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MAX761/MAX762 19-0201; Rev 0; 11/93 12V/15V EvaAluvaatiiloanblKeit or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Converters _______________General Description The MAX761/MAX762 step-up switching regulators provide high efficiency over a wide range of load currents, delivering up to 150mA. A unique, current-limited pulse-frequency-modulated (PFM) control scheme gives the devices the benefits of pulse-width-modulated (PWM) converters (high efficiency with heavy loads), while using less than 110µA of supply current (vs. 2mA to 10mA for PWM converters). The result is high efficiency over a wide range of loads. The MAX761/MAX762 input voltage range is 2V to 16.5V. Output voltages are preset to 12V (MAX761) and 15V (MAX762), or they can be set with two external resistors. With a 5V input, the MAX761 guarantees a 12V, 150mA output. Its high efficiency, low supply current, fast start-up time, SHDN controlling capability, and small size make the MAX761 ideal for powering flash memory. The MAX761/MAX762 have an internal 1A power MOSFET, making them ideal for minimum-component, low- and medium-power applications. These devices use tiny external components, and their high switching frequencies (up to 300kHz) allow for small surface-mount magnetics. For increased output drive capability or higher output voltages, use the MAX770–MAX773, which are similar in design to the MAX761/MAX762, but drive external power MOSFETs. For stepping up to 5V, see the MAX756/ MAX757 and MAX856-MAX859 data sheets. _________________________Applications Flash Memory Programming PCMCIA Cards Battery-Powered Applications High-Efficiency DC-DC Converters ____________________________Features o High Efficiency for a Wide Range of Load Currents o 12V/150mA Flash Memory Programming Supply o 110µA Max Supply Current o 5µA Max Shutdown Supply Current o 2V to 16.5V Input Voltage Range o 12V (MAX761), 15V (MAX762) or Adjustable Output o Current-Limited PFM Control Scheme o 300kHz Switching Frequency o Internal, 1A, N-Channel Power FET o LBI/LBO Low-Battery Comparator ______________Ordering Information PART MAX761CPA MAX761CSA MAX761C/D MAX761EPA MAX761ESA MAX761MJA MAX762CPA MAX762CSA MAX762C/D MAX762EPA MAX762ESA MAX762MJA TEMP. RANGE 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -55°C to +125°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -55°C to +125°C PIN-PACKAGE 8 Plastic DIP 8 SO Dice* 8 Plastic DIP 8 SO 8 CERDIP** 8 Plastic DIP 8 SO Dice* 8 Plastic DIP 8 SO 8 CERDIP** * Contact factory for dice specifications. ** Contact factory for availability and processing to MIL-STD-883. __________Typical Operating Circuit INPUT 4.75V TO 12V 33µF ON/OFF LX SHDN MAX761 V+ LOW-BATTERY DETECTOR INPUT LBI REF FB LBO GND 18µH OUTPUT 12V 150mA 33µF LOW-BATTERY DETECTOR OUTPUT __________________Pin Configuration TOP VIEW LBO 1 LBI 2 FB 3 SHDN 4 MAX761 MAX762 8 V+ 7 LX 6 GND 5 REF DIP/SO ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1 Call toll free 1-800-998-8800 for free samples or literature. MAX761/MAX762 12V/15V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Converters ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS Supply Voltage V+ to GND .......................................-0.3V to 17V REF, LBO, LBI, SHDN, FB ............................-0.3V to (V+ + 0.3V) LX..............................................................................-0.3V to 17V LX Peak Current ....................................................................1.5A LBO Current ..........................................................................5mA Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) Plastic DIP (derate 9.09mW/°C above +70°C) ............727mW SO (derate 5.88mW/°C above +70°C) .........................471mW CERDIP (derate 8.00mW/°C above +70°C) .................640mW Operating Temperature Ranges: MAX76_C_A ........................................................0°C to +70°C MAX76_E_A .....................................................-40°C to +85°C MAX76_MJA ..................................................-55°C to +125°C Junction Temperatures: MAX76_C_A/E_A..........................................................+150°C MAX76_MJA.................................................................+175°C Storage Temperature Range .............................-65°C to +160°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10sec) .............................+300°C Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (V+ = 5V, ILOAD = 0mA, CREF = 0.1µF, TA = TMIN to TMAX, typical values are at TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) PARAMETER Supply Voltage Minimum Operating Voltage Minimum Start-Up Voltage Supply Current Shutdown Current Output Voltage (Note 1) Peak Current at LX Maximum Switch-On Time Minimum Switch-Off Time Load Regulation Line Regulation Efficiency Reference Voltage SYMBOL V+ VOUT IPEAK tON tOFF VREF CONDITIONS MIN Figure 2, bootstrapped 2 Figure 3 or 5 with MAX76_C/E 3 external resistors. MAX76_M 3.1 Figure 2, bootstrapped Figure 2, bootstrapped V+ = 16.5V, normal operation, SHDN = 0V, non-bootstrapped Figure 2, MAX761, VIN = 5V, SHDN = 0V, normal operation V+ = 10.0V, shutdown mode, SHDN = V+ Figure 2, MAX761, bootstrapped 0mA ≤ ILOAD ≤ 75mA, 3V ≤ V+ ≤ 12V 0mA ≤ ILOAD ≤ 150mA, 4.75V ≤ V+ ≤ 12V Figure 2, MAX762, bootstrapped 0mA ≤ ILOAD ≤ 50mA, 3V ≤ V+ ≤ 15V 0mA ≤ ILOAD ≤ 100mA, 4.75V ≤ V+ ≤ 15V See Figure 4b 11.52 11.52 14.4 14.4 0.75 6 1.0 Figure 2, 0mA ≤ ILOAD ≤ 200mA, bootstrapped Figure 2, 4V ≤ VIN ≤ 6V, bootstrapped Figure 2, bootstrapped, VOUT = 12V, 60mA ≤ ILOAD ≤ 120mA MAX76_C 1.4700 MAX76_E 1.4625 MAX76_M 1.4550 TYP 1.7 1.7 88 300 1 12.0 12.0 15.0 15.0 1.0 8 1.3 0.0042 0.08 86 1.50 1.50 1.50 MAX 16.5 16.5 16.5 2.0 110 5 12.48 12.48 15.6 15.6 1.25 10 1.6 1.5300 1.5375 1.5450 UNITS V V V µA µA V A µs µs %/mA %/V % V 2 _______________________________________________________________________________________ MAX761/MAX762 12V/15V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Converters ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) (V+ = 5V, ILOAD = 0mA, CREF = 0.1µF, TA = TMIN to TMAX, typical values are at TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX MAX76_C/E 10 Reference Load Regulation 0µA ≤ ILOAD ≤ 100µA MAX76_M 15 Reference Line Regulation 3.0V ≤ V+ ≤ 16.5V 30 100 LX Leakage Current MAX76_C -5 5 V+ = 16.5V, LX = 17V MAX76_E -10 10 MAX76_M -30 30 MAX76_C -20 20 FB Leakage Current IFB MAX76_E -40 40 MAX76_M -60 60 MAX76_C 1.4700 1.50 1.5300 Voltage Trip Point VFB MAX76_E 1.4625 1.50 1.5375 MAX76_M 1.4550 1.50 1.5450 LX On Resistance V+ > 5.0V 1.0 2.2 SHDN Input High Voltage SHDN Input Low Voltage VIH 2.0V ≤ V+ ≤ 16.5V VIL 2.0V ≤ V+ ≤ 16.5V 1.6 0.4 SHDN Leakage Current V+ = 16.5V, SHDN = 0V or V+ -1 1 MAX76_C 1.4700 1.50 1.5300 LBI Threshold Voltage LBI falling MAX76_E 1.4625 1.50 1.5375 MAX76_M 1.4550 1.50 1.5450 LBI Hysteresis 20 LBI Leakage Current V+ = 16.5V, VLBI = 1.5V -20 20 LBO Leakage Current V+ = 16.5V, VLBO = 16.5V -1 1 LBO Voltage LBI to LBO Delay VOL V+ = 5.0V, ISINK = 1mA Overdrive = 5mV 0.4 2.5 UNITS mV µV/V µA nA V Ω V V µA V mV nA µA V µs Note 1: See Typical Operating Characteristics for output current capability versus input voltage. Guarantees based on correlation to switching on and off times, on-resistance, and peak-current ratings. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 12V/15V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Converters __________________________________________Typical Operating Characteristics (Circuit of Figure 2, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) MAX761/MAX762 EFFICIENCY (%) MAX761-06 MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT CURRENT BOOTSTRAPPED 100 90 VIN = 10V MAX761-01 80 VIN = 5V 70 60 VIN = 2V 50 40 30 20 VOUT = 12V 10 0 0.1 1 10 100 1000 OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT vs. INPUT VOLTAGE 400 350 BOOTSTRAPPED 300 250 200 150 NON-BOOTSTRAPPED 100 50 VOUT = 12V 0 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) NO-LOAD START-UP VOLTAGE 3.5 VOUT = 12V 3.0 BOOTSTRAPPED (EXTERNAL RESISTORS) 2.5 NON-BOOTSTRAPPED (EXTERNAL RESISTORS) 2.0 1.5 BOOTSTRAPPED 1.0 (INTERNAL RESISTORS) 0.5 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 TEMPERATURE (°C) MAX761-07 START-UP VOLTAGE (V) MAX761-04 REFERENCE OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω) EFFICIENCY (%) EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT CURRENT NON-BOOTSTRAPPED 100 90 VIN = 10V 80 70 VIN = 5V 60 50 40 30 20 VOUT = 12V 10 0 0.1 1 10 100 1000 OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) REFERENCE OUTPUT RESISTANCE vs. TEMPERATURE 250 200 10µA 150 100 50µA 100µA 50 0 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 TEMPERATURE (°C) MAX761 START-UP VOLTAGE vs. RLOAD 2.2 VOUT = 12V 2.1 BOOTSTRAPPED INTERNAL RESISTORS 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 0.1 1 10 100 RLOAD (kΩ) 1000 MAX761-08 LX ON-RESISTANCE (Ω) MAX761-05 REFERENCE OUTPUT (V) MAX761-02 QUIESCENT CURRENT (mA) MAX761-03 QUIESCENT CURRENT vs. INPUT VOLTAGE 2.00 VOUT = 12V 1.75 BOOTSTRAPPED (INTERNAL RESISTORS) 1.50 1.25 1.00 BOOTSTRAPPED (EXTERNAL RESISTORS) 0.75 0.50 0.25 NON-BOOTSTRAPPED 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 INPUT VOLTAGE (V) REFERENCE vs.TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT 1.506 1.504 1.502 1.500 1.498 1.496 1.494 1.492 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 TEMPERATURE (°C) LX ON-RESISTANCE vs. TEMPERATURE 1.6 MAX761-09 1.4 V+ = 5V 1.2 1.0 0.8 V+ = 12V 0.6 0.4 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 TEMPERATURE (°C) NO-LOAD START-UP VOLTAGE (V) 4 _______________________________________________________________________________________ MAX761/MAX762 12V/15V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Converters ____________________________Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (Circuit of Figure 2, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) MAX761-12 LX LEAKAGE (nA) LX LEAKAGE vs. TEMPERATURE 1000 100 V+ = 15V 10 1 0.1 VLX = 16.5V 0.01 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 TEMPERATURE (°C) SWITCH-ON TIME vs. TEMPERATURE 8.5 V+ = 5V 8.0 MAX761-13 MAX761-10 IPEAK (A) PEAK CURRENT AT LX vs. TEMPERATURE 1.5 1.4 1.3 V+ = 12V 1.2 1.1 V+ = 5V 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 TEMPERATURE (°C) SWITCH-OFF TIME vs. TEMPERATURE 2.0 V+ = 5V 1.5 MAX761-14 MAX761-11 ICC (µA) SHUTDOWN CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 V+ = 15V 1.5 V+ = 8V 1.0 0.5 V+ = 4V 0 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 TEMPERATURE (°C) POWER-SUPPLY CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE 100 V+ = 16.5V V+ = 3V 90 MAX761-15 ICC (µA) toff (µs) ton (µs) 7.5 -60 ton/toff RATIO (µs/µs) MAX761-16 1.0 80 0 60 120 -60 0 60 120 -60 0 60 120 TEMPERATURE (°C) TEMPERATURE (°C) TEMPERATURE (°C) SWITCH-ON/SWITCH-OFF TIME RATIO vs.TEMPERATURE 7 SHDN RESPONSE TIME 12V V+ = 5V 6 5V 4V 0V 5 -60 0 60 120 2ms/div TEMPERATURE (°C) ILOAD = 100mA, VIN = 5V A: VOUT, 2V/div B: SHDN (0V to 4V) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MAX761/MAX762 12V/15V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Converters _____________________________Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (Circuit of Figure 2, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) LOAD–TRANSIENT RESPONSE LINE–TRANSIENT RESPONSE 200mA 6V A A 0mA 4V B B 5µs/div A: ILOAD, (0mA to 200mA) B: VOUT , AC COUPLED, 100mV/div VIN = 5V, VOUT = 12V 5ms/div A: VIN (4V to 6V) B: VOUT, AC COUPLED, 20mV/div IOUT = 50mA, VOUT = 12V ______________________________________________________________Pin Description PIN NAME FUNCTION 1 LBO Low-battery output is an open-drain output that goes low when LBI is less than 1.5V. Connect to V+ through a pull-up resistor. Leave LBO floating if not used. 2 LBI Input to the internal low-battery comparator. Tie to GND or V+ if not used. Feedback input. For fixed-output bootstrapped operation, connect FB to GND. For adjustable-output bootstrapped operation, connect a resistor divider between V+, FB and 3 FB GND. For non-bootstrapped operation, there is no fixed-output option. Connect a resistor divider network between VOUT, FB and GND. See Bootstrapped/Non-Bootstrapped Modes section. Active-high TTL/CMOS logic-level input. In shutdown mode (SHDN = V+), the internal 4 SHDN switch is turned off and the output voltage equals V+ minus a diode drop (due to the DC path from the input to the output). Tie to GND for normal operation. 5 REF 1.5V reference output that can source 100µA for external loads. Bypass with 0.1µF or larger capacitor. 6 GND Ground 7 LX Drain of the internal N-channel FET. LX has an output resistance of 1Ω and a peak current limit of 1A. 8 V+ Power-supply input. In bootstrapped mode, V+ is also the output voltage sense input. 6 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 12V/15V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Converters LBO V+ FB MAX761/MAX762 LBI N DUAL-MODE™ COMPARATOR MAX761 MAX762 LBI REF 100mV ERROR COMPARATOR V+ 1.5V REFERENCE Q TRIG ONE-SHOT N S Q R LOW INPUT VOLTAGE OSCILLATOR TRIG Q ONE-SHOT CURRENT COMPARATOR 0.2V 0.1V CURRENT CONTROL CIRCUITRY UNDER VOLTAGE COMPARATOR N 2.5V LX Figure 1. Simple Block Diagram ________________Detailed Description Operating Principle The MAX761/MAX762 BiCMOS step-up switch-mode power supplies provide fixed outputs of 12V and 15V, respectively. They have a unique control scheme that combines the advantages of pulse-frequency modulation (low supply current) and pulse-width modulation (high efficiency at high loads). The internal N-channel power MOSFET allows 1A peak currents, increasing the output current capability over previous pulse-frequency-modulation (PFM) devices. Figure 1 shows the MAX761/ MAX762 block diagram. The MAX761/MAX762 offer three main improvements over prior solutions: (1) the converters operate with tiny surface-mount inductors (less than 5mm diameter) GND because of their 300kHz switching frequency, (2) the current-limited PFM control scheme allows 86% efficiencies over a wide range of load currents, and (3) the maximum supply current is only 110µA. Bootstrapped/Non-Bootstrapped Modes Figures 2 and 3 show the standard application circuits for bootstrapped and non-bootstrapped modes. In bootstrapped mode, the IC is powered from the output (VOUT). In other words, the current needed to power the bootstrapped circuit is different from the V+ current the chip consumes. The voltage applied to the gate of the internal N-channel FET is switched from VOUT to ground, providing more switch-gate drive and increasing the efficiency of the DC-DC converter compared with non-bootstrapped operation. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 12V/15V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Converters MAX761/MAX762 VIN = +5V R4 R3 L1 18µH D1 1N5817 C1 33µF C3 0.1µF 7 5 LX REF 4 MAX761 8 SHDN V+ 2 LBI +12V at 150mA C4 33µF C2 0.1µF 100k 3 FB 1 LBO GND 6 LOW-BATTERY OUTPUT Figure 2. Bootstrapped Operating Circuit In non-bootstrapped mode, the IC is powered from the supply voltage, VIN, and operates with minimum supply current. Since the voltage applied to the gate of the internal FET is reduced, efficiency declines with low input voltages. Note: In non-bootstrapped mode, there is no fixed-output operation; external resistors must be used to set the output voltage. Use 1% external feedback resistors when operating in non-bootstrapped mode (Figure 3). Use bootstrapped mode when VIN is below approximately 4V. For VIN between 4V and 6V, the trade-off is lower supply current in non-bootstrapped mode versus higher output current in bootstrapped mode (see Typical Operating Characteristics). Pulse-Frequency Modulation (PFM) Control Scheme The MAX761/MAX762 use a proprietary current-limited PFM control scheme. This control scheme combines the ultra-low supply current of pulse-skipping PFM converters with the high full-load efficiency characteristic of current-mode pulse-width-modulation (PWM) converters. It allows the devices to achieve high efficiency over a wide range of loads, while the current-sense function and high operating frequency allow the use of tiny external components. As with traditional PFM converters, the internal power MOSFET is turned on when the voltage comparator senses the output is out of regulation (Figure 1). However, unlike traditional PFM converters, switching is accomplished through the combination of a peak cur- L1 D1 ADJUSTABLE VIN 18µH 1N5817 OUTPUT (VOUT) C4 ( ) R2 = R1 VVORUEFT-1 C1 C2 R4 R3 C3 LOW-BATTERY DETECT ( ) R4 = R3 VTRIP - VREF VREF VREF = 1.5V NOMINAL C1 = 33µF C2 = 0.1µF C3 = 0.1µF C4 = 33µF 7 LX 8 V+ R2 MAX761 3 2 MAX762 FB 100k LBI 5 REF R1 4 SHDN LBO 1 GND LOW-BATTERY 6 DETECT OUTPUT Figure 3. Non-Bootstrapped Operating Circuit rent limit and a pair of one-shots that set the maximum on-time (8µs) and minimum off-time (1.3µs) for the switch. Once off, the minimum off-time one-shot holds the switch off for 1.3µs. After this minimum time, the switch either (1) stays off if the output is in regulation, or (2) turns on again if the output is out of regulation. The MAX761/MAX762 also limit the peak inductor current, allowing the devices to run in continuous-conduction mode (CCM) and maintain high efficiency with heavy loads (Figure 4a). This current-limiting feature is a key component of the control circuitry. Once turned on, the switch stays on until either (1) the maximum ontime one-shot turns it off (8µs later), or (2) the current limit is reached. To increase light-load efficiency, the current limit for the first two pulses is set to half the peak current limit. If those pulses bring the output voltage into regulation, the voltage comparator holds the MOSFET off, and the current limit remains at half the peak current limit. If the output voltage is still out of regulation after two pulses, the current limit for the next pulse is raised to the full current limit of 1A (Figure 4b). Internal vs. External Resistors When external feedback resistors are used, an internal undervoltage lockout system prevents start-up until V+ rises to about 2.7V. When external feedback resistors are 8 _______________________________________________________________________________________ MAX761/MAX762 12V/15V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Converters 1A 500mA 1A 500mA 0A Figure 4a. CCM, Heavy Load Current Waveform (500mA/div) Figure 4b. Light/Medium Load Current Waveform (500mA/div) used in a bootstrapped circuit (Figure 5), undervoltage lockout prevents start-up at low input voltages; but once started, operation can continue down to a lower voltage that depends on the load. There is no undervoltage lockout when the internal feedback resistors are used (Figure 2), and special circuitry guarantees start-up at 2.0V. The start-up circuitry fixes the duty cycle at 50% until V+ is driven to 2.5V, above which the normal control system takes over. Shutdown Mode The MAX761/MAX762 enter shutdown mode when SHDN is high. In this mode, the internal biasing circuitry is turned off (including the reference) and VOUT equals V+ minus a diode drop (due to the DC path from the input to the output). In shutdown mode, the supply current drops to less than 5µA. SHDN is a TTL/CMOS logic level input. Connect SHDN to GND for normal operation. LBO is high impedance during shutdown. Modes of Operation When delivering high output currents, the MAX761/ MAX762 operate in CCM. In this mode, current always flows in the inductor, and the control circuit adjusts the switch’s duty cycle on a cycle-by-cycle basis to maintain regulation without exceeding the switch-current capability. This provides excellent load-transient response and high efficiency. In discontinuous-conduction mode (DCM), current through the inductor starts at zero, rises to a peak value, then ramps down to zero on each cycle. Although efficiency is still excellent, the switch waveforms contain ringing (the inductor's self-resonant frequency). This ringing is normal and poses no operational problems. Low-Battery Detector The MAX761/MAX762 provide a low-battery comparator that compares the voltage on LBI to the 1.5V reference voltage. When the LBI voltage is below VREF, LBO (an open-drain output) goes low. The low-battery comparator’s 20mV of hysteresis adds noise immunity, preventing repeated triggering of LBO. Use a resistor-divider network between V+, LBI, and GND to set the desired trip voltage VTRIP (Figure 3). When SHDN is high, LBI is ignored and LBO is high impedance. The value of resistor R3 should be no larger than 500kΩ to ensure the LBI leakage current does not cause inaccuracies in VTRIP. __________________Design Procedure Setting the Output Voltage The MAX761/MAX762’s output voltage can be adjusted from 5V to 16.5V using external resistors R1 and R2 configured as shown in Figures 3 and 5. For adjustableoutput operation, select feedback resistor R1 in the 10kΩ to 250kΩ range. Higher R1 values within this range give lowest supply current and best light-load efficiency. R2 is given by: R2 = (R1)( VOUT - 1) VREF where VREF = 1.5V. Note: Tie FB to GND for fixed-output operation (bootstrapped mode only). _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 12V/15V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Converters MAX761/MAX762 L1 VIN 18µH D1 1N5817 VOUT C1 C4 7 LX 5 REF MAX761 MAX762 8 V+ C2 C3 2 LBI R2 4 SHDN 3 FB C1 = 33µF C2 = 0.1µF C3 = 0.1µF C4 = 33µF GND 6 VREF = 1.5V NOMINAL R1 ( ) R2 = R1 VOUT VREF -1 Figure 5. Bootstrapped Operation with Adjustable Output Selecting the Inductor (L) In both CCM and DCM, practical inductor values range from 10µH to 50µH. If the inductor value is too low, the current in the coil will ramp up to a high level before the current-limit comparator can turn off the switch. The minimum on-time for the switch (tON(min)) is approximately 2.5µs, so select an inductance that allows the current to ramp up to ILIM/2 in no less than 2.5µs. Choosing a value of ILIM/2 allows the half-size pulses to occur, giving higher light-load efficiency and minimizing ripple. Hence, calculate the minimum inductance value as: L ≥ (VIN(max))(tON(min)) ILIM/2 OR L ≥ (VIN(max))(5) where VIN(max) is in volts and L is in microhenries. The coil’s inductance need not satisfy this criterion exactly, as the circuit can tolerate a wide range of values. Larger inductance values tend to produce physically larger coils and increase the start-up time, but are otherwise acceptable. Smaller inductance values allow the coil current to ramp up to higher levels before the switch can turn off, producing higher ripple at light loads. In general, an 18µH inductor is sufficient for most applications (VIN ≤ 5V). An 18µH inductor is appropriate for input voltages up to 3.6V, as calculated above. However, the same 18µH coil can be used with input voltages up to 5V with only small increases in peak current, as shown in Figures 4a and 4b. Inductors with a ferrite core or equivalent are recommended. The inductor’s incremental saturation-current rating should be greater than the 1A peak current limit. It is generally acceptable to bias the inductor into saturation by approximately 20% (the point where the inductance is 20% below the nominal value). For highest efficiency, use a coil with low DC resistance, preferably under 100mΩ. To minimize radiated noise, use a toroid, a pot core, or a shielded coil. Table 1 lists inductor types and suppliers for various applications. The listed surface-mount inductors’ efficiencies are nearly equivalent to those of the larger throughhole inductors. Diode Selection The MAX761/MAX762’s high switching frequency demands a high-speed rectifier. Use a Schottky diode with a 1A average current rating, such as a 1N5817. For high-temperature applications, use a high-speed silicon diode, such as the MUR105 or the EC11FS1. These diodes have lower high-temperature leakage than Schottky diodes (Table 1). Capacitor Selection Output Filter Capacitor The primary criterion for selecting the output filter capacitor (C4) is low effective series resistance (ESR). The product of the inductor current variation and the output filter capacitor’s ESR determines the amplitude of the high-frequency ripple seen on the output voltage. A 33µF, 16V Sanyo OS-CON capacitor with 100mΩ ESR typically provides 100mV ripple when stepping up from 5V to 12V at 150mA. Because the output filter capacitor’s ESR affects efficiency, use low-ESR capacitors for best performance. The smallest low-ESR SMT tantalum capacitors currently available are the Sprague 595D series. Sanyo OS-CON organic semiconductor through-hole capacitors and Nichicon PL series also exhibit very low ESR. Table 1 lists some suppliers of low-ESR capacitors. Input Bypass Capacitors The input bypass capacitor, C1, reduces peak currents drawn from the voltage source, and also reduces noise at the voltage source caused by the MAX761/MAX762’s switching action. The input voltage source impedance determines the size of the capacitor required at the V+ input. As with the output filter capacitor, a low-ESR capacitor is recommended. For output currents up to 250mA, 33µF (C1) is adequate, although smaller bypass capacitors may also be acceptable. Bypass the IC separately with a 0.1µF ceramic capacitor, C2, placed close to the V+ and GND pins. 10 ______________________________________________________________________________________ MAX761/MAX762 12V/15V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Converters Reference Capacitor Bypass REF with a 0.1µF capacitor. REF can source up to 100µA. Setting the Low-Battery Detector Voltage To set the low-battery detector’s falling trip voltage (VTRIP), select R3 between 10kΩ and 500kΩ (Figures 2 and 3), and calculate R4 as follows: R4 = R3 [ (VTRIP - VREF) ] VREF where VREF = 1.5V. The rising trip voltage is higher because of the comparator’s hysteresis of approximately 20mV, and can be calculated by: VTRIP(rising) = (VREF + 20mV)(1 + R4/R3). Connect a high-value resistor (larger than R3 + R4) between LBI and LBO if additional hysteresis is required. Connect a pull-up resistor (e.g., 100kΩ) between LBO and VOUT. Tie LBI to GND or V+ and leave LBO floating if the low-battery detector is not used. ___________Applications Information Layout Considerations Proper PC board layout is essential because of high current levels and fast switching waveforms that radiate noise. Minimize ground noise by connecting GND, the input bypass-capacitor ground lead, and the output filtercapacitor ground lead to a single point (star ground configuration). Also minimize lead lengths to reduce stray capacitance, trace resistance, and radiated noise. The traces connected to FB and LX, in particular, must be short. Place bypass capacitor C2 as close as possible to V+ and GND. Table 1. Component Suppliers PRODUCTION METHOD INDUCTORS CAPACITORS DIODES Surface Mount Sumida CD54-180 (22µH) Coiltronics CTX 100-series Matsuo 267 series Nihon EC10 series Miniature Through-Hole Low-Cost Through-Hole Sumida RCH855-180M Renco RL 1284-18 Sanyo OS-CON series Low-ESR organic semiconductor Nichicon PL series Low-ESR electrolytics United Chemi-Con LXF series Motorola 1N5817, MUR105 Coiltronics Matsuo Matsuo Nichicon Nihon Renco Sanyo Sanyo Sumida Sumida United Chem-Con (USA) (USA) (Japan) (USA) (USA) (USA) (USA) (Japan) (USA) (Japan) (USA) (407) 241-7876 (714) 969-2491 81-6-337-6450 (708) 843-7500 (805) 867-2555 (516) 586-5566 (619) 661-6835 (0720) 70-1005 (708) 956-0666 81-3-607-5111 (714) 255-9500 FAX (407) 241-9339 FAX (714) 960-6492 FAX 81-6-337-6456 FAX (708) 843-2798 FAX (805) 867-2556 FAX (516) 586-5562 FAX (619) 661-1055 FAX (0720) 70-1174 FAX 81-3-607-5144 FAX (714) 255-9400 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MAX761/MAX762 12V/15V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Converters ___________________Chip Topography LBO V+ LBI LX 0.142" FB (3.607mm) GND REF SHDN 0.080" (2.030mm) TRANSISTOR COUNT: 492; SUBSTRATE CONNECTED TO V+. Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 12 __________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (408) 737-7600 © 1993 Maxim Integrated Products Printed USA is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.




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