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HDMI Layout guideline

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    在高速走线中,HDMI走线需要注意的问题

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    204 PI3HDMIxxx 4-Layer PCB Layout Guideline for HDMI Products Introduction The differential trace impedance of HDMI is specified at 100Ω±15% in Test ID 8-8 in HDMI Compliance Test Specification Rev.1.2a and 1.3a. Rev. 1.3a has a more relaxed specification which allows an occurrence of a single excursion out to a max/min of 100Ω±25% and of a duration less than 250ps. Generating PCB layout with care can compensate or prevent from significant deviation from desired impedance. General PCB knowledge (PCB Prepreg Selection, Critical Signal Trace Length and Microstrip Stub Effect) and impedance control on 4-layer PCB of 1080+2116 Prepreg will be discussed in this layout guideline. PCB Prepreg Selection Although 4-layer FR4 PCB with 2116 (high-density) Prepreg is popular for PC motherboard, it will be costly if impedance control is required and its insertion loss is not acceptable. Therefore, it is not recommended in HDMI applications. Instead, Prepreg of 1080+2116 (mid-density) or 2116+7628 (low-density) is recommended. With different Prepregs, trace width and spacing have to be adjusted accordingly. Recommended dimensions are stated below. For 1080+2116 Prepreg: For 2116+7628 Prepreg: (a) Stack Up Signal Prepreg 1080+2116 Gnd 1.9 mil 7.3 mil 1.2 mil (a) Stack Up Signal Prepreg 2116+7628 Gnd 1.9 mil 11.6 mil 1.2 mil Core 44 mil Core 31 mil Power Prepreg 1080+2116 Signal 1.2 mil 7.3 mil 1.9 mil Power Prepreg 2116+7628 Signal 1.2 mil 11.6 mil 1.9 mil (b) Isolation Spacing 30 mil (b) Isolation Spacing 45 mil (c) 100Ω Differential Trace Width/Spacing W/S = 8.0 / 9.0 mil or 9.0 / 11 mil for long traces (c) 100Ω Differential Trace Width/Spacing W/S = 8.5 / 6.5 mil or W/S = 12 / 7.0 mil for long traces (d) 50Ω SE Trace Width W = 12 mil (d) 50Ω SE Trace Width W = 20 mil Table 1: PCB Prepreg Recommendation Normally, PCB manufactories control width and spacing of traces at ±1-mil tolerance. At the locations of HDMI connector, components and IC devices, the tolerance is best adjusted to ±0.5mil so as to reduce deviation. The trade off is cost. Page 1 of 7 AN204 06/27/07 Pericom Semiconductor Corp. www.pericom.com 6/27/2007 204 Critical Signal Trace Length To prevent from signal reflection, signal trace length cannot be longer than the following two critical length limitations: (a) 1/16 wavelength of Signal, λ; the relationship between signal wavelength and signal frequency is defined as where εR = 4.3 ~ 4.7 and μR ~ 1 for FR4 material. For a 1.25GHz signal running on FR4 material, critical length limitation is determined as Critical Length < (1/16)λ ≅ 280 mil; and (b) 1/3 length of rising edge of signal; the length, l, is defined as where l = length of rising edge of signal in inch Tr = rise time of signal in ps D = delay in ps/inch The delay of FR4 material is 180 ps/inch. As Tr for HDMI signal is 200ps, signal speed cannot exceed 370 mil which is derived from Critical Length < 1 3 × 200 ps ×1,000mil / in = 370 mil. 180 ps / in If the signal traces are long, it is recommended to use wider differential trace width and spacing since the impedance is more consistent and easier to be controlled if the width is increased. Please refer to Table 1 for detailed width and spacing selection. Page 2 of 7 AN204 06/27/07 Pericom Semiconductor Corp. www.pericom.com 6/27/2007 204 Microstrip Stub Effect As stub adds reactance to PCB trace and lowers the trace impedance, it is not preferable to create any stub on HDMI layout. If an open stub is 1/2 wavelength long, it seems to have a shunt capacitor shorted to Ground on the trace. Likewise, if a short stub is 1/2 wavelength long, it seems to add an inductor or an open on the trace. Figure 1: ½λ Open Stub Figure 2: ½λ Short Stub If it is unavoidable, stub must be kept shorter than 1/6 length of rising edge of signal. In practice, for a 200-ps HDMI signal, the length of stub cannot be longer than 1/6 × 200ps = 33ps. Page 3 of 7 AN204 06/27/07 Pericom Semiconductor Corp. www.pericom.com 6/27/2007 204 Compensation of Solder Pad / Via Solder pad and via create discontinuities of traces. As a result, the trace impedance will be lowered. Creating holes on ground plane of PCB under these components can minimize the capacitance between pad/via and ground plane so as to compensate the impact on trace impedance. Dimensions of holes are recommended in (i) – (iv) in Section (A). The HDMI connector pads are designed to interact with connector pins so as to produce desired trace impedance and create robust signal paths. In order to achieve these, the reference plane, which is the ground plane for HDMI connector in the example in (v) in Section (A), should be removed immediately under the solder pads. A case study of restricted PCB area is provided in Section (B) for reference. Section (A): Recommended Dimensions of Holes on Ground Plane A PCB of 1080+2116 Prepreg is used as an example below. Differential trace width and spacing of 8.0 and 9.0 mil are employed. The dimensions of holes on the ground layer are drawn. (i) Under 0603 ESD / Pull-up Resistor Pads Figure 3: Layout Recommendation of ESD / Pull-up Resistors in 0603 Package (ii) Under 0402 ESD / Pull-up Resistor Pads Figure 4: Layout Recommendation of ESD / Pull-up Resistors in 0402 Package Page 4 of 7 AN204 06/27/07 Pericom Semiconductor Corp. www.pericom.com 6/27/2007 204 (iii) Under Solder Pads of HDMI Switch, e.g. TQFN-56 below (iv) Under Via Figure 5: Layout Recommendation of HDMI Switch Figure 6: Layout Recommendation of Via Page 5 of 7 AN204 06/27/07 Pericom Semiconductor Corp. www.pericom.com 6/27/2007 204 (v) Under HDMI Connector Pads of 3 High-speed Signal Pairs and 1 Clock Pair Figure 7: Layout Recommendation of HDMI Connector Section (B): Case Study of Restricted Area on PCB In practice, spacing on PCB is often a concern on layout; also, vias and stubs are unavoidable to connect ESD components and/or pull-up resistors on the bottom metal layer of PCB. A PCB including ESD components, vias and pull-up resistors is provided for your reference below. Figure 8: Top Metal Layout Recommendation of PCB with ESD + Via + Pull-up Resistors Page 6 of 7 AN204 06/27/07 Pericom Semiconductor Corp. www.pericom.com 6/27/2007 204 Recommendations: (a) Place vias as close to HDMI connector as possible - When signals travel from HDMI connector to HDMI solder pads, the impedance is increased because of dielectric change. This increase can help compensating the impedance drop introduced by vias if the vias are located close to HDMI connector. - As the vias are close to HDMI connector, there may not be enough space to route 100Ω differential traces between HDMI connector and vias. 50Ω single-ended traces can be employed there, instead, provided that the distance is short. (b) Remove ground plane under solder pads of HDMI signal and clock pairs (c) Use passive components (pull-up resistors and/or ESD protectors) with small package - 0402 package instead of 0603 is recommended as smaller solder pads have less impact on trace impedance. (d) Use 9.0/11 mil as trace width and spacing of differential signal traces - Impedance is more controllable if trace is wider. - Appropriate PCB prepreg must also be followed such that the trace impedance is within impedance tolerance. Please refer to PCB Prepreg and Impedance Tolerance Sections for details. (e) Use stubs as short as possible - The stubs between ESD protectors and vias, and vias and pull-up resistors must be shorter than 1/6 length of rising edge of signal as described in Microstrip Stub Section. (f) Remove ground plane under resistor/ESD pads and vias - The hole must be big enough to cover all ESD protector pads, vias and pull-up resistor pads for all four pairs of signals at one HDMI connector. Please refer to Figure 9. Figure 9: Ground Layer Recommendation of PCB with ESD + Via + Pull-up Resistors Page 7 of 7 AN204 06/27/07 Pericom Semiconductor Corp. www.pericom.com 6/27/2007

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