual describes how to develop LONWORKS devices and applications using the NodeBuilder Development Tool. For information about previous generation Smart Transceivers, see the Echelon FT 3120 / FT 3150 Smart Transceiver Data Book. For information about previous generation Neuron Chips, see Motorola LONWORKS Technology Device Data, Toshiba Neuron Chip TMPN3150/3120, or Cypress Neuron Chip Technical Reference Manual. All of the Echelon product documentation is available in Adobe® PDF format. To view the PDF files, you must have a current version of the Adobe Reader®. Most Echelon products include the English-language version of the Adobe Reader; you can download other language versions from Adobe at: www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html. Standards Documents Referenced in this Manual This manual refers to the following standards documents: • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) B258 - 02(2008) Standard Specification for Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of AWG Sizes of Solid Round Wires Used as Electrical Conductors. www.astm.org/Standards/B258.htm • Comité européen de normalisation electrotechnique1 (CENELEC) EN 55022 – Information technology equipment – Radio disturbance characteristics – Limits and methods of measurement. • Comité international spécial des perturbations radioélectriques2 (CISPR) 22 – Information Technology Equipment – Radio Disturbance Characteristics – Limits and Methods of Measurement. • Electrostatic Discharge Association standard ESD STM5.1: Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity Testing – Human Body Model. www.esda.org/freedowloads.html • European Union Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive 2002/95/EC. europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2003/l_037/l_03720030213en00190023.pdf • Comité européen de normalisation3 (CEN) Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standards (see Table 2 on page viii). • International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard ISO/IEC 14908 Control Network Protocol • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture (IEEE 1149.1-1990). www.ieee.org/web/standards/home/index.html. 1 European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization 2 International Special Committee on Radio Interference 3 European Committee for Standardization Series 5000 Chip Data Book vii • Institute for Printed Circuits (IPC) / Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (JEDEC) Solid State Technology Association standard: IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020D.1 – Moisture/Reflow Sensitivity Classification for Nonhermetic Solid State Surface Mount Devices. www.jedec.org/download/search/JSTD020D-01.pdf • Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 15, Radio Frequency Devices. www.fcc.gov/oet/info/rules/ • US Military Standard MIL-STD-883 Test Method Standard, Microcircuits: Method 3015.7, Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity Classification. You can purchase copies of CENELEC documents, CEN EMC standards, ISO standards, US Military Standards, and CISPR documents from the Information Handling Services (IHS) Global page at: global.ihs.com. Standard Table 2. CEN Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Standards Title EN 61000-4-2 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-2: Testing and Measurement Techniques – Electrostatic Discharge Immunity Test EN 61000-4-3 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-3: Testing and Measurement Techniques – Radiated, Radio-Frequency, Electromagnetic Field Immunity Test EN 61000-4-4 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-4: Testing and Measurement Techniques – Electrical Fast Transient/Burst Immunity Test EN 61000-4-5 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-5: Testing and Measurement Techniques – Surge Immunity Test EN 61000-4-6 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-6: Testing and Measurement Techniques – Immunity to Conducted Disturbances, Induced by Radio-Frequency Fields viii Table of Contents Welcome .........................................................................................................iii Audience ........................................................................................................iii What’s New for Echelon’s Smart Transceivers and Neuron Chips ...........iii Related Documentation ................................................................................. v Standards Documents Referenced in this Manual ....................................vii Chapter 1. Introduction ..................................................................................... 1 Product Family Overview .............................................................................. 2 FT 5000 Smart Transceiver .................................................................... 2 Neuron 5000 Processor............................................................................ 3 Development Resources for Series 5000 Chips ............................................ 3 Introduction to LONWORKS Networks .......................................................... 3 Overview of Free Topology Technology ........................................................ 5 Key Features of Series 5000 Chips ............................................................... 7 Additional Key Features for FT 5000 Smart Transceivers................... 7 Specification Summaries ............................................................................... 8 Specification Summary for FT 5000 Smart Transceivers..................... 8 Specification Summary for Neuron 5000 Processors .......................... 10 Chapter 2. Hardware Resources...................................................................... 11 Series 5000 Architecture ............................................................................. 12 Neuron Processor Architecture............................................................. 13 Multiple Processors ............................................................................... 15 Interrupts............................................................................................... 17 Assembly Instruction Set ...................................................................... 17 Memory Architecture ................................................................................... 21 On-Chip Memory ................................................................................... 22 Memory Map .......................................................................................... 22 External Serial Memory Interface........................................................ 24 Serial Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C).............................................. 25 Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) ................................................... 26 Using both I2C and SPI Memory Devices...................................... 27 Device Support ................................................................................ 27 Device Programming....................................................................... 28 JTAG Interface............................................................................................. 28 Operating Conditions................................................................................... 29 Pin Assignments .......................................................................................... 31 FT 5000 Smart Transceiver .................................................................. 31 Neuron 5000 Processor.......................................................................... 33 Pin Connections............................................................................................ 36 Characteristics of the Digital I/O Pins ....................................................... 40 Communications Port (CP) Pins for the Neuron 5000 Processor.............. 41 Single-Ended Mode................................................................................ 43 Collision Detection for Single-Ended Mode................................... 45 Beta 1 and Beta 2 Timeslots in Single-Ended Mode .................... 45 Special-Purpose Mode ........................................................................... 47 Network Connection .................................................................................... 51 Connection for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver ................................... 51 Comparison with FT 3120 or FT 3150 Devices ............................. 53 Comparison with the FTT-10A Transceiver.................................. 53 Connection for a Neuron 5000 Processor ............................................. 54 TPT/XF-1250 Transceivers............................................................. 54 Series 5000 Chip Data Book ix EIA-485 Transceivers ..................................................................... 55 Clock Requirements ..................................................................................... 56 External Crystal .................................................................................... 56 Comparison with Series 3100 Clocks ................................................... 58 Reset Function.............................................................................................. 59 RST~ Pin ................................................................................................ 59 Power-Up Sequence ........................................................................ 60 Software-Controlled Reset.............................................................. 61 Watchdog Timer .............................................................................. 61 Reset Processes and Timing.................................................................. 61 SVC~ Pin ...................................................................................................... 65 Integrity Mechanisms.................................................................................. 66 Processor Integrity ................................................................................ 67 Application Integrity Using Checksums .............................................. 67 Chapter 3. Hardware Design Considerations ................................................. 69 PC Board Layout Guidelines....................................................................... 70 Chapter 4. Design and Test for Electromagnetic Compatibility .................... 73 Overview ....................................................................................................... 74 Achieving High Immunity ........................................................................... 75 Electrostatic Discharge................................................................................ 75 Electromagnetic Interference ...................................................................... 76 Radiated and Conducted Immunity............................................................ 78 Surge and Burst ........................................................................................... 81 Lightning Protection .................................................................................... 82 Building Entrance Protection ............................................................... 82 Network Line Protection ....................................................................... 82 Shield Protection ................................................................................... 83 Suggested Gas Discharge Arresters ..................................................... 83 Avoiding Magnetic Field Interference ........................................................ 84 Summary and Testing Results.................................................................... 85 Chapter 5. Network Cabling and Connections for FT Devices....................... 87 Network Connection .................................................................................... 88 Network Topology Overview ....................................................................... 88 System Performance and Cable Selection .................................................. 90 System Specifications............................................................................ 91 Transmission Distance Specifications.................................................. 91 Cable Termination and Shield Grounding ................................................. 92 Free Topology Network Segment ......................................................... 92 Doubly Terminated Bus Topology Segment ........................................ 92 Grounding Shielded Twisted Pair Cable.............................................. 93 Chapter 6. Input/Output Interfaces for the Series 5000 ................................ 95 Overview ....................................................................................................... 96 Two 16-Bit Timer/Counters......................................................................... 96 Summary of the Available I/O Objects ....................................................... 97 Hardware Considerations.......................................................................... 105 Chapter 7. Programming Considerations ......................................................109 Application Program Development........................................................... 110 Mini FX Evaluation Kit ............................................................................. 110 NodeBuilder FX Development Tool .......................................................... 110 Development Hardware Setup ........................................................... 111 x Release Hardware Setup..................................................................... 111 Appendix A. Series 5000 Design Checklists...................................................113 Checklist 1: Series 5000 Chip Connections .............................................. 114 Checklist 2: FT 5000 Smart Transceiver Connections ............................ 116 Checklist 3: Neuron 5000 Processor Connections.................................... 117 Checklist 4: Power Supply......................................................................... 118 Checklist 5: Device PCB Layout ............................................................... 119 Checklist 6: Network Cabling and Termination ...................................... 120 Checklist 7: Device Programming............................................................. 121 Appendix B. Qualified TP/FT-10 Cable Specifications ..................................123 Introduction................................................................................................ 124 Qualified Cables ......................................................................................... 124 Category 5 Cable Specifications ......................................................... 125 NEMA Type 4 Cable Specifications.................................................... 125 16 AWG (1.3 mm) “Generic” Cable Specifications............................. 127 Appendix C. FT-X3 Communications Transformer .......................................129 Transformer Pinout ................................................................................... 130 Transformer Electrical Connections ......................................................... 131 Transformer Pad Layout ........................................................................... 132 Appendix D. Handling and Manufacturing Guidelines .................................133 Application Considerations ....................................................................... 134 Termination of Unused Pins ............................................................... 134 Avoidance of Damaging Conditions.................................................... 135 Electrostatic Discharge Design Guidelines........................................ 137 Power Supply, Ground, and Noise Considerations ........................... 137 Decoupling Capacitors......................................................................... 138 Board Soldering Considerations ............................................................... 138 Recommended Solder Profile .............................................................. 138 Soldering Surface Mount (SMT) Parts............................................... 139 General ESD Handling Guidelines........................................................... 139 Power Distribution and Decoupling Capacitors....................................... 143 Recommended Bypass Capacitor Placement............................................ 143 Appendix E. Example Schematic....................................................................147 Example Schematic.................................................................................... 148 Basic Electrical Connections............................................................... 148 Memory Interface Connections........................................................... 149 Transformer Connections.................................................................... 149 I/O and Network Connections............................................................. 150 BOM for Example Schematic .................................................................... 151 Appendix F. Vendor Contact Information......................................................153 Vendor Information.................................................................................... 154 Abracon Corporation ........................................................................... 154 Atmel Corporation ............................................................................... 154 Belden Inc. ........................................................................................... 154 BPM Microsystems.............................................................................. 155 Citel Inc. ............................................................................................... 155 CommScope Inc.................................................................................... 155 Emulation Technology Inc. ................................................................. 156 Fairchild Semiconductor Inc............................................................... 156 Series 5000 Chip Data Book xi HiLo System Research Company Ltd. ............................................... 156 Laird Technologies PLC ...................................................................... 157 Littelfuse Inc........................................................................................ 157 Numonyx BV........................................................................................ 157 NXP Semiconductors BV..................................................................... 158 ON Semiconductor............................................................................... 158 Panasonic Corp. ................................................................................... 158 Plastronics Socket Company Inc. ....................................................... 159 Sankosha Corp..................................................................................... 159 Silicon Storage Technology Inc........................................................... 159 Taiyo Yuden Company Ltd. ................................................................ 160 TDK Corp. ............................................................................................ 160 Total Phase Inc. ................................................................................... 160 Vishay Intertechnology Inc. ................................................................ 161 Index ................................................................................................................163 xii 1 Introduction This chapter introduces the Series 5000 of products, LONWORKS networks, and free topology networking. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 1 Product Family Overview Echelon designed the original Neuron Chip as a system-on-a-chip semiconductor device to provide intelligence and networking capabilities to low-cost control devices. Through a unique combination of hardware and firmware, the Neuron Chip provided all of the key functions necessary to process inputs from sensors and control devices intelligently, and to propagate control information across a variety of network media. Since then, Echelon has continued to develop and improve the families of products that are based on the Neuron Chip. This book describes the following additions to the Neuron families of products: • FT 5000 Free Topology Smart Transceivers • Neuron 5000 Processors This book describes these products generically as “Series 5000 chips”. All Series 5000 chips include multiple processors, read-write and read-only memory (RAM and ROM), communication subsystems, and I/O subsystems. Each Series 5000 chip includes a processor core for running applications and managing network communications, memory, I/O, and a 48-bit identification number (the Neuron ID) that is unique to every device. In addition, all Series 5000 chips include the Neuron system firmware, which provides an implementation of the LonTalk® protocol (see Introduction to LonWorks Networks on page 3 for more information about the protocol), along with I/O libraries, and a task scheduler for application-program management. The device manufacturer provides the application code and the I/O devices that complete a LONWORKS device. The FT 5000 Free Topology Smart Transceiver provides a built-in transceiver for TP/FT-10 channels, which provides access to polarity insensitive, free-topology, twisted-pair LONWORKS networks. The Neuron 5000 Processor provides a media-independent communications port which permits short distance Neuron Chip-to-Neuron Chip communications, and can also be used with external line drivers and transceivers of almost any type. All Series 5000 chips are compliant with the European Union Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive 2002/95/EC. FT 5000 Smart Transceiver The FT 5000 Free Topology Smart Transceiver is the next generation Echelon Free Topology Smart Transceiver. As a Smart Transceiver, it integrates a high performance Neuron core with a free topology twisted pair transceiver. Together with the FT-X3 Communications Transformer and inexpensive serial memories, the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver provides a lower-cost, higher-performance alternative to the previous generation LONWORKS TP/FT-10 solution. The FT-X3 communications transformer is a surface mount communications transformer that is compatible both with the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver and with the FT 3120 Smart Transceiver and FT 3150 Smart Transceiver. The FT-X3 transformer provides equivalent magnetic field noise immunity to the previous generation of communications transformers, the FT-X1 and FT-X2. 2 Introduction Neuron 5000 Processor The Neuron 5000 Processor is the next generation Echelon Neuron Chip. The Neuron 5000 Processor provides a media-independent communications port that supports external transceivers for EIA-485 or TP/XF-1250 channels, using an external transceiver circuit. By using inexpensive serial memories, the Neuron 5000 Processor provides a lower-cost, higherperformance alternative to the previous generation of Neuron Chips. Development Resources for Series 5000 Chips A wide assortment of technical documentation, diagnostic tools, support programs, and training courses are available to assist customers with their projects. Additionally, Echelon offers fee-based pre-production design reviews of customers’ products, schematics, PCB layouts, and bills of material to verify that they comply with published guidelines. Introduction to LONWORKS Networks In almost every industry, there is a trend away from proprietary control schemes and centralized systems. The migration towards open, distributed, peer-to-peer networks is being driven by the need for interoperability, robust technology, faster development time, and scale economies. With thousands of application developers and millions of devices installed worldwide, the LONWORKS system is the leading open solution for building and home automation, industrial, transportation, and public utility control networks. A control network is any group of devices working in a peer-to-peer fashion to monitor sensors, control actuators, communicate reliably, manage network operation, and provide complete access to network data. A LONWORKS network provides communications and complete access to control network data from any device in the network. The communications protocol used for LONWORKS networks is the ISO/IEC 14908 (ANSI/CEA 709.1-B and EN14908.1) Control Network Protocol. This protocol is an international standard seven-layer protocol that has been optimized for control applications and is based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Basic Reference Model (the OSI Model, ISO standard 7498-1). The OSI Model describes computer network communications through the seven abstract layers described in Table 3. The implementation of these layers in a LONWORKS device provides standardized interconnectivity for devices within a LONWORKS network. Table 3. LonWorks Network Protocol Layers OSI Layer Purpose Services Provided 7 Application Application compatibility Network configuration, self-installation, network diagnostics, file transfer, application configuration, application specification, alarms, data logging, scheduling 6 Presentation Data interpretation Network variables, application messages, foreign frame transmission 5 Session Control Request/response, authentication Series 5000 Chip Data Book 3 OSI Layer Purpose Services Provided 4 Transport End-to-end communication reliability Acknowledged and unacknowledged message delivery, common ordering, duplicate detection 3 Network Destination addressing Unicast and multicast addressing, routers 2 Data Link Media access and framing Framing, data encoding, CRC error checking, predictive carrier sense multiple access (CSMA), collision avoidance, priority, collision detection 1 Physical Electrical interconnect Media-specific interfaces and modulation schemes Echelon’s implementation of the ISO/IEC 14908 Control Network Protocol is called the LonTalk protocol. Echelon provides implementations of the LonTalk protocol with several product offerings, including the Neuron system firmware, LNS® Server, LNS remote client, i.LON® servers, the FTXL™ LonTalk protocol stack, and the ShortStack® Micro Server. This document refers to the ISO/IEC 14908 Control Network Protocol as the “LonTalk protocol”, although other interoperable implementations exist. A LONWORKS system is based on the following concepts: • Control systems have many common requirements regardless of application. • A networked control system is significantly more powerful, flexible, and scalable than a non-networked control system. • Businesses can save and make more money with control networks over the long term than they can with non-networked control systems. LONWORKS networks provide a complete suite of messaging services, including end-to-end acknowledgement, authentication, and priority message delivery. Network management services allow network tools to interact with devices over the network, including local or remote reconfiguration of network addresses and parameters, downloading of application programs, reporting of network problems, and start/stop/reset of device application programs. LONWORKS networks range in sophistication from small networks embedded in machines to large networks with thousands of devices controlling fusion lasers, paper manufacturing machines, or building automation systems. LONWORKS networks are used in buildings, trains, airplanes, factories, and hundreds of other processes. Manufacturers are using open, off-the-shelf chips, operating systems, and parts to build products that feature improved reliability, flexibility, system cost, and performance. Echelon manufactures many LONWORKS products to help developers, system integrators, and end users implement LONWORKS networks. These products provide a complete LONWORKS solution including development tools, network management software, power line and twisted pair transceivers and control modules, network interfaces, technical support and training. See Introduction to the LonWorks Platform (078-0391-01A) for more information about LONWORKS networks. 4 Introduction Overview of Free Topology Technology A conventional control system using bus topology wiring (such as an EIA-485 network) consists of a network of sensors and actuators that are interconnected using a twisted wire pair. In accordance with EIA-485 guidelines, all of the devices must be wired in a bus topology to limit electrical reflections and to ensure reliable communications. There is a high cost associated with installing and maintaining the cable plant that links together the devices of an EIA-485-based control system. Bus topology wiring is more time consuming and expensive to install, because the installer is unable to branch or star the wiring where convenient. All devices must be connected directly to the main bus. The best solution to reduce installation and maintenance costs and to simplify system modifications is to use a free topology communications system. Echelon’s free topology transceiver technology offers such a solution, providing an elegant and inexpensive method of interconnecting the different elements of a distributed control system. A free topology architecture allows the installer to wire the control devices with virtually no topology restrictions. Power is supplied by a local DC power supply located at each device as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Free Topology Transceiver System Series 5000 Chip Data Book 5 Unlike bus wiring designs, the free topology FT Smart Transceivers or Neuron Chips with associated transceivers use a wiring scheme that supports star, loop, or bus wiring (see Figure 2). Figure 2. Typical Wiring Topologies Supported by FT Smart Transceivers This design has many advantages: • The installer is free to select the method of wiring that best suits the installation, reducing the need for advanced planning and allowing last minute changes at the installation site. • If installers have been trained to use one style of wiring for all installations, free topology technology can be introduced without requiring retraining. • Retrofit installations with existing wiring plants can be accommodated with minimal, if any, rewiring. This capability ensures that FT Smart Transceiver technology can be adapted to both old and new projects. • Free topology permits FT Smart Transceiver or Neuron Chip systems to be expanded in the future by simply tapping into the existing wiring where it is most convenient to do so. This reduces the time and expense of system expansion, and from the customer's perspective, keeps down the life-cycle cost of the free topology network. 6 Introduction Key Features of Series 5000 Chips Series 5000 chips include the following key features: • Require only 3.3 V operation • Provide a higher performance Neuron Core, with internal system clock rates up to 80 MHz • Require as little as 30 mW of power for operations • Packaged as a 7 mm by 7 mm 48-pin quad flat no leads (QFN) chip • Allow for substantial device price reduction • Include a serial memory interface for inexpensive external EEPROM and flash nonvolatile memories • Support up to 254 network variables (NVs) for FT 5000 Smart Transceivers and Neuron 5000 Processors, without the need for a host microprocessor • Support user-programmable interrupts to provide faster response time to external events • Provide an interface for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture (IEEE 1149.1-1990) of the Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) to allow a Series 5000 chip to be included in the boundary-scan chain for device production tests • Include 12 I/O pins with 35 programmable standard I/O models that support both 5 V and 3.3 V I/O operation • Support up to 42 KB of user application code space • Include 64 KB RAM (of which 44 KB is user accessible) and 16 KB of ROM on-chip • Include a unique 48-bit Neuron ID in every device for network installation and management • Support a –40°C to +85°C operating temperature range Additional Key Features for FT 5000 Smart Transceivers FT 5000 Smart Transceivers include the following additional key features: • Support the low-cost surface mount FT-X3 communications transformer for FT 5000 Smart Transceivers • Support polarity insensitive free topology star, daisy chain, bus, loop, or mixed topology wiring for TP/FT-10 channels • Compliant with TP/FT-10 channels that currently use FT 3120 Smart Transceivers, FT 3150 Smart Transceivers, FTT-10A transceivers, or LPT-11 transceivers • Provide very high common-mode noise immunity Series 5000 Chip Data Book 7 Specification Summaries The following sections summarize the specifications for FT 5000 Smart Transceivers and Neuron 5000 Processors. Specification Summary for FT 5000 Smart Transceivers Table 4 summarizes the specifications for the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver. Table 4. FT 5000 Smart Transceiver Specification Summary Description Specification Data communications type Differential Manchester encoding Transmission speed 78 kilobits per second Network polarity Polarity insensitive Number of transceivers per network Up to 64 segment Network wiring 24 to 16 AWG twisted pair; see Chapter 5, Network Cabling and Connections for FT Devices, on page 87 for specific wire types Network length for free topology Varies by wire type. See Chapter 5, Network Cabling and Connections for FT Devices, on page 87: • Up to 1000 m (3280 ft) maximum total wire with one repeater • Up to 500 m (1640 ft) maximum total wire with no repeaters Network length for bus topology Varies by wire type. See Chapter 5, Network Cabling and Connections for FT Devices, on page 87: • 5400 m (17 710 ft) maximum total wire with one repeater • 2700 m (8850 ft) maximum total wire with no repeaters Maximum stub length for bus topology 3 m (9.8 ft) Network termination One terminator for free topology Two terminators for bus topology Voltage for FT 5000 Smart Transceiver 3.3 V ±5% 8 Introduction Description Specification Operating temperature –40 ºC to +85 ºC Reflow soldering temperature profile Refer to Joint Industry Standard document IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020D.1 (March 2008) Peak reflow soldering temperature 260 ºC Package type 48-pin QFN RoHS compliant Yes EMI Designed to comply with FCC Part 15 Level B and EN 55022 Level B ESD Designed to comply with EN 61000-4-2, Level 4 Radiated Electromagnetic Susceptibility Designed to comply with EN 61000-4-3, Level 3 Fast Transient/Burst Immunity Designed to comply with EN 61000-4-4, Level 4 Surge Immunity Designed to comply with EN 61000-4-5, Level 3 Conducted RF Immunity Designed to comply with EN 61000-4-6, Level 3 Table 5 summarizes the specifications for the FT-X3 Communications Transformer. Table 5. FT-X3 Communications Transformer Specification Summary Description Specification Operating humidity 25-90% RH @50 °C, non-condensing Non-operating humidity 95% RH @ 50 °C, non-condensing Vibration 1.5 g peak-to-peak, 8 Hz to 2 kHz Mechanical shock 100 g (peak) Operating humidity 25-90% RH @50 °C, non-condensing Reflow soldering temperature profile Refer to Joint Industry Standard document IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020D.1 (March 2008) Peak reflow soldering temperature 245 ºC Series 5000 Chip Data Book 9 Specification Summary for Neuron 5000 Processors Table 6 summarizes the specifications for the Neuron 5000 Processor. Table 6. Neuron 5000 Processor Specification Summary Description Specification Transmission speed Depends on network transceiver: • 78 kbit/s for TP/FT-10 channel • 1250 kbit/s for TP/XF-1250 channel • See EIA-485 channel specification for transmission speed characteristics Voltage for Neuron 5000 Processor 3.3 V ±10% Operating temperature –40 ºC to +85 ºC Reflow soldering temperature profile Refer to Joint Industry Standard document IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020D.1 (March 2008) Peak reflow soldering temperature 260 ºC Package type 48-pin QFN RoHS compliant Yes EMI Designed to comply with FCC Part 15 Level B and EN 55022 Level B ESD Designed to comply with EN 61000-4-2, Level 4 Radiated Electromagnetic Susceptibility Designed to comply with EN 61000-4-3, Level 3 Fast Transient/Burst Immunity Designed to comply with EN 61000-4-4, Level 4 Surge Immunity Designed to comply with EN 61000-4-5, Level 3 Conducted RF Immunity Designed to comply with EN 61000-4-6, Level 3 10 Introduction 2 Hardware Resources This chapter provides an overview of the hardware resources for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver and a Neuron 5000 Processor, including the overall chip architecture, memory interface, operating parameters, pinouts, network connection, clock requirements, the reset function, and integrity mechanisms. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 11 Series 5000 Architecture The main components of the architecture for a Series 5000 chip, as shown in Figure 3 on page 13, include: • CPUs — a Series 5000 chip includes three processors to manage operation of the chip, the network, and the user application. At higher clock rates, there is also a separate processor to handle interrupts. See Multiple Processors on page 15. • ROM — a Series 5000 chip includes 16 KB of read-only memory (ROM), which holds the default system firmware image. • RAM — a Series 5000 chip includes 64 KB of random access memory (RAM), which stores user applications and data. The RAM is partitioned according to a logical memory map so that the amount that is available for user applications and data is less than 64 KB. See Memory Map on page 22 for information about how the RAM is configured. • Serial memory interface — this interface manages the external non-volatile memory (NVM) using the serial peripheral interface (SPI) or the serial inter-integrated circuit (I2C) interface. • Communications port — the communications port provides network access for the chip. For an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver, this port connects to an FT-X3 Communications Transformer. For a Neuron 5000 Processor, this port connects to an external transceiver. See Network Connection on page 51. • I/O — 12 dedicated I/O pins (see Characteristics of the Digital I/O Pins on page 40). • Clock, reset, and service — on-chip clock, phase-locked loop (PLL), reset, and servicepin functions. • JTAG — a Series 5000 chip includes a JTAG (IEEE 1149.1) interface for boundary scan operations. See JTAG Interface on page 28. The pinout labels shown in Figure 3 are described in Pin Assignments on page 31. 12 Hardware Resources XIN XOUT RST~ SVC~ Figure 3. Series 5000 Chip Architecture Neuron Processor Architecture The basic Neuron processor architecture is stack-oriented: • An 8-bit-wide stack is used for data references, and the arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) operates on the TOS (Top of Stack) register and on the next entry in the data stack (which is in RAM). • Another stack stores the return addresses for CALL instructions, and can also be used for temporary data storage. This stack architecture leads to very compact code. See Assembly Instruction Set on page 17 for a summary of the instruction set. Figure 4 on page 14 shows the layout of a base page, which can be up to 256 bytes long. Each of the chip’s processors uses a different base page, whose address is given by the contents of the BP (Base Page) register of that processor. The top of the data stack is in the 8-bit TOS register, and the next element in the data stack is at the location within the base page at the offset given by the contents of the DSP (Data Stack Pointer) register. The assembler Series 5000 Chip Data Book 13 shorthand symbol NEXT refers to the next element in the data stack, which is determined by contents of the location (BP+DSP) in memory, and is thus not an actual processor register. Figure 4. Base-Page Memory Layout The data stack grows from low memory towards high memory, and is managed through the DSP (Data Stack Pointer) register. Pushing a byte of data onto the data stack involves the following steps: 1. Incrementing the DSP register 2. Storing the current contents of TOS at the address (BP+DSP) in memory 3. Moving the byte of data to TOS Popping a byte of data from the data stack involves the following steps: 1. Moving TOS to the destination 2. Moving the contents of the address (BP+DSP) in memory to TOS 3. Decrementing the DSP register The return stack grows from high memory towards low memory, and is managed through the RSP (Return Stack Pointer) register. Calling a subroutine involves the following steps: 1. Storing the high byte of the instruction pointer (IP) register at the address (BP+RSP) in memory 2. Decrementing RSP 3. Storing the low byte of IP at the address (BP+RSP) in memory 4. Decrementing RSP 5. Moving the destination address to the IP register Similarly, returning from a subroutine involves the following steps: 14 Hardware Resources 1. Incrementing RSP 2. Moving the contents of (BP+RSP) to the low byte of the IP register 3. Incrementing RSP 4. Moving the contents of (BP+RSP) to the high byte of IP The primary programming language used for applications is the Neuron C language, which is a derivative of the ANSI C language that has been optimized and enhanced for LONWORKS distributed control applications. The major enhancements include: • A network communication model, based on functional blocks and network variables, that simplifies and promotes data sharing between like and disparate devices. • A network configuration model, based on functional blocks and configuration properties, that facilitates interoperable network configuration tools. • A type model based on standard and user resource files that expands the market for interoperable devices by simplifying the integration of devices from multiple manufacturers. • An extensive set of I/O models that support the I/O capabilities of Neuron Chips and Smart Transceivers. • Powerful event-driven programming extensions, based on when statements, that provide easy handling of network, I/O, and timer events. • A high-level programming model that supports application-specific interrupt handlers and synchronization tools. See the Neuron C Programmer’s Guide for more information about the Neuron C programming language. The support for these capabilities is part of the Neuron firmware, and does not need to be written by the programmer. Multiple Processors The Neuron core is composed of four independent logical processors: • Processor 1 is the Media Access Control (MAC) processor • Processor 2 is the network (NET) processor • Processor 3 is the application (APP) processor • Processor 4 is the interrupt (ISR) processor The interrupt processor is only available for system clock rates of 20 MHz and higher. At the two lower system clock rates, interrupts are handled by the application processor. See Interrupts on page 17 for more information about interrupts. The processors share a common memory, arithmetic-logic unit (ALU), and control circuitry. Each processor has its own set of registers, as listed in Table 7. Table 7. Register Set Register Size (Bits) Contents FLAGS 8 Carry Bit and reserved internal flags IP 16 Next Instruction Pointer Series 5000 Chip Data Book 15 Register Size (Bits) Contents BP 16 Address of 256-Byte Base Page DSP 8 Data Stack Pointer within Base Page RSP 8 Return Stack Pointer within Base Page TOS 8 Top of Data Stack, ALU Input Processor 1 is the MAC layer processor that handles layers 1 and 2 of the seven-layer LonTalk® protocol, which includes driving the communications subsystem hardware and running the media access control algorithm. The MAC processor communicates with the NET processor using network buffers located in shared RAM memory, as shown in Figure 5. Processor 2 is the network processor that implements layers 3 through 6 of the LonTalk protocol. The NET processor handles network variable processing, addressing, transaction processing, authentication, background diagnostics, software timers, network management, and routing functions. The NET processor uses network buffers in shared memory to communicate with the MAC processor, and application buffers to communicate with the APP processor. These buffers are also located in shared memory (RAM). Access to the shared memory is mediated with hardware semaphores to resolve contention when updating shared data. Processor 3 is the application processor. The APP processor executes the user-written code, together with the system services called by user code. Figure 5. Processor Shared Memory Allocation 16 Hardware Resources Interrupts The Series 5000 architecture provides hardware support for handling three types of interrupts: • Lowest priority: application interrupts • Medium priority: system interrupts • Highest priority: system-level traps Application interrupts are asynchronous events related to I/O objects within an application program. An application uses the Neuron C interrupt() clause to define the interrupt condition and the interrupt task that handles the condition. The Neuron C program runs the interrupt task whenever the interrupt condition is met. See the Neuron C Programmer’s Guide for more information about writing interrupt tasks and handling interrupts. System interrupts are asynchronous system events, such as communications events or SPI UART events. These interrupts are handled by the system firmware. System-level traps are also system events, generally error conditions. See Processor Integrity on page 67 for more information about these conditions. For system clock rates of 20 MHz and higher, interrupts are handled by an independent logical processor within the Neuron Core. At the two lower system clock rates, interrupts are handled by the application processor. Thus, at the higher clock rates, an interrupt handler runs in parallel with the application processor, and so does not affect the application processor’s registers and stack space. At lower clock rates, an interrupt causes a context switch within the application processor, that is, the interrupt handler saves the processor’s registers before it runs and restores them after it completes. Thus, the current instruction always completes prior to servicing a new interrupt. Such context switches also occur within the ISR processor when higher priority interrupts require service. Thus, when interrupts are processed within the ISR processor, application performance is not degraded, but when interrupts are processed within the APP processor, application performance can be affected because the one processor handles both the application and the interrupts. Assembly Instruction Set Table 8 on page 18, Table 9 on page 19, and Table 10 on page 20 list the processor instructions, their sizes (in bytes), and their timings (in processor cycles). This information is provided to help you calculate code sizes and execution times. Most assembly instructions take between one and seven processor cycles (two instructions require 14 cycles). Execution time scales inversely with the system clock rate. The formula for instruction time is: InstructionTime = (NumberOfCycles × 3) SystemClock For example, at a system clock rate of 80 MHz, instruction times vary between 37.5 ns and 175 ns. Programming for a Neuron Chip or Smart Transceiver uses the Neuron C programming language with either the NodeBuilder FX Development Tool or the Mini FX Evaluation Kit. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 17 Additional functions can be written in the Neuron Assembly language. The Neuron C compiler can optionally produce an assembly listing, and examining this listing can help the programmer to optimize the Neuron C source code. See the Neuron Assembly Language Reference for more information about the processor instructions. Table 8. Program Control Instructions Instruction Instruction CPU Size Cycles (Bytes) Required Description NOP 1 1 No operation SBR 1 1 Short unconditional branch Offset: 0 to 15. BR BRC BRNC 2 2 Branch Branch on carry Branch on not carry Offset: –128 to +127. SBRZ SBRNZ 1 3 Short branch on TOS zero Short branch on TOS not zero Offset: 0 to 15. Drops TOS. BRF 3 4 Unconditional branch far BRZ BRNZ 2 4 Branch on TOS zero Branch on TOS not zero Offset: –128 to +127. Drops TOS. RET 1 5 Return from subroutine. Drops two bytes from return stack. BRNEQ 3 4/6 Branch if TOS not equal (taken / not taken) Offset: –128 to +127. Drops TOS if equal. DBRNZ 2 5 Decrement [RSP] and branch if not zero Offset: –128 to +127. If not taken, drops one byte from return stack. CALLR 2 5 Call subroutine relative Offset: –128 to +127. Pushes two bytes to return stack. CALL 2 6 Call subroutine Address in low 8 KB. Pushes two bytes to return stack. 18 Hardware Resources Instruction CALLF Instruction CPU Size Cycles (Bytes) Required 3 7 Description Call subroutine far Pushes two bytes to return stack. Instruction PUSH TOS DROP TOS DROP_R TOS PUSH NEXT PUSH DSP PUSH RSP PUSH FLAGS POP NEXT POP DSP POP RSP POP FLAGS DROP NEXT DROP_R NEXT PUSH !D POP !D PUSH !TOS POP !TOS PUSH [RSP] DROP [RSP] PUSHS #literal Table 9. Memory and Stack Instructions Instruction CPU Size Cycles (Bytes) Required Description 1 3 Increment DSP, duplicate TOS into NEXT 1 3 Move NEXT to TOS, decrement DSP 1 6 Move NEXT to TOS, decrement DSP, return from call 1 4 Push processor register 1 4 Pop processor register 1 2 Decrement DSP 1 5 Decrement DSP and return from call 1 4 Push / pop byte register [8 to 23] 1 4 Push TOS EA = BP + TOS, push byte to NEXT. 1 4 Pop TOS EA = BP + TOS, pop byte from NEXT. 1 4 Push from return stack to data stack, RSP unchanged 1 2 Increment RSP 1 4 Push short literal value [0 to 7] Series 5000 Chip Data Book 19 Instruction PUSH #literal PUSHPOP POPPUSH PUSH [DSP][-D] POP [DSP][-D] PUSHD #literal PUSHD [PTR] Instruction CPU Size Cycles (Bytes) Required 2 4 1 5 1 5 1 5 3 6 1 6 POPD [PTR] 1 6 PUSH [PTR][TOS] 1 6 POP [PTR][TOS] PUSH [PTR][D] 2 7 POP [PTR][D] PUSH absolute 3 7 POP absolute Note: EA = Effective Address. Description Push 8-bit literal value [0 to 255] Pop from return stack, push to data stack Pop from data stack, push to return stack Push / pop DSP modified by D EA = BP + DSP – displacement [1 to 8] Push 16-bit literal value, high byte first Push from 16-bit pointer [0 to 3], high byte first Pop to 16-bit pointer [0 to 3], low byte first Push / pop 16-bit pointer [0 to 3], modified by TOS EA = (16-bit pointer) + TOS. Push / pop 16-bit pointer [0 to 3], modified by D EA = (16-bit pointer) + displacement [0 to 255] Push / pop absolute memory address Instruction INC DEC NOT ROLC RORC SHL SHR Table 10. Arithmetic and Logic Instructions Instruction CPU Size Cycles (Bytes) Required Description 1 2 Increment TOS Decrement TOS Negate TOS 1 2 Rotate left TOS through carry Rotate right TOS through carry 1 2 Unsigned left shift TOS, clear carry Unsigned right shift TOS, clear carry 20 Hardware Resources Instruction SHLA SHRA ADD AND OR XOR ADC ADD #literal AND #literal OR #literal XOR #literal ADD_R AND_R OR_R XOR_R ALLOC #literal DEALLOC_R #literal SUB NEXT,TOS SBC NEXT, TOS SUB TOS,NEXT XCH INC [PTR] DIV MUL Instruction CPU Size Cycles (Bytes) Required 1 2 1 4 Description Signed left shift TOS into carry Signed right shift TOS into carry Operate with NEXT on TOS, drop NEXT 2 3 Operate with literal on TOS 1 7 Operate with NEXT on TOS, drop NEXT and return 1 3 Add [1 to 8] to data stack pointer 1 6 Subtract [1 to 8] from data stack pointer and return 1 4 TOS = NEXT – TOS, drop NEXT 1 4 TOS = NEXT – TOS – carry, drop NEXT 1 4 TOS = TOS – NEXT, drop NEXT 1 4 Exchange TOS and NEXT 1 6 Increment 16-bit pointer [0 to 3] 1 14 Divide NEXT by TOS, quotient is in TOS, remainder is in NEXT 1 14 Multiply NEXT * TOS, result is in TOS, NEXT Memory Architecture The memory architecture for a Series 5000 chip includes on-chip memory and off-chip nonvolatile memory. Every Series 5000 device must have at least 2 KB of off-chip memory available in an EEPROM device. A Series 5000 device can optionally include additional off- Series 5000 Chip Data Book 21 chip EEPROM memory (as a larger EEPROM device) or off-chip flash memory in addition to an EEPROM device, for additional application data or alternate system images. Important: The memory architecture for a Series 5000 chip uses a serial interface for offchip memory. This architecture differs from that of Series 3100 chips: • Neuron 3120 Chips and 3120 Smart Transceivers use on-chip EEPROM, with no external memory. • Neuron 3150 Chips and 3150 Smart Transceivers use on-chip EEPROM, plus a parallel interface for off-chip memory. • PL 3170 Smart Transceivers and FTXL 3190 Free Topology Transceivers use on-chip EEPROM, with no external memory. On-Chip Memory A Series 5000 chip has the following on-chip memory: • 16 KB of read-only memory (ROM) The ROM holds the default Neuron firmware image for the chip, including the system firmware for the MAC and network processors. • 64 KB of random access memory (RAM) The RAM provides memory for user applications and data, stack segments for each processor, and network and application buffers. The RAM is partitioned according to a logical memory map, as described in Memory Map. A Series 5000 chip contains no internal non-volatile memory (such as EEPROM memory) for application use. However, each Series 5000 chip does contain its unique Neuron identifier (Neuron ID) in non-volatile read-only memory. The chip’s memory management block allows the RAM to emulate both ROM and nonvolatile memory (NVM) by ensuring that changes to the RAM are shadowed to external NVM at appropriate intervals. All writes that are intended for NVM are written to the RAM, and then are shadowed to the NVM. Thus, the chip’s internal processors access the RAM only; they do not directly access either the ROM or external NVM. The state of the RAM is retained as long as power is applied to the device. After a device reset, the initialization sequence copies the contents of the ROM and relevant NVM data to the RAM. Memory Map A Neuron C application has a memory map of 64 KB. Figure 6 on page 23 shows the memory map for a Series 5000 chip. The hardware template for a device specifies how the application uses the memory map. The memory map is a logical view of device memory, rather than a physical view, because the Series 5000 chip’s processors only directly access RAM. 22 Hardware Resources Figure 6. Series 5000 Chip Memory Map The memory map divides the Series 5000 chip’s physical RAM into the following types of logical memory: • On-chip ROM (16 KB at addresses 0x0000 to 0x3FFF) — This area is a copy of the system firmware image and system function libraries from the physical ROM. • Extended on-chip RAM or extended non-volatile memory (up to 42 KB at addresses 0x4000 to 0xE7FF) — Some of this area is shadowed into RAM from the external NVM, and some of this area is application-usable RAM. Memory ranges for each are configurable within the device hardware template. • On-chip RAM (2 KB at addresses 0xE800 to 0xEFFF) — This area holds stack segments and RAMNEAR data. • Mandatory EEPROM (2 KB at addresses 0xF000 to 0xF7FF) — This area is shadowed from the mandatory 2 KB of EEPROM, and holds device configuration data. For small devices, this 2 KB can also hold application code and data. • Reserved memory (2 KB at addresses 0xF800 to 0xFFFF) — This area is reserved for system use. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 23 Using the NodeBuilder FX Development Tool or the Mini FX Evaluation Kit, you can adjust the address values for the extended non-volatile memory and the extended on-chip RAM within a device’s hardware template. These two values share the same area of physical RAM. Important: The size of an external EEPROM part must include the 2 KB of mandatory EEPROM as well as the size required for application code and data. Example: A 16 KB EEPROM provides 2 KB for the mandatory EEPROM (at addresses 0xF000 to 0xF7FF) and 14 KB for application code and data (at addresses 0x4000 to 0x77FF. Thus, the device memory map can include 28 KB, 0x7800 to 0xE7FF, for the extended onchip RAM. External Serial Memory Interface The interface for accessing off-chip non-volatile memory (NVM) is a serial interface that follows either of the following protocols: serial Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) or serial peripheral interface (SPI). Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM) devices can use either the I2C protocol or the SPI protocol; flash memory devices must use the SPI protocol. A Series 5000 chip requires at least 2 KB of off-chip memory available in an EEPROM device. Table 11 summarizes the allowed device configurations for external memory. Table 11. Allowed External Memory Device Configurations EEPROM Flash Configuration I2C SPI SPI Description → A single I2C EEPROM memory device, 1 from 2 KB to 64 KB in size → No flash memory device → A single SPI EEPROM memory 2 device, from 2 KB to 64 KB in size → No flash memory device → One I2C EEPROM (at least 2 KB in size, up to 64 KB in size, but the 3 system uses only the first 2 KB of the EEPROM memory) → One SPI flash memory device → One SPI EEPROM (at least 2 KB in size, up to 64 KB in size, but the 4 system uses only the first 2 KB of the EEPROM memory) → One SPI flash memory device As Table 11 shows, a Series 5000 device supports using a single EEPROM memory device, or a single EEPROM memory device plus a single flash memory device. Small applications could use a single EEPROM memory device for both application code and configuration data, 24 Hardware Resources but larger applications are more likely to use a small EEPROM memory device for configuration data and a flash memory device for application code. If a Series 5000 device includes flash memory, the flash memory represents the entire user non-volatile memory for the device. That is, any additional EEPROM memory beyond the mandatory 2 KB is not used. For 32 KB EEPROM memory devices, the system firmware reserves 256 bytes of the total memory space. That is, a 32 KB EEPROM provides 32 512 bytes of memory for user application code and data, rather than 32 768 bytes. The memory map for a 32 KB EEPROM memory device includes 2048 bytes (2 KB) for the mandatory EEPROM memory plus up to 30 464 (0x7700) bytes for the extended non-volatile memory. For 64 KB EEPROM memory devices, the maximum amount of EEPROM that can be used is equal to the amount of RAM in the Series 5000 device, 44 KB. The memory map for a 64 KB EEPROM memory device includes 2 KB for the mandatory EEPROM memory plus up to 42 KB for extended non-volatile memory. The extra 20 KB of data space in the EEPROM memory device is unused by an application, but could hold an external system image to upgrade the device’s system firmware. Serial Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) The serial Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) protocol for the Series 5000 chip uses the following pins, as shown in Figure 7: • Pin 43 — SDA_CS1~ for the Serial Data (SDA) bidirectional signal • Pin 45 — SCL for the Serial Clock (SCL) output signal Signal direction is from the point of view of the Series 5000 chip. These pins are 3.3 V pins, and are 5 V tolerant. A Series 5000 chip is always the master I2C device; an external NVM device is always a slave device. Important: If the Series 5000 device does not include any SPI memory devices, you must add a 10 kΩ pull-down resistor to pin 46 (MISO). 3.3 V Series 5000 Chip SCL SDA_CS1~ MISO I2C Slave (EEPROM) Figure 7. I2C Memory Interface The serial clock and serial data pins are open drain pins, and thus require pull-up resistors. The value of the pull-up resistors depends on the total bus capacitance (number of devices connected to the bus and length of the bus); see the I2C-bus specification and user manual Series 5000 Chip Data Book 25 (UM10204) from NXP Semiconductor. For example, for a total bus capacitance of 30 pF, you can use a minimum resistance value of 1 kΩ, and a maximum resistance value of 10 kΩ. The I2C memory device must specify address 0. Both 1-byte and 2-byte address modes are supported, but 3-byte addressing mode is not supported. The device’s data type identifier code is b’1010. A Series 5000 chip runs the I2C protocol from the serial memory interface at 400 kHz (the I2C fast mode). Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) The serial peripheral interface (SPI) protocol for the Series 5000 chip uses the following pins, as shown in Figure 8: • Pin 40 — CS0~ for the first slave-select output signal • Pin 43 — SDA_CS1~ for the second slave-select output signal • Pin 46 — MISO for the Master Input, Slave Output input signal (input for master) • Pin 47 — SCK for the serial clock output signal • Pin 48 — MOSI for the Master Output, Slave Input output signal (output from master) Signal direction is from the point of view of the Series 5000 chip. These pins are 3.3 V pins, and are 5 V tolerant. A Series 5000 chip is always the master SPI device; any external NVM devices are always slave devices. Series 5000 Chip SDA_CS1~ CS0~ SCK MOSI MISO SPI Slave (EEPROM) SPI Slave (Flash) Figure 8. SPI Memory Interface Important: If the Series 5000 device does not include any I2C memory devices, you must also add a pull-up resistor (maximum 10 kΩ) to pin 45 (SCL). A Series 5000 chip can support up to two SPI slave devices from the serial memory interface: one EEPROM device at CS0~ and one flash device at SDA_CS1~. Series 5000 devices support 2-byte addressing mode for SPI EEPROM devices, but do not support 3-byte addressing. 26 Hardware Resources The SPI protocol defines four modes of operation; each mode specifies different behavior for flow control on the data bus with respect to the clock signal polarity (CPOL) and phase (CPHA). A Series 5000 device uses SPI Mode 0: CPOL is 0, CPHA is 0, and the SCK line is idle low. For this mode, the Series 5000 chip latches in data on the rising edge of the SCK line, and is output on the falling edge of the SCK line. A Series 5000 chip runs the SPI protocol from the serial memory interface at 2.5 MHz. Using both I2C and SPI Memory Devices Figure 9 shows a Series 5000 device that includes both an I2C memory device (a 2 KB EEPROM device) and a SPI memory device (a flash memory device). Because only one device is active at a time, there is no conflict between the two external memory devices. Important: If the Series 5000 device includes an I2C EEPROM device with a SPI flash memory device (as shown in Figure 9), you must add a 10 kΩ pull-down resistor to pin 46 (MISO). This pull-down resistor is not required if the Series 5000 device includes an SPI EEPROM device (see Figure 8 on page 26). 3.3 V Series 5000 Chip SCL SDA_CS1~ CS0~ SCK MOSI MISO I2C Slave (EEPROM) SPI Slave (Flash) Figure 9. Including both I2C and SPI Memory Devices Device Support A Series 5000 device supports any EEPROM device that supports the SPI or I2C protocol, and meets the requirements described in Serial Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) on page 25 or in Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) on page 26. Echelon has qualified the following SPI flash memory devices for use with a Series 5000 device: • Atmel® AT25F512B 512-Kilobit 2.7-volt Minimum SPI Serial Flash Memory • Numonyx™ M25P05-A 512-Kbit, serial flash memory, 50 MHz SPI bus interface • Silicon Storage Technology SST25VF512A 512 Kbit SPI Serial Flash Additional devices could be qualified in the future. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 27 The data model that the system flash driver uses assumes direct memory access to the flash device, that is, the driver does not use a flash file system. Device Programming You can use any of the following methods to program the external non-volatile memory for a Series 5000 device: • Program the memory device with a universal programmer, such as one from BPM Microsystems™ or HiLo Systems, before you solder the part to the Series 5000 device PCB • Program the memory part in-circuit using a serial SPI or I2C programming device, such as the Total Phase™ Aardvark™ I2C/SPI Host Adapter • Program the memory part over the LONWORKS network, using a network manager such as the LonMaker® Integration tool or the NodeLoad utility JTAG Interface All Series 5000 chips provide an interface for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture (IEEE 1149.11990) of the Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) to allow a Series 5000 chip to be included in the boundary-scan chain for device production tests. You can obtain a Boundary Scan Description Language (BSDL) file from the Echelon Web site: • www.echelon.com/products/neuron/ for a Neuron 5000 Processor • www.echelon.com/products/ft5000/ for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver The JTAG interface for Series 5000 chips can operate at up to 5 MHz. The JTAG interface includes the following pins: • TDI — Test Data In (pin 21) • TDO — Test Data Out (pin 22) • TCK — Test Clock (pin 19) • TMS — Test Mode Select (pin 20) • TRST~ — Test Reset (pin 17) These pins comply with the JTAG standard protocol (IEEE 1149.1) for boundary scan operations, and can be used with industry-standard JTAG tools. Each of these pins also includes an internal pull-up resistor, as recommended by the JTAG standard. These pullups are only strong enough to pull the input up when the pin is floating, but not strong enough for an external load. The JTAG interface for Series 5000 chips supports the following JTAG instructions (see the device BSDL file for instruction register codes): • BYPASS — bypasses the current device (to allow connection to another device in the chain) Required by the IEEE 1149.1 standard • SAMPLE/PRELOAD — samples current values, or preloads known values into the boundary-scan cells for a follow-on operation Required by the IEEE 1149.1 standard 28 Hardware Resources • EXTEST — tests the interconnection between two devices Required by the IEEE 1149.1 standard • HIGHZ — sets all outputs (both two-state and three-state types) of the Series 5000 chip to a disabled (high-impedance) state • IDCODE — returns the Device ID for the chip The Device ID for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver is 0x0320062F; the Device ID for a Neuron 5000 Processor is 0x0320162F. For more information about the JTAG standard, see IEEE Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture, IEEE Std 1149.1-1990 (includes IEEE Std 1149.1a-1993) and Supplement to IEEE Std 1149.1-1990, IEEE Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture, IEEE Std 1149.1b-1994. These documents are available from the IEEE: www.ieee.org/web/standards/home/index.html. Operating Conditions Table 12 describes the standard operating conditions for Series 5000 chips. Table 12. Series 5000 Chip Operating Conditions Parameter1 Description Minimum Typical Maximum VDD3 TA fXIN IDD3-RX Supply voltage Ambient temperature XIN clock frequency2 Current consumption in receive mode3 5 MHz 10 MHz 20 MHz 40 MHz 80 MHz 3.0 V –40 ºC 3.3 V 10.0000 MHz 3.6 V +85 ºC 9 mA 9 mA 15 mA 23 mA 38 mA 15 mA 15 mA 23 mA 33 mA 52 mA IDD3-TX Current consumption in transmit mode3, 4 IDD3-RX + 15 mA IDD3-RX + 18 mA Series 5000 Chip Data Book 29 Notes: 1. All parameters assume nominal supply voltage (VDD3 = 3.3 V ± 0.3 V) and operating temperature (TA between -40 ºC and +85 ºC), unless otherwise noted. 2. See Clock Requirements on page 56 for more detailed information about the XIN clock frequency. 3. Assumes no load on digital I/O pins, and that the I/O lines are not switching. To calculate the IDD3 current for each switching output, use the following formula: I DD3 _ pin = ((12 × 10−12 ) + CL _ pin ) × VS × f pin where 12x10-12 is the on-chip effective capacitance, CL_pin is the load capacitance of the I/O pin, VS is the supply voltage, and fpin is the frequency at which the pin switches. For example, a pin with 27 pF external load switching at 1 MHz would have a worst case switching current of IDD3 = (12pF + 27pF) * 3.6V * 106Hz = 140 μA. To calculate the total IDD3 current, sum the IDD3 calculations for each pin: N ∑ I = DD3 _ total I DD3 _ pin _ N 1 Any DC loads, such as LEDs or resistors, should also be added. 4. Current consumption in transmit mode represents a peak value rather than a continuous usage value because a Series 5000 device does not typically transmit data continuously. Table 13 describes the absolute maximum conditions for Series 5000 chips. Absolute maximum ratings are limits beyond which the device might become damaged or have its useful life impaired. Functional operation under these conditions is not implied. Table 13. Series 5000 Chip Absolute Maximum Ratings Parameter Description Minimum Maximum VDD3 Supply voltage –0.3 V +3.7 V Vi-digitalIn Input voltage – digital I/O pins –0.3 V +5.5 V Vi-digitalOut Output voltage – digital I/O pins –0.3 V VDD3 + 0.3 V Vi-other Input voltage – other non-power pins –0.3 V VDD3 + 0.3 V Ii Input current – all non-power pins –10 mA +10 mA Tstorage Storage temperature –55 ºC +125 ºC All input and output pins can withstand 100 mA forced into or out of the pin without latchup. See Avoidance of Damaging Conditions on page 135 for more information about latch-up. 30 Hardware Resources Pin Assignments Although the pin assignments for the Neuron 5000 Processor and the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver are very similar, there are a few differences, as described in the following sections. All pins can withstand 2 kV Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) voltage, as tested according to MIL-STD-883 Method 3015.7. FT 5000 Smart Transceiver Figure 10 shows the pinout for the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver. The central rectangle in the figure represents the bottom pad (pin 49), which must be connected to ground. 48 MOSI 47 SCK 46 MISO 45 SCL 44 VDD1V8 43 SDA_CS1~ 42 VDD3V3 41 VDD3V3 40 CS0~ 39 CP4 38 RXON 37 TXON GND PAD SVC~ 1 IO0 2 IO1 3 IO2 4 IO3 5 VDD1V8 6 IO4 7 VDD3V3 8 IO5 9 IO6 10 IO7 11 IO8 12 ® FT 5000 Smart Transceiver 36 GND 35 NC 34 NETP 33 AGND 32 NETN 31 AVDD3V3 30 VDD3V3 29 VIN3V3 28 RST~ 27 VOUT1V8 26 GNDPLL 25 VDDPLL IO9 13 IO10 14 IO11 15 VDD1V8 16 TRST~ 17 VDD3V3 18 TCK 19 TMS 20 TDI 21 TDO 22 XIN 23 XOUT 24 Figure 10. FT 5000 Smart Transceiver Chip Pinout Diagram Table 14 on page 32 lists the pin assignments for the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver. All digital inputs are low-voltage transistor-transistor logic (LVTTL) compatible, 5 V tolerant, with low leakage. All digital outputs are slew-rate limited to reduce Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) concerns. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 31 Name SVC~ IO0 IO1 IO2 IO3 VDD1V8 IO4 VDD3V3 IO5 IO6 IO7 IO8 IO9 IO10 IO11 VDD1V8 TRST~ VDD3V3 TCK TMS TDI TDO XIN XOUT VDDPLL GNDPLL VOUT1V8 RST~ Table 14. FT 5000 Smart Transceiver Pin Assignments Pin Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Type Description Digital I/O Service (active low) Digital I/O IO0 for I/O Objects Digital In IO1 for I/O Objects Digital I/O IO2 for I/O Objects Digital I/O IO3 for I/O Objects Power 1.8 V Power Input (from internal voltage regulator) Digital I/O IO4 for I/O Objects Power 3.3 V Power Digital I/O IO5 for I/O Objects Digital I/O IO6 for I/O Objects Digital I/O IO7 for I/O Objects Digital I/O IO8 for I/O Objects Digital I/O IO9 for I/O Objects Digital I/O IO10 for I/O Objects Digital I/O IO11 for I/O Objects Power 1.8 V Power Input (from internal voltage regulator) Digital Input JTAG Test Reset (active low) Power 3.3 V Power Digital Input JTAG Test Clock Digital Input JTAG Test Mode Select Digital Input JTAG Test Data In Digital Output JTAG Test Data Out Oscillator In Crystal oscillator input Oscillator Out Crystal oscillator output Power 1.8 V Power Input (from internal voltage regulator) Power Ground Power 1.8 V Power Output (of internal voltage regulator) Digital I/O Reset (active low) 32 Hardware Resources Name VIN3V3 VDD3V3 AVDD3V3 NETN AGND NETP NC GND TXON RXON CP4 CS0~ VDD3V3 VDD3V3 SDA_CS1~ VDD1V8 SCL MISO SCK MOSI PAD Pin Number 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Type Power Power Power Comm Ground Comm N/A Ground Digital I/O Digital I/O Digital I/O Digital I/O for Memory Power Power Digital I/O for Memory Power Digital I/O for Memory Digital I/O for Memory Digital I/O for Memory Digital I/O for Memory Ground Pad Description 3.3 V input to internal voltage regulator 3.3 V Power 3.3 V Power Network Port (polarity insensitive) Ground Network Port (polarity insensitive) Do Not Connect Ground TxActive for optional network activity LED RxActive for optional network activity LED Do Not Connect SPI slave select 0 (active low) 3.3 V Power 3.3 V Power I2C: serial data SPI: slave select 1 (active low) 1.8 V Power Input (from internal voltage regulator) I2C serial clock SPI master input, slave output (MISO) SPI serial clock SPI master output, slave input (MOSI) Ground Neuron 5000 Processor Figure 11 on page 34 shows the pinout for the Neuron 5000 Processor. The central rectangle in the figure represents the bottom pad (pin 49), which must be connected to ground. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 33 SVC~ 1 IO0 2 IO1 3 IO2 4 IO3 5 VDD1V8 6 IO4 7 VDD3V3 8 IO5 9 IO6 10 IO7 11 IO8 12 ® Neuron 5000 Processor GND PAD 36 GND 35 NC 34 CP1 33 AGND 32 CP0 31 AVDD3V3 30 VDD3V3 29 VIN3V3 28 RST~ 27 VOUT1V8 26 GNDPLL 25 VDDPLL Figure 11. Neuron 5000 Processor Pinout Diagram Table 15 lists the pin assignments for the Neuron 5000 Processor. All digital inputs are lowvoltage transistor-transistor logic (LVTTL) compatible, 5 V tolerant, with low leakage. All digital outputs are slew-rate limited to reduce Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) concerns. Table 15. Neuron 5000 Processor Pin Assignments Name SVC~ IO0 IO1 IO2 IO3 VDD1V8 IO4 VDD3V3 IO5 Pin Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type Digital I/O Digital I/O Digital In Digital I/O Digital I/O Power 7 Digital I/O 8 Power 9 Digital I/O Description Service (active low) IO0 for I/O Objects IO1 for I/O Objects IO2 for I/O Objects IO3 for I/O Objects 1.8 V Power Input (from internal voltage regulator) IO4 for I/O Objects 3.3 V Power IO5 for I/O Objects 34 Hardware Resources Name IO6 IO7 IO8 IO9 IO10 IO11 VDD1V8 TRST~ VDD3V3 TCK TMS TDI TDO XIN XOUT VDDPLL GNDPLL VOUT1V8 RST~ VIN3V3 VDD3V3 AVDD3V3 CP0 AGND CP1 NC GND CP2 Pin Number 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Type Description Digital I/O IO6 for I/O Objects Digital I/O IO7 for I/O Objects Digital I/O IO8 for I/O Objects Digital I/O IO9 for I/O Objects Digital I/O IO10 for I/O Objects Digital I/O IO11 for I/O Objects Power 1.8 V Power Input (from internal voltage regulator) Digital Input JTAG Test Reset (active low) Power 3.3 V Power Digital Input JTAG Test Clock Digital Input JTAG Test Mode Select Digital Input JTAG Test Data In Digital Output JTAG Test Data Out Oscillator In Crystal oscillator input Oscillator Out Crystal oscillator output Power 1.8 V Power Input (from internal voltage regulator) Power Ground Power 1.8 V Power Output (of internal voltage regulator) Digital I/O Reset (active low) Power 3.3 V Power Input Power 3.3 V Power Power 3.3 V Power Comm Single-Ended Mode: Receive serial data Special-Purpose Mode: Receive serial data Ground Ground Comm Single-Ended Mode: Transmit serial data Special-Purpose Mode: Transmit serial data N/A Do Not Connect Ground Ground Comm Single-Ended Mode: External transceiver enable Special-Purpose Mode: Bit clock Series 5000 Chip Data Book 35 Name CP3 CP4 CS0~ VDD3V3 VDD3V3 SDA_CS1~ VDD1V8 SCL MISO SCK MOSI PAD Pin Number 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Type Comm Comm Digital I/O for Memory Power Power Digital I/O for Memory Power Digital I/O for Memory Digital I/O for Memory Digital I/O for Memory Digital I/O for Memory Ground Pad Description Do Not Connect Single-Ended Mode: Collision detect Special-Purpose Mode: Frame clock SPI slave select 0 (active low) 3.3 V Power 3.3 V Power I2C: serial data SPI: slave select 1 (active low) 1.8 V Power Input (from internal voltage regulator) I2C serial clock SPI master input, slave output (MISO) SPI serial clock SPI master output, slave input (MOSI) Ground Pin Connections This section describes the electrical connections for the various pins on a Series 5000 chip. Unless specified otherwise, the connections apply to both the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver and the Neuron 5000 Processor. See Appendix E, Example Schematic, on page 147, for a more complete example schematic for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver. Connect the VDD3V3 pins (8, 18, 29, 30, 41, and 42) to VDD33. Also connect the AVDD3V3 pin (31) to an analog VDD33 source, if different from the digital VDD33 source. In general, the VDD3V3 pins and the AVDD3V3 pin connect to the same VDD33 source. In addition, connect decoupling capacitors to the VDD3V3 pins, as shown in Figure 12 on page 37. 36 Hardware Resources VDD33 1 VDD33 C3 0.1 uF 2 GND 49 48 MOSI SCK 47 46 MISO SCL 45 44 VDD1V8 SDA_CS1~ 43 VDD3V3 42 VDD3V3 41 40 CS0~ CP4 39 RXON 38 TXON 37 C1 0.1 uF U1 1 SVC~ 2 IO0 3 IO1 4 IO2 5 IO3 6 VDD1V8 7 IO4 8 VDD3V3 9 IO5 10 IO6 11 IO7 12 IO8 FT 5000 FT 5000 Smart Transceiver GND 36 35 NC NETP 34 33 AGND NETN 32 31 AVDD3V3 VDD3V3 30 VIN3V3 29 28 RST~ VOUT1V8 27 26 GNDPLL VDDPLL 25 2 1 C4 0.1 uF 1 2 13 IO9 14 IO10 15 IO11 16 VDD1V8 17 TRST~ 18 VDD3V3 19 TCK 20 TMS 21 TDI 22 TDO 23 XIN 24 XOUT 1 2 C2 0.1 uF Figure 12. Connections for the VDD33 Pins In the figure, the capacitors are: • C1-C4: 0.1 μF 10% 16V X7R The VOUT1V8 pin (27) is the output of the on-chip voltage regulator. Connect the VDD1V8 pins (6, 16, and 44) to the VOUT1V8 pin (27) to connect the 1.8 V input pins to the output of the internal voltage regulator, as shown in Figure 13 on page 38. In addition, connect a bulk decoupling capacitor (C5 in Figure 13) near the VOUT1V8 pin (27), in addition to the other decoupling capacitor. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 37 1 C3 0.1 uF 2 GND 49 MOSI 48 47 SCK MISO 46 SCL 45 VDD1V8 44 SDA_CS1~ 43 42 VDD3V3 VDD3V3 41 40 CS0~ CP4 39 38 RXON TXON 37 C1 0.1 uF U1 1 SVC~ 2 IO0 3 IO1 4 IO2 5 IO3 6 VDD1V8 7 IO4 8 VDD3V3 9 IO5 10 IO6 11 IO7 12 IO8 FT 5000 FT 5000 Smart Transceiver GND 36 35 NC NETP 34 33 AGND NETN 32 AVDD3V3 31 30 VDD3V3 VIN3V3 29 28 RST~ VOUT1V8 27 26 GNDPLL VDDPLL 25 1 C4 0.1 uF 1 C5 1.0 uF 1 2 13 IO9 14 IO10 15 IO11 16 VDD1V8 17 TRST~ 18 VDD3V3 19 TCK 20 TMS 21 TDI 22 TDO 23 XIN 24 XOUT 2 2 1 2 C2 0.1 uF Figure 13. Connections for the VDD18 Pins In the figure, the capacitors are: • C1-C4: 0.1 μF 10% 16V X7R • C5: 1.0 μF 10% 6.3V X7R Connect the chip’s pad (pin 49) to logic ground. Also connect the AGND pin (33) to an analog ground, if different from the logic ground. In general, the two grounds are the same. Figure 14 on page 39 shows the connections for the ground pins. 38 Hardware Resources GND 49 48 MOSI SCK 47 46 MISO SCL 45 44 VDD1V8 SDA_CS1~ 43 VDD3V3 42 41 VDD3V3 CS0~ 40 39 CP4 RXON 38 TXON 37 U1 1 SVC~ 2 IO0 3 IO1 4 IO2 5 IO3 6 VDD1V8 7 IO4 8 VDD3V3 9 IO5 10 IO6 11 IO7 12 IO8 FT 5000 FT 5000 Smart Transceiver 36 GND NC 35 NETP 34 AGND 33 NETN 32 31 AVDD3V3 VDD3V3 30 VIN3V3 29 RST~ 28 VOUT1V8 27 GNDPLL 26 VDDPLL 25 13 IO9 14 IO10 15 IO11 16 VDD1V8 17 TRST~ 18 VDD3V3 19 TCK 20 TMS 21 TDI 22 TDO 23 XIN 24 XOUT Figure 14. Connections for the Ground Pins Connect the VDDPLL pin (25) to the VOUT1V8 pin (27), with an associated chip ferrite bead, as shown in Figure 15. Connect the GNDPLL pin (26) to GND, with an associated chip ferrite bead. In addition, add stabilizing capacitors across the VDDPLL and GNDPLL pins. Place each capacitor directly adjacent to the PLL pins, on the top layer of the PCB. GNDPLL 1 2 C1 0.01 uF 1 C2 0.1 uF L1 BEAD 1 2 2 VDDPLL 1 2 L2 BEAD VOUT1V8 Figure 15. Connections for the PLL Pins In the figure, the capacitors are: • C1: 0.01 μF 10% 50V X7R • C2: 0.1 μF 10% 16V X7R The chip ferrite beads are rated for ≥50 mA saturation current, provide ≥120 Ω impedance at 100 MHz per 20 ºC, and have a DC resistance ≤1 Ω. An example part is the Laird Technologies® LI0603E151R-10 part (formerly a Steward part). Connect a 4.99 kΩ pull-up resistor to the JTAG TCK pin (19), as shown in Figure 16. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 39 VDD3 1 2 R1 4.99k TCK Figure 16. Connection for the JTAG TCK Pin Characteristics of the Digital I/O Pins Series 5000 chips provide 12 bidirectional I/O pins that are usable in several different configurations. These pins provide flexible interfacing to external hardware and access to the internal timer/counters. In addition to reading the input pins, the application processor can read the current logic level of the output pins. The digital I/O pins (IO0 – IO11) have LVTTL-level inputs. Pins IO0 – IO7 also have lowlevel-detect latches. The RST~ and SVC~ pins have internal pull-ups, and the RST~ pin has hysteresis. See the I/O Model Reference for Smart Transceivers and Neuron Chips for more information about how to use the digital I/O pins. Table 16 lists the characteristics of the digital I/O pins, which include IO0 – IO11, the memory I/O pins, the other digital pins listed in Table 14 and Table 15. Table 16. Series 5000 Chip Digital Pin Characteristics Parameter1 Description Minimum Maximum VOH Output drive high at IOH = 8 mA 2.4 V VDD3 VOL Output drive low at IOL = 8 mA GND 0.4 V VIH Input high level 2.0 V 5.5 V VIL Input low level GND 0.8 V VHYS Input hysteresis for RST~ pin 50 mV 150 mV IIN Input leakage current — 10 μA RPU Pullup resistance2 13 kΩ 23 kΩ IPU Pullup current when pin at 0 V2 130 μA 275 μA 40 Hardware Resources Notes: 1. All parameters assume nominal supply voltage (VDD3 = 3.3 V ± 0.3 V) and operating temperature (TA between –40 ºC and +85 ºC), unless otherwise noted. 2. Applies to RST~ and SVC~ pins only. Communications Port (CP) Pins for the Neuron 5000 Processor The Neuron 5000 Processor has a very versatile communications port. It consists of five pins (named CP0 through CP4) that can be configured to interface to a wide variety of media interfaces (network transceivers) and operates over a wide range of data rates. The communications port can be configured to operate in one of two modes: single-ended mode or special-purpose mode. Table 17 lists the pin assignments for the communications port pins for each of the modes, and Figure 17 on page 42 shows a block diagram of the communications port. Table 17. Communications Port Pin Assignments Drive Single-Ended Mode Pin Current (3.3 V) Special-Purpose Mode (3.3 V) Connect To CP0 8 mA Data input Rx input Transceiver RXD CP1 8 mA Data output Tx output Transceiver TXD CP2 8 mA Transmit Enable output Bit Clock output Transmit Enable (single ended mode) Bit Clock (special-purpose mode) CP3 N/A Do Not Connect CP4 8 mA Collision Detect input Frame Clock output Collision Detect (single ended mode) Frame Clock (special-purpose mode) Series 5000 Chip Data Book 41 Figure 17. Internal Transceiver Block Diagram Single-ended mode uses Differential Manchester encoding (also known as bi-phase space encoding), which is a widely used and reliable format for transmitting data over various media. This encoding scheme provides a transition at the beginning of every bit period to synchronize the receiver clock (referred to as the clock transition). The data is indicated by the presence or absence of a second transition (the data transition) halfway between clock transitions. A mid-cell transition indicates a zero. Lack of a mid-cell transition indicates a one. The transmitter transmits a preamble at the beginning of a packet to allow the other devices to synchronize their receiver clocks. The preamble consists of a bit-sync field and a byte-sync field. The bit-sync field is a series of Differential Manchester ones; its duration is user selectable, and is at least four bits long. The byte-sync field is a single bit Differential Manchester zero that marks the end of the preamble, and the beginning of the first data byte of the packet. The Neuron Chip terminates the packet by forcing a Differential Manchester code violation, that is, the Neuron Chip holds the data output transitionless long enough for the receiver to recognize an invalid code that signals the end of transmission. The data output can be either high or low for the duration of the line-code violation, depending on the state of the data output after transmitting the last bit. The line-code violation begins after the end of the last CRC bit, and lasts for at least 2.5 bit times. The last bit does not have a trailing clock edge. 42 Hardware Resources The Transmit Enable pin is held active until the end of the line-code violation, and is then released. Differential Manchester coding is polarity-insensitive. Thus, reversal of polarity in the communication link does not affect data reception. A Neuron Chip in single-ended mode supports any of the following network bit rates: • 10 Mbps • 156 kbps • 5.0 Mbps • 78 kbps • 2.5 Mbps • 39 kbps • 1.25 Mbps • 19.5 kbps • 625 kbps • 9.6 kbps • 312.5 kbps • 4.8 kbps Each of the bit rates below 1.25 Mbps is available for any of the system-clock rates of the Neuron Chip. The 2.5 Mbps bit rate requires the Neuron 5000 Processor’s system clock to be set at 20 MHz or higher. Single-Ended Mode Single-ended mode (3.3 V) is most commonly used with external active transceivers that interface to media such as RF, IR, fiber optics, twisted-pair cable, and coaxial cable. Figure 18 on page 44 shows the communications port configuration for single-ended mode operation. Data communication occurs through the single-ended (with respect to GND) input and output buffers on pins CP0 and CP1. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 43 Figure 18. Single-Ended Mode Configuration Figure 19 shows a typical packet, where T is the bit period, equal to 1/(bit rate). Clock transitions occur at the beginning of a bit period, and therefore, the last valid bit in the packet does not have a trailing clock edge. Figure 19. Single-Ended Mode Data Format Before beginning to transmit the packet, the Neuron Chip initializes the output data pin to start low. It then asserts the Transmit Enable pin (CP2) to ensure that the first transition in the packet is from low to high. This first transition occurs within 1 bit time of asserting Transmit Enable, and marks the beginning of the packet. 44 Hardware Resources Important: Transmit Enable is actively driven at all times in single-ended mode. In singleended mode, the 8 mA driver is connected to CP1 and it is not high impedance when receiving packets. At the end of the packet after the Differential Manchester code violation, the Transmit Enable pin on CP2 is driven low to indicate the end of transmission. Collision Detection for Single-Ended Mode As an option, the Neuron Chip accepts an active-low Collision Detect input from the transceiver. If collision detection is enabled, and CP4 goes low for at least one system clock period (12.5 ns with an 80 MHz system clock) during transmission, the Neuron Chip is signaled that a collision has occurred (or is occurring) and that the message must be sent again. The device then attempts to reaccess the channel. The collision detect flag is checked by firmware at the end of the preamble and end of packet. If the node does not use collision detection, the only way that it can determine that a message has not been received is to request an acknowledgment. When acknowledged service is used, the retry timer is set to allow sufficient time for a message to be sent and acknowledged (typically 48 ms to 96 ms at 1.25 Mbps when there are no routers in the transmission path). If the retry timer times out, the device attempts to reaccess the channel. The benefit of using collision detection is that the device does not have to wait for the retry timer to time-out before attempting to resend the message, because the device detects the collision when it sends the packet. Beta 1 and Beta 2 Timeslots in SingleEnded Mode Important: The information in this section applies only to development of new network types. If you use a standard LONMARK channel in a LONWORKS network, you do not need to work with the Beta 1 and Beta 2 timeslots. The idle period between packets comprises the Beta 1 and Beta 2 timeslots. The Beta 1 time is the fixed component in the idle period after a packet has been sent. This component is a function of the following: • Oscillator frequencies and accuracies on the various network devices. • Media indeterminate time — that time following packet transmission when the network can appear to be busy due to ringing on the line. • Minimum interpacket gap — transceiver-dependent timing requirements. • Receive-end delay — skew between the transmitter Neuron Chip’s and the receiver Neuron Chip’s view of the end of the packet. This skew can occur because of buffering in the transceivers, and is typically found in special-purpose mode transceivers. The Media Access Control (MAC) Layer timings are a function of five parameters stored in the configuration data. These parameters determine the Preamble Length, the Packet Cycle, the Beta 2 Slot Width, the Transmit Interpacket Padding, and the Receive Interpacket Padding. All timings are given in terms of the Neuron Chip processor cycles. One cycle is 37.5 ns at 80 MHz, 75 ns at 40 MHz, 150 ns at 20 MHz, 0.3 μs at 10 MHz, and 0.6 μs at 5 MHz: Series 5000 Chip Data Book 45 • Beta 1 Time after Transmission = 583 cycles + Transmit Interpacket Padding + Beta 2 Slot Width • Beta 1 Time after Reception = 565 cycles + Receive Interpacket Padding + Beta 2 Slot Width An indeterminate time is defined during the Beta 1 period in which all transitions on the channel are ignored. This period starts following the end of any packet (transmitted or received). Its duration is defined as follows: • Indeterminate Time after transmission = 313 cycles + Transmit Interpacket Padding • Indeterminate Time after reception = 295 cycles + Receive Interpacket Padding Both priority (P) and non-priority slots are defined by the Beta 2 time. Devices listen to the network prior to transmitting a packet. This prevents devices from transmitting packets on top of each other except when the packets are initiated at nearly the same time. In addition, devices randomize the time before they start transmitting on the network. When the network is idle, all nodes randomize over 16 slots. As the estimated network load increases, devices start randomizing over more slots to lower the probability of a collision. The number of randomizing slots (R) varies from 16 up to 1008, based on “n,” the estimated channel backlog (the number of slots is n•16 where “n” has a range of 1 to 63), as shown in Figure 20. Figure 20. Packet Timing Following a packet, and prior to randomizing, devices wait for a configurable number of priority slots to pass. Devices with priority packets and a configured priority slot transmit in a priority slot. Use of priority substantially reduces the probability of collision. The number of priority slots (P) is fixed for a given channel and can range from 0 to 127. The Beta 2 time is defined by the following: • Oscillator frequencies and accuracies on the various network devices. • Number of priority slots on the channel. • Receive start delay — the time from when a device starts transmitting to when the receiving device detect the start of transmission. This delay is a function of the receive-to-transmit turnaround time of the transceiver, the bit rate and length of the media, delay through the receiver, and initial preamble bits lost. • For special-purpose mode transceivers, framing delays between the Neuron Chip and the transceiver. For the receiver to detect the edge transitions, two windows are set up for each bit period, T. The first window is set at T/2 and determines if a zero is being received. The second window is at T and defines a one. This transition then sets up the next two windows (T/2 and T). If no transition occurs, a Differential Manchester code violation is detected and the packet is assumed to have ended. Table 18 on page 47 shows the width of this window as a function of the ratio of the Neuron Chip input clock (MHz) and the network bit rate (Mbps) selected. If a transition falls outside of either window, it is not detected. Timing instability of the transitions, known as jitter, can be caused by changes in the communications medium, or instability in the transmitting or 46 Hardware Resources receiving device’s input clocks. The jitter tolerance windows are expressed as fractions of the bit period, T. Table 18. Receiver Jitter Tolerance Windows Ratio of Neuron Chip System Clock to Network Bit rate Min Next Data Edge Nom Max Next Clock Edge Min Nom Max Line Code Violation to Receive Min 8:1 0.375T 0.500T 0.622T 0.875T 1.000T 1.122T 1.62T 16:1 0.313T 0.500T 0.685T 0.813T 1.000T 1.185T 1.46T 32:1 0.345T 0.500T 0.717T 0.845T 1.000T 1.155T 1.46T 64:1 0.330T 0.500T 0.702T 0.830T 1.000T 1.170T 1.46T 128:1 0.323T 0.500T 0.695T 0.823T 1.000T 1.177T 1.46T 256:1 0.318T 0.500T 0.690T 0.818T 1.000T 1.182T 1.46T 512:1 0.315T 0.500T 0.687T 0.815T 1.000T 1.185T 1.46T 1024:1 0.315T 0.500T 0.687T 0.815T 1.000T 1.185T 1.46T For the receiver to reliably terminate reception of a packet, the received line-code violation period must have no transitions until the Neuron Chip detects the end of the packet. The receiving Neuron Chip terminates a packet if no clock transitions are detected after the last bit. Table 18 shows the minimum duration from the last clock edge to where the Neuron Chip is guaranteed to recognize the line-code violation. Data transitions are allowed in this period (and must fall within the data window). For a Neuron Chip, the time from when an application software call is issued to send a 12byte message to when the packet is sent is approximately 175 μs for an 80 MHz system clock (the time varies inversely with the system clock rate). Special-Purpose Mode In special situations, it is desirable for the Neuron Chip to provide the packet data in an unencoded format and without a preamble. In this case, an intelligent transmitter accepts the unencoded data and does its own formatting and preamble insertion. The intelligent receiver then detects and strips off the preamble and formatting, and returns the decoded data to the Neuron Chip. PATENT NOTICE The Special-Purpose Mode is protected by U.S. Patent No. 5,182,746 and foreign patents based on this patent. No express or implied license is granted herein with respect to such patents. If you are interested in obtaining a non-exclusive, royalty free license to these patents, please call Echelon at +1 (408) 938 5200 and ask for Contracts Management. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 47 Such an intelligent transceiver contains its own input and output data buffers and intelligent control functions, and provides handshaking signals to properly pass the data back and forth between the Neuron Chip and the transceiver. In addition, there are many features that can be defined by and incorporated into a special-purpose transceiver: • Ability to configure various parameters of the transceiver from the Neuron Chip • Ability to report on various parameters of the transceiver to the Neuron Chip • Multiple channel operation • Multiple bit rate operation • Use of forward error correction • Media-specific modulation techniques requiring special message headers and framing • Collision detection While the special-purpose mode offers custom features, it is expected that most transceivers will use the single-ended mode for most types of media. This is because single-ended mode offers Differential Manchester encoding, which takes care of clock recovery, whereas specialpurpose mode does not have this feature. In addition, the special-purpose mode is a restricted protocol that Echelon licenses for use only when the Neuron Chip and transceiver are sold as one unit. For more details, contact Echelon Support. When the special-purpose mode (3.3 V) is used, the Neuron 5000 Processor and the transceiver use a protocol that consists of the Neuron 5000 Processor and the transceiver each exchanging 16 bits (8 bits of status and 8 bits of data; see Figure 21) simultaneously and continuously at rates up to 20.0 Mbps (when the Neuron Chip’s system clock is 80 MHz). The 20.0-Mbps bit rate allows time-critical flags, such as a Carrier Detect, to be exchanged across the interface with network bit rates up to 625 kbps. The maximum bit rate is 625 kbps because of the overhead associated with the handshaking. Figure 21. Special-Purpose Mode Data Format The Neuron Chip communicates with the transceiver through its CP[4:0] pins. CP4 and CP2 are synchronizing clocks generated by the Neuron Chip: CP4 is a frame clock, and CP2 is a bit clock. CP0 and CP1 contain the exchanged data: CP0 transfers data from the transceiver to the Neuron Chip, and CP1 transfers data from the Neuron Chip to the transceiver. 48 Hardware Resources The Neuron Chip and transceiver continuously exchange data through its CP0 and CP1 pins. The bit clock defines transitions between bits in the data stream. The Neuron Chip uses the falling edge of the bit clock to both sample CP0 and change CP1 to the next bit. The transceiver should use the rising edge of bit clock to sample CP1 and update CP0. The serial data streams on CP0 and CP1 are divided into 16-bit frames. The frame clock (CP4) is used to define the boundaries of the frames. The frame clock is active (high) while the Neuron Chip is outputting the least-significant bit (LSB) of the frame on CP1. On the falling edge of the frame clock, the Neuron Chip is sampling the most-significant bit (MSB) of the next frame on CP0. The first eight bits of each frame are interpreted as the status field and the last eight bits as the data field. The status field controls transceiver operation and controls passing data between the Neuron Chip and the transceiver. The interpretation of each status bit is shown in Table 19 and Table 20. Table 19. Special-Purpose Mode Transmit Status Bits Bit Flag Description 7 TX_FLAG Neuron Chip in the process of transmitting packet 6 TX_REQ_FLAG Neuron Chip requests to transmit on the network 5 TX_DATA_VALID Neuron Chip is passing network data to the transceiver in this frame 4 Don’t Care Unused 3 TX_ADDR_R/W If negated, Neuron Chip is writing internal transceiver register 2 TX_ADDR_2 Address bit 2 of internal transceiver register [1..7] 1 TX_ADDR_1 Address bit 1 of internal transceiver register [1..7] 0 TX_ADDR_0 Address bit 0 of internal transceiver register [1..7] Note: For bits [2..0] the internal transceiver register 0 is not valid. Registers [1..7] are defined by the transceiver implementation. Table 20. Special-Purpose Mode Receive Status Bits Bit Flag Description 7 SET_TX_FLAG Transceiver accepts request to transmit packet 6 CLR_TX_REQ_FLAG Transceiver acknowledges request to transmit packet 5 RX_DATA_VALID Transceiver is passing network data to the Neuron Chip in this frame Series 5000 Chip Data Book 49 Bit Flag Description 4 TX_DATA_CTS Transceiver indicates that Neuron Chip is clear to send byte of network data 3 SET_COLL_DET Transceiver has detected a collision while transmitting the preamble 2 RX_FLAG Transceiver has detected a packet on the network 1 RD/WR_ACK Transceiver acknowledges read/write to internal register 0 TX_ON Transceiver is transmitting on the network There are three types of data that can be sent and received during each frame: 1. Network packet data — Actual data (8 bits at a time) that is to be transmitted or has been received. 2. Configuration data — Information from the Neuron Chip that tells the transceiver how it is to be set up or configured. 3. Status data — Informational parameters reported from the transceiver to the Neuron Chip (when requested by the Neuron Chip). The contents of the configuration data and status data are defined by the transceiver. The Neuron Chip controls the communication with the transceiver by asserting and examining status bits. There are four basic operations that the Neuron Chip performs with the transceiver: transmit packet, receive packet, write configuration, and read status. When the Neuron Chip wants to transmit a packet, it sets the TX REQ FLAG bit of its output status field. The transceiver can then accept or reject the request. To reject the request, the transceiver sets the CLR TX REQ FLAG bit and clears the SET TX FLAG bit. The transceiver indicates that it is ready to transmit by setting the CLR TX REQ FLAG and SET TX FLAG bits for one frame. In that same frame, the transceiver must also set the TX DATA CTS bit to indicate that the Neuron Chip can send the first byte of data. The Neuron Chip sends a packet of data only if the transceiver accepts the transmit request. The Neuron Chip then sets the TX FLAG bit for the entire duration of the packet. The transceiver must set the TX ON bit while it is transmitting a packet. Each byte is transferred from the Neuron Chip to the transceiver with a handshake protocol. The transceiver indicates that it is ready to accept a byte by setting the TX DATA CTS bit for a single frame. The Neuron Chip uses this flag to cause it to send out another byte in a subsequent frame; the Neuron Chip also sets the TX DATA VALID bit during the frame that contains the data byte. After the Neuron Chip sends the last byte in the packet, it clears the TX FLAG bit to indicate the end of transmission. When the transceiver finishes transmitting the packet, including any error codes, it must clear the TX ON bit to indicate that it has released the network. The transceiver can abort transmission if it detects a collision by setting the SET COLL DET bit for one frame. The Neuron Chip then clears the TX FLAG bit and prepares to resend the packet. The transceiver initiates packet reception by setting the RX FLAG bit. The transceiver can begin sending data to the Neuron Chip in the frame after setting the RX FLAG bit. Each 50 Hardware Resources frame that contains valid data must be marked with the RX DATA VALID bit set. When the transceiver finishes receiving a packet, it clears the RX FLAG bit and the Neuron Chip terminates reception of the packet. The Neuron Chip performs a configuration write or status read by using the TX ADDR R/W and TX ADDR [2:0] bits. The TX ADDR [2:0] bits indicate which of seven transceiver registers is being accessed, and the TX ADDR R/W bit indicates whether the operation is a configuration register write (0) or status register read (1). Register 0 (TX ADDR [2:0] = 000) is unused, so that TX ADDR R/W = 0 and TX ADDR [2:0] = 000 indicates no read or write operation is to be performed. To write to a configuration register, the Neuron Chip clears the TX ADDR R/W bit and indicates the selected register with the TX ADDR [2:0] bits. The transceiver must acknowledge that the operation is complete by setting the RD/WR ACK bit. The Neuron Chip continues to send the configuration write command until it receives a frame with the RD/WR ACK bit set. To read a status register, the Neuron Chip sets the TX ADDR R/W bit and indicates the selected register with the TX ADDR [2:0] bits. The transceiver must acknowledge that the operation is complete by setting the RD/WR ACK bit and by placing the requested information in the data field. The Neuron Chip continues to send the status request command until it receives a frame with the RD/WR ACK bit set. Network Connection How you connect a Series 5000 device to a network depends primarily on whether the Series 5000 device contains an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver or a Neuron 5000 Processor. For FT 5000 Smart Transceivers, you use the FT-X3 transformer; for Neuron 5000 Processors, you use an external transceiver and associated interconnect circuitry. Connection for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver Figure 22 on page 52 shows the preferred interconnection between the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver and the FT-X3 Communications Transformer; the figure also shows the associated transient protection circuitry. Connect pins 1 and 6 of the FT-X3 transformer to the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver, as shown in the figure. The figure is not a complete schematic, because it does not include the clock, reset, and power supply bypass circuits for the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver. See Appendix C, FT-X3 Communications Transformer, on page 129, for a schematic view of the FT-X3 Communications Transformer. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 51 +3.3 V R1 FT 5000 Smart Transceiver 34 NETP 32 NETN 39 CP4 38 RXON 37 TXON Optional RXACTIVE and TXACTIVE LEDs FT-X3 Communications Transformer 1 NETP 4 NETA 6 NETN 7 NETB C1 + D1 D3 D2 D4 C2 + 5 CTP1 2 CTP2 3 CTS1 8 CTS2 C3 C4 NET1 NET2 VR1 Figure 22. FT 5000 Smart Transceiver and FT-X3 Interconnections Table 21. External Components for FT 5000 Smart Transceiver Name Value Description R1 4.99 kΩ Pullup resistor VR1 470 V MOV, 5 mm, 40 pF (typical) Panasonic ERZV05D471, Digi-Key P7186-ND or equivalent C1, C2 22 μF, ≥50 V, polar DC blocking capacitors C3, C4 100 pF, 5% Optional center-tap capacitors D1, D2, D3, D4 Differential network clamping diodes: BAV99, 1N4148-equivalent 1N4934, 1N4935, FR1D, RS1D, RS1DB For up to 2 kV Surge Protection For up to 6 kV Surge Protection In Figure 22, capacitors C1 and C2 are used to provide DC voltage isolation for the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver when it is used on a link power network and to protect it in the event of a DC power fault on the network wires. The capacitors are required to meet LONMARK interoperability guidelines for the TP/FT-10 channel. These capacitors are not needed for devices that will be connected exclusively to non-link power networks and do not require protection against DC faults. Two polar capacitors are used to protect against the application of a DC voltage of either polarity, while providing a total capacitance of 11 μF. Alternatively, a single non-polar capacitor of 10 μF can be used in either of the two legs that connect to the network. The initial tolerance of the capacitor should be ±20% or less, and degradation due to aging and temperature effects should not exceed 20% of the initial minimum value. 52 Hardware Resources Capacitors C3 and C4 are optional center-tap capacitors that allow you to tune EMC performance. Note that Series 3100 FT Smart Transceivers had a single COMM_ACTIVE pin (equivalent to the CP2 pin for a Series 3100 Neuron Chip) that you could connect to a special COMM_ACTIVE LED circuit to drive a pair of LEDs to display network activity. FT 5000 Smart Transceivers have two communications pins, TXON and RXON, that you can connect to network activity LEDs (RXACTIVE and TXACTIVE) without any special circuitry requirements. However, you might want to add pulse-stretching circuitry for these packetactivity signals for increased visibility. If your device does not require network activity LEDs, pins 37 and 38 should be treated as No Connect. Comparison with FT 3120 or FT 3150 Devices The interconnection with the network transformer for an FT 3120 Smart Transceiver or an FT 3150 Smart Transceiver is similar to the interconnection for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver (as described in Connection for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver on page 51). However, FT 3120 and FT 3150 Smart Transceivers can use one of three transformers: the FT-X1 (a through-hole part), the FT-X2 (a surface-mount part), or the FT-X3 (a surfacemount part). Although you can use an FT-X1 or FT-X2 transformer with an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver, you cannot simply replace an existing FT 3120 or FT 3150 Smart Transceiver with an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver. The voltage requirement is different (the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver is a 3.3 V part and the FT 3120 or FT 3150 Smart Transceiver is a 5 V part); the packages are different; and the pinouts are different. In addition, if your Series 3100 device uses a COMM_ACTIVE circuit to drive network-activity LEDs, the requirements for that circuit are very specific for FT 3120 or FT 3150 Smart Transceivers, whereas for FT 5000 Smart Transceivers, you can use a simple LED driver circuit for the two network activity LEDs. See the FT 3120 / FT 3150 Smart Transceiver Data Book for more information about the interface for FT 3120 or FT 3150 Smart Transceivers. Comparison with the FTT-10A Transceiver The FTT-10A transceiver is designed to be used with Neuron Chips (both Series 3100 and Series 5000). The migration path from a Series 3100 Neuron Chip to a Series 3100 Smart Transceiver is fairly straightforward: • The Series 3100 Smart Transceiver has the same footprint as the corresponding Series 3100 Neuron Chip • The FT-X1 transformer has the same footprint as the FTT-10A transceiver • The pinout of the FT-X1 transformer is compatible with the connections between the Series 3100 Neuron Chip and the FTT-10A transformer See the FT 3120 and FT 3150 Smart Transceiver datasheet for more detailed information on these pinouts and footprints. A device based on a Series 3100 Smart Transceiver with the FT-X1 or FT-X2 transformer can run the same applications with the same functionality as a 3100 Neuron Chip with an FTT10A transceiver. In addition, Series 3100 Smart Transceiver with the FT-X1, FT-X2, or FTX3 transformer has the same levels of transient immunity, but has improved magnetic field Series 5000 Chip Data Book 53 noise immunity, and improved common-mode network noise immunity (as tested per EN 61000-4-6). With small component substitutions, the common-mode network noise immunity can be further improved (to Level 3) over FTT-10A transceiver-based devices. See the FT 3120 / FT 3150 Smart Transceiver Data Book for more information migrating from a 3100 Neuron Chip with an FTT-10A transceiver to a Series 3100 Smart Transceiver with the FTX1 or FT-X2 transformer. The migration path from a Series 3100 Neuron Chip to a Series 5000 Smart Transceiver requires additional design work: • The Series 5000 Smart Transceiver is a 3.3 V part and the Series 3100 Neuron Chip is a 5 V part • The Series 5000 Smart Transceiver has a different footprint compared to the corresponding Series 3100 Neuron Chip • The FT-X3 transformer has a different footprint compared to the FTT-10A transceiver • The pinout of the FT-X3 transformer is not entirely compatible with the connections between the Series 3100 Neuron Chip and the FTT-10A transformer A device based on a Series 5000 Smart Transceiver with the FT-X3 transformer can run the same applications with the same functionality as a 3100 Neuron Chip with an FTT-10A transceiver or a Series 3100 Smart Transceiver with a FT-X1 or FT-X2 transformer. In addition, a Series 5000 Smart Transceiver with the FT-X3 transformer has the same levels of transient immunity, magnetic field noise immunity, and common-mode network noise immunity (as tested per EN 61000-4-6) as a Series 3100 device. Connection for a Neuron 5000 Processor You can connect a Neuron 5000 Processor to an external transceiver to communicate with a TP/XF-1250 channel or an EIA-485 network. For a TP/FT-10 channel, use an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver. TPT/XF-1250 Transceivers You can use the Neuron 5000 Processor with an Echelon TPT Twisted Pair Transceiver Module for a TP/XF-1250 channel type. However, because the Neuron 5000 Processor does not include an on-chip differential transceiver (that is, the Neuron 5000 Processor does not support the differential mode of operation that Neuron 3120 Chips and Neuron 3150 Chips supported), you must: • Select “TP/XF-1250” as the transceiver type within the Hardware Template Editor of the NodeBuilder FX Development Tool or the Mini FX Evaluation Kit. This selection causes the Neuron firmware to configure the Neuron 5000 Processor’s communications port to operate in 3.3 V single-ended mode. • Add a single-ended mode to differential mode converter circuit, as described in the Connecting a Neuron 5000 Processor to an External Transceiver Engineering Bulletin. This circuit converts the Neuron 5000 Processor’s 3.3 V single-ended mode signals to the 5 V differential mode signals required for the TPT/XF-1250 transceiver. Figure 23 on page 55 shows the basic configuration for connecting a Neuron 5000 Processor to a TPT/XF-1250 transceiver. 54 Hardware Resources Figure 23. Connecting a Neuron 5000 Processor to a TP/XF-1250 Transceiver In the figure, the pullup resistor for the Neuron Chip’s CP4 pin is optional, but helps prevent reverse biasing the CP4 pin if the Neuron Chip is incorrectly configured to operate in specialpurpose mode. Also, the value of the capacitor on the TPT/XF-1250 transceiver’s transformer center tap (CT) pin depends on the device’s PCB layout and EMI characteristics. For more information about the TPT/XF-1250 transceiver, see the LONWORKS TPT Twisted Pair Transceiver Module User’s Guide (078-0025-01C). The details of the required differential driver circuit and the comparator circuit are described in the Connecting a Neuron 5000 Processor to an External Transceiver Engineering Bulletin. EIA-485 Transceivers You can use the Neuron 5000 Processor with commercially available EIA-485 transceivers. Multiple data rates (up to 5.0 Mbps), and a number of wire types can be supported. With an EIA-485 transceiver, common-mode voltage ranges between –7 V to +12 V. To implement an EIA-485 device, the Neuron 5000 Processor’s communications port runs in single-ended mode. Available industry standards that describe EIA-485 specifications provide details on unit loads, data rate, wire size, and wire distances. To ensure interoperability between devices, the LONMARK interoperability guidelines require a data rate of 39 kbps for devices that use EIA-485 transceivers. In addition, the EIA-485 transceiver must have TTL-compatible inputs for the connection to the Neuron 5000 Processor. A typical circuit configuration, shown in Figure 24 on page 56, can support up to 32 loads. An EIA-485 network works best with a common power source. Individual device power sources can create problems when the common voltage exceeds –7 V, + 12 V, or when excess ground faults cause damage to devices. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 55 Figure 24. EIA-485 Twisted-Pair Interface (Uses Single-Ended Mode) The EIA-485 specification requires a common ground reference for all transceivers. This common ground reference can be provided by adding a third conductor in the network cable or a separate connection to common ground at each device. Clock Requirements A Series 5000 chip requires a 10 MHz external crystal or oscillator to provide its input clock signal. The chip then multiplies the input frequency by an amount specified in the device’s hardware template (specified during device development using the NodeBuilder FX Development Tool or Mini FX Evaluation Kit) to derive its internal system clock frequency. For multipliers greater than one, the chip uses a phase-locked loop (PLL) to drive and manage the internal on-chip system clock frequency. This section describes the requirements for the external crystal and compares terminology for Series 5000 chip clock frequencies with Series 3100 chip clock frequencies. External Crystal A Series 5000 chip requires a 10.0 MHz external clock signal for operation. An example part that meets the requirements for a Series 5000 chip is the Abracon Corporation ABMM2100000MHzD1 Ceramic Surface Mount Low Profile Quartz Crystal. The crystal must have a load capacitance rating of 18 pF. Because a Series 5000 chip does not have internal load capacitance on-chip, you must add 30 pF combined external series capacitance, as shown in Figure 25 on page 57. 56 Hardware Resources XIN XOUT R1 1M 1 2 Y1 2 1 10.0000MHZ C1 30 pF 200PPM 18pF 1 1 2 R2 200 C2 30 pF 1 2 2 Figure 25. Series 5000 Chip Clock Generator Circuit For an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver, the total accuracy of the input clock frequency must be ±200 ppm or better; this requirement can be met with a suitable crystal. The ±200 ppm allows for oscillator tolerance, crystal tolerance, PCB and capacitor variation, and aging. This clock can be provided by connecting an appropriate parallel resonant crystal to the XIN and XOUT pins of the Series 5000 chip, as shown in Figure 25. Unlike for a Series 3100 chip, the Series 5000 chip’s XOUT pin cannot be used to drive an external CMOS load. If your device requires a common clock signal, you can use an external 3.3 V oscillator module (such as a Vishay® Intertechnology XOSM-533 Surface Mount Oscillator), and leave XOUT unconnected. You could also define an output frequency I/O model for one of the Series 5000 chip’s I/O pins (IO0..IO11) and connect the load’s clock signal to the Series 5000 chip’s I/O pin. A 60/40 duty cycle or better is required for the external oscillator, as shown in Figure 26. An external oscillator must provide low-voltage transistor-transistor logic (LVTTL) voltage levels (0 to 3.3 V) to the XIN pin. Figure 26. Test Point Levels for XIN Duty-Cycle Measurements To ensure proper oscillator startup, the equivalent series resistance specification for the crystal should be ≤50 Ω, and the crystal shunt capacitance should be no greater than 7 pF. A Series 5000 chip requires a clock frequency accuracy of ±200 ppm over the full range of component tolerances and operating conditions. Variation within the Series 5000 chip uses a portion of the overall ±200 ppm budget. The remaining portion of the error budget allocated for total crystal uncertainty is ±85 ppm (assuming that the selected crystal has a load capacitance specification that matches the circuit loading). Total crystal uncertainty is the combination of the crystal’s initial frequency tolerance plus its temperature and aging tolerances. Note that a typical crystal aging specification is 5 ppm/yr but, because the aging effect tends to follow a logarithmic curve, Series 5000 Chip Data Book 57 aging over a 10 year span is commonly in the range of 10 to 15 ppm (contact individual crystal vendors for detailed specifications). If the load capacitance specification of the crystal is not matched to the actual circuit load capacitance, the nominal frequency does not match the design center and the error budget for the crystal is reduced. For example, using a 18 pF crystal in a circuit that varies by 2 pF results in about a 40 ppm upward shift in the nominal frequency of oscillation. Thus a 2 pF mismatch consumes nearly half of one side of the error budget. The resulting error budget for the crystal in this particular example would be +45/-125 ppm. This example points out the importance of directly copying the selected reference layout so that differences in trace capacitance do not pull the nominal frequency away from the design center. If a 10.0 MHz clock signal is already available elsewhere on a Series 5000 device circuit board, it can be used as a clock source for the Series 5000 chip as long as the clock signal meets several requirements. First, the clock must have an accuracy of ±200 ppm over all operating conditions. Its duty cycle symmetry must be no worse than 60/40%. In addition, the voltage swing of the clock signal must be within the GND and VDD33 supply rails of the Series 5000 chip. To use this clock option, the appropriate clock signal should be connected to the XIN pin of the Series 5000 chip, and the XOUT pin of the Series 5000 chip should be left open. Note also that appropriate high frequency clock distribution techniques must be used to ensure that a clean clock signal is present at the XIN pin of the Series 5000 chip. Comparison with Series 3100 Clocks For Series 3100 chips, you specified the value of the system clock through the use of a specific external crystal or oscillator (for example, a 10 MHz crystal). For Series 5000 devices, you specify the system clock rate through software tools (the NodeBuilder FX Development Tool or Mini FX Evaluation Kit). For a Series 5000 device, the external clock is always a 10 MHz crystal, but the internal system clock rate can vary from 5 MHz to 80 MHz. Internally, a Series 3100 chip divided the external crystal’s frequency by 2 to obtain an internal system clock rate; thus, a 10 MHz external crystal provided a 5 MHz internal system clock rate. However, a Series 5000 chip multiplies the external crystal’s 10 MHz frequency by a value specified in the device’s hardware template to specify the internal system clock rate; thus, a multiplier value of 1 yields a 10 MHz internal system clock rate, and a multiplier value of 8 yields an 80 MHz internal system clock rate. Valid multiplier values are ½, 1, 2, 4, and 8. Note that a for a multiplier value of ½, the Series 5000 chip actually runs at 10 MHz (as if a multiplier of 1 were specified), but the Neuron system firmware schedules the application such that the application runs at 5 MHz. Because the internal system clock rate is multiplied, rather than divided, a Series 5000 chip of a specific system clock rate can be considered to be approximately twice as fast as an equivalent Series 3100 chip (for example, an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver with a system clock of 20 MHz is approximately twice as fast as FT 3150 Smart Transceiver with an input clock of 20 MHz). The difference is approximate because a specific application on a Series 5000 device might run more than twice (or less than twice) as fast it would on a Series 3100 device due to variations in the hardware and software that are required by the Neuron architecture for Series 5000 devices. Whenever the documentation for Series 5000 devices describes the system clock rate, it refers to the 10 MHz to 80 MHz internal system clock rate that is specified in the device’s hardware template, not the 10 MHz frequency value of the external crystal. 58 Hardware Resources Reset Function The reset function is a critical operation in any embedded microprocessor or microcontroller. For Series 5000 devices, the reset function plays a key role in the following conditions: • Initial VDD33 power up — ensures proper initialization of the Series 5000 chip • VDD33 power down — ensures proper shut down • VDD33 power fluctuations — manages proper recovery of a Series 5000 device after VDD33 stabilizes • Program recovery — if an application gets lost due to corruption of address or data, an external reset can be used for recovery, or the watchdog timer could timeout, causing a watchdog reset Series 5000 chips have the following mechanisms to initiate a reset: • The RST~ pin is pulled low and then released by an external switch or circuit. • Watchdog timeout occurs during application execution. The watchdog period is fixed at 840 ms (1.19 Hz) for all system clock rates. The actual timeout range is between 0.8 s and 1.7 s. • Software command either from the application program or from the network. • An exception trap (interrupt). • The internal Low-Voltage Indicator (LVI) circuit detects a drop in the power supply below a set level. During a reset, when the RST~ pin is in the low state, the Series 5000 chip pins go to the following states: • Oscillator continues to run • All processor functions stop • The SVC~ pin goes to high impedance, with pullup • I/O pins go to high impedance • All memory interface pins go to high impedance Figure 28 on page 62 illustrates the condition of the pins during reset and the Series 5000 chip initialization sequence after the RST~ pin is released. When the RST~ pin is released back to a high state, the Series 5000 chip begins its initialization procedure starting at address 0x0001. The time it takes the Series 5000 chip to complete its initialization differs between the type of external serial memory used (SPI or I2C), different firmware versions that are being run, and the memory space used by the application (code and data); see Reset Processes and Timing on page 61 for more information. RST~ Pin The RST~ pin is both an input and an output. As an input, the RST~ pin is internally pulled high by a resistor. The RST~ pin becomes an output when any of the following events occur: • Watchdog Timer event (times out) • Software reset initialization • Internal LVI detects a low voltage condition Series 5000 Chip Data Book 59 In some cases it is desirable to use the input capability of the RST~ pin to allow other devices to reset the Series 5000 device. Examples of external devices that can be used for this purpose include push button switches, microcontrollers, and external low-voltage detectors. Important: If the proper external reset circuitry is not used, the Series 5000 device can become applicationless or unconfigured. The applicationless or unconfigured state occurs when the checksum error verification routine detects corruption in memory which could have been falsely detected because of an improper reset sequence. The following guidelines must be followed in order for the Series 5000 device’s reset functions to operate reliably: • Any device connected to the RST~ pin must have an open-drain (or equivalent) output. If an external device were to actively drive the RST~ pin high, contention between that device and the Series 5000 chip’s internal circuitry could result in anomalous behavior ranging from applicationless errors to device failure. • If any external devices are connected to the RST~ pin of the Series 5000 chip, a capacitor should be connected between RST~ and ground to provide noise immunity. The value of this capacitor should be at least 100 pF, and must not exceed 1000 pF. For even greater noise immunity, two capacitors (totaling ≤1000 pF) can be used, with one connected from the RST~ pin to ground and the other from RST~ to VDD33. These capacitors should be located within 5 mm of the Series 5000 chip’s RST~ pin. • During board level in-circuit testing (ICT), the RST~ pin should be hard wired to ground through a “pogo pin”. Figure 27 shows an example reset circuit. Figure 27. Reset Circuit Power-Up Sequence During power up sequences, the RST~ pin is held low by the internal LVI until the power supply is stable. Likewise, when powering down, the RST~ pin is driven low when the power supply goes below the Series 5000 chip’s minimum operating voltage. See the FT 5000 Free Topology Smart Transceiver data sheet or the Neuron 5000 Processor data sheet for internal LVI trip points. 60 Hardware Resources Software-Controlled Reset When the CPU watchdog timer expires, or a software command to reset occurs, the RST~ pin is pulled low for 256 XIN clock cycles (25.6 μs). Watchdog Timer A Series 5000 chip is protected against malfunctioning software or memory faults by three watchdog timers, one for each processor that makes up the Neuron Core. If the application or the system software fails to reset these timers periodically, the entire Series 5000 chip automatically resets. The watchdog period is fixed at 840 ms (1.19 Hz) for all system clock rates. The actual timeout range is between 0.8 s and 1.7 s. The Watchdog Timer circuit is always active and cannot be disabled. Reset Processes and Timing During the reset period, the I/O pins are in a high-impedance state. The data lines are driven low, so that they will not float and draw excess current. The SVC~ pin is high impedance during reset with an internal pull-up resistor. Figure 28 on page 62 summarizes the steps that a Series 5000 chip follows in preparing to execute application code. After the RST~ pin is released, the Series 5000 chip performs hardware and firmware initialization before executing application programs, including the following tasks: • The system image is copied from ROM to RAM (this process takes approximately 43 ms) • The three base processors (NET, MAC, and APP) start running and the system image starts running • The stack initialization and built-in self-test (BIST) begins • The external non-volatile memory (NVM) is shadowed to RAM (this process takes a variable amount of time, based on the amount of data to copy and the NVM device type) • The SVC~ pin is initialized based on the state of the device • The system clock is set to the rate specified in the configuration data (prior to this point, the chip runs at 10 MHz) • The extended RAM is initialized based on the information contained in the configuration data • The system state is initialized • The random number seed is calculated • The system RAM is set up • The communication port is initialized • Checksum is performed for the application • The one-second timer is initialized • The scheduler is initialized Series 5000 Chip Data Book 61 Figure 28. Reset Timeline for Series 5000 Chips 62 Hardware Resources Approximately 10 μs after the RST~ pin is released, the Neuron Core starts running. The SVC~ pin oscillates between a solid low and a weak high. The default firmware system image is copied from ROM into RAM. This process takes approximately 43 ms. This process occurs regardless of whether an alternate system image exists; the alternate system image is loaded after the system begins running and BIST complete. After an alternate system image is loaded, the chip resets, but does not copy the system image from ROM. The three main processors (NET, MAC, and APP) start, and the system begins running. The stack initialization and BIST task tests the on-chip RAM, the timer/counter logic, and the counter logic. The stack initialization and BIST task takes approximately 16 ms. For the test to pass, all three processors and the ROM must be functioning. A flag is set to indicate whether the Series 5000 chip passed or failed the BIST. The RAM is set to all 0s by the end of this step. If the RAM self-test fails, the device goes offline, the service LED comes on solid, and an error is logged in the device’s status structure. Self-test results are available in the first byte of RAM (0xE800), as listed in Table 22. Table 22. Self-Test Results Value Description 0 No Failure 1 RAM failure 2 Timer/counter failure 3 Counter failure The external non-volatile memory (NVM) is shadowed into RAM from the EEPROM or flash memory device. The amount of time required for this process depends on the amount of NVM to be copied and the type of device: • I2C EEPROMs: For the minimal 2 KB EEPROM configuration, this process takes 52 ms. For larger EEPROM devices, this process takes 25 ms for each 1 KB of configured EEPROM (so that the maximum EEPROM configuration of 44 KB takes 1102 ms to complete). • SPI EEPROMs: For the minimal 2 KB EEPROM configuration, this process takes 35 ms. For larger EEPROM devices, this process takes 17.2 ms for each 1 KB of configured EEPROM. • SPI FLASH devices: This process takes 17.7 ms for each 1 KB of configured flash memory. The SVC~ pin initialization task turns off the SVC~ pin (high state). The state initialization task determines if a boot is required for the Series 5000 chip, and performs the boot if it is required. The Series 5000 chip performs a boot if it is blank, or if the external EEPROM is uninitialized. The extended RAM initialization task checks the memory map to determine if any extended RAM is included in the configuration, and then either tests and clears all of the extended RAM. This task requires approximately 7.81 ms per 1 KB of extended RAM at 80 MHz (or 8.88 ms per 1 KB of extended RAM at 10 MHz). Series 5000 Chip Data Book 63 The random number seed calculation task creates a seed for the random number generator. The system RAM setup task sets up internal system pointers as well as the linked lists of system buffers. The checksum initialization task generates or checks the checksums for the application. The checksum is a negated two’s complement sum of the values in the image. The one-second timer initialization task initializes the one-second timer. At this point, the network processor is available to accept incoming packets. The scheduler initialization task allows the application processor to perform applicationrelated initialization: • State wait — Wait for the device to leave the applicationless state. • Pointer initialization — Perform a global pointer initialization. • Initialization step — Execute initialization task, which is created by the compiler/linker to handle initialization of static variables and the timer/counters. • I/O pin initialization step — Initialize I/O pins based on application definition. Prior to this point, I/O pins are high impedance. • State wait II — Wait for the device to leave the unconfigured or hard-offline state. If waiting was required, a flag is set to indicate that the device should come up offline. • Parallel I/O synchronization — Devices using parallel I/O attempt to execute the master/slave synchronization protocol. • Reset task — Execute the application reset task (when (reset){ }). • Flag check — If the offline flag was set, the chip goes offline and executes the offline task (when(offline){ }). If the BIST flag indicated a failure, the SERVICE LED is turned on and the offline task is executed. Otherwise, the scheduler starts its normal task scheduling loop. The amount of time required to perform these steps depends on many factors, including: Series 5000 chip model; system clock rate; whether or not the device performs a boot of an alternate system image; whether the device is applicationless, configured, or unconfigured; amount of extended RAM; the number of buffers allocated; and application initialization. Table 23 summarizes the time required for each of these steps for a Series 5000 chip. The times are approximate and are given as functions of the most significant application variables. Prior to the extended RAM initialization step, the chip’s system clock runs at 10 MHz; all subsequent steps use the system clock at its configured rate (5 to 80 MHz), and so the time required is listed in clock cycles. Table 23. Series 5000 Chip Reset Sequence Time Step Time Required Notes Stack Initialization and BIST 16 ms SVC~ Pin Initialization 100 μs Extended RAM Initialization 7.81 ms per 1 KB of extended RAM at 80 MHz 64 Hardware Resources Step State Initialization Time Required Notes 250 clock cycles (for no boot) 2 275 000 clock cycles (for boot) Random Number Seed 0 Calculation This task runs in parallel with other tasks. System RAM Set-up 21 000 clock cycles + (600*B clock cycles) B is the number of application or network buffers allocated. Communication Port 0 Initialization This task runs in parallel with other tasks. Checksum Initialization 3400 clock cycles + (175*M clock cycles) M is the number of bytes to be checksummed. One-Second Timer Initialization 6100 clock cycles Scheduler Initialization ≥ 7400 clock cycles Assumes a trivial initialization task, no reset task and the configured state. Example: For an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver configured to run at 80 MHz, with no boot required, at least 10 application or network buffers, 6 KB of SPI EEPROM non-volatile memory, and 26 KB of extended RAM, with a 5 KB application, the total time required for reset is approximately 377.05 ms: • 203 ms is required to initialize the RAM variable space. • 103.2 ms is required to shadow the EEPROM NVM to RAM. • 43 ms is required to copy the system firmware image from ROM to RAM. • 16 ms is required for stack initialization and BIST. • 11.2 ms is required to checksum the 5 KB application. • The remaining time (0.65 ms) encompasses all of the other reset steps. SVC~ Pin The SVC~ pin alternates between input and open-drain output at a 76 Hz rate with a 50% duty cycle. When it is an output, it can sink up to 8 mA for use in driving an LED. When it is used exclusively as an input, it uses an optional external pull-up to bring the input to an inactive-high state. Under control of the Neuron firmware, this pin is used during configuration, installation, and maintenance of the device containing the Series 5000 chip. The firmware flashes the LED at a 1/2 Hz rate when the Series 5000 chip has not been configured with network address information. Grounding the SVC~ pin causes the Series 5000 chip to transmit a Series 5000 Chip Data Book 65 network management message containing its unique 48-bit Neuron ID and the application’s program ID. This information can then be used by a network management tool to install and configure the device. Table 24 lists the state of the Service LED for various device states. The Neuron firmware samples the SVC~ pin whenever it is not actively driving the pin low. A typical circuit for the SVC~ pin LED and push-button is shown in Figure 29. During reset, the SVC~ pin is pulled high by its internal pull-up resistor. Figure 29. SVC~ Pin Circuit Device State Table 24. Service LED Behavior during Different States State Code Service LED Applicationless and 3 On Unconfigured Unconfigured (but with an 2 Application) Flashing Configured, Hard Offline 6 Off Configured 4 Off Defective External Memory — On The SVC~ pin is active low, and the service pin message is sent once per SVC~ pin transition. The service pin message goes into the next available non-priority output network buffer. Integrity Mechanisms The Neuron architecture for a Series 5000 chip includes mechanisms for maintaining system integrity by ensuring processor integrity and application integrity. 66 Hardware Resources Processor Integrity To maintain processor integrity while an application is running, the Neuron architecture provides a set of interrupts for various error conditions that allow the application or firmware to continue to run. There are certain error conditions that, without interrupt support, would cause the processor to stop execution and possibly cause a reset of the device. A Series 5000 chip handles the following error conditions with system-level traps: • Watchdog timer timeout • Memory protection violations for writing to system image • Stack exceptions, including underflow, overflow, and collision conditions for the data stack, return stack, and ISR stack • Execution of an illegal Neuron assembly language opcode • Execution of the Neuron assembly language HALT instruction A system-level trap is highest level of interrupt and is non-maskable, that is, it cannot be disabled. For each of these traps, the system firmware handles the interrupt, initiates a reset if necessary, and updates the error log for the chip. Application Integrity Using Checksums To ensure application integrity, the Neuron firmware maintains a checksum of the application image. The checksum is a single byte, and is the two’s complement of the sum of all bytes that it covers. The checksums is verified during reset processing, and also on a continual basis through a background diagnostic process. The application image checksum covers the application code in both on-chip EEPROM and any application code in extended EEPROM or flash memory. The default behavior is that an application checksum error causes the device to go to the applicationless state. Application read/write data residing in EEPROM or flash is not checksummed. No checksum is computed if the device is in the applicationless state. Upon detecting a checksum error, the reset process forces the appropriate state and logs an error in the error log. A checksum must fail twice during reset processing for it to be considered in error. If the application checksum is bad, and no application recovery options are set, an application checksum error is logged, and the device state is changed to applicationless. If the application checksum is bad, and an application recovery option is set, and the boot application does not contain references to any flash, EEPROM, or RAM code, or there are no checksum errors in any of these regions, then the application is recovered. Otherwise, an application checksum error is logged and the device state is changed to applicationless. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 67 3 Hardware Design Considerations This chapter describes PCB layout guidelines for Series 5000 chips, and describes how to use an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver with a host microprocessor. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 69 PC Board Layout Guidelines Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) are two of the most important design considerations when laying out the PCB for a device. See Chapter 4, Design and Test for Electromagnetic Compatibility, on page 73, for more information about ESD and EMI design considerations. Tolerance of ESD and other types of network transients requires careful layout for power, ground, and other device circuitry. In general, ESD currents return to Earth ground or to other nearby metal structures. The device’s ground scheme must be able to pass this ESD current between the network connection and the device's external ground connection without generating significant voltage gradients across the device’s PCB. The low-inductance starground configuration accomplishes this task. The star-ground configuration conducts transients out of the device with minimal disruption to other function blocks. The following list describes the general features of a careful PCB design layout for FT 5000 Smart Transceivers and Neuron 5000 Processors: Star-Ground Configuration: The various blocks of the device that directly interface with offboard connections (the network, any external I/O, and the power supply cable) should be arranged so that the connections are together along one edge of the PCB. This arrangement allows any transient current that comes in by one connection to flow back out of the device by one of the other connections. If connection is made between the PCB ground and a metal enclosure, that connection should be made using a low-inductance connection (like a short standoff) in the center of the star ground. The center of the star ground is anywhere within the common ground area around the off-board connections. For a 4-layer PCB, the ground plane serves to distribute ground from the center of the star ground out to the various function blocks in the floorplan. For a 2-layer PCB, ground pours should be placed on the bottom layer (and also on the top layer where possible) in order to connect the grounds of the various function blocks to the center of the star ground. ESD Keepout Area: The area around the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver network connection traces and components should be considered “ESD Hot”, and other traces and components (and inner planes) should be kept at least 0.25” (6.4 mm) away from them to prevent ESD arc-overs to anything other than the top layer ground area around the spark gaps. The PCB layout should be designed so that substantial ESD hits from the network discharge directly to the star-ground center point. Placing a 470 V MOV near the network connector and near the center of the star ground shunts the majority of the network ESD hit energy directly to the star center, which helps to limit the transient current that passes through the FT-X3 transformer. The PCB layer ground at the center of the star-ground should have a low-inductance return to an external metal package if there is one. If there is no metal package, then this ground area should connect to the ground areas near the power supply connector and the external I/O connectors, as applicable. The transient current that is clamped by the MOV should be routed off of the PCB as directly as possible, without any opportunity to run through the Series 5000 chip itself, and any other circuitry, such as the host microprocessor. Transceiver-Side Clamp Diodes: Two diodes clamp the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver side of the FT-X3 transformer between VDD33 and ground. The VDD33 and ground connections 70 Hardware Design Considerations between the diodes and the transformer must be made with short, wide traces using a low inductance technique, which ensures that the secondary transient energy (remaining after the primary discharge through the MOV) does not disrupt the FT Smart Transceiver. The VDD33 and ground connections of the diodes are designed to return transient currents to the star-ground center point. Network-Side Clamp Diodes: Four diodes clamp the network side of the FT-X3 transformer to ground through the MOV during ESD and surge transients. The connections between the diodes and the MOV must be made using low inductance traces, which ensures that secondary transient energy remaining after the primary discharge through the MOV does not disrupt the FT Smart Transceiver. The connection of the MOV is designed to return transient currents to the star-ground center point. Ground Return for a Series 5000 Chip: A FT 5000 Smart Transceiver has internal protection circuitry built into its NETP and NETN pins. When an ESD or surge transient comes in from the network, the portion of the transient that makes it to the Series 5000 chip is clamped to the chip’s VDD33 power pins and ground pins. VDD33 is bypassed to ground at the Series 5000 chip, so the transient current returns to the center of the star ground through the ground layer for a 4-layer PCB, or the ground pours for a 2-layer PCB. Be sure to provide a short and wide ground path from the Series 5000 chip back to the center of the star ground. Ground Planes: As ground is routed from the center of the star out to the function blocks on the board, planes or very wide traces should be used to lower the inductance (and therefore the impedance) of the ground distribution system. VDD33 Decoupling Capacitors: A good rule of thumb is to provide at least one VDD3 decoupling capacitor to ground for each VDD33 power pin on an IC in the design. For SMT devices like a Series 5000 chip, each decoupling capacitor should be placed on the top layer with the chip, and placed as close as possible to the chip to minimize the length of VDD33 trace between the capacitor and the chip’s VDD33 pad. The ground end of the capacitor should have a wide, short connection to ground. Keeping these connections short and wide reduces their inductance, which improves the effectiveness of the decoupling. SMT capacitors with a value of 0.1 μF work well for decoupling, as long as the connections are kept very short. If you use ESD clamp diodes between VDD33 and ground on I/Os, there should generally be at least one decoupling capacitor for every two diode clamps, placed very close to those diode clamps. Host Microprocessor Kept Away From Network Connection: The (optional) host microprocessor (for a ShortStack device or an FTXL device) is a potential source of digital noise that could cause radiated EMI problems if that noise is allowed to couple onto the external network, power, or I/O wiring. To help prevent this coupling, the host microprocessor and any other noisy digital circuitry should be kept away from the network side of the Series 5000 chip. For example, place the host microprocessor on the opposite side of the Series 5000 chip from the network, power, and I/O connectors. Figure 30 on page 72 shows a portion of the top layer of a 4-layer printed circuit board (PCB) layout for the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver, along with the other building blocks of a PCB design. A PCB layout for a Neuron 5000 Processor would be similar to that shown in Figure 30. Variations on this suggested PCB layout are possible as long as the general principles discussed in this chapter are followed. Through-hole capacitors and diodes can be used, but SMT components are generally superior because of their lower series inductance. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 71 I/O Connectors ESD Keepout Area Center of Star Ground Network Connector Power Supply Connector I/O Circuitry Power Supply Circuitry Host Microprocessor (optional) Figure 30. Example PCB Layout Design for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver For a development and test board, you can use a socket for the Neuron 5000 Processor or FT 5000 Smart Transceiver, such as the 48LQ50S17070 open-top dual latch QFN socket from Plastronics Socket Company, Inc., or the S-MLF-00-048-A1 open-top QFN/MLF socket from Emulation Technology, Inc. 72 Hardware Design Considerations 4 Design and Test for Electromagnetic Compatibility This chapter describes electromagnetic compatibility design considerations for Series 5000 devices and the tests that you perform to ensure immunity. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 73 Overview A product that is designed for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) must be able to pass rigorous tests for immunity to external interference and demonstrate low electromagnetic interference (EMI) emissions. If the product will be sold in the European Union (EU), the product must demonstrate appropriate EMC levels to pass European Conformité Européene4 (CE) Marking tests. Even if the product will not be sold in the EU, immunity testing helps you to design a better, more robust product. Echelon has performed immunity tests for CE Marking on Series 5000 devices, and has also performed additional tests to ensure immunity and low emissions. Specifically, Echelon has performed the following immunity tests: • Electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing (both air and contact discharge) for compliance with Comité Européen de Normalisation5 (CEN), standard EN 61000-4-2 • Radiated radio frequency (RF) immunity testing for compliance with CEN standard EN 61000-4-3 • Burst testing for compliance with CEN standard EN 61000-4-4 • Surge testing for compliance with CEN standard EN 61000-4-5 • Conducted RF Immunity testing for compliance with CEN standard EN 61000-4-6 Summary and Testing Results on page 85 summarizes the results of Echelon’s testing for Series 5000 devices. You need to perform your own immunity testing for Series 5000 devices that you design and build. The test results for each of the CEN standard EN 61000-4-x tests are interpreted within the scope of the product’s specifications and standard operating conditions. A product’s test results fall into one of the following categories, which are referred to as “performance criteria”: 1. Normal product performance within specified limits 2. Temporary degradation or loss of function, or performance, that is self-recoverable 3. Temporary degradation or loss of function, or performance, that requires operator intervention to reset the system 4. Degradation or loss of function that is not recoverable For example, within a LONWORKS network, losing one network packet because of an ESD or surge hit likely meets category 1 because the Series 5000 chip resends network data that is not acknowledged as received. For more information about the CEN standard tests and to purchase copies of the standards documents, go to the Information Handling Services (IHS) Global page: global.ihs.com. 4 European Conformity 5 European Committee for Standardization 74 Design and Test for Electromagnetic Compatibility Achieving High Immunity Achieving good immunity to ESD and other types of network transients requires good layout of the power, ground, and other device circuitry. In general, an ESD current will return to Earth ground or to other nearby metal structures. The device’s ground scheme must be able to pass this ESD current between the network connection and the device’s external ground connection without generating significant voltage gradients across the device. To achieve high immunity, ensure that your design conforms to the following general guidelines: • Use a star-ground configuration for your device layout • Limit entry points in the device for ESD current • Provide ground guarding for switching power supply control loops • Provide good decoupling for VDD33 and VDD18 inputs • Maintain separation between digital circuitry and cabling for the network and power In a star-ground configuration, the power supply, network coupling circuit, and any I/O circuitry are distributed on the PCB in the form of a star, with the respective connectors and any chassis ground connections forming the center of the star. The host microprocessor and other sensitive circuitry should be located away from the center of the star. The goal of the star-ground configuration is to conduct transients that enter the device on one cable out of the device through the other cables, with minimal disruption to other functional areas of the device. If the device has a metal chassis, ESD and other transients generally return to that chassis by way of the star-ground center point. If the device's logic ground is connected to this chassis ground, you should only connect it at this single point, with a short standoff, in the center of the star. Keep noisy digital lines (such as host microprocessor memory array lines) away from the metal enclosure walls. If a device is housed in a plastic enclosure and is powered with an isolating transformer, an explicit Earth ground or chassis ground might not be available. In this case, it is still important for the network connector and power supply connector to be located near the center of the star. Switching power supply control loops can pick up radio-frequency (RF) noise and rectify it. RF immunity depends on limiting the pickup of such RF noise, so you need to provide sufficient ground guarding for the switching power supply control loops. To provide good decoupling for VDD33 and VDD18 inputs, you should distribute VDD33 and VDD18 through low inductance traces and planes in the same manner as ground. All of the ground pins on an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver or Neuron 5000 Processor should be connected with either a ground plane (for PCBs with at least 4 layers) or a ground pad directly underneath the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver or Neuron 5000 Processor on the bottom of the board (for PCBs with 2 layers). Place one SMT decoupling capacitor per power pin between the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver or Neuron 5000 Processor and ground. Place each decoupling capacitor on the top side of the PCB, with the connection to its VDD33 or VDD18 pin as short as possible. Maintaining separation between digital circuitry and cabling for the network and power limits RF crosstalk to any traces associated with the network or power supply (and any I/O lines that leave the device). Electrostatic Discharge Electronic systems in industrial and commercial environments frequently encounter electrostatic discharge (ESD). An ESD event is a momentary electric current that flows Series 5000 Chip Data Book 75 between electrically charged objects at different voltage potentials (one of which can be ground). The most common form of ESD is an electric spark, but not all ESD hits are accompanied by a spark. A reliable system design must consider the effects of ESD, and take steps to protect sensitive components. Static discharges occur frequently in low-humidity environments when human operators touch electronic equipment. Keyboards, connectors, and enclosures can also provide paths for static discharges to reach ESD-sensitive components. In addition, the European Community has adopted requirements for ESD testing. There are two general approaches to minimizing the effects of ESD for an electronic product: • Seal the product to prevent static discharges from reaching sensitive circuits inside the package. • Design the grounding of the product so that ESD hits to user-accessible metal parts can be shunted around sensitive circuitry. Because a LONWORKS network connector is likely to be user-accessible, it is generally not possible to seal Series 5000 devices completely. However, the product’s package should be designed to minimize the possibility of an ESD hit arcing into the device’s circuit board. If the product's package is made of plastic, then the PCB should be supported within the package so that unprotected circuitry on the PCB is not adjacent to any seams in the package. The PCB should not touch the plastic of an enclosure near a seam, because a static discharge can creep along the surface of the plastic, through the seam, and arc onto the PCB. After an ESD hit arcs into the product, the current from the discharge flows through all possible paths back to Earth ground. The grounding of the PCB, and the protection of useraccessible circuitry, must allow these ESD return currents to flow back to Earth ground without disrupting normal circuit operation of the Series 5000 chip, its host microprocessor (if any), or other device circuitry. Generally, this means that you should ensure that the ESD currents are shunted to the center of a star ground configuration (as described in Achieving High Immunity on page 75), and then out to the product’s chassis or Earth ground connection. If the device floats with respect to Earth ground, the ESD current can return capacitively to Earth by the network wire, the power supply wires, and the PCB ground plane. Testing for ESD to comply with the EN 61000-4-2 ESD immunity test standard is performed on a metal test table using an ESD transient generator. Level 4 testing involves injecting up to ±8 kV contact discharges and up to ±15 kV air discharges into the product under test. Depending on the product design, you can inject the discharges at the network connector, power connector, or other user-accessible areas. During the test, the device should continue to operate normally, with occasional packet loss due to the ESD hits. Electromagnetic Interference The high-speed digital signals that are associated with microcontroller designs can generate unintentional electromagnetic interference (EMI). This interference is emitted by electrical circuits that carry rapidly changing signals that generate RF currents that can cause unwanted signals to be induced in other circuits. These unwanted signals can interrupt or degrade the effective performance of those other circuits. Products that use an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver or Neuron 5000 Processor will generally need to demonstrate compliance with EMI limits enforced by various regulatory agencies. In the USA, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires that industrial products comply with Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 15, Subpart A, and it requires that products which can be used in residential environments comply with Subpart 76 Design and Test for Electromagnetic Compatibility B. The European comité européen de normalisation electrotechnique6 (CENELEC) EN 55022 standard and the international comité international spécial des perturbations radioélectriques7 (CISPR) 22 standard both require similar compliance, and most countries throughout the world require compliance with similar regulations. A typical Series 5000 device has several digital I/O signals that switch in the kHz to MHz range. These signals generate voltage noise near the signal traces, and also generate current noise in the signal traces and power supply traces. The goal of good device design is to keep this voltage and current noise from coupling out of the product’s package. Thus, careful PCB layout can ensure that a Series 5000 device achieves the desired low level of EMI emissions. It is important to minimize the leakage capacitance from circuit traces in the device to any external pieces of metal near the device, because this capacitance provides a path for the digital noise to couple out of the product's package. Figure 31 shows the leakage capacitances to Earth ground from a device's logic ground (Cleak,GND) and from a digital signal line in the device (Cleak,SIGNAL). Floating Device on LonWorks Network U1 LonWorks Network VDD3V3 FT 5000 Smart Transceiver NETP NETN GND C decouple Node Logic Ground + V gate C load FT 5000 CHASSIS GND C leak,CHASSIS C leak,GND Leak Capacitances to Earth Ground C leak,SIGNAL Figure 31. Parasitic Leakage Capacitances to Earth Ground If the Series 5000 device is housed inside a metal chassis, that chassis likely has the largest leakage capacitance to other nearby pieces of metal. If the device is housed inside a plastic package, use PCB ground guarding to minimize Cleak,SIGNAL. Effective guarding of digital traces with logic ground reduces Cleak,SIGNAL significantly, which reduces the level of commonmode RF currents driven onto the network cable. For a device mounted near a piece of metal, especially metal that is Earth grounded, any leakage capacitance from fast signal lines to that external metal provides a path for RF currents to flow. When Vgate is pulled down to logic ground, the voltage of logic ground with respect to Earth ground increases slightly. When Vgate is pulled up to VDD33, logic ground is pushed down slightly with respect to Earth ground. 6 European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization 7 International Special Committee on Radio Interference Series 5000 Chip Data Book 77 As Cleak,SIGNAL increases, a larger current flows during Vgate transitions, and more commonmode RF current couples onto the network twisted pair. This common-mode RF current can generate EMI in the 30-500 MHz frequency range, well in excess of CFR Part 15 Subpart B or CISPR 22 Level B levels, even when the capacitance of Cleak,SIGNAL from a clock line to Earth ground is less than 1 pF. Thus, it is essential to guard clock lines (and keep them on the top side of the PCB, if possible) for meeting Subpart B limits. By using 0.1 μF or 0.01 μF decoupling capacitors at each digital IC power pin, you can reduce VDD33 and logic ground noise. You can then use logic ground as a ground shield for other noisy digital signals and clock lines. In addition, some amount of filtering might also be required on a Series 5000 device's power supply input, depending on the level of noise generated by the application circuitry. A good way to achieve this filtering is to place ferrite chokes in series with the power input traces adjacent to the power connector. Figure 32 shows a typical power supply circuit illustrating the placement of these ferrite chokes. 3-Terminal Voltage Regulator +3.3 V Output Local Power Connector Input IN OUT GND + Figure 32. Power Supply Input Filtering Using Ferrite Chokes Testing for EMI to comply with the CISPR 22 Radio Disturbance Characteristics test standard takes two forms: • Radiated EMI testing checks for RF noise that radiates from network and power cables (or from inside the device) • Conducted EMI testing checks for RF noise that radiates from the power supply connection to the AC mains Compliance with the CISPR 22 Class A standard is required for industrial products, and compliance with the Class B standard is required for products that can be used in residential environments. The following general rules and guidelines summarize EMI design considerations: • The faster the system clock speed for a Series 5000 device, the higher the level of EMI. • Better VDD3 decoupling quiets RF noise at the sources (the digital ICs), which lowers radiated EMI. • A four-layer PCB generates less EMI than a two-layer PCB because the extra layers provide better VDD3 decoupling and more effective logic ground guarding. Radiated and Conducted Immunity The EN 61000-4-3 RF Susceptibility and EN 61000-4-6 Conducted RF Immunity tests ensure that a device’s operation is not impaired by strong electromagnetic fields, such as those generated near cellular phones and portable radios. 78 Design and Test for Electromagnetic Compatibility The EN 61000-4-3 RF Susceptibility test is generally performed in an RF-shielded anechoic chamber with high-power transmitter-driven antennas aimed at the equipment under test (EUT). During the EN 61000-4-3 RF Susceptibility test, the RF signal generator is set to an amplitude modulation (AM) depth of 80% at 1 kHz, and the frequency is slowly swept from 30 MHz to 1 GHz. With this condition, there are three levels of testing: • Level 1 subjects the EUT to a 1 V/m field strength • Level 2, which represents a moderate electromagnetic radiation environment, subjects the EUT to a 3 V/m field strength • Level 3, which represents a severe electromagnetic radiation environment, subjects the EUT to a 10 V/m field strength During the EN 61000-4-6 Conducted RF Immunity test, the RF signal generator is set to an AM depth of 80% at 1 kHz, and the frequency is slowly swept from 150 kHz to 80 MHz. With this condition, there are three levels of testing: • Level 1 injects a common-mode voltage on the EUT’s network cable of 1 VRMS (5 VP-P including the 80% AM) • Level 2, which represents a light industrial environment, injects a common-mode voltage on the EUT’s network cable of 3 VRMS (15.3 VP-P including the 80% AM) • Level 3, which represents a harsh industrial environment, injects a common-mode voltage on the EUT’s network cable of 10 VRMS (50.9 VP-P including the 80% AM) For twisted-pair networks, the preferred test method is the Current Injection method, also called the Bulk Current Injection (BCI) method. A current clamp injects common-mode noise onto the twisted-pair communication cable, and both the auxiliary equipment and the EUT experience similar common-mode noise at their network connections. Even when this wiring passes through a coupling-decoupling network, the RF noise that is present during the test can disrupt wired communication between the auxiliary equipment and an external control PC. Thus, the auxiliary equipment should provide a visual indication of a pass/fail result during the test, rather than requiring a wired connection to a computer to monitor the result. Figure 33 on page 80 shows a typical setup for EN 61000-4-6 testing of a Series 5000 device with unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) network wire. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 79 Figure 33. Typical EN 61000-4-6 Test Setup for Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) Wires For the EN 61000-4-6 tests, the EUT is placed on a 10 cm high, non-conducting support on top of a metal ground plane. If the chassis of the EUT is connected to Earth ground in typical installations, for the test it should be connected directly to the metal ground plane with a short wire. If the EUT is left floating in normal use, there should be no connection between the EUT and Earth ground for the EN 61000-4-6 tests. Power connections for the auxiliary equipment and EUT should be routed through suitable decoupling devices, such as non-driven M3 “coupling-decoupling” network (CDN) devices. During the network immunity tests, any I/O lines that come out of the auxiliary equipment or the EUT should also pass through a decoupling network. The objective of the BCI current clamp is to drive the large common- mode noise signal into the network cable of the EUT. The M3 CDNs ensure that the power supply inputs to the auxiliary equipment and EUT are not an RF return path. For shielded twisted-pair (STP) networks, the BCI current clamp injects common-mode noise into the STP cable. The cable shield should be connected to Earth ground with a parallel resistor and capacitor as shown in Figure 34 on page 81. The resistor is generally 470 kΩ, 0.25 W, 5%. The capacitor is generally 0.1 μF, 10%, metal polyester, with a voltage rating of 100 VDC or higher. 80 Design and Test for Electromagnetic Compatibility Dressler Alpha 250 / 75W HP8656B SIGNAL GENERATOR 75W POWER AMP EMCO ATT 6 / 75 -6dB 75W PAD 50 AE POWER FCC CDN - M3 Termination AUXILIARY STP EQUIPMENT (AE) FCC BCI EQUIPMENT UNDER TEST (EUT) 50 EUT POWER FCC CDN - M3 GROUND PLANE GPIB TEST CONTROL COMPUTER FCC BCI - Fischer Custom Communications Bulk Current Injection Probe P/N F-120-9A FCC CDN M3 - Fischer Custom Communications Coupling De-Coupling Network P/N FCC-801-M3-16A Figure 34. Typical EN 61000-4-6 Test Setup for Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Wires Surge and Burst For the purposes of EMC testing, a surge is a transient overvoltage of several kV with a rise time that is measured in microseconds or nanoseconds, and with a duration that is measured in microseconds. Compared with fast transient bursts and ESD, surges are relatively slow, but also long lived. A surge is created by a switching event or insulation fault in the AC power distribution network, or by the switching of a reactive load (such as an electric motor). A surge can also be caused by lightning, but EN 61000-4-5 only indirectly addresses the effects of lightning. EN 61000-4-5 Surge testing is performed on a non-conducting table using specialized surge generation equipment. The surges are injected directly into the network wiring (in a common-mode fashion) or into the power supply cable through a coupling circuit. During the test, the device should continue to operate normally, with occasional packet loss due to the surges. There are three levels of network testing that are relevant to Series 5000 devices: • Level 2 conductively couples a ±1 kV surge into the network • Level 3 conductively couples a ±2 kV surge into the network • Level “X” conductively couples a user-defined surge voltage into the network For an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver, the following differential Surge test levels have been verified: • 2 kV Combo Wave with a source resistance of 2 Ω (per EN 61000-4-5) • 6 kV Combo Wave with a source resistance of 12 Ω (per EN 61000-4-5) Series 5000 Chip Data Book 81 • 6 kV Ring Wave with a source resistance of 12 Ω (per EN 61000-4-12) EN 61000-4-4 Burst testing of the network cable is performed on a non-conducting table, with 1 meter of the network cable clamped in a high-voltage burst generation apparatus. The test capacitively injects high voltage bursts of noise into the network cable. The test injects three bursts onto the network cable each second. During the test, the device should continue to operate normally, with occasional packet loss due to the bursts. There are two levels of network testing that are relevant to Series 5000 devices: • Level 3, which represents a typical industrial environment, injects ±1 kV bursts continuously for 60 seconds • Level 4 which represents a severe industrial environment, injects ±2 kV bursts continuously for 60 seconds In addition, burst testing is performed on the power supply input cable. For Series 5000 devices, the following levels of power supply input testing are relevant: • Level 3, which represents a typical industrial environment, injects ±2 kV bursts continuously for 60 seconds • Level 4 which represents a severe industrial environment, injects ±4 kV bursts continuously for 60 seconds Lightning Protection Protection against lightning is required when designing control networks that run outside of buildings. Building Entrance Protection Echelon recommends using shielded twisted-pair wire for all networks, or portions of networks, that are run outside of buildings or grounded structures. The shield, as well as the two network lines, should be connected to Earth ground through Data Line Lightning/Surge arresters at each building entry point. This connection conducts excessive energy surges or lightning strike energy directly to Earth and prevents their entry inside the building through the network shield or data line conductors. Therefore, three arresters should be used at each building entrance for shielded twisted-pair wiring. Network Line Protection The arresters used on the network data lines must be of the Gas Discharge type. The intrinsically low capacitance to ground of these devices, typically less than 5 pF, minimizes the corruption of any data signals. Due to their low capacitance construction, the use of Gas Discharge devices does not alter the maximum number of devices allowed per network segment. Important: MOV and TVS protection devices must not be used on the network data lines because of their much higher capacitance (>200 pF) and potentially poor differential capacitance matching. These devices can corrupt, and possibly prevent, network communication between devices. 82 Design and Test for Electromagnetic Compatibility Shield Protection Gas Discharge, MOV, or TVS devices can be used for the shield-to-ground protection. MOV and TVS devices should not be used to protect the network data lines. Suggested Gas Discharge Arresters Three-electrode device configurations are suggested for the data network lines, because they require the use of only one physical device to protect both lines. The network lines should be connected to the two outside ends of the arrester, while the middle terminal must be connected to a stable Earth ground. Alternatively, two each of two-electrode configurations can be used (contact manufacturer for details). Table 25 provides a list of three-electrode Gas Discharge device manufacturers. Table 25. Manufactures of Suggested Gas Discharge Arresters Vendor and Configuration Series Voltage Sankosha, 3 Electrode www.sankosha-usa.com/arresters.asp?id=2 3H or 3P 90 VDC Citel, 3 Electrode www.citelprotection.com/citel/gas_cover.htm BT, BTR, or BTS 90 VDC Littelfuse, 3 Electrode www.littelfuse.com/series/PMT8.html PMT8 90 VDC Figure 35 on page 84 shows a typical outdoor twisted pair network in which Gas Discharge arresters have been incorporated. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 83 Figure 35. Network and Shield Lightning Protection When the network data line extends outside of a building or grounded structure, every FT 5000 Smart Transceiver or Neuron 5000 Processor device on the network segment, whether located indoors or outdoors, must be equipped with surge protection circuitry. Additionally, protection devices must be added to the network at every point where the network cable exits the building or structure. Avoiding Magnetic Field Interference All transformer-based transceivers are vulnerable to stray magnetic fields that can interfere with the transformer coupling. In most environments, stray magnetic field noise is not a concern for FT 5000 Smart Transceivers or Neuron 5000 Processors with external transceivers. However, high frequency external magnetic fields can couple sufficient energy into the transceiver to cause erratic network performance or, in some cases, cause data traffic to cease. One possible source of stray magnetic fields is a DC-DC switching power supply, or regulator, using unshielded switching inductors located in close proximity to the transceiver. To minimize magnetic coupling into the transceiver, the switching magnetics of power supplies should be kept at least 7.5 cm (3 inches) from the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver or Neuron 5000 Processor with external transceiver. Otherwise, noise induced into the receiver could affect communications. If you suspect magnetic field interference, you should measure the level of noise at the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver or Neuron 5000 Processor with external transceiver. You can measure the noise induced by a switching power supply by using an oscilloscope with differential probes having at least 5 V common-mode range with 50 dB of common-mode rejection to measure the voltage between the Series 5000 chip’s NETP and NETN pins during an interval when there is no packet activity. You can also identify the source of the 84 Design and Test for Electromagnetic Compatibility magnetic noise by moving the suspected source away from the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver or Neuron 5000 Processor with external transceiver by connecting it to at least 15 cm twistedpair wires and monitoring the noise at the NETP and NETN pins. The noise between the NETP and NETN pins should be less than 15 mV peak-to-peak differential. For noise that is magnetically coupled from a switching power supply, the noise will be synchronous with the power supply switching frequency. The worst case occurs when the coupled noise is between 10 kHz and 300 kHz, the center of the network data communication band. If the noise is greater than 15 mV peak-to-peak, you should take steps to reduce the coupling effect. The easiest solution is to provide more distance between the power supply and the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver or Neuron 5000 Processor with external transceiver. For noisy power converters, shielded inductors can provide a solution to magnetic field interference. In the commonly used buck DC-DC converter, a shielded inductor can be used instead of an open-slug inductor to significantly lower the amount of stray magnetic field generated by the DC-DC converter. For example, Taiyo Yuden’s LHFP-series inductor can be used instead of their LHL-series, and TDK’s FS-series inductor can be used instead of their EL or ELF-series. In transformer-based DC-DC converters, the power supply designer should take care to choose a transformer style that generates minimum external stray magnetic fields. For example, a pot-core DC-DC transformer will generally produce less stray magnetic field than will an E-E core transformer, and the stray fields that it does generate are vertical when they go through the plane of the PCB. A common way to minimize magnetic fields emitted from power supply transformers is to wrap a “shortedturn” of copper tape around the transformer in the same direction as the transformer winding. In addition to power supplies, other noise sources can include DC motor controllers and industrial ovens or heaters. For these noise sources, shielding the emitting device is often the most effective approach to solving magnetic field interference problems. Summary and Testing Results Table 26 summarizes the results of the immunity and RF testing for a typical LONWORKS application. Table 26. Immunity and EMI Results Test FT 5000 Smart Transceiver Neuron 5000 Processor EN 61000-4-2 ESD 15 kV Air 8 kV Contact (Level 4) 15 kV Air 8 kV Contact (Level 4) EN 61000-4-3 Radiated RF 10 V/m (Level 3) 10 V/m (Level 3) EN 61000-4-4 Network Burst EN 61000-4-5 Network Surge 2 kV (Level 4) 2 kV (Level 3) 2 kV (Level 4) 2 kV (Level 3) Series 5000 Chip Data Book 85 Test EN 61000-4-6 Conducted RF CISPR 22 Radiated EMI CISPR 22 Conducted EMI FT 5000 Smart Transceiver 10 VRMS (Level 3) Level B Neuron 5000 Processor 10 VRMS (Level 3) Level B Level B Level B 86 Design and Test for Electromagnetic Compatibility 5 Network Cabling and Connections for FT Devices This chapter describes the network connections and cable types supported for FT devices. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 87 Network Connection For a TP/FT-10 channel, the network connection (from the NETP and NETN pins) is polarity insensitive. Therefore, either of the two twisted pair wires can be connected to either of these network connections. For any of the supported cable types, the average temperature of the wire must not exceed +55 °C, although individual segments of wire can be as hot as +85 °C. As a general rule, TP/FT-10 network channel communication cables should be separated from high voltage power cables. Follow local electrical codes with regard to cable placement. Network Topology Overview The TP/FT-10 network is designed to support free topology wiring, and can accommodate bus, star, loop, or any combination of these topologies. Series 5000 devices can be located at any point along the network wiring. This capability simplifies system installation, and makes it easy to add devices if the network needs to be expanded. Figure 36 through Figure 40 on page 90 present five different network topologies. The actual termination circuit varies by application. Figure 36. Singly Terminated Bus Topology Figure 37. Doubly Terminated Bus Topology 88 Network Cabling and Connections for FT Devices Figure 38. Star Topology Figure 39. Loop, or Ring, Topology Series 5000 Chip Data Book 89 Figure 40. Mixed Topology In the event that the limits for the number of transceivers or total wire distance are exceeded, then one FTT physical layer repeater (PLR) can be added to interconnect two segments and double the overall system capability. FTT-10A Transceivers are used to make physical layer repeaters. See the FTT-10A Free Topology Transceiver User’s Guide for more info on PLRs. System Performance and Cable Selection Echelon has qualified the following types of cable types for use with TP/FT-10 channels: • A generic American wire gauge (AWG) 16 (1.3 mm diameter) plenum-rated twistedpair cable (similar to Belden® 85102 2-conductor wire) • A generic American wire gauge (AWG) 16 (1.3 mm diameter) standard twisted-pair cable (similar to Belden 8471 1-Pair wire) • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Type 4 cable (this cable is not equivalent to TIA Category 4 cable) • AWG 24 (0.511 mm) ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2-2001 Category 5 twisted-pair wire • An EN 50441 telecommunications cable, such as J-Y(ST)Y Based on the cost, performance, and availability of these different cable types, system designers can choose the most appropriate cable for their application. Appendix B, Qualified TP/FT-10 Cable Specifications, on page 123, lists the electrical specifications for these cables. The Junction Box and Wiring Guidelines for Twisted Pair LONWORKS Networks engineering bulletin (005-0023-01) provides a list of cable vendors for each type of supported cable. This bulletin is available from the Echelon Web site (www.echelon.com). These cables have been qualified by Echelon in a generic form, and are available from vendors in a number of variations, including shielded, unshielded, plenum jacketing, and non-plenum jacketing. Additionally, Echelon has qualified two 16 AWG (1.3 mm) Belden cables, and one cable used in specific applications in the European market (type J-Y(ST)Y cable). TP/FT-10 channels must meet the system specifications and transmission specifications described in the following sections. When you create documentation and installation procedures for TP/FT-10 channels, be sure to include the TP/FT-10 system specifications and, 90 Network Cabling and Connections for FT Devices based upon the cable used, the appropriate transmission distance specifications. Incorporating these specifications can ensure a smoother installation, and provide a resource for the installer who must troubleshoot the installation. Note: The following specifications apply to a single network segment. You can combine multiple segments by using FTT-10A based physical layer repeaters to increase the number of devices and distance as described in the FTT-10A Free Topology Transceiver User’s Guide. System Specifications Each network segment can include up to 64 FT-X3 (or FT X1 or FT-X2) Transformers and FT Smart Transceivers. You can use LPT-11 transceivers on network segments with FTT-10A transceivers and FT Smart Transceivers, but they are subject to additional constraints, particularly on distance. See the LONWORKS LPT-11 Link Power Transceiver User's Guide for more information. The average temperature of the wire must not exceed +55°C, although individual segments of wire may be as hot as +85°C. As a general rule, the TP/FT-10 channel communication cables should be separated from high voltage power cables. Follow local electrical codes with regard to cable placement. Transmission Distance Specifications Table 27 and Table 28 list the transmission distance specifications for the supported cable types. Table 27. Doubly Terminated Bus Topology Specifications Cable Type Maximum Bus Length (Meters) Belden 85102 2700 Belden 8471 2700 NEMA Type 4, 22 AWG 1400 J-Y(ST)Y 2x2x0.8 900 ANSI/TIA/EIA Category 5 900 A doubly-terminated bus can have stubs of up to 3 meters from the bus to each device. Table 28. Free Topology Specifications Cable Type Maximum Device-to-Device Distance (Meters) Maximum Total Wire Length (Meters) Belden 85102 500 500 Belden 8471 400 500 NEMA Type 4, 22 AWG 400 500 Series 5000 Chip Data Book 91 Cable Type Maximum Device-to-Device Distance (Meters) Maximum Total Wire Length (Meters) J-Y(ST)Y 2x2x0.8 320 500 ANSI/TIA/EIA Category 5 250 450 The free topology transmission distance specification includes two components that must both be met for proper system operation. The distance from each transceiver to all other transceivers and to the termination (including the LPI-10 termination, if used) must not exceed the maximum device-to-device distance. If multiple paths exist, for example, in a loop topology, then the longest path should be used for calculations. The maximum total wire length is the total length of wire within a segment. Cable Termination and Shield Grounding TP/FT-10 network segments require termination for proper data transmission performance. The type of terminator varies depending on whether shielded or unshielded cable is used. Free Topology and bus topology networks also differ in their termination requirements. The following sections describe the various terminators and termination procedures. Free Topology Network Segment For a Free Topology segment, only one termination is required; it can be placed anywhere on the Free Topology segment. There are two choices for the termination: • RC circuit, with Ra = 52.3 Ω ±1%, 1/8 W • LPI-10 Link Power Interface, with jumper at the “1 CPLR” setting Figure 41 shows the RC circuit for twisted-pair termination. Doubly Terminated Bus Topology Segment For a doubly terminated bus topology, two terminations are required: one at each end of the bus. There are two choices for each termination: • RC circuit, with Ra = 105 Ω ±1%, 1/8 W • LPI-10 Link Power Interface, with jumper at the “2 CPLR” setting Only one LPI-10 interface is supported per segment. The LPI-10 contains the two required terminators. The other terminator must be an RC-type. Figure 41. Twisted-Pair Termination 92 Network Cabling and Connections for FT Devices Ca and Cb are typically aluminum-electrolytic type for improved longevity in the presence of ESD. Be sure to observe their polarity. Grounding Shielded Twisted Pair Cable When using shielded twisted-pair cable, terminate the twisted pair and ground the cable shield, as shown in Figure 42. Figure 42. Shielded Twisted-Pair Termination and Grounding Use the termination described in Free Topology Network Segment on page 92 or in Doubly Terminated Bus Topology Segment on page 92. The cable shield should be grounded using a capacitor to tie the shield to earth ground, and a large-value resistor to bleed off any static charge on the shield. Tie the shield to earth ground through a capacitor, instead of using a direct connection, to avoid DC and 50/60 Hz ground paths from being formed through the shield. Typical values for Rb and Cc are: • Cc = 0.1 μF, 10%, Metalized Polyester, ≥ 100V • Rb = 470 kΩ, 1/4 W, ±5% The cable shield should be grounded at least once per segment, and preferably at each device. Grounding the shield at every device assists in suppressing 50/60 Hz standing waves. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 93 6 Input/Output Interfaces for the Series 5000 This chapter provides an overview of the I/O models that are available for Series 5000 devices. See the I/O Model Reference for Smart Transceivers and Neuron Chips for more information about the available I/O models. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 95 Overview Echelon’s Neuron Chips and Smart Transceivers connect to application-specific external hardware through 11 or 12 I/O pins, named IO0-IO11. You can configure these pins to provide flexible input and output (I/O) functions with minimal external circuitry. These functions are described as I/O models. The Neuron C programming language allows the application programmer to declare I/O objects that use one or more I/O pins. An I/O object is a software instance of an I/O model, and provides programmable access to an I/O driver for a specified on-chip I/O hardware configuration and a specified input or output waveform definition. Programs can then refer to most of these objects through io_in() and io_out() system calls to perform the actual input or output function during execution of the program. Because events are associated with changes in input values, the task scheduler can execute associated application code when these changes occur. There are many different I/O models available for use with the Neuron Chips and Smart Transceivers. Most I/O models are available in system images by default. If an I/O model is required by an application, but is not included in the default system image, the development tool links the appropriate models into available memory space. For FT 3120, PL 3120, and PL 3170 Smart Transceiver designs, this linkage means that internal EEPROM space must be used for the additional model. For FT 3150 or PL 3150 Smart Transceiver designs, the model is added to an external flash or EEPROM region beyond the 16 KB space reserved for the system image. For Series 5000 device designs, the model is added to the application image. Series 5000 chips also support application-specific interrupts, which can trigger on either or both edges, or on either level, for any of the I/O pins, regardless of any associated I/O object. See the Neuron C Programmer’s Guide for more information about interrupts. See the I/O Model Reference for Smart Transceivers and Neuron Chips for more information about the available I/O models and how to use them. Two 16-Bit Timer/Counters Two classes of I/O model use internal timer/counters. The timer/counters are implemented as a register that is writable by the application processor, a 16-bit counter, and a latch that is readable by the processor. The 16-bit registers are accessed 1 byte at a time. Series 5000 chips have two timer/counters, as shown in Figure 43 on page 97: • Timer/Counter 1, with input that is selectable among pins IO4 – IO7 and output to pin IO0 • Timer/Counter 2, with input from pin IO4 and output to pin IO1 96 Input/Output Interfaces for the Series 5000 Figure 43. Timer/Counter Circuits No I/O pins are dedicated to timer/counter functions. If, for example, Timer/Counter 1 is used for input signals only, then IO0 is available for other input or output functions. Clock and enable inputs for the timer/counters can be from external pins, or from scaled clocks derived from the system clock. The clock rates of the two timer/counters are independent of each other. External clock actions occur optionally on the rising edge, the falling edge, or both edges of the input. Series 5000 chips also support up to one application-specific interrupt task per Timer/Counter unit. These interrupts are triggered by a condition selected through the choice of I/O object that uses the Timer/Counter unit; see the Neuron C Programmer’s Guide for more information about timer/counter interrupts. See the I/O Model Reference for Smart Transceivers and Neuron Chips for more information about how to use the timer/counters. Summary of the Available I/O Objects Many I/O models are available for Neuron Chips and Smart Transceivers. Certain I/O models are available only for specific chip types, but most are available to all Neuron Chips and Smart Transceivers. The I/O models are grouped into the following categories: • Direct I/O Models are based on a logic level at the I/O pins; none of the Neuron Chip or Smart Transceiver hardware's timer/counters are used in conjunction with these I/O models. These models can be used in multiple, overlapping combinations within the same Neuron Chip or Smart Transceiver. Direct I/O models include the following types: Input Model Types bit byte leveldetect nibble touch Output Model Types bit byte nibble touch • Timer/Counter I/O Models use a timer/counter circuit in the Neuron Chip or Smart Transceiver. Each Neuron Chip and each Smart Transceiver has two timer/counter Series 5000 Chip Data Book 97 circuits: One whose input can be multiplexed, and one with a dedicated input. Timer/counter I/O models include the following types: Input Model Types dualslope edgelog infrared ontime period pulsecount quadrature totalcount Output Model Types edgedivide frequency infrared_pattern oneshot pulsecount pulsewidth stretchedtriac triac triggeredcount • Serial I/O Models are used for transferring data serially over a pin or a set of pins. The neurowire, i2c, magcard, magcard_bitstream, magtrack1, and serial I/O models are mutually exclusive within a single Neuron Chip or Smart Transceiver. Both the input and output versions of a serial I/O model can coexist within a single Neuron Chip or Smart Transceiver. Serial I/O models include the following types: Serial Input Model Types bitshift magcard magcard_bitstream magtrack1 serial wiegand Serial Output Model Types bitshift serial Serial Input/Output Model Types i2c neurowire sci spi • Parallel I/O Models are used for high-speed bidirectional I/O. I/O models within this group use all of the Neuron Chip or Smart Transceiver I/O pins. The parallel I/O models include the following types: Parallel Input/Output Model Types muxbus parallel Table 29 through Table 33 on page 101 list the available I/O models within each category. Figure 44 on page 104 summarizes the pin configuration for each of the I/O models. A single device can use various I/O models of different types simultaneously. Table 29. Summary of the Direct I/O Models I/O Model Applicable I/O Pins Total Pins per Object Input/Output Value Bit Input1 IO0 – IO11 1 0, 1 binary data Bit Output1 IO0 – IO11 1 0, 1 binary data 98 Input/Output Interfaces for the Series 5000 I/O Model Applicable I/O Pins Total Pins per Object Input/Output Value Byte Input IO0 – IO7 8 0 – 255 binary data Byte Output IO0 – IO7 8 0 – 255 binary data Leveldetect Input IO0 – IO7 1 Logic 0 level detected Nibble Input Any adjacent four in 4 IO0 – IO7 0 – 15 binary data Nibble Output Any adjacent four in 4 IO0 – IO7 0 – 15 binary data Touch I/O IO0 – IO7 1 Up to 2048 bits of input or output bits Notes: 1. The IO11 pin is available only for the following device types: PL 3120-E4, PL 3150, PL 3170, FT 5000, and Neuron 5000. Table 30. Summary of the Parallel I/O Models I/O Model Applicable I/O Pins Total Pins per Object Input/Output Value Muxbus I/O IO0 – IO10 11 Parallel bidirectional port using multiplexed addressing Parallel I/O1 IO0 – IO11 12 Parallel bidirectional handshaking port Notes: 1. The IO11 pin is available only for the following device types: FT 5000 and Neuron 5000. I/O Model Bitshift Input Table 31. Summary of the Serial I/O Models Applicable I/O Pins Total Pins per Object Input/Output Value Any adjacent pair 2 (except IO7 + IO8 & IO10 + IO11) Up to 16 bits of clocked data Series 5000 Chip Data Book 99 I/O Model Applicable I/O Pins Total Pins per Object Input/Output Value Bitshift Output Any adjacent pair 2 (except IO7 + IO8 & IO10 + IO11) Up to 16 bits of clocked data I2C IO8 + IO9 or IO0 + 2 Up to 255 bytes of IO1 bidirectional serial data Magcard Bitstream IO8 + IO9 + (one of IO0 – IO7) 2 or 3 Unprocessed serial data stream from a magnetic card reader Magcard Input IO8 + IO9 + (one of IO0 – IO7) 2 or 3 Encoded ISO7811 track 2 data stream from a magnetic card reader Magtrack1 IO8 + IO9 + (one of IO0 – IO7) 2 or 3 Encoded ISO3554 track 1 data stream from a magnetic card reader Neurowire I/O IO8 + IO9 + IO10 + 4 (one of IO0 – IO7) Up to 256 bits of bidirectional serial data SCI (UART)1 IO8 + IO10 2 Up to 255 bytes input and 255 bytes output Serial Input IO8 1 8-bit characters Serial Output IO10 1 8-bit characters SPI IO8 + IO9 + IO10 + 3 or 4 Up to 255 byes of (IO7) bidirectional data Wiegand Input Any adjacent pair in 2 IO0 – IO7 Encoded data stream from Wiegand card reader Notes: 1. The SCI (UART) model is available only for the following device types: PL 3120-E4, PL 3150, PL 3170, FT 5000, and Neuron 5000. Table 32. Summary of the Timer/Counter Input Models I/O Model Applicable I/O Pins Total Pins per Object Input/Output Value Dualslope Input IO0, IO1 + (one of 2 IO4 – IO7) Comparator output of the dualslope converter logic 100 Input/Output Interfaces for the Series 5000 I/O Model Edgelog Input Infrared Input Ontime Input Period Input Pulsecount Input Quadrature Input Totalcount Input Applicable I/O Pins IO4 IO4 – IO7 Total Pins per Object 1 1 IO4 – IO7 1 IO4 – IO7 1 IO4 – IO7 1 IO4 + IO5, IO6 + IO7 2 IO4 – IO7 1 Input/Output Value A stream of input transitions Encoded data stream from an infrared demodulator Pulse width of 0.2 μs – 1.678 s Signal period of 0.2 μs – 1.678 s 0 – 65,535 input edges during 0.839 s ± 16,383 binary Gray code transitions 0 – 65,535 input edges Table 33. Summary of the Timer/Counter Output Models I/O Model Applicable I/O Pins Total Pins per Object Input/Output Value Edgedivide Output IO0, IO1 + (one of 2 IO4 – IO7) Output frequency is the input frequency divided by a userspecified number Frequency Output IO0, IO1 1 Square wave of 0.3 Hz to 2.5 MHz Infrared Pattern Output IO0, IO1 1 Series of timed repeating square wave output signals Oneshot Output IO0, IO1 1 Pulse of duration 0.2 μs to 1.678 s Pulsecount Output IO0, IO1 1 0 – 65,535 pulses Pulsewidth Output IO0, IO1 1 0 – 100% duty cycle pulse train Stretched Triac Output1 IO0, IO1 + (one of 2 IO4 – IO7) Delay of output pulse with respect to input edge Triac Output2 IO0, IO1 + (one of 2 IO4 – IO7) Delay of output pulse with respect to input edge Series 5000 Chip Data Book 101 I/O Model Applicable I/O Pins Total Pins per Object Input/Output Value TriggeredCount Output IO0, IO1 + (one of 2 IO4 – IO7) Output pulse controlled by counting input edges Notes: 1. The Stretched Triac Output model is available only for the following device types: FT 5000 and Neuron 5000. 2. Dual-edge triggering is not available for the following device types: Neuron 3150, FT 3150, or PL 3150. Neuron Chips and Smart Transceivers have two 16-bit timer/counters on-chip. The input to timer/counter 1, also called the multiplexed timer/counter, is selectable among pins IO4 – IO7, through a programmable multiplexer and its output can be connected to pin IO0. The input to timer/counter 2, also called the dedicated timer/counter, can be connected to pin IO4 and its output to pin IO1. The timer/counters are implemented as a 16-bit load register writable by the CPU, a 16-bit counter, and a 16-bit latch readable by the CPU. The load register and latch are accessed a byte at a time. No I/O pins are dedicated to timer/counter functions. If, for example, timer/counter 1 is used for input signals only, then IO0 is available for other input or output functions. Timer/counter clock and enable inputs can be from external pins, or from scaled clocks derived from the system clock; the clock rates of the two timer/counters are independent of each other. External clock actions occur optionally on the rising edge, the falling edge, or both rising and falling edges of the input. For Series 5000 devices, many of the timer/counter I/O models can also trigger interrupt tasks, which can provide minimum application latency for I/O events that are related to the timer/counter models. See the Neuron C Programmer’s Guide for more information about defining and using interrupts for Series 5000 devices. Multiple timer/counter input objects can be declared on different pins within a single application. By calling the io_select() function, the application can use the first timer/counter to implement up to four different input objects. If a timer/counter is configured to implement one of the output models, or is configured as a quadrature input object, then it can not be reassigned to another timer/counter object in the same application program. The following guidelines for declaring I/O object types apply to the I/O models shown in Figure 44 on page 104: • Up to 16 I/O objects can be declared. • Timer/counter 1 can be multiplexed for up to four input objects. • The neurowire, i2c, magcard, magcard_bitstream, magtrack1, and serial I/O models are mutually exclusive. One or more of a single type of these I/O models can be declared in one program. • Because the parallel and muxbus I/O models require all I/O pins for some Neuron Chips and Smart Transceivers, no other object types can be declared when either of these objects is declared. You can declare the IO11 pin as a bit input or output in addition to the parallel or muxbus object for the following device types: PL 3120-E4, PL 3150, or PL 3170. For Series 5000 devices, you can also declare the IO11 pin as a bit input or output in addition to the parallel (master or slave A mode) or muxbus object; the IO11 pin serves as an IRQ pin for the parallel (slave B mode) object. 102 Input/Output Interfaces for the Series 5000 • Direct I/O object types (such as bit, nibble, byte) can be declared in any combination. Timer/counter, serial, and neurowire I/O object declarations override the pin directions of any overlaying direct I/O object types. • The quadrature and dualslope input objects cannot be multiplexed with other input objects on timer/counter 1. The edgelog input uses both timer/counters and is exclusive of any other timer/counter objects. • The bitshift I/O objects cannot be declared on the same I/O pins as timer/counter objects. Direct I/O objects can be overlaid with bitshift I/O objects. Two adjacent bitshift I/O objects cannot share any I/O pins. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 103 Bit Input, Bit Output DIRECT I/O MODELS Byte Input, Byte Output Leveldetect Input Nibble Input, Nibble Output Touch I/O PARALLEL I/O MODELS Parallel I/O Muxbus I/O Master/Slave A Slave B Bitshift Input, Bitshift Output I2C I/O Magcard Bitstream Magcard Input Magtrack1 Input SERIAL I/O MODELS Neurowire I/O Master Slave SCI (UART) Serial Input Serial Output SPI Wiegand Input Dualslope Input Edgelog Input Infrared Input TIMER/COUNTER INPUT MODELS Ontime Input Period Input Pulsecount Input Quadrature Input Totalcount Input Edgedivide Output Frequency Output Infrared Pattern Output TIMER/COUNTER OUTPUT MODELS Oneshot Output Pulsecount Output Pulsewidth Output Stretched Triac Output Triac Output Triggered-Count Output I/O Pin 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Any Pin All Pins 0 – 7 Any Pin 0 – 7 Any Four Adjacent Pins Data Pins 0 – 7 ALS WS RS Data Pins 0 – 7 Data Pins 0 – 7 CS R/W HS CS R/W A0 IRQ CDCDCDCDCDC CD CD Optional Timeout CD Optional Timeout Optional Timeout CD CD Optional Chip Select CDD Optional Timeout CDD Any Two Pins (Optional Timeout) Control 4+5 6+7 Sync Input Control Sync Input Control Sync Input Control Sync Input 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 High Sink Pull Ups Standard Notes: The I/O 11 pin is only available for the following device types: PL 3120, PL 3150, PL 3170, and Series 5000 devices The high sinks and pull-ups apply only to Series 3100 devices The Infrared Pattern, Magcard Bitstream, SCI (UART), and SPI I/O models are only available for the following device types: PL 3120, PL 3150, PL 3170, and Series 5000 devices The Stretched Triac I/O model is only available for Series 5000 devices Legend: ALS = Address Latch Strobe WS = Write Strobe RS = Read Strobe CS = Chip Select R/W = Read/Write HS = Handshake A0 = Address 0 IRQ = Interrupt Request C = Clock D = Data Timer/Counter 1 Devices: One of the following: IO_4 input edgelog IO_6 input quadrature IO_0 output [ frequency | infrared_pattern | oneshot | pulsecount | pulsewidth ] IO_0 output [ edgedivide | stretchedtriac | triac | triggeredcount ] sync(IO_4..IO_7) Or up to 4 of the following: IO_4 input [ dualslope | infrared | ontime | period | pulsecount | totalcount ] mux IO_5..IO_7 input [ dualslope | infrared | ontime | period | pulsecount | totalcount ] Timer/Counter 2 Devices: One of the following: IO_4 input edgelog IO_4 input quadrature IO_4 input [ dualslope | infrared | ontime | period | pulsecount | totalcount ] ded IO_1 output [ frequency | infrared_pattern | oneshot | pulsecount | pulsewidth ] IO_1 output [ edgedivide | stretchedtriac | triac | triggeredcount ] sync(IO_4) Pull Up Figure 44. Pin Configuration Summary for the I/O Models 104 Input/Output Interfaces for the Series 5000 Example: The following I/O object types can be combined for a Neuron Chip or Smart Transceiver: • 1 parallel I/O object type (on IO_0..IO10) OR • 1 muxbus I/O object type (on IO_0..IO10) OR • A combination of any or all of the other I/O models A through E shown in Table 34: Table 34. Example I/O Model Combinations A B C D E 1 to 4 timer/counter inputs (multiplexed on IO_4, IO_5, IO_6, IO_7), including quadrature input on IO_6 1 timer/counter input (on IO_4), including quadrature input on IO_4 1 neurowire I/O object (on IO_8, IO_9, IO_10) and 1 of IO_0 ... IO_7 Any direct I/O object type on any pin (IO_0 through IO_10) A bit I/O object on IO_11 OR OR OR 1 timer/counter 1 timer/counter 1 serial I/O output (on IO_0) output (on IO_1) object type (on IO_8, IO_10) Hardware Considerations For a description of the electrical characteristics of the I/O pins, see Characteristics of the Digital I/O Pins on page 40 or the appropriate Series 3100 or Series 5000 device data sheet. Pins that are configured as outputs can also be read as inputs, returning the value that was last written to the pin. In addition, an application program can optionally specify the initial values of digital outputs. For Series 3100 devices, pins IO4 – IO7 and IO11 have optional pull-up current sources that act as pull-up resistors. You use a Neuron C compiler directive (#pragma enable_io_pullups) to enable these pull-ups. Also for Series 3100 devices, pins IO0 – IO3 have high current-sink capability (20 mA); the other pins have standard current-sink capability. For Series 3100 FT Smart Transceivers, the I/O pull-ups are enabled during the stack initialization and built-in self-test (BIST) task (see the FT 3120 / FT 3150 Smart Transceiver Data Book for more information about the stack initialization and BIST task). However, for Series 3100 PL Smart Transceivers, the I/O pull-ups are not enabled during the stack initialization and BIST task. Recommendation: For Series 3100 PL Smart Transceivers (especially for devices with energy storage power supplies), you must ensure that I/O pins that are not used by the application Series 5000 Chip Data Book 105 are tied high or low on the PC board, or are left unconnected and configured as a bit output by the application in order to prevent unnecessary power consumption. See the PL 3120 / PL 3150 / PL 3170 Power Line Smart Transceiver Data Book for more information. For Series 5000 devices, the I/O pins do not have configurable pull-ups or high current-sink capability. If your I/O circuitry requires pull-up resistors, you must add them to the hardware design for the device. The I/O pins on a Series 5000 device have an 8 mA current source and sink capability. If your I/O circuitry has higher current requirements, you can add external driver circuitry (for example, using a Fairchild Semiconductor® 74AC245/74ACT245 Octal Bidirectional Transceiver or 74VHC245/74VHCT245 Octal Buffer/Line Driver). In addition, the Series 5000 device pins are all 3.3 V pins: the input pins are 5 V tolerant, and the output pins are CMOS compatible. Series 3100 device pins are all 5 V pins. For both Series 3100 and Series 5000 devices, pins IO0 – IO7 have low-level detect latches. Because the I/O pins are controlled by system firmware, the timing for reading or writing an I/O pin includes latency that can vary by I/O model and even vary by I/O pin. All inputs are software sampled during processing for the Neuron C when statement. In general, the latency scales inversely with the system clock rate. To maintain and provide consistent behavior for external events, and to prevent setup and hold metastability, all I/O pins, when configured as simple inputs, are passed through a hardware synchronization block, shown in Figure 45, that is sampled by the internal system clock. Figure 45. Synchronization Block I/O pins used for other functions do not have this synchronization requirement. For Series 3100 devices, the sample rate is always the input clock divided by two (for example, for a 10 MHz input clock, the sample rate is 5 MHz). For a signal to be reliably synchronized with a 10 MHz input clock, it must be at least 220 ns in duration; see Figure 46. tsetup 20 ns IO0-IO11 Inputs (220 ns pulse) thold 0 ns Internal System Clock (XIN Input Clock 10 MHz divided by 2) Figure 46. Synchronization of External Signals for Series 3100 Devices For Series 5000 devices, the sample rate is equivalent to the system clock rate. For a signal to be reliably synchronized with an 80 MHz system clock, it must be at least 17.5 ns in duration; see Figure 47 on page 107. 106 Input/Output Interfaces for the Series 5000 tsetup 5 ns IO0-IO11 Inputs (17.5 ns pulse) thold 0 ns 80 MHz System Clock Figure 47. Synchronization of External Signals for Series 5000 Devices Any event that lasts longer than 220 ns (for a Series 3100 device at 10 MHz) or 17.5 ns (for a Series 5000 device at 80 MHz) is synchronized by hardware, but there can be latency in software sampling, which can result in a delay in detecting the event. If the state changes at a faster rate than software sampling can process, the interim changes are not detected. The following exceptions apply to the use of the synchronization block: • The chip select (CS~) input used in the slave B mode of the parallel I/O object recognizes rising edges asynchronously. • The leveldetect input is latched by a flip-flop with a 200 ns clock (for Series 3100 devices) or a 12.5 ns clock (for Series 5000 devices). The level detect transition event is latched, but there is a delay in software detection. • The SCI (UART) and SPI objects are buffered on byte boundaries by the hardware, and are transferred to memory using an interrupt. • Events on the I/O pins for the input timer/counter functions are accurately measured, and a value returned to a register, regardless of the state of the application or interrupt processor within the Neuron Chip or Smart Transceiver. However, the application processor can be delayed in reading the register. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 107 7 Programming Considerations This chapter describes software tools for creating applications that run on Series 5000 devices. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 109 Application Program Development You can perform initial development and test for Neuron C applications using the Mini FX Evaluation Kit or the NodeBuilder FX Development Tool. You can also perform application debugging using the NodeBuilder Development Tool. See the Mini FX User’s Guide and the NodeBuilder FX User’s Guide for detailed instructions on developing, testing, and debugging applications. For initial device development, you should use the FT 5000 EVB Evaluation Boards that are included with the Mini FX/FT Evaluation Kit or the NodeBuilder FX/FT Development Tool. These boards include sample applications that demonstrate simple Neuron C applications for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver. See the FT 5000 EVB Hardware Guide for more information about the FT 5000 EVB Evaluation Boards. Mini FX Evaluation Kit Echelon’s Mini FX Evaluation Kit is a tool for evaluating the development of control network applications with the ISO/IEC 14908 (ANSI/CEA-709.1 and EN14908) Control Network Protocol. You can use the Mini FX Evaluation Kit to develop a prototype or production control system that requires networking, particularly in the rapidly growing, price-sensitive mass markets of smart light switches, thermostats, and other simple devices and sensors. You can also use the Mini FX Evaluation Kit to evaluate the development of applications for such control networks using the LONWORKS platform. The Mini FX Evaluation Kit (or later) is required to build applications for Series 5000 devices. For more information about using the Mini FX Evaluation Kit, see the Mini FX/FT Quick Start and the Mini FX User’s Guide. NodeBuilder FX Development Tool The NodeBuilder FX Development Tool is a hardware and software platform that is used to develop applications for Neuron Chips and Echelon Smart Transceivers. The NodeBuilder tool enables you to do the following tasks: • View standard resource file definitions for SNVTs, SCPTs, and standard functional profiles. • Create your own resource files with your UNVTs, UCPTs, and user functional profiles. • Automatically generate Neuron C code that implements your device interface. • Edit your Neuron C code to implement your device functionality. • Compile and build your application, and download it to an FT 5000 EVB Evaluation Board or to your own devices. • Test with prototype I/O hardware on the FT 5000 EVB Evaluation Board, use the FT 5000 EVB to prototype and test your own I/O hardware, or use your own custom device. • Install your device into a LONWORKS network and test your device interoperating with other LONWORKS devices. • Use the LNS Plug-in Framework to develop an LNS plug-in for your device. 110 Programming Considerations • Test your LNS plug-in with the LonMaker Integration Tool to ensure that your device is easy to configure and install. The NodeBuilder FX Development Tool (or later) is required to build applications for Series 5000 devices. For more information about using the NodeBuilder FX Development Tool, see the NodeBuilder FX/FT Quick Start and the NodeBuilder FX User’s Guide. Development Hardware Setup You configure the NodeBuilder Development Tool to use the TP/FT-10 channel by using an LNS compatible network interface with a TP/FT-10 connection. For initial device development, use the FT 5000 Evaluation Board (BFT5000) device template to target the FT 5000 EVB Evaluation Board for the development environment or as the base template for your Series 5000 device. By default, the hardware template for the FT 5000 EVB platform uses an 80 MHz system clock. You can choose any of the available system clock rates for your device. See the NodeBuilder FX User’s Guide for more information. The NodeBuilder Device Template wizard runs during the creation of a new device template. This wizard provides an opportunity to select predefined hardware templates. At a later point in the development process, you can access the hardware template through the Development and Release folders of the project pane. During initial device development, use the FT 5000 Evaluation Board hardware template. If this template was not selected in the NodeBuilder Device Template Wizard, you can access it by dragging the FT 5000 Evaluation Board icon from the Standard Templates folder located in the Hardware Templates folder to the device template Development folder for the device. Release Hardware Setup After you have developed, tested, and debugged the application on the FT 5000 EVB Evaluation Board, you must create a hardware template to match the final target hardware. The NodeBuilder Development Tool does not include predefined hardware templates for general Series 5000 devices; you can use the FT 5000 Evaluation Board device template as a basis for any custom Neuron 5000 Processor or FT 5000 Smart Transceiver device. During the initial process of creating a device in the NodeBuilder Development Tool, select this template in the NodeBuilder Device Template wizard. To access the template later, drag the FT 5000 Evaluation Board icon from Standard Templates folder into the Release folder for the device. After you place the standard template icon in the User Templates folder, the NodeBuilder Hardware Template Properties window opens with the values of the selected standard template. Change the template's name and modify the template properties as follows: • From the Hardware tab: o Specify the type of Series 5000 device (Neuron 5000 Processor or FT 5000 Smart Transceiver) from the Neuron chip model dropdown list box. o Specify the clock multiplier value from the Clock multiplier dropdown list box. This multiplier value specifies the system clock rate for the device. • From the Memory tab: o Specify the starting and ending addresses for the non-volatile memory (external EEPROM and optional flash) in the Extended non-volatile fields. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 111 Remember to subtract 2 KB (0x800) from the total memory size to account for the mandatory EEPROM memory. o Specify the remaining memory for the RAM in the Extended on-chip RAM fields. o Example: For a 32K EEPROM part, specify the starting address for the Extended non-volatile as 0x4000 and the ending address as 0xB7FF. Specify the starting address for the Extended on-chip RAM as 0xB800 (the ending address is always 0xE7FF). Thus, 30 KB of the EEPROM is shadowed to RAM, and the application has 12 KB for general RAM. After you create the hardware template, drag the new hardware template to the device. Drag the newly created icon in the User Templates folder to the Release folder of the device template to complete the procedure. You can update the user-defined hardware template at any time by double-clicking the template icon. Your new changes affect any projects opened and compiled using this template. A Build All might be required if you change a hardware template without making any other changes. 112 Programming Considerations A Series 5000 Design Checklists This appendix includes a set of checklists, including chip connections, power supplies, PCB layout, and network cabling. These checklists help you ensure that products that you design for the Series 5000 chip meet the specifications described in this manual. You can copy and freely distribute the contents of this appendix. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 113 Checklist 1: Series 5000 Chip Connections This checklist applies to all Series 5000 chips, including FT 5000 Smart Transceivers and Neuron 5000 Processors. Check When Complete Item Description CC1 The VDD3V3 pins (8, 18, 29, 30, 41, and 42) are connected to VDD3 (+3.3 V), as described in Pin Connections on page 36. CC2 The VDD1V8 pins (6, 16, and 44) are connected to the VOUT1V8 pin (27), as described in Pin Connections on page 36. CC3 The AVDD3V3 pin (31) are connected to analog VDD3 (if separate from digital VDD3) or to +3.3 V, as described in Pin Connections on page 36. CC4 The chip’s pad (pin 49) is connected to logic ground, as described in Pin Connections on page 36. CC5 The AGND pin (33) is connected to analog ground (if separate from logic ground) or to logic ground, as described in Pin Connections on page 36. CC6 Decoupling capacitors are placed between VDD3 and ground (0.1 μF 10% 16V X7R) for pins 6, 8, 16, 18, 27, 29, 30, 31, 41, and 44. Each capacitor is placed directly adjacent to a VDD3 pin, on the top layer of the PCB, with a short connection to ground, as described in Pin Connections on page 36. CC7 An additional decoupling capacitor is placed between VDD3 and ground (0.1 μF 10% 6.3V X7R) for the VOUT1V8 pin (27). The capacitor is placed directly adjacent to the VOUT1V8 pin, on the top layer of the PCB, with a short connection to ground, as described in Pin Connections on page 36. CC8 Unused I/O pins are pulled up to VDD3, or pulled down to ground, with a 10 kΩ resistor. CC9 The crystal or oscillator is connected to the XIN and XOUT pins (23 and 24), is 10 MHz, is 18 pF parallel resonant, and meets the accuracy requirements described in Clock Requirements on page 56. CC10 Capacitors (30 pF 5% 50V NPO) are placed at the XIN and XOUT pins (23 and 24), as described in Clock Requirements on page 56. Each capacitor is placed directly adjacent to the XIN and XOUT pins, on the top layer of the PCB, with a short connection to ground. 114 Series 5000 Design Checklists Check When Complete Item CC11 CC12 CC13 CC14 CC15 CC16 CC17 CC18 Description A feedback resistor (1 MΩ) is added across the XIN and XOUT pins (23 and 24), as described in Clock Requirements on page 56. A series resistor (200 Ω) is added at the XOUT pin (24), as described in Clock Requirements on page 56. Other than the crystal, the capacitors, series resistor, and the feedback resistor, there are no other connections to the XIN or XOUT pins. The VDDPLL pin (25) is connected to the VOUT1V8 pin (27) with an associated chip ferrite bead, as described in Pin Connections on page 36. The GNDPLL pin (26) is connected to GND with an associated chip ferrite bead, as described in Pin Connections on page 36. Stabilizing capacitors (0.01 μF 10% 50V X7R and 0.1 μF 10% 16V X7R) are added across the PLL pins (pins 25 and 26), as described in Pin Connections on page 36. Each capacitor is placed directly adjacent to the PLL pins, on the top layer of the PCB. The connections for the external memory parts meet the requirements specified in External Serial Memory Interface on page 24. The JTAG TCK pin (19) includes a pullup resistor (4.99 kΩ) to VDD3, as described in Pin Connections on page 36. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 115 Checklist 2: FT 5000 Smart Transceiver Connections This checklist applies to FT 5000 Smart Transceivers. Check When Complete Item Description FC1 All items in Checklist 1: Series 5000 Chip Connections on page 114 are complete. FC2 Environmental and electrical specifications are met, as described in the FT 5000 Free Topology Smart Transceiver data sheet. FC3 The FT-X3 Communications Transformer pins are connected as specified in Transformer Electrical Connections on page 131. FC4 The FT 5000 Smart Transceiver and the FT-X3 Communications Transformer are placed adjacent to one another on the same PCB. FC5 The connections for the NETP and NETN pins (34 and 32) match the requirements specified in Connection for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver on page 51. FC6 The CP4 pin (39) is connected to VDD3 with a 4.99 kΩ pullup resistor, as shown in Connection for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver on page 51. 116 Series 5000 Design Checklists Checklist 3: Neuron 5000 Processor Connections This checklist applies to Neuron 5000 Processors. Check When Complete Item Description NC1 All items in Checklist 1: Series 5000 Chip Connections on page 114 are complete. NC2 Environmental and electrical specifications are met, as described in the Neuron 5000 Processor data sheet. NC3 The connections for the CP0..CP4 pins (32, 34, 37, 38, and 39) match the requirements specified in Connection for a Neuron 5000 Processor on page 54. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 117 Checklist 4: Power Supply This checklist applies to all Series 5000 chips, including FT 5000 Smart Transceivers and Neuron 5000 Processors. Check When Complete Item Description PS1 VDD3 = 3.3V ± 0.3V over the full device temperature range and device application current range (including any ripple). PS2 Any ripple on VDD3 is ≤ 50 mVp-p, measured with a 20 MHz bandwidth. PS3 For host-based devices (FTXL or ShortStack devices), the rise time of VDD3 at power-up meets the requirements of the host microprocessor (see the appropriate host microprocessor data sheet – the maximum allowable risetime is often listed). 118 Series 5000 Design Checklists Checklist 5: Device PCB Layout This checklist applies to all Series 5000 chips, including FT 5000 Smart Transceivers and Neuron 5000 Processors. Check When Complete Item Description LO1 Your design incorporates a “star ground” layout design, with the network connector, coupling circuit, power supply input, and externally-accessible I/Os all grouped near each other along one edge (or two adjacent edges) of the PCB. LO2 If your device has a metal enclosure, the enclosure is tied to the center of the star ground through a low inductance connection (optionally with a low-inductance DC blocking capacitor in series). LO3 For 4-layer PCBs, the internal ground plane is used to connect the center of the star ground out to the ground connections of the other functional blocks. For 2-layer PCBs, ground pours on the bottom and top layers are used to connect the center of the star ground out to the ground connections of the other functional blocks. LO5 For FT 5000 Smart Transceiver devices, the ESD keepout area shown in Figure 30 on page 72 has no traces or planes in the area shown, except for the connections from the NETA and NETB traces through the coupling capacitors and into the communication transformer. LO6 There is a low-inductance ground path from the Series 5000 chip back to the center of the star ground, to ensure that ESD and surge transients clamped inside the Series 5000 chip have a good return path back off of the PCB without going through any sensitive circuitry. LO7 If the device has a host microprocessor or any other digital circuitry that could generate RF noise, that circuitry is kept away from the network cable, power cable, and any I/O cables. LO8 The leakage capacitance to external metal surfaces from high frequency circuit traces is controlled with guard traces. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 119 Checklist 6: Network Cabling and Termination This checklist applies to FT 5000 Smart Transceivers. Check When Complete Item Description NT1 The LONWORKS network uses one of the approved wire types described in Chapter 5, Network Cabling and Connections for FT Devices, on page 87. NT2 The LONWORKS network uses the appropriate termination, as described in Cable Termination and Shield Grounding on page 92. 120 Series 5000 Design Checklists Checklist 7: Device Programming This checklist applies to all Series 5000 chips, including FT 5000 Smart Transceivers and Neuron 5000 Processors. Check When Complete Item Description PG1 For FT 5000 Smart Transceivers, TP/FT-10 is used as the channel definition in the development tool. For Neuron 5000 Processors, the appropriate channel type is specified. PG2 The device’s hardware template defines the appropriate clock multiplier for the Series 5000 chip’s PLL to specify the system clock rate. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 121 B Qualified TP/FT-10 Cable Specifications This appendix describes generic cable specifications for cables that Echelon has qualified to work with TP/FT-10 channels. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 123 Introduction This appendix documents generic cable specifications for cables that Echelon has qualified to work with TP/FT-10 channels. Specific vendors and their cables are cited only to highlight the variety of cable types available that meet these generic specifications; other vendors may also meet the required specifications. Qualified Cables Echelon has qualified five cable types that are available from a variety of different vendors. Table 35 describes these cables. Table 35. Qualified Cables Cable Type AWG Diameter Comment TIA 568A Category 5 24 AWG cable 0.5 mm Widely available, and can be found as part of structured cabling systems, such as the CommScope® Inc. Systimax® Structured Connectivity Solutions (originally developed by AT&T® Bell Laboratories). NEMA Type 4 cable 16 AWG Belden 8471 cable 16 AWG Belden 85102 cable 22 AWG 1.3 mm 1.3 mm 0.65 mm Available with a broad range of options, including stranded or solid, 1 or 2 pairs per cable, shielded or unshielded, and plenum or PVC. See also NEMA Type 4 Cable Specifications on page 125. See 16 AWG (1.3 mm) “Generic” Cable Specifications on page 127. See 16 AWG (1.3 mm) “Generic” Cable Specifications on page 127. J-Y(ST)Y 2x2x0.8 cable 20.4 AWG 0.8 mm Available only in Europe. See the Junction Box and Wiring Guidelines for Twisted Pair LONWORKS Networks engineering bulletin (005-0023-01) for more information. 124 Qualified TP/FT-10 Cable Specifications Notes: • AWG: American wire gauge. See ASTM B258 - 02(2008) Standard Specification for Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of AWG Sizes of Solid Round Wires Used as Electrical Conductors (www.astm.org/Standards/B258.htm) for a definition of the wire gauges. • NEMA: National Electrical Manufacturers Association. www.nema.org • TIA: Telecommunications Industry Association. www.tiaonline.org The Junction Box and Wiring Guidelines for Twisted Pair LONWORKS Networks engineering bulletin (005-0023-01) provides a list of cable vendors for each cable type. This document is available from the Echelon website (www.echelon.com). Category 5 Cable Specifications The specification for the Telecommunications Industry Association Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard (ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A-95) is available from Information Handling Services (IHS) at global.ihs.com. NEMA Type 4 Cable Specifications The Type 4 cable specification used by Echelon, and as originally defined by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), differs from the Category IV specification proposed by the Electronic Industries Association/Telecommunication Industry Association (EIA/TIA). Table 36 through Table 39 on page 127 list the Type 4 cable specifications. In the tables, specifications apply to shielded or unshielded 22 AWG (0.65 mm) cable, unless listed otherwise. Table 36. General Specifications Specification Value DC Resistance (ohms per 1000 feet at 20 °C) maximum for a single copper conductor regardless of whether it is solid or stranded and is or is not metal-coated 18 [for 22 AWG (0.65 mm) cable] 28.6 [for 24 AWG (0.5 mm) cable] DC Resistance Unbalance (percent) 5 maximum Mutual Capacitance of a Pair (pF/foot) maximum Pair-to-Ground Capacitance Unbalance (pF/1000 feet) maximum 17 1000 Series 5000 Chip Data Book 125 Frequency 772 kHz 1.0 MHz 4.0 MHz 8.0 MHz 10.0 MHz 16.0 MHz 20.0 MHz Table 37. Impedance Characteristics Impedance (Ohms) 102 ±15% (87-117) 100 ±15% (85-115) 100 ±15% (85-115) 100 ±15% (85-115) 100 ±15% (85-115) 100 ±15% (85-115) 100 ±15% (85-115) Frequency 772 kHz 1.0 MHz 4.0 MHz 8.0 MHz 10.0 MHz 16.0 MHz 20.0 MHz Table 38. Attenuation (dB per 1000 feet at 20 °C) Maximums Attenuation (dB per 1000 feet at 20 °C) 4.5 [for 22 AWG (0.65 mm) cable] 5.7 [for 24 AWG (0.5 mm) cable] 5.5 [for 22 AWG (0.65 mm) cable] 6.5 [for 24 AWG (0.5 mm) cable] 11.0 [for 22 AWG (0.65 mm) cable] 13.0 [for 24 AWG (0.5 mm) cable] 15.0 [for 22 AWG (0.65 mm) cable] 19.0 [for 24 AWG (0.5 mm) cable] 17.0 [for 22 AWG (0.65 mm) cable] 22.0 [for 24 AWG (0.5 mm) cable] 22.0 [for 22 AWG (0.65 mm) cable] 27.0 [for 24 AWG (0.5 mm) cable] 24.0 [for 22 AWG (0.65 mm) cable] 31.0 [for 24 AWG (0.5 mm) cable] 126 Qualified TP/FT-10 Cable Specifications Specification Table 39. Worst-Pair Near-End Crosstalk (dB) Minimums Value (dB) 772 kHz 58 1.0 MHz 56 4.0 MHz 47 8.0 MHz 42 10.0 MHz 41 16.0 MHz 38 20.0 MHz 36 Values in Table 39 are shown for informational use only. The minimum near-end cross talk (NEXT) coupling loss for any pair combination at room temperature is to be greater than the value determined using the following formula for all frequencies in the range of 0.772 MHz to 20 MHz for a length of 1000 feet (305 m): NEXT (FMHz) > NEXT (0.772) − 15 * log⎜⎛ FMHz ⎟⎞ ⎝ 0.772 ⎠ 16 AWG (1.3 mm) “Generic” Cable Specifications Table 40 and Table 41 on page 128 describe the specifications for the 16 AWG (1.3 mm) generic cable qualified by Echelon for use with TP/FT-10 networks. The generic single twisted pair is stranded (19 x 29) with tinned copper. The conditions listed in the tables are specified according to ASTM D4566 - 05e1 Standard Test Methods for Electrical Performance Properties of Insulations and Jackets for Telecommunications Wire and Cable (www.astm.org/Standards/D4566.htm). Table 40. General Specifications Specification Minimum Typical Maximum Condition DC resistance, 14.0 14.7 15.5 Ω/km 20 ºC each conductor DC resistance, — — 5% 20 ºC unbalance Mutual — — 55.9 nF/km — capacitance Characteristic 92 impedance 100 108 64 kHz to 1 MHz Series 5000 Chip Data Book 127 Table 41. Attenuation and Propagation Delay Characteristics Characteristic Maximum Condition Attenuation 20 kHz 64 kHz 78 kHz 156 kHz 256 kHz 512 kHz 772 kHz 1000 kHz 1.3 dB/km 1.9 dB/km 2.2 dB/km 3.0 dB/km 4.8 dB/km 8.1 dB/km 11.3 dB/km 13.7 dB/km 20 ºC Propagation delay 5.6 ns/m 78 kHz 128 Qualified TP/FT-10 Cable Specifications C FT-X3 Communications Transformer This appendix describes the FT-X3 Communications Transformer, including its pinout, electrical connections, and pad layout. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 129 Transformer Pinout Figure 48 shows the pinout for the FT-X3 Communications Transformer. Table 42 lists the pin assignments for the FT-X3 Communications Transformer. Name NETP CTP2 CTS1 NETA CTP1 NETN NETB CTS2 Figure 48. FT-X3 Communications Transformer Pinout Diagram Table 42. FT-X3 Communications Transformer Pin Assignments Pin Number Type Description 1 Input NETP connection from FT 5000 Smart Transceiver 2 Ground Center tap primary 2 3 Output Center tap secondary 1 4 Ground NETA connection to LONWORKS network 5 Ground Center tap primary 1 6 Input NETN connection from FT 5000 Smart Transceiver 7 Ground NETB connection to LONWORKS network 8 Output Center tap secondary 2 130 FT-X3 Communications Transformer Transformer Electrical Connections Figure 49 shows the electrical connections for the FT-X3 Communications Transformer. The NETP and NETN signals represent connections to the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver NETP and NETN pins (32 and 34). The NETB and NETA ports represent the connections to the LONWORKS network, as shown in Figure 50 on page 132. 1 VDD33 C3 0.1uF VDD33 VDD33 2 2 2 D1B BAV99 D2B BAV99 3 3 NETP T1 1 4 NETA 2 3 5 8 NETN 3 3 D1A BAV99 D2A BAV99 1 6 C1 100pF 50V 7 FT-X3 1 C2 100pF 1000V NETB 2 2 1 1 Figure 49. FT-X3 Electrical Connections In the figure, the diodes D1 and D2 are ESD transient clamping diodes. Capacitors C1 and C2 are optional center-tap capacitors for the primary and secondary sides of the transformer. You can tune the values for C1 and C2 based on required EMC performance. Capacitor C3 provides decoupling for the ESC clamp diodes. Figure 50 on page 132 shows the electrical connections for the FT network connector to the LONWORKS network. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 131 NETA 2 D3B BAV99 1 D4B BAV99 C4 + 2 1 22 uF 63V 3 3 HDR2 200 MIL R/A 1 2 1 RV1 JP1 470V 2 3 3 D3A BAV99 D4A BAV99 NETB 1 2 C5 + 2 1 22 uF 63V Figure 50. FT Network Electrical Connections In the figure, the diodes D3 and D4 are differential network clamping diodes. Capacitors C4 and C5 are DC blocking capacitors, 22 μF, 63 V, polarized electrolytic aluminum. Varistor RV1 is 470 V, 5 mm. See Connection for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver on page 51 for more information about the network connection. Transformer Pad Layout See the FT 5000 Free Topology Smart Transceiver data sheet for a description of the pad layout for the FT-X3 Communications Transformer. Recommendation: Add vias to the ends of each of the pin pad connections (just outside the SMT pad rectangles) to provide additional mechanical support for the transformer. 132 FT-X3 Communications Transformer D Handling and Manufacturing Guidelines This appendix describes guidelines for handling and manufacturing devices that use the Neuron 5000 Processor or FT 5000 Smart Transceiver, including soldering profiles and ESD handling guidelines. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 133 Application Considerations This section describes application considerations for design and manufacturing of LONWORKS devices. Termination of Unused Pins Because Series 5000 devices are CMOS devices, you must terminate all unused input pins, including undeclared or unconnected I/O pins that are configured as inputs and including three-state pins, to assure proper operation and reliability. Figure 51 shows a CMOS inverter representative of circuitry found on CMOS input pins. When the input is logic zero, the P-channel transistor is on (conducts), and the N-channel transistor is off. When the input is a logic one, the P-channel transistor is off, and the Nchannel transistor is on. These transistors are linear devices with relatively broad switch points. As the input transitions through the mid-supply region, there is a period of time when both transistors are conducting. With fast rise-time digital signals at the input, this period is very short. When the inverter is out of the linear region, there is very little current flow. This effect is the reason that the overall current drain of a CMOS device is directly proportional to the switching speed. Almost all the current consumption is by transistors passing through the linear region and charging and discharging of internal capacitances. If a pin is configured as an input or three-state, then the input can oscillate because of power supply noise or it can float to the mid-supply region, which can result in higher current consumption. Current design techniques have made latch-up due to floating input unlikely, but it is good design practice to terminate unused I/O pins that are not configured (high impedance) or are configured as inputs. Figure 51. CMOS Inverter The best method to terminate unused I/O pins is with an individual pull-up or pull-down resistor for each unused pin. Other, less desirable, methods include: • Connecting unused input pins to each other and then to a common termination point. This cost- and space-effective method has the disadvantage of not allowing individual pin configuration later and has the possibility of contention if the pins are later declared as outputs. 134 Handling and Manufacturing Guidelines • Connecting individual unused I/O pins directly to GND or to VDD. This method is not recommended in case of software error and because of the possibility of output declaration to an opposing state. • Declaring unused pins as outputs. Thus, you should never connect a pin that is capable of being configured as an output to another such pin or directly to GND or to VDD. Avoidance of Damaging Conditions All integrated circuit devices can be damaged or destroyed by exceeding specified voltage and environmental limits. These limits are conservative to ensure reliable operation within the conditions specified. The maximum peak temperature for a Series 5000 chip is 260 ºC. See Recommended Solder Profile on page 138, and consult the data sheet of the solder manufacturer for recommendations on the optimum reflow profile. The actual reflow profile that you choose should consider these peak temperature limitations. Most potentially destructive AC waveforms fall into one of two categories: • High-voltage (10 kV to 25 kV), low-energy, spikes due to ESD discharge that usually last no longer than 100 ns. ESD modeling has shown that the human body can generate and discharge electrostatic voltages of up to 12 kV. • Lower-voltage, higher energy, transients that can last for several hundred microseconds or more, that can be caused by capacitive coupling of lightning or by inductive load sources. Different protection devices for these destructive waveforms must be implemented, depending on what is anticipated in the operating environment. Failure modes can be quantified and protective precautions taken to avoid product malfunction. This could be PC board layout-related or could involve the use of external protection devices. External protection is required for products that are subject to human contact or where interfaces to other equipment might be encountered. See Chapter 4, Design and Test for Electromagnetic Compatibility, on page 73, for more information about ESD protection. Many factors, including ambient temperature and semiconductor lot-to-lot processing variations, can influence the effect of illegal conditions on a Series 5000 chip. The ground pins are internally connected to the substrate of the silicon die and are the reference point for all voltages. The Series 5000 chip functions for VDD are connected to the positive supply pins. In limited temperature range environments, the device might operate over a wider VDD ranges, with timing, drive, FT transceiver, and other specifications not met. There might also be some adverse effects on gate oxides from long-term exposures to VDD greater than 3.3 V. Two additional damage mechanisms that are resident in CMOS chips include zap and latchup: • Zap refers to damage caused by exposure to very-high-voltage static electricity. This damage usually appears as breakdown of the relatively thin oxide layers, which causes leakage or shorts. Often secondary damage occurs after an initial zap failure causes a short. • Latch-up refers to a usually catastrophic condition that is caused by turning on a parasitic, bipolar, silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR). A latch-up is formed by N and P regions in the layout of the integrated circuit, which act as the collector, base, and Series 5000 Chip Data Book 135 emitter of parasitic transistors. Bulk resistance of silicon in the wells and substrate acts as resistors in the SCR circuit. Application of voltages to pins above VDD + 0.3 V or below GND – 0.3 V, in conjunction with enough current to develop voltage drops across the parasitic resistors, can cause the SCR to turn on. After it is on, the SCR can be turned off only by removal of all power and applied voltages. The low onimpedance of the SCR circuit can overheat and destroy the chip. Figure 52 shows the MOS circuitry for a digital input-only pin. The gates of the input buffer are very high impedance for all voltages that would ever be applied to the pin. Protection is implemented with a P-channel transistor that acts as a diode to VDD and an N-channel transistor that acts as a diode to GND. Allowing a pin to float or be driven to a mid-supply level can result in both the N- and P-channel devices in the input buffer simultaneously being partially on, which can cause excess current and noise for the VDD/GND power supply. If a digital input is driven above VDD, the pseudo-diode will conduct, protecting the input. As the current is increased to high levels (100 mA), damage can result. Figure 52. Digital Input Figure 53 on page 137 shows the CMOS circuitry for a digital I/O pin. 136 Handling and Manufacturing Guidelines Figure 53. Digital I/O Electrostatic Discharge Design Guidelines There are many ways to deal with ESD, including: • Divert or limit energy from points of contact to circuitry. • Start with a series of electromagnetic interference (EMI) ferrites or resistors for high frequency filtering. • Use diodes, transient voltage suppressors (such as, MOSorbs or transorbs) for highspeed clamping. • Use capacitors to protect critical inputs. • Use good power distribution. • Use a separate, low-impedance, ESD ground path to divert energy from electronics (for example, the star-ground strategy described in Chapter 4, Design and Test for Electromagnetic Compatibility, on page 73). Note: The impedance of a wire at 300 MHz is approximately 20 Ω/cm. Use a conductor with less than or equal to 3:1 length:width ratio. Power Supply, Ground, and Noise Considerations Some of the most important considerations for PCB layout concern how to manage noise. Noise can come from the power supply, from digital circuitry on the device, and from digital signals that couple to analog signals. Best practices for PCB layout methods to help prevent noise-induced problems include: • Keep digital signals as far away from analog signals as possible. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 137 • Use short, low-inductance, traces for the analog circuitry to reduce inductive, capacitive, and radio frequency (RF) noise sensitivities. • Use short, low-inductance, traces for the digital circuitry to reduce inductive, capacitive, and radio frequency (RF) radiated noise. • Connect bypass capacitors between the VDD and GND pairs with minimal trace length. These capacitors help supply the instantaneous currents of the digital circuitry, in addition to decoupling the noise that can be generated by other sections of the device or by other circuitry on the power supply. • Use short, wide, low-inductance, traces to connect all of the GND ground pins together. Depending on the application, a double-sided PCB with a ground plane under the device that connects all of the digital and analog GND pins together could be a good grounding method. A multilayer PCB with a ground plane that connects all of the digital and analog GND pins together would be the optimal ground configuration. These methods result in the lowest resistance and the lowest inductance in the ground circuit, which is important to reduce voltage spikes in the ground circuit resulting from the high-speed digital current spikes. Suppressing these voltage spikes on the integrated circuit is the reason for multiple GND leads. • Use short, wide, low-inductance, traces to connect all of the VDD power supply pins together. Depending on the application, a double-sided PCB with VDD bypass capacitors to the ground plane under the device can complete the low-impedance coupling for the power supply. For a multilayer PCB with a power plane, connecting all of the digital and analog VDD pins to the power plane would be the optimal power distribution method. The integrated circuit layout and packaging considerations for the 3.3 VDD power circuit are essentially the same as for the ground circuit. Decoupling Capacitors To absorb switching spikes, which can introduce noise problems, the following CMOS devices should be bypassed with good quality 0.022 μF to 0.33 μF decoupling capacitors: • Every device that drives a bus on which outputs switch simultaneously. • All synchronous counters. • Devices used as oscillator elements. • Schmitt-trigger devices with slow input rise and fall times. The slower the rise and fall time, the larger the bypass capacitor. Lab experimentation is suggested. Bypass capacitors should be distributed over the circuit board. In addition, boards could be decoupled with a 1 μF capacitor. You should also ensure low-impedance paths to and from logic devices in board layouts. Board Soldering Considerations This section describes PC board soldering considerations for design and manufacturing of Series 5000 devices. Recommended Solder Profile Follow the general guidelines described in IPC/JEDEC Standard J-STD-020D.1 when soldering Series 5000 chips to PCBs. This standard includes information for classification reflow profiles. All Series 5000 chips comply with the European Union Restriction of 138 Handling and Manufacturing Guidelines Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive (2002/95/EC), thus their profiles use the lead-free assembly, with a peak temperature Tp of 260 ºC, and a solder profile as summarized in Table 43. Soldering Surface Mount (SMT) Parts Table 43 lists the maximum reflow temperature for surface mount (SMT) parts. In all cases, consult the solder manufacturer’s data sheet for recommendations on optimum reflow profile. The actual reflow profile chosen should consider the peak temperature limitations. Table 43. Peak Temperatures for Surface Mount Parts Product RoHS Compliant Model Number Peak Temperature FT 5000 Free Yes Topology Smart Transceiver 14235R 260 ºC Neuron 5000 Yes Processor 14305R 260 ºC FT-X3 Yes Communications Transformer 14255R-400 245 ºC As measured according to the IPC/JEDEC Standard J-STD-020D.1, Series 5000 chips have a Level 3 Classification. The recommended soldering technique for Series 5000 chips is surface mount reflow. Soldering techniques that involve immersing the entire part are not recommended. Consult the solder manufacturer’s datasheet for recommendations on optimum reflow profile. Dry pack is a process that slowly bakes moisture from the surface mount technology package and seals it into a dry pack bag to shield the unit from moisture in the atmosphere. The exterior of the bag is marked with a label that indicates that the devices are moisture sensitive and is marked with the date that the bag was sealed (there is a one year shelf life for such devices). There is a limited amount of time to use surface-mount devices after they are removed from the dry pack. Before surface mounting, packages should not be out of the dry pack longer than 168 hours at ≤ 60% relative humidity and ≤ 30 °C. If the units have not been shipped dry pack or have been unpacked for too long, then units must be baked at 125 °C for 12 hours prior to board soldering. If this is not done, some percentage of the units can exhibit destructive failures or latent failures after the soldering process. General ESD Handling Guidelines All complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices have an insulated gate that is subject to voltage breakdown. The high-impedance gates on the devices are protected by onchip networks. However, these on-chip networks do not make the chip immune to ESD. Laboratory tests show that devices can fail after one very high voltage discharge. They can also fail due to the cumulative effect of several discharges of lower potential. Static-damaged devices behave in various ways, depending on the severity of the damage. The most severely damaged are the easiest to detect because the input or output has been completely destroyed and is shorted to VDD, shorted to GND, or is open-circuited. As a result Series 5000 Chip Data Book 139 of this damage, the device no longer functions. Less severe cases are more difficult to detect because they appear as intermittent failures or as degraded performance. Static damage can often increase leakage currents. CMOS devices are not immune to large static voltage discharges that can be generated during handling. For example, static voltages generated by a person walking across a waxed floor have been measured in the 4 kV – 15 kV range (depending on humidity, surface conditions, and so on). Therefore, you should observe the following general precautions: 1. Do not exceed the maximum ratings specified by the data sheet. 2. All unused device inputs should be connected to VDD or GND. 3. All low-impedance equipment (for example, pulse generators) should be connected to CMOS inputs only after the device is powered up. Similarly, this type of equipment should be disconnected before power is turned off. 4. A circuit board containing CMOS devices is merely an extension of the device, and the same handling precautions apply. Contacting connectors wired directly to devices can cause damage. Plastic wrapping should be avoided. When external connections to a PC board address pins of CMOS integrated circuits, a resistor should be used in series with the inputs or outputs. The limiting factor for the series resistor is the added delay caused by the time constant formed by the series resistor and input capacitance. This resistor will help limit accidental damage if the PC board is removed and is brought into contact with static-generating materials. For convenience, Figure 54 on page 141 describes equations for added propagation delay and rise-time effects due to series-resistance size. 5. All CMOS devices should be stored or transported in materials that are antistatic. Devices must not be inserted into conventional plastic “snow,” Styrofoam®, or plastic trays. Devices should be left in their original container until ready for use. 6. All CMOS devices should be placed on a grounded bench surface and operators should ground themselves prior to handling devices, because a worker can be statically charged with respect to the bench surface. Wrist straps in contact with skin are strongly recommended. See Figure 55 on page 142. 7. Nylon or other static-generating materials should not come in contact with CMOS circuits. 8. If automatic handling is being used, high levels of static electricity can be generated by the movement of devices, belts, or boards. Reduce static build-up by using ionized air blowers or room humidifiers. All parts of machines that come into contact with the top, bottom, and sides of IC packages must be grounded metal or other conductive material. 9. Cold chambers that use CO2 for cooling should be equipped with baffles, and devices must be contained on or in conductive material, or soldered onto a PCB. 10. When lead-straightening or hand-soldering is necessary, provide ground straps for the apparatus used and be sure that soldering ties are grounded. 11. The following precautions apply during wave-solder operations: a. The solder pot and conductive conveyor system of the wave-soldering machine must be grounded to an Earth ground. b. The loading and unloading work benches should have conductive tops which are grounded to an Earth ground. c. Operators must comply with precautions previously explained. 140 Handling and Manufacturing Guidelines d. Completed assemblies should be placed in antistatic containers prior to being moved to subsequent stations. Figure 54. Networks for Minimizing ESD and Reducing CMOS Latch-Up Susceptibility Series 5000 Chip Data Book 141 Figure 55. Typical Manufacturing Work Station Notes for Figure 55: 1. 1/16-inch conductive sheet stock covering bench-top work area. 2. Ground strap. 3. Wrist strap in contact with skin. 4. Static neutralizer (ionized air blower directed at work). Primarily for use in areas where direct grounding is impractical. 5. Room humidifier. Primarily for use in areas where the relative humidity is less than 45%. Caution: building heating and cooling systems usually dry the air, which causes the relative humidity inside a building to be less than outside humidity. The following steps should be observed during board cleaning operation: 1. Vapor degreasers and baskets must be grounded to an Earth ground. Operators must likewise be grounded. 2. Brush or spray cleaning should not be used. 3. Assemblies should be placed into the vapor degreaser immediately upon removal from the antistatic container. 4. Cleaned assemblies should be placed in antistatic containers immediately after removal from the cleaning basket. 5. High-velocity air movement or application of solvents and coatings should be employed only when module circuits are grounded and a static eliminator is directed at the module. The use of static-detection meters for line surveillance is highly recommended. 6. The use of static-detection meters for line surveillance is highly recommended. 142 Handling and Manufacturing Guidelines 7. Equipment specifications should alert users to the presence of CMOS devices and require familiarization with this specification prior to performing any kind of maintenance or replacement of devices or modules. 8. Do not insert or remove CMOS devices from test sockets with power applied. Check all power supplies to be used for testing devices to be certain there are no voltage transients present. 9. Double-check the equipment setup for proper polarity of voltage before conducting parametric or functional testing. 10. Do not recycle shipping rails. Continuous use causes deterioration of their antistatic coating. 11. Wrist straps and equipment logs should be maintained and audited on a regular basis. Wrist straps malfunction and the malfunction can go unnoticed. Also, equipment gets moved from time to time and grounds might not be reconnected properly. Power Distribution and Decoupling Capacitors Inductance in the power distribution creates noise during switching transients. Figure 56. Inductance Creates Noise For example, a 200 nH inductor with 25 mA and 5 ns surge characteristic can generate 1 V in noise: Vnoise = L dI dt If L = 200 nH, dI = 25 mA, dt = 5 ns, then Vnoise = 200 nH * (25 mA / 5 ns) = 1 V. Recommended Bypass Capacitor Placement Proper decoupling is required to ensure proper operation of an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver or Neuron 5000 Processor. When you connect VDD decoupling capacitors to Series 5000 chips, make the leads as short as possible. All VDD pins must be tied to +3.3 V, and all GND pins to ground. Keep the crystal circuit close to the Series 5000 chip and isolated from communications lines. Bypass capacitors should be 0.1 μF or 0.33 μF ceramic or dipped-mica capacitors, and should be placed as close to VDD33 pins as possible. VDD33 and GND loops should be avoided. Recommended configurations are: Series 5000 Chip Data Book 143 • VDD3V3 pins: 8, 18, 29, 30, 31, 41 • VDD1V8 pins: 6, 16, 27, 44 Recommendation: Add an additional 1.0 μF (6.3 V, 10%, X7R) capacitor to pin 27 to provide extra protection and stability for the Series 5000 chip’s internal voltage regulator. Figure 57 shows suggested bypass capacitor placement and crystal circuit trace outlines. See Pin Connections on page 36 for additional information about placing these capacitors. Figure 57. Minimum Recommended Capacitor Placement The reference designators in the figure are included as examples only. Table 44. Parts Shown in the Figure Reference Part C1 0.1 μF for pin 44 VDD1V8 C2 0.1 μF for pin 41 VDD3V3 and pin 42 VDD3V3 C5 0.1 μF for pin 6 VDD1V8 C7 0.1 μF for pin 31 AVDD3V3, pin 30 VDD3V3, and pin 29 VIN3V3 C8 0.1 μF for pin 8 VDD3V3 C11 0.1 μF for pin 27 VOUT1V8 144 Handling and Manufacturing Guidelines Reference C12 C16 C17 C18 C23 C24 R19 R61 Y1 Part 1.0 μF for pin 27 VOUT1V8 0.01 μF across pins 25 and 26 (VDDPLL and GNDPLL) 0.1 μF for pin 16 VDD1V8 0.1 μF for pin 18 VDD3V3 30 pF for pin 23 XIN 30 pF for pin 24 XOUT 200 Ω for pin 24 XOUT 1 MΩ across pins 23 and 24 (XIN and XOUT) External 10 MHz crystal Key Layout Rules: 1. If possible, use 4-layer boards (or boards with more than four layers). Additional layers simplify the layout, and reduce noise-related and grounding problems. 2. For 2-layer boards, the four bypass capacitors must be close to the Series 5000 chip. VDD and ground must use large traces to reduce inductance and noise. 3. On 2-layer boards, avoid running high-frequency digital signal traces under the crystal circuit or the communications port, on opposite sides of the board. 4. Ensure that power supply and ground traces are large enough to handle the peak surge switching currents. Otherwise, there can be power supply dips on the VDD pins, which could cause errors in the checksum calculation, resulting in the Series 5000 chip’s resetting. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 145 E Example Schematic This appendix provides an example schematic for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 147 Example Schematic This appendix provides an example schematic for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver. The example schematics are based on the FT 5000 Evaluation Board that is included with the NodeBuilder FX Development Tool and the Mini FX Evaluation Kit. The example schematic incorporates the design requirements that are described in the following sections: • External Serial Memory Interface on page 24 • Pin Connections on page 36 • Connection for an FT 5000 Smart Transceiver on page 51 • Clock Requirements on page 56 • Transformer Electrical Connections on page 131 Basic Electrical Connections Figure 58 shows the basic electrical connections for the FT 5000 Smart Transceiver. 1 MOSI SCLK MISO CS_2_SCL VDD1V8 CS_1_SDA VDD_3V3 VDD_3V3 CS_0_SPI CP4 CP3_RXLED CP2_TXLED 1 RST- VDD_3V3 2 SVC- 3 D5B BAV99 75V 3 1 D6A BAV99 75V C28 0.1uF 10% X7R 16V 0603 1 2 VDD_3V3 C42 100pF NO LD 0603 C41 100pF NO LD 0603 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 C24 0.1uF 10% X7R 16V 0603 U5 45 44 43 42 48 47 46 MISO SCL VDD1V8 SDA_CS1- MOSI SCK 49 GND PAD SVC- 1 IO0 2 IO1 3 IO2 4 IO3 5 VDD1V8 6 IO4 7 VDD_3V3 8 IO5 9 IO6 10 IO7 11 IO8 12 SVCIO0 IO1 IO2 IO3 VDD1V8 IO4 VDD3V3 IO5 IO6 IO7 IO8 C30 0.1uF 10% X7R 16V 0603 FT 5000 Echelon QFN48 Pads 13 14 15 IO9 IO10 IO11 VDD1V8 TRSTVDD3V3 FT 5000 1 VDD1V8 16 TRST- 17 1 VDD_3V318 TCK 19 IO9 IO10 IO11 C32 0.1uF 10% X7R 16V 0603 2 2 C33 0.1uF 10% X7R 16V 0603 VDD_3V3 R33 4.99K 1% R34 49.9 1% 0603 0603 1 2 TCK_X 1 2 TCK TMS TDI TDO XIN 20 21 22 23 TCK TMS TDI TDO VDD3V3 VDD3V3 CS0CP4 41 40 39 38 XOUT 24 XIN RXON 37 XOUT TXON 2 C25 0.1uF 10% X7R 16V 0603 GND 36 35 NC 34 NETP AGND NETN AVDD3V3 VDD3V3 VIN3V3 RSTVOUT1V8 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 GNDPLL VDDPLL 25 NC1 NETP_CP1 NETN_CP0 VDD_3V3 RSTVDD1V8 C34 0.1uF 10% X7R 16V 0603 2 1 2 1 C31 1.0uF 16V 10% X7R 0603 PLLVSSA 2 1 VDD_3V3 2 D6B BAV99 75V 3 RST- 3 C35 0.1uF 16V 10% X7R 0603 1 D7A BAV99 75V L4 150 1 2 1 C29 0.01uF 50V 10% X7R 0603 PLLVDDA 2 1 C23 0.5A 0.1uF 16V 10% X7R 0603 L3 1 0603 150 2 VDD1V8 2 0.5A 0603 XIN C26 33pF 50V 5% NPO 0603 2 1 Y2 1 3 2 4 10.0000MHZ 2 1 R19 200 1% 0603 XOUT_R 1 2 C27 33pF 50V 5% NPO 0603 XOUT R20 1M 5% XIN 1 2 XOUT_R 0603 Figure 58. Basic Electrical Connections 148 Handling and Manufacturing Guidelines Memory Interface Connections Figure 59 shows the connections for the serial memory interface. The figure shows connections for both a serial EEPROM device and a flash memory device. VDD_3V3 VDD_3V3 VDD_3V3 VDD_3V3 VDD_3V3 VDD_3V3 1 1 2 2 1 R26 4.99K 1% 0603 MISO R29 100K 0603 JP2 CS_1_SDA 1 2 CS_1_M 3 4 MISO_R CS_1_SDA 5 6 CS_1_SDA_M 7 8 CS_2_SCL HEADER 4X2 MOSI R27 49.9 1% 0603 1 2 MOSI_M SCLK R28 49.9 1% 0603 1 2 SCLK_M 1 1 R32 100K 0603 2 1 2 R11 49.9 1% 0603 2 R31 100K 0603 U6 1 CS VCC 8 MISO_M 2 SO HOLD 7 U3_PU3 3 WP SCK 6 4 GND SI 5 U3_PU7 SCLK_M MOSI_M SERIAL FLASH SPI 2 R30 100K 0603 1 2 C43 0.1uF 16V 0603 VDD_3V3 VDD_3V3 VDD_3V3 1 1 2 U4 1 A0 VCC 8 2 R24 4.99K 1% 0603 2 A1 WP 7 U4_PD7 1 3 A2 4 GND 6 SCL SDA 5 CS_2_SCL CS_1_SDA_M SERIAL EEPROM TWSI 2 R25 4.99K 1% 0603 C44 0.1uF 16V 0603 Figure 59. Memory Interface Connections Transformer Connections Figure 60 on page 150 shows the connections for the communications transformer. The figure shows connections for both the FT-X2 Communication Transformer and the FT-X3 Communications Transformer. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 149 NETP_CP1 NETN_CP0 2 1 VDD_3V3 VDD_3V3 VDD_3V3 T4 6 1 2 2 1 C39 0.1uF 16V 0603 D8B BAV99 75V 2 3 3 1 C40 56pF 50V 0603 2 C36 56pF 50V 0603 1 D9A BAV99 75V 3 2 3 D9B BAV99 75V 5 2 FT-X2 NO LOAD 1 T3 8 D7B BAV99 75V CTP C37 NO LOAD 0603 2 1 P1 2 5 S1 7 4 P2 S2 6 3 FT-X3 2 1 NETB CTS C38 NO LOAD 0603 NETA R21 0 NO LOAD 1 2 CP0 R23 0 NO LOAD 1 2 CP1 VDD_3V3 CP2_TXLED CP3_RXLED NETB NETA CP0 CP1 CP2_TXLED CP3_RXLED 1 2 R22 4.99K 1% 0603 CP4 CP4 Figure 60. Transformer Connections I/O and Network Connections Figure 61 on page 151 shows the basic I/O connections and the network connections. The figure does not show external I/O devices, and thus does not include pull-up or pull-down resistors for the IO0..IO11 signals. 150 Handling and Manufacturing Guidelines 2 VDD5 D223 BAV99 75V 3 SVC- 1 1 2 VDD5 D217 BAV99 75V 3 RST- SVCRST- IO0 IO1 IO2 IO3 IO4 IO5 IO6 IO7 IO8 IO9 IO10 IO11 VDD_3V3 VDD_3V3 1 1 R235 499 1% 0603 R208 1.00K 1% 0603 2 2 1 1 SW204 SWITCH 1 2 SW203 SWITCH 1 2 SVCRST- 2 2 LED211 LED Y EL LED213 LED RED FT 5000_CORE1 IO0 IO1 IO2 IO3 IO4 IO5 IO6 IO7 IO8 IO9 IO10 IO11 NETB NETA CP4 CP3_RXLED CP2_TXLED CP1 SVCRST- CP0 2 NETB C104 22uF 63V ALUM ELEC 2 1 + 1 D221B BAV99 75V D222A BAV99 75V 3 XR8 3 1 3 D236A BAV99 75V 3 D236B BAV99 75V 2 RV2 470V 2 1 NETB NETA CP4 CP1 CP0 NETA 2 1 + C103 22uF 63V ALUM ELEC CP3_RX CP2_TX LED210 LED GREEN "RX" 1 1 FT Network JP103 FT_NETB 1 FT_NETA 2 HDR2 200MIL R/A JP104 1 2 HDR2 200MIL R/A LED209 LED GREEN "RX" 2 2 FT-5000_CORE 2 VDD5 D227 BAV99 75V 3 2 1 R251 200 1% 0603 R238 200 1% 0603 2 1 1 2 VDD5 D234 BAV99 75V 3 1 Figure 61. I/O and Network Connections BOM for Example Schematic Table 45 shows a partial bill of materials (BOM) for the example schematic shown in this appendix. Table 45. Example BOM for Example Schematic Reference Designator Value C29 C26, C27 C36, C40 C37, C38, C41, C42 0.01 μF 33 pF 56 pF 100 pF Series 5000 Chip Data Book 151 Reference Designator C23, C24, C25, C28, C30, C32, C33, C34, C35, C39, C43, C44 C31 C103, C104 D5, D6, D7, D8, D9, D217, D221, D222, D223, D227, D234, D236 L3, L4 R11, R27, R28, R34 R19, R238, R251 R235 R208 R22, R24, R25, R26, R33 R29, R30, R31, R32 R20 RV2 T3 T4 Y2 Value 0.1 μF 1.0 μF 22 μF BAV99 150 Ω 49.9 Ω 200 Ω 499 Ω 1.00 kΩ 4.99 kΩ 100 kΩ 1 MΩ 470 V FT-X3 FT-X2 10.0000 MHz 152 Handling and Manufacturing Guidelines F Vendor Contact Information This appendix lists contact information for many of the product vendors mentioned in this manual. Series 5000 Chip Data Book 153 Vendor Information This appendix lists contact information for many of the product vendors mentioned in this manual. This information was current as of the publication of this manual. For most of the parts listed in this manual, Echelon does not require that you use these vendors, but has tested Series 5000 chips with products from the vendors listed. Abracon Corporation Headquarters 30332 Esperanza Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688 USA Phone: +1 949-546-8000 Fax: +1 949-546-8001 www.abracon.com Atmel Corporation Headquarters 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131 USA Phone: +1 408-441-0311 www.atmel.com Belden Inc. Corporate 7733 Forsyth Boulevard, Suite 800 St. Louis, MO 63105 USA Phone: +1 314-854-8000 Fax: +1 314-854-8001 www.belden.com 154 Vendor Contact Information BPM Microsystems Headquarters 5373 West Sam Houston Pkwy N, Suite 250 Houston, TX 77041 USA Phone: +1 713-688-4600 Toll Free (US): 800-225-2102 Fax: +1 713-688-0920 www.bpmmicro.com Citel Inc. Headquarters 11381 Interchange Circle South Miramar, FL 33025 USA Phone: +1 954-430-6310 Toll Free (US): 800-248-3548 Fax: +1 954-430-7785 www.citelprotection.com CommScope Inc. Headquarters 1100 CommScope Place SE Hickory, NC 28603 USA Phone: +1 828-324-2200 Toll Free (US): 800-982-1708 www.commscope.com Series 5000 Chip Data Book 155 Emulation Technology Inc. Headquarters 2320 Walsh Avenue Building H, Suite E Santa Clara, CA 95051 USA Toll Free (US): 800-ADAPTER (800-232-7837) www.emulation.com Fairchild Semiconductor Inc. Headquarters 82 Running Hill Road South Portland, ME 04106 USA Phone: +1 207-775-8100 Toll Free (US): 800-341-0392 www.fairchildsemi.com Corporate Offices 3001 Orchard Parkway San Jose California 95134 USA Phone: +1 408-822-2000 HiLo System Research Company Ltd. Headquarters 4F, No. 18, Lane 76 Rueiguang Rd., Neihu Dist. Taipei 11491, Taiwan Phone: 886-2-8792-3301 Fax: 886-2-8792-3285 www.hilosystems.com.tw 156 Vendor Contact Information Laird Technologies PLC Headquarters 100 Pall Mall London UK SW1Y 5NQ Phone: +44 (0)20 7468 4040 Fax: +44 (0)20 7839 2921 www.lairdtech.com US Office 16401 Swingley Ridge Road Suite 700 Chesterfield, MO 63017 USA Phone: +1 636-898-6000 Fax: +1 636-898-6100 Littelfuse Inc. Headquarters 8755 West Higgins Road Suite 500 Chicago IL 60631 USA Phone: +1 773-628-1000 Fax: +1 847-391-0894 www.littelfuse.com Numonyx BV Headquarters A-One Biz Center Z.A. Vers la Piece Rte de l’Etraz 1180 Rolle Switzerland Phone: +41.21.822.3700 www.numonyx.com Americas Regional Sales Office 1900 Prairie City Road, FM3-N Folsom, CA 95630 USA Toll Free (US): 888-GO-NUMONYX Series 5000 Chip Data Book 157 NXP Semiconductors BV Headquarters High Tech Campus 45 5656 AE Eindhoven Netherlands Phone: +31 40 27 29999 Fax: +31 40 27 43375 www.nxp.com ON Semiconductor Headquarters 5005 East McDowell Road Phoenix, AZ 85008 USA Phone: +1 602-244-6600 Toll Free (US): 888-743-7826 www.onsemi.com Panasonic Corp. Headquarters 1006 Oaza Kadoma Kadoma, Osaka 571-8501 Japan Phone: +81-6-6908-1121 Fax: +81-6-6908-2351 panasonic.co.jp/index3.html US Office 1 Panasonic Way Secaucus, New Jersey 07094 USA Phone: +1 201-348-7000 Fax: +1 201-348-7016 panasonic.com 158 Vendor Contact Information Plastronics Socket Company Inc. Headquarters 2601 Texas Drive Irving, Texas 75062 USA Phone: +1 972-258-2580 Toll Free (US): 800-582-5822 Fax: +1 972-258-6771 www.plastronicsusa.com Sankosha Corp. Headquarters 4-3-8 Osaki Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 Japan Phone: 81-3-3491-7181 Fax: 81-3-3494-7574 www.sankosha-usa.com US Office 406 Amapola Avenue, Suite 135 Torrance, CA 90501 USA Phone: +1 310-320-1661 Toll Free (US): 888-711-2436 Fax: +1 310-618-6869 Silicon Storage Technology Inc. Headquarters 1171 Sonora Court Sunnyvale, CA 94086 USA Phone: +1 408-735-9110 Fax: +1 408-735-9036 www.sst.com Series 5000 Chip Data Book 159 Taiyo Yuden Company Ltd. Headquarters Matsumura Bldg. 6-16-20 Ueno Taito-Ku, Tokyo 110-0005 Japan Phone: 81-3-3833-5441 Fax: 81-3-3835-4754 US Office 1930 North Thoreau Drive, Suite 190 Schaumburg, IL 60173 USA Phone: +1 847-925-0888 Fax: +1 847-925-0899 www.t-yuden.com or www.yuden.co.jp/e/index.html TDK Corp. Headquarters 1-13-1, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku Tokyo, 103-8272 Japan www.tdk.com US Office 901 Franklin Avenue P O Box 9302 Garden City, NY 11530-9302 USA Phone: +1 516-535-2600 Fax: +1 516-294-8318 Total Phase Inc. Headquarters 735 Palomar Avenue Sunnyvale, CA 94085 USA Phone: +1 408-850-6500 www.totalphase.com 160 Vendor Contact Information Vishay Intertechnology Inc. Headquarters 63 Lancaster Avenue Malvern, PA 19355-2143 USA Phone: +1 402-563-6866 Fax: +1 402-563-6296 www.vishay.com Series 5000 Chip Data Book 161 Index 5 5000 Series. See Series 5000 A ANSI/CEA 709.1-B, 3 APP processor, 15 application program development, 110 architecture interrupts, 17 memory, 21 multiple processors, 15 Neuron, 13 Series 5000, 12 assembly instruction set, 17 AWG 16 cable specifications, 127 B beta 1 and beta 2 timeslots, 45 BSDL file, 28 burst testing, 81 bypass capacitor, 143 C cables, qualified, 124 cabling, 88 Category 5 cable specifications, 125 CE Marking, 74 CEN 61000 test results, 85 checklists, 113 checksums, 67 CISPR 22, 77 clamp diodes, 70 clock requirements, 56 collision detection, 45 communications cabling, 88 communications port, pins, 41 conducted immunity, 78 connections FT-X3 Communications Transformer, 131 ground pins, 38 JTAG pins, 39 PLL pins, 39 VDD1V8 pins, 37 VDD3V3 pins, 36 CP pins, 41 crystal, 56 Series 5000 Chip Data Book D decoupling capacitors, 71, 138 digital I/O pins, 40 documentation, v E EEPROM device, 24 EIA 485 transceiver, 55 electromagnetic compatibility, 74 electromagnetic interference, 76 electrostatic discharge, 75 EMC, 74 EMI, 76 EN 14908.1, 3 EN 61000 test results, 85 ESD, 75, 137 ESD keepout, 70 example schematic, 148 F flash memory device, 24 free topology, overview, 5 FT 5000 Free Topology Smart Transceiver network connection, 51 overview, 2 pinout, 31 FT-X3 Communications Transformer connections, 131 layout, 132 pinout, 130 G gas discharge arresters, 83 ground pins, connections, 38 ground plane, 71 ground return, 71 guidelines, handling and manufacturing, 134 H handling guidelines, 139 hardware synchronization, 106 163 I I/O model, 96 I/O object, 96 I/O pins, digital, 40 I2C memory, 25, 27 immunity, 75 instruction set, assembly, 17 integrity memory, 67 processor, 67 reset, 67 interrupts, 17 IRQ processor, 15 ISO 7498-1, 3 ISO/IEC 14908, 3 J JTAG interface, 28 pin connections, 39 K key features, 7 L layout guidelines, 70 lightning protection, 82 LonTalk protocol, 4 LonWorks introduction, 3 network protocol, 3 M MAC processor, 15 magnetic field interference, 84 memory architecture, 21 device programming, 28 device support, 27 interface, 24 map, 22 on-chip, 22 Mil-Std-883 Method 3015.7, 40 Mini EVK Evaluation Kit, 110 N NEMA Type 4 cable specifications, 125 NET processor, 15 network cabling, 88 performance, 90 protection, 82 specifications, 91 164 termination, 92 topology, 88 network connection comparison with FT 3120 or FT 3150, 53 comparison with FTT-10A, 53 FT 5000 Free Topology Smart Transceiver, 51 Neuron 5000 Processor, 54 Neuron 5000 Processor CP pins, 41 EIA 485 transceiver, 55 network connection, 54 overview, 3 pinout, 33 single-ended mode, 43 special-purpose mode, 47 TPT/XF-1250 transceiver, 54 Neuron architecture, 13 NodeBuilder Development Tool, 110 noise considerations, 137 NVM device, 24 O operating range, Series 5000 chip, 29 oscillator, 56 OSI Model, 3 P PCB FT 5000 Free Topology Smart Transceiver, 71 layout guidelines, 70 pin compatibility, 106 digital I/O, 40 pinout FT 5000 Free Topology Smart Transceiver, 31 FT-X3 Communications Transformer, 130 Neuron 5000 Processor, 33 pins, unused, 134 PLL pins, connections, 39 processor integrity, 67 processors, 15 R radiated immunity, 78 registers, 15 reset function overview, 59 power-up sequence, 60 software reset, 61 timing, 61 watchdog timer, 61 reset processing, 67 RoHS compliance, 2 Index RS 485 transceiver, 55 RST~ pin, 59 S schematic, example, 148 serial memory interface, 24 Series 5000 architecture, 12 clock requirements, 56 connections, 36 digital I/O pins, 40 hardware resources, 12 key features, 7 operating range, 29 overview, 2 reset function, 59 specification summary, 10 service pin, 65 shield protection, 83 single-ended mode beta 1 and beta 2 timeslots, 45 collision detection, 45 overview, 43 socket, 72 solder profile, 138 special-purpose mode, 47 specification summary, 10 SPI memory, 26, 27 standards, vii star ground, 70 surge testing, 81 SVC~ pin, 65 T termination, 92 timer/counters, 96 TPT/XF-1250 transceiver, 54 traps, 17 U unused pins, 134 V VDD1V8 pins, connections, 37 VDD3V3 pins, connections, 36 vendor contact information, 154 W watchdog timer, 61 what's new, iii X XIN and XOUT pins, 56 XTAL, 56 Series 5000 Chip Data Book 165 www.echelon.com

    Top_arrow
    回到顶部
    EEWORLD下载中心所有资源均来自网友分享,如有侵权,请发送举报邮件到客服邮箱bbs_service@eeworld.com.cn 或通过站内短信息或QQ:273568022联系管理员 高进,我们会尽快处理。