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With the continued success of the USB interface, there exists a need to adapt USB technology to serve newer computing platforms and devices as they trend toward smaller, thinner and lighter form-factors. Many of these newer platforms and devices are reaching a point where existing USB receptacles and plugs are inhibiting innovation, especially given the relatively large size and internal volume constraints of the Standard-A and Standard-B versions of USB connectors. Additionally, as platform usage models have evolved, usability and robustness requirements have advanced and the existing set of USB connectors were not originally designed for some of these newer requirements. This specification is to establish a new USB connector ecosystem that addresses the evolving needs of platforms and devices while retaining all of the functional benefits of USB that form the basis for this most popular of computing device interconnects.

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Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 -1- USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Universal Serial Bus Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Revision 1.0 August 11, 2014 Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 -2- USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Copyright © 2014, USB 3.0 Promoter Group: Hewlett-Packard Company, Intel Corporation, Microsoft Corporation, Renesas, STMicroelectronics, and Texas Instruments All rights reserved. NOTE: Adopters may only use the USB Type-C cable and connector to implement USB or third party functionality as expressly described in this Specification; all other uses are prohibited. LIMITED COPYRIGHT LICENSE: The USB 3.0 Promoters grant a conditional copyright license under the copyrights embodied in the USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification to use and reproduce the Specification for the sole purpose of, and solely to the extent necessary for, evaluating whether to implement the Specification in products that would comply with the specification. Without limiting the foregoing, use of the Specification for the purpose of filing or modifying any patent application to target the Specification or USB compliant products is not authorized. Except for this express copyright license, no other rights or licenses are granted, including without limitation any patent licenses. In order to obtain any additional intellectual property licenses or licensing commitments associated with the Specification a party must execute the USB 3.0 Adopters Agreement. NOTE: By using the Specification, you accept these license terms on your own behalf and, in the case where you are doing this as an employee, on behalf of your employer. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY DISCLAIMER THIS SPECIFICATION IS PROVIDED TO YOU “AS IS” WITH NO WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT, OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE AUTHORS OF THIS SPECIFICATION DISCLAIM ALL LIABILITY, INCLUDING LIABILITY FOR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PROPRIETARY RIGHTS, RELATING TO USE OR IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION IN THIS SPECIFICATION . THE PROVISION OF THIS SPECIFICATION TO YOU DOES NOT PROVIDE YOU WITH ANY LICENSE, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, BY ESTOPPEL OR OTHERWISE, TO ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. All implementation examples and reference designs contained within this Specification are included as part of the limited patent license for those companies that execute the USB 3.0 Adopters Agreement. All product names are trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks of their respective owners. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 -3- USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification CONTENTS Specification Work Group Chairs / Specification Editors .................................................... 10 Specification Work Group Contributors .................................................................................... 10 Pre-Release Draft Industry Reviewing Companies That Provided Feedback................. 12 Revision History ................................................................................................................................ 12 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 13 1.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................ 13 1.2 Scope.................................................................................................................................13 1.3 Related Documents....................................................................................................... 14 1.4 Conventions .................................................................................................................... 14 1.4.1 Precedence ...................................................................................................... 14 1.4.2 Keywords ......................................................................................................... 14 1.4.3 Numbering ....................................................................................................... 15 1.5 Terms and Abbreviations ........................................................................................... 15 2 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 18 2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 18 2.2 USB Type-C Receptacles, Plugs and Cables ........................................................... 19 2.3 Configuration Process ................................................................................................. 20 2.3.1 DFP-to-UFP Attach/Detach Detection ..................................................... 21 2.3.2 Plug Orientation/Cable Twist Detection ................................................ 21 2.3.3 Initial DFP-to-UFP (host-to-device) and Power Relationships Detection .......................................................................................................... 21 2.3.4 USB Type-C VBUS Current Detection and Usage ................................... 22 2.3.5 USB PD Communication............................................................................... 22 2.3.6 Functional Extensions .................................................................................. 22 2.4 VBUS ................................................................................................................................... 22 2.5 VCONN ................................................................................................................................ 23 2.6 Hubs .................................................................................................................................. 23 3 Mechanical .................................................................................................................................. 24 3.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 24 3.1.1 Compliant Connectors .................................................................................. 24 3.1.2 Compliant Cable Assemblies ...................................................................... 24 3.1.3 Compliant USB Type-C to Legacy Cable Assemblies ........................... 24 3.1.4 Compliant USB Type-C to Legacy Adapter Assemblies ...................... 25 3.2 USB Type-C Connector Mating Interfaces ............................................................. 26 3.2.1 Interface Definition....................................................................................... 26 3.2.2 Reference Designs ......................................................................................... 42 3.2.3 Pin Assignments and Descriptions ........................................................... 49 3.3 Cable Construction and Wire Assignments ........................................................... 50 3.3.1 Cable Construction (Informative) ............................................................ 50 3.3.2 Wire Assignments ......................................................................................... 52 3.3.3 Wire Gauges and Cable Diameters (Informative) ................................ 53 Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 -4- USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.4 Standard USB Type-C Cable Assemblies ................................................................ 55 3.4.1 USB Full-Featured Type-C Cable Assembly ........................................... 55 3.4.2 USB 2.0 Type-C Cable Assembly................................................................ 56 3.4.3 USB Type-C Captive Cable Assemblies .................................................... 57 3.5 Legacy Cable Assemblies ............................................................................................ 57 3.5.1 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Cable Assembly ........................... 58 3.5.2 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-A Cable Assembly ........................... 59 3.5.3 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-B Cable Assembly ........................... 60 3.5.4 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-B Cable Assembly ........................... 61 3.5.5 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Mini-B Cable Assembly .................................... 62 3.5.6 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Micro-B Cable Assembly.................................. 63 3.5.7 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B Cable Assembly.................................. 65 3.6 Legacy Adapter Assemblies ....................................................................................... 65 3.6.1 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Receptacle Adapter Assembly 66 3.6.2 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B Receptacle Adapter Assembly....... 67 3.7 Electrical Characteristics ........................................................................................... 69 3.7.1 Raw Cable (Informative) ............................................................................. 69 3.7.2 3.7.3 3.7.4 Mated Connector (Normative) .................................................................. 70 USB Type-C to Type-C Passive Cable Assemblies (Normative) ....... 74 USB Type-C to Legacy Cable Assemblies (Normative) ....................... 84 3.7.5 USB Type-C to USB Legacy Adapter Assemblies (Normative) ......... 87 3.7.6 Shielding Effectiveness Requirements (Normative)........................... 89 3.7.7 DC Electrical Requirements (Normative) .............................................. 90 3.8 Mechanical and Environmental Requirements (Normative) ........................... 91 3.8.1 Mechanical Requirements........................................................................... 92 3.8.2 Environmental Requirements.................................................................... 93 3.9 Docking Applications (Informative) ....................................................................... 95 3.10 Implementation Notes and Design Guides ............................................................ 96 3.10.1 EMC Management (Informative)............................................................... 96 3.10.2 Stacked and Side-by-Side Connector Physical Spacing (Informative) .................................................................................................. 98 3.10.3 Cable Mating Considerations (Informative) .......................................... 99 4 Functional ................................................................................................................................ 100 4.1 Signal Summary.......................................................................................................... 100 4.2 Signal Pin Descriptions ............................................................................................ 100 4.2.1 SuperSpeed USB Pins ................................................................................ 100 4.2.2 USB 2.0 Pins ................................................................................................. 101 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 Auxiliary Signal Pins.................................................................................. 101 Power and Ground Pins ............................................................................ 101 Configuration Pins ..................................................................................... 101 4.3 Sideband Use (SBU)................................................................................................... 101 4.4 Power and Ground ..................................................................................................... 101 4.4.1 IR Drop........................................................................................................... 101 4.4.2 VBUS................................................................................................................. 102 Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 -5- USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.4.3 VCONN.............................................................................................................. 103 4.5 Configuration Channel (CC) .................................................................................... 104 4.5.1 Architectural Overview ............................................................................ 104 4.5.2 CC Functional and Behavioral Requirements .................................... 115 4.5.3 USB Port Interoperability Behavior...................................................... 131 4.6 Power............................................................................................................................. 140 4.6.1 Power Requirements during USB Suspend ......................................... 141 4.6.2 VBUS Power Provided Over a USB Type-C Cable ............................... 142 4.6.3 Supporting USB PD BFSK in Addition to USB PD BMC .................... 144 4.7 USB Hubs ...................................................................................................................... 145 4.8 Chargers........................................................................................................................ 145 4.8.1 DFP as a Power Source ............................................................................. 145 4.8.2 Non-USB Charging Methods .................................................................... 146 4.8.3 Charging UFP ............................................................................................... 147 4.8.4 Charging a System with a Dead Battery .............................................. 147 4.9 Electronically Marked Cables................................................................................. 147 4.10 VCONN-Powered Accessories................................................................................... 148 4.11 Parameter Values....................................................................................................... 149 4.11.1 Termination Parameters .......................................................................... 149 4.11.2 Timing Parameters..................................................................................... 151 4.11.3 Voltage Parameters.................................................................................... 153 4.12 Summary of Ports by Product Type ..................................................................... 155 5 Functional Extensions .......................................................................................................... 157 5.1 Alternate Modes ......................................................................................................... 157 5.1.1 Alternate Mode Architecture .................................................................. 157 5.1.2 Alternate Mode Requirements ............................................................... 157 5.1.3 Parameter Values ....................................................................................... 159 5.1.4 Example Alternate Mode – USB/PCIe Dock ........................................ 160 5.2 Managed Active Cables............................................................................................. 162 5.2.1 Requirements for Managed Active Cables that respond to SOP’ and SOP” ................................................................................................................ 162 5.2.2 Cable Message Structure .......................................................................... 164 5.2.3 Modal Cable Management ........................................................................ 164 A Audio Adapter Accessory Mode ........................................................................................ 166 A.1. Overview ...................................................................................................................... 166 A.2. Detail ............................................................................................................................. 166 A.3. Electrical Requirements .......................................................................................... 167 A.4. Example Implementations ...................................................................................... 169 A.4.1. Passive 3.5 mm to USB Type-C Adapter – Single Pole Detection Switch............................................................................................................. 169 A.4.2. 3.5 mm to USB Type-C Adapter Supporting 500 mA ChargeThrough ......................................................................................................... 169 B Debug Accessory Mode ........................................................................................................ 171 Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 -6- USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification FIGURES Figure 2-1 USB Type-C Receptacle Interface (Front View) .....................................................................................18 Figure 2-2 USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug Interface (Front View) .....................................................................19 Figure 3-1 USB Type-C Receptacle Interface Dimensions........................................................................................28 Figure 3-2 Reference Design USB Type-C Plug External EMC Spring Contact Zones ..................................30 Figure 3-3 USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug Interface Dimensions .......................................................................31 Figure 3-4 Reference Footprint for a USB Type-C Vertical Mount Receptacle (Informative)..................34 Figure 3-5 Reference Footprint for a USB Type-C Dual-Row SMT Right Angle Receptacle (Informative) .......................................................................................................................................................................35 Figure 3-6 Reference Footprint for a USB Type-C Hybrid Right-Angle Receptacle (Informative) ........36 Figure 3-7 Reference Footprint for a USB Type-C Mid-Mount Dual-Row SMT Receptacle (Informative) .......................................................................................................................................................................37 Figure 3-8 Reference Footprint for a USB Type-C Mid-Mount Hybrid Receptacle (Informative)..........38 Figure 3-9 USB 2.0 Type-C Plug Interface Dimensions ..............................................................................................39 Figure 3-10 Reference Design of Receptacle Mid-Plate ............................................................................................42 Figure 3-11 Reference Design of the Retention Latch ...............................................................................................43 Figure 3-12 Illustration of the Latch Soldered to the Paddle Card Ground......................................................43 Figure 3-13 Reference Design of the USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug Internal EMC Spring ....................44 Figure 3-14 Reference Design of the USB 2.0 Type-C Plug Internal EMC Spring ...........................................45 Figure 3-15 Reference Design of Internal EMC Pad....................................................................................................46 Figure 3-16 Reference Design of a USB Type-C Receptacle with External EMC Springs............................47 Figure 3-17 Reference Design for a USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug Paddle Card........................................48 Figure 3-18 Illustration of a USB Full-Featured Type-C Cable Cross Section, a Coaxial Wire Example with VCONN............................................................................................................................................................................51 Figure 3-19 Illustration of a USB Full-Featured Type-C Cable Cross Section, a Coaxial Wire Example without VCONN.....................................................................................................................................................................51 Figure 3-20 USB Full-Featured Type-C Standard Cable Assembly.......................................................................55 Figure 3-21 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Cable Assembly .........................................................................58 Figure 3-22 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-A Cable Assembly .........................................................................59 Figure 3-23 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-B Cable Assembly..........................................................................60 Figure 3-24 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-B Cable Assembly..........................................................................61 Figure 3-25 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Mini-B Cable Assembly ...................................................................................62 Figure 3-26 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Micro-B Cable Assembly ................................................................................63 Figure 3-27 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B Cable Assembly ................................................................................65 Figure 3-28 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Receptacle Adapter Assembly ............................................66 Figure 3-29 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B Receptacle Adapter Assembly ...................................................67 Figure 3-30 Illustration of USB Type-C Mated Connector........................................................................................70 Figure 3-31 Recommended Impedance Limits of a USB Type-C Mated Connector......................................71 Figure 3-32 Recommended Ground Void Dimensions for USB Type-C Receptacle......................................71 Figure 3-33 Recommended Differential Insertion Loss Limits .............................................................................72 Figure 3-34 Recommended Differential Return Loss Limits ..................................................................................72 Figure 3-35 Recommended Differential Crosstalk Limits between SuperSpeed Pairs...............................73 Figure 3-36 Recommended Differential Near-End and Far-End Crosstalk Limits between D+/D− Pair and SuperSpeed Pairs......................................................................................................................................................73 Figure 3-37 Recommended Limits for Differential-to-Common-Mode Conversion.....................................74 Figure 3-38 Illustration of Test Points for a Mated Cable Assembly ...................................................................74 Figure 3-39 Recommended Differential Insertion Loss Requirement ...............................................................75 Figure 3-40 Recommended Differential Return Loss Requirement ....................................................................75 Figure 3-41 Recommended Differential Crosstalk Requirement .........................................................................76 Figure 3-42 Recommended Differential Near-End and Far-End Crosstalk Requirement between USB D+/D− Pair and USB SuperSpeed Pair .....................................................................................................................76 Figure 3-43 Illustration of Insertion Loss Fit at Nyquist Frequency ...................................................................77 Figure 3-44 Input Pulse Spectrum......................................................................................................................................78 Figure 3-45 IMR Limit as Function of ILfitatNq............................................................................................................79 Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 -7- USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-46 IRL Limit as Function of ILfitatNq .............................................................................................................80 Figure 3-47 Differential-to-Common-Mode Conversion Requirement..............................................................81 Figure 3-48 Requirement for Differential Coupling between CC and D+/D−..................................................82 Figure 3-49 Requirement for Single-ended Coupling between VBUS and SBU_A/SBU_B and between VBUS and CC ..........................................................................................................................................................................82 Figure 3-50 Requirement for Differential Coupling between VBUS and D+/D− .............................................83 Figure 3-51 Requirement for Single-Ended Coupling between SBU_A/SBU_B and CC, and for Differential Coupling between SBU_A/SBU_B and USB D+/D− ....................................................................83 Figure 3-52 IMR Limit as Function of ILfitatNq for USB Type-C to Legacy Cable Assembly ....................87 Figure 3-53 IRL Limit as Function of ILfitatNq for USB Type-C to Legacy Cable Assembly .....................87 Figure 3-54 Cable Assembly Shielding Effectiveness Testing ................................................................................90 Figure 3-55 Shielding Effectiveness Pass/Fail Criteria .............................................................................................90 Figure 3-56 LLCR Measurement Diagram.......................................................................................................................91 Figure 3-57 4-Axis Continuity Test ....................................................................................................................................93 Figure 3-58 USB Type-C Cable Receptacle Flange Example....................................................................................96 Figure 3-59 EMC Guidelines for Side Latch and Mid-plate ......................................................................................97 Figure 3-60 EMC Finger Connections to Plug Shell.....................................................................................................97 Figure 3-61 EMC Pad Connections to Receptacle Shell .............................................................................................98 Figure 3-62 Examples of Connector Apertures.............................................................................................................98 Figure 3-63 Recommended Minimum Spacing between Connectors .................................................................99 Figure 3-64 Recommended Minimum Plug Overmold Clearance ........................................................................99 Figure 3-65 Cable Plug Overmold and an Angled Surface........................................................................................99 Figure 4-1 Cable IR Drop...................................................................................................................................................... 102 Figure 4-2 Cable IR Drop for powered cables............................................................................................................. 102 Figure 4-3 Logical Model for Data Bus Routing across USB Type-C-based Ports....................................... 105 Figure 4-4 Logical Model for USB Type-C-based Ports for the Direct Connect Device ............................ 106 Figure 4-5 Pull-Up/Pull-Down CC Model...................................................................................................................... 107 Figure 4-6 Current Source/Pull-Down CC Model...................................................................................................... 107 Figure 4-7 DFP Functional Model for CC1 and CC2.................................................................................................. 110 Figure 4-8 DFP Functional Model Supporting USB PD Provider/Consumer ................................................ 111 Figure 4-9 UFP Functional Model for CC1 and CC2 .................................................................................................. 111 Figure 4-10 UFP Functional Model Supporting USB PD Consumer/Provider and VCONN_Swap......... 112 Figure 4-11 DRP Functional Model for CC1 and CC2............................................................................................... 113 Figure 4-12 Connection State Diagram: DFP .............................................................................................................. 115 Figure 4-13 Connection State Diagram: UFP............................................................................................................... 116 Figure 4-14 Connection State Diagram: UFP with Accessory Support ............................................................ 117 Figure 4-15 Connection State Diagram: DRP .............................................................................................................. 118 Figure 4-16 Connection State Diagram: DRP with Accessory and Try.DFP Support ................................ 119 Figure 4-17 UFP Power Sub-States ................................................................................................................................. 128 Figure 4-18 DFP to UFP Functional Model................................................................................................................... 131 Figure 4-19 DFP to DRP Functional Model .................................................................................................................. 132 Figure 4-20 DRP to UFP Functional Model .................................................................................................................. 133 Figure 4-21 DRP to DRP Functional Model – CASE 1 .............................................................................................. 134 Figure 4-22 DRP to DRP Functional Model – CASE 2 .............................................................................................. 135 Figure 4-23 DFP to DFP Functional Model................................................................................................................... 136 Figure 4-24 UFP to UFP Functional Model................................................................................................................... 137 Figure 4-25 DFP to Legacy Device Port Functional Model.................................................................................... 137 Figure 4-26 Legacy Host Port to UFP Functional Model ........................................................................................ 138 Figure 4-27 DRP to Legacy Device Port Functional Model ................................................................................... 139 Figure 4-28 Legacy Host Port to DRP Functional Model ....................................................................................... 140 Figure 4-29 UFP Monitoring for Current in Pull-Up/Pull-Down CC Model ................................................... 143 Figure 4-30 UFP Monitoring for Current in Current Source/Pull-Down CC Model................................... 143 Figure 4-31 USB PD over CC Pins ..................................................................................................................................... 144 Figure 4-32 USB PD BMC Signaling over CC ................................................................................................................ 144 Figure 4-33 Example implementation of CC input protection in a UFP .......................................................... 145 Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 -8- USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-34 Electronically Marked Cable with VCONN connected through the cable ................................ 148 Figure 4-35 Electronically Marked Cable with SOP’ at both ends ..................................................................... 148 Figure 4-36 DRP Timing....................................................................................................................................................... 151 Figure 5-1 Pins Available for Reconfiguration over the Full-Featured Cable .............................................. 158 Figure 5-2 Pins Available for Reconfiguration for Direct Connect Applications......................................... 158 Figure 5-3 USB/PCIe Dock Example ............................................................................................................................... 160 Figure 5-4 Managed Active Cable Plug SOP’ and SOP” Assignment .................................................................. 163 Figure 5-5 Managed Active Cable..................................................................................................................................... 164 Figure A-1 Example Passive 3.5 mm to USB Type-C Adapter.............................................................................. 169 Figure A-2 Example 3.5 mm to USB Type-C Adapter Supporting 500 mA Charge-Through ................. 170 TABLES Table 2-1 Summary of power supply options ...............................................................................................................23 Table 3-1 USB Type-C Standard Cable Assemblies .....................................................................................................24 Table 3-2 USB Type-C Legacy Cable Assemblies ..........................................................................................................25 Table 3-3 USB Type-C Legacy Adapter Assemblies.....................................................................................................25 Table 3-4 USB Type-C Receptacle Interface Pin Assignments ...............................................................................49 Table 3-5 USB Type-C Receptacle Interface Pin Assignments for USB 2.0-only Support ..........................50 Table 3-6 USB Type-C Standard Cable Wire Assignments.......................................................................................52 Table 3-7 USB Type-C Cable Wire Assignments for Legacy Cables/Adapters ................................................53 Table 3-8 Reference Wire Gauges for standard USB Type-C Cable Assemblies.............................................54 Table 3-9 Reference Wire Gauges for USB Type-C to Legacy Cable Assemblies ............................................54 Table 3-10 USB Full-Featured Type-C Standard Cable Assembly Wiring.........................................................56 Table 3-11 USB 2.0 Type-C Standard Cable Assembly Wiring ...............................................................................57 Table 3-12 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Cable Assembly Wiring............................................................58 Table 3-13 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-A Cable Assembly Wiring............................................................59 Table 3-14 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-B Cable Assembly Wiring............................................................60 Table 3-15 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-B Cable Assembly Wiring............................................................61 Table 3-16 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Mini-B Cable Assembly Wiring .....................................................................62 Table 3-17 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Micro-B Cable Assembly Wiring...................................................................64 Table 3-18 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B Cable Assembly Wiring...................................................................65 Table 3-19 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Receptacle Adapter Assembly Wiring...............................67 Table 3-20 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B Receptacle Adapter Assembly Wiring......................................68 Table 3-21 Differential Insertion Loss Examples for USB SuperSpeed with Twisted Pair Construction .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69 Table 3-22 Differential Insertion Loss Examples for USB SuperSpeed with Coaxial Construction.......70 Table 3-23 Coupling Matrix for Low Speed Signals ....................................................................................................81 Table 3-24 USB D+/D− Signal Integrity Requirements .............................................................................................84 Table 3-25 USB D+/D− Signal Integrity Requirements for USB Type-C to Legacy USB Cable Assemblies ............................................................................................................................................................................ 85 Table 3-26 Design Targets for USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Gen 2 Legacy Cable Assemblies (Informative)85 Table 3-27 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Gen 2 Legacy Cable Assembly Signal Integrity Requirements (Normative) .........................................................................................................................................................................86 Table 3-28 USB D+/D− Signal Integrity Requirements for USB Type-C to Legacy USB Adapter Assemblies (Normative).................................................................................................................................................88 Table 3-29 Design Targets for USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Adapter Assemblies (Informative) .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 88 Table 3-30 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Receptacle Adapter Assembly Signal Integrity Requirements (Normative)...........................................................................................................................................89 Table 3-31 Environmental Test Conditions ...................................................................................................................94 Table 3-32 Reference Materials...........................................................................................................................................95 Table 4-1 USB Type-C List of Signals .............................................................................................................................. 100 Table 4-2 VCONN Source Characteristics........................................................................................................................ 103 Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 -9- USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 4-3 VCONN Sink Characteristics ............................................................................................................................. 104 Table 4-4 USB Type-C-based Port Interoperability ................................................................................................. 106 Table 4-5 DFP Perspective .................................................................................................................................................. 108 Table 4-6 DFP and UFP Behaviors by State ................................................................................................................. 109 Table 4-7 USB PD Swapping Port Behavior Summary............................................................................................ 114 Table 4-8 Mandatory and Optional States.................................................................................................................... 130 Table 4-9 Precedence of power source usage ............................................................................................................ 141 Table 4-10 DFP CC Termination (Rp) Requirements .............................................................................................. 149 Table 4-11 UFP CC Termination (Rd) Requirements .............................................................................................. 150 Table 4-12 Powered cable Termination Requirements ......................................................................................... 150 Table 4-13 UFP CC Termination Requirements......................................................................................................... 150 Table 4-14 SBU Termination Requirements ............................................................................................................... 150 Table 4-15 VBUS and VCONN Timing Parameters........................................................................................................ 151 Table 4-16 DRP Timing Parameters ............................................................................................................................... 152 Table 4-17 CC Timing ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 Table 4-18 CC Voltages on DFP Side – Default USB.................................................................................................. 153 Table 4-19 CC Voltages on DFP Side – 1.5 A @ 5 V................................................................................................... 153 Table 4-20 CC Voltages on DFP Side – 3.0 A @ 5 V................................................................................................... 153 Table 4-21 Voltage on UFP CC Pins (Default USB Type-C Current only)........................................................ 153 Table 4-22 Voltage on UFP CC pins (Multiple DFP Current Advertisements).............................................. 154 Table 4-23 Summary of Ports and Behaviors by Product Type ......................................................................... 156 Table 5-1 USB Safe State Electrical Requirements ................................................................................................... 159 Table 5-2 USB Billboard Device Class Availability Following Alternate Mode Entry Failure ............... 159 Table 5-3 Alternate Mode Signal Noise Ingression Requirements.................................................................... 159 Table 5-4 SOP’ and SOP” Timing....................................................................................................................................... 164 Table A-1 USB Type-C Analog Audio Pin Assignments........................................................................................... 167 Table A-2 USB Type-C Analog Audio Pin Electrical Parameter Ratings.......................................................... 168 Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 10 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Specification Work Group Chairs / Specification Editors Intel Corporation (USB 3.0 Promoter company) Seagate Yun Ling – Mechanical WG co-chair, Mechanical Chapter Co-editor Bob Dunstan – Functional WG co-chair, Specification Co-author Brad Saunders – Plenary/Functional WG chair, Specification Co-author Alvin Cox, Mechanical WG co-chair, Mechanical Chapter Co-editor Specification Work Group Contributors Advanced-Connectek, Inc. (ACON) Advanced Micro Devices Agilent Technologies, Inc. Apple Glen Chandler Jeff Chien Lee (Dick Lee) Ching Conrad Choy Steve Capezza James Choate Mahmoud Amini Sree Anantharaman Paul Baker Jason Chung David Conroy Bill Cornelius Vicky Chuang Aven Kao Danny Liao Alan MacDougall Walter Fry William Ferry Zheng Gao Girault Jones Keong Kam Min Kim Chris Ligtenberg Cypress Semiconductor Dell DisplayLink (UK) Ltd. Electronics Testing Center, Taiwan Foxconn Foxlink/Cheng Uei Precision Industry Co., Ltd. Google Mark Fu Rushil Kadakia Mohammed Hijazi David Meyers Pete Burgers Sophia Liu Asroc Chen Allen Cheng Jason Chou Edmond Choy Bob Hall Robert Chen Sunny Chou Carrie Chuang Wen-Chuan Hsu Alex Hsue Joshua Boilard Jim Guerin Jeffrey Hayashida Mark Hayter Anup Nayak Jagadeesan Raj Sean O’Neal Ernesto Ramirez Richard Petrie Chien-Ping Kao Ji Li Ann Liu Terry Little Steve Sedio Armando Lee Dennis Lee Justin Lin Tse Wu Ting Nithya Jagannathan Lawrence Lam Ingrid Lin Adam Rodriguez Granite River Labs Hewlett Packard (USB 3.0 Promoter company) Mike Engbretson Alan Berkema Robin Castell Johnson Tan Michael Krause Jim Mann Alan Tsai Stephen Yang Will Harris Nathan Ng James Orr Keith Porthouse Sascha Tietz Colin Whitby-Strevens Dennis Yarak Sanjay Sancheti Subu Sankaran Thomas Voor Pei Tsao AJ Yang Yuan Zhang Jessica Zheng Andy Yao Steve Tsai Wen Yang Wiley Yang Junjie Yu David Schneider Ken Wu Linden McClure Mike Pescetto Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 Hirose Electric Co., Ltd. Intel Corporation (USB 3.0 Promoter company) Japan Aviation Electronics Industry Ltd. (JAE) JPC/Main Super Inc. LeCroy Corporation Lenovo Lotes Co., Ltd. LSI Corporation Luxshare-ICT MegaChips Corporation Microchip (SMSC) Microsoft Corporation (USB 3.0 Promoter company) MQP Electronics Ltd. Nokia Corporation Renesas Electronics Corp. (USB 3.0 Promoter company) Rohm Co., Ltd. - 11 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Jeremy Buan William MacKillop Dave Ackelson Mike Bell Kuan-Yu Chen Hengju Cheng Bob Dunstan Paul Durley Howard Heck Hao-Han Hsu Abdul (Rahman) Ismail Kenji Hagiwara Masaki Kimura Toshio Masumoto Joe Motojima Ron Muir Tadashi Okubo Kazuhiro Saito Sam Tseng Daniel H. Jacobs Rob Bowser Tomoki Harada Ariel Delos Reyes Ernest Han Mark Ho Dave Thompson Josue Castillo Daniel Chen Lisen Chen Alan Kobayashi Josh Averyt Mark Bohm Randy Aull Fred Bhesania Anthony Chen Marty Evans Vivek Gupta Robbie Harris Sten Carlsen Daniel Gratiot Pekka Leinonen Nobuo Furuya Gourgen Oganessyan Sid Tono James Jaussi Luke Johnson Jerzy Kolinski Christine Krause Yun Ling Xiang Li Guobin Liu Steve McGowan Chee Lim Nge Sridharan Ranganathan Brad Saunders Amit Srivastava Ron Swartz Karthi Vadivelu Rafal Wielicki Kimiaki Saito Yuichi Saito Mark Saubert Toshio Shimoyama Tatsuya Shioda Atsuo Tago Masaaki Takaku Ray Yang Wei Lie Regina Liu-Hwang Max Lo Charles Kaun CY Hsu Alan Kinningham John Lin Donald Perkins Robert Hollyer Kai Inha Jayson Kastens Andrea Keating Eric Lee Pat Crowe Samuli Makinen Pekka Talmola Philip Leung Jussi Takaneva Tomohiko Tamada Kentaro Toda Kouhei Ueda Takakazu Usami Masahide Watanabe Youhei Yokoyama Howard Locker JinYi Tu Jason Yang Stone Lin Pat Young Mohammed Rahman Ivan McCracken Toby Nixon Gene Obie Srivatsan Ravindran David Voth Timo Toivola Panu Ylihaavisto Kiichi Muto Mark Aaldering Kris Bahar Yusuke Kondo Arun Kumar Vijendra Kuroodi Chris Lin Takashi Sato Hiroshi Yoshimura Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 12 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Seagate STMicroelectronics (USB 3.0 Promoter company) Tektronics, Inc. Texas Instruments (USB 3.0 Promoter company) Tyco Electronics Corp. (TE Connectivity Ltd.) VIA Technologies Inc. Soondo Kim Woonki Kim Alvin Cox Tony Priborsky Nicolas Florenchie Joel Huloux Randy White Jawaid Ahmad Richard Hubbard Scott Jackson Yoon Lee Max Chao Robert E. Cid Kengo Ijiro Eiji Ikematsu Joan Leu Clark Li Mike Lockyer Terrance Shih Jagoun Koo Cheolho Lee Tom Skaar Christophe Lorin Patrizia Milazzo Jun Bum Lee Dan Smith Federico Musarra Pascal Legrand Grant Ley Win Maung Lauren Moore Martin Patoka Jim McGrath Takeshi Nakashima Luis A. Navarro Masako Saito Yoshiaki Sakuma Gavin Shih Hiroshi Shirai Jay Tseng Brian Quach Wes Ray Anwar Sadat Deric Waters Scott Shuey Hidenori Taguchi Bernard Vetten Ryan Yu Sjoerd Zwartkruis Fong-Jim Wang Pre-Release Draft Industry Reviewing Companies That Provided Feedback Aces Allion Labs, Inc. Analogix Semiconductor BizLink International Corp. Corning Optical Communications LLC Cypress Semiconductor Etron Technology Inc. Fairchild Semiconductor Fujitsu Ltd. Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) Johnson Components & Equipment Co., Ltd. Joinsoon Electronics Mfg. Co. Ltd. JST Mfg. Co., Ltd. Korea Electric Terminal Marvell Semiconductor Motorola Mobility LLC NEC Newnex Technology Corp. NXP Semiconductors PalCONN/PalNova (Palpilot International Corp.) Parade Technology Pericom Qualcomm Semtech Corporation Shenzhen Deren Electronic Co., Ltd. Silicon Image Simula Technology Corp. SMK Corporation Sony Corporation Sumitomo Electric Industries Toshiba Corporation Revision History Revision 1.0 Date August 11, 2014 Description Initial Release Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 13 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 1 Introduction With the continued success of the USB interface, there exists a need to adapt USB technology to serve newer computing platforms and devices as they trend toward smaller, thinner and lighter form-factors. Many of these newer platforms and devices are reaching a point where existing USB receptacles and plugs are inhibiting innovation, especially given the relatively large size and internal volume constraints of the Standard-A and Standard-B versions of USB connectors. Additionally, as platform usage models have evolved, usability and robustness requirements have advanced and the existing set of USB connectors were not originally designed for some of these newer requirements. This specification is to establish a new USB connector ecosystem that addresses the evolving needs of platforms and devices while retaining all of the functional benefits of USB that form the basis for this most popular of computing device interconnects. 1.1 Purpose This specification defines the USB Type-C receptacles, plug and cables. The USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification is guided by the following principles:  Enable new and exciting host and device form-factors where size, industrial design and style are important parameters  Work seamlessly with existing USB host and device silicon solutions  Enhance ease of use for connecting USB devices with a focus on minimizing user confusion for plug and cable orientation The USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification defines a new receptacle, plug, cable and detection mechanisms that are compatible with existing USB interface electrical and functional specifications. This specification covers the following aspects that are needed to produce and use this new USB cable/connector solution in newer platforms and devices, and that interoperate with existing platforms and devices:  USB Type-C receptacles, including electro-mechanical definition and performance requirements  USB Type-C plugs and cable assemblies, including electro-mechanical definition and performance requirements  USB Type-C to legacy cable assemblies and adapters  USB Type-C-based device detection and interface configuration, including support for legacy connections  USB Power Delivery optimized for the USB Type-C connector The USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification defines a standardized mechanism that supports Alternate Modes, such as repurposing the connector for docking-specific applications. 1.2 Scope This specification is intended as a supplement to the existing USB 2.0, USB 3.1 and USB Power Delivery specifications. It addresses only the elements required to implement and support the USB Type-C receptacles, plugs and cables. Normative information is provided to allow interoperability of components designed to this specification. Informative information, when provided, may illustrate possible design implementations. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 14 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 1.3 Related Documents USB 2.0 Universal Serial Bus Revision 2.0 Specification This includes the entire document release package. http://www.usb.org/developers/docs USB 3.1 Universal Serial Bus Revision 3.1 Specification This includes the entire document release package. http://www.usb.org/developers/docs USB PD USB Power Delivery Specification, Revision 2.0, August 11, 2014 http://www.usb.org/developers/docs USB BB USB Billboard Device Class Specification, Revision 1.0, August 11, 2014 http://www.usb.org/developers/docs USB BC Battery Charging Specification, Revision 1.2 (including errata and ECNs through March 15, 2012), March 15, 2012 http://www.usb.org/developers/docs 1.4 Conventions 1.4.1 Precedence If there is a conflict between text, figures, and tables, the precedence shall be tables, figures, and then text. 1.4.2 Keywords The following keywords differentiate between the levels of requirements and options. 1.4.2.1 Informative Informative is a keyword that describes information with this specification that intends to discuss and clarify requirements and features as opposed to mandating them. 1.4.2.2 May May is a keyword that indicates a choice with no implied preference. 1.4.2.3 N/A N/A is a keyword that indicates that a field or value is not applicable and has no defined value and shall not be checked or used by the recipient. 1.4.2.4 Normative Normative is a keyword that describes features that are mandated by this specification. 1.4.2.5 Optional Optional is a keyword that describes features not mandated by this specification. However, if an optional feature is implemented, the feature shall be implemented as defined by this specification (optional normative). 1.4.2.6 Reserved Reserved is a keyword indicating reserved bits, bytes, words, fields, and code values that are set-aside for future standardization. Their use and interpretation may be specified by future extensions to this specification and, unless otherwise stated, shall not be utilized or adapted by vendor implementation. A reserved bit, byte, word, or field shall be set to zero by the Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 15 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification sender and shall be ignored by the receiver. Reserved field values shall not be sent by the sender and, if received, shall be ignored by the receiver. 1.4.2.7 Shall Shall is a keyword indicating a mandatory (normative) requirement. Designers are mandated to implement all such requirements to ensure interoperability with other compliant Devices. 1.4.2.8 Should Should is a keyword indicating flexibility of choice with a preferred alternative. Equivalent to the phrase “it is recommended that”. 1.4.3 Numbering Numbers that are immediately followed by a lowercase “b” (e.g., 01b) are binary values. Numbers that are immediately followed by an uppercase “B” are byte values. Numbers that are immediately followed by a lowercase “h” (e.g., 3Ah) are hexadecimal values. Numbers not immediately followed by either a “b”, “B”, or “h” are decimal values. 1.5 Terms and Abbreviations Term Accessory Mode Active cable Alternate Mode Audio Adapter Accessory Mode BFSK BMC Captive cable CC Debug Accessory Mode Default VBUS Description A reconfiguration of the connector based on the presence of Rd/Rd or Ra/Ra on CC1/CC2, respectively. An Electronically Marked Cable with additional electronics to condition the data path signals. Operation defined by a vendor or standards organization that is associated with a SVID assigned by the USB-IF. Entry and exit into and from an Alternate Mode is controlled by the USB PD Structured VDM Enter Mode and Exit Mode commands. The Accessory Mode defined by the presence of Ra/Ra on CC1/CC2, respectively. See Appendix A. Binary Frequency Shift Keying used for USB PD communication over VBUS. Biphase Mark Coding used for USB PD communication over the CC wire. A cable that is terminated on one end with a USB Type-C plug and has a vendor-specific connect means (hardwired or custom detachable) on the opposite end. Configuration Channel (CC) used in the discovery, configuration and management of connections across a USB Type-C cable. The Accessory Mode defined by the presence of Rd/Rd on CC1/CC2, respectively. See Appendix B. VBUS voltage as defined by the USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 specifications. Note: where used, 5 V connotes the same meaning. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 16 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Term DFP Direct connect DRP DR_Swap Electronically Marked Cable Initiator Passive cable Powered cable PR_Swap Responder SBU SID SVID Type-A Type-B Type-C Plug Type-C Port Type-C Receptacle Description Downstream Facing Port, specifically associated with the flow of data in a USB connection. Typically the ports on a host or the ports on a hub to which devices are connected. In its initial state, the DFP sources VBUS and VCONN, and supports data. A charge-only DFP port only sources VBUS. The host’s DFP is connected directly with no USB hub in between, either via a cable or without (e.g., thumb drive), to the device’s UFP. The acronym used in this specification to refer to a USB data port that can operate as either a DFP or a UFP. The role that the port offers may be fixed to either a DFP or UFP or may alternate between the two port states. The port’s role may be changed dynamically. Note: this term is not to be confused with the terminology in the USB Power Delivery specification where “dual-role port” refers to power roles. USB PD Data Role Swap. A USB Type-C cable that uses USB PD to provide the cable’s characteristics. The port initiating a Vendor Defined Message. It is independent of the port’s PD role (e.g., Provider, Consumer, Provider/Consumer, or Consumer/Provider). In most cases, the Initiator will be a host. A cable that does not incorporate any electronics to condition the data path signals. A passive cable may or may not be electronically marked. A cable with electronics in the plug that requires VCONN indicated by the presence of Ra between the VCONN pin and ground. USB PD Power Role Swap. The port responding to the Initiator of a Vendor Defined Message (VDM). It is independent of the port’s PD role (e.g., Provider, Consumer, Provider/Consumer, or Consumer/Provider). In most cases, the Responder will be a device. Sideband Use. A Standard ID (SID) is a unique 16-bit value assigned by the USB-IF to identify an industry standard. General reference to either a SID or a VID. Used by USB PD Structured VDMs when requesting SIDs and VIDs from a device. A general reference to all versions of USB “A” plugs and receptacles. A general reference to all versions of USB “B” plugs and receptacles. A USB plug conforming to the mechanical and electrical requirements in this specification. The USB port associated to a USB Type-C receptacle. This includes the USB signaling, CC logic, multiplexers and other associated logic. A USB receptacle conforming to the mechanical and electrical requirements of this specification. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 17 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Term UFP USB 2.0 Type-C Cable USB 2.0 Type-C Plug USB Full-Featured Type-C Cable USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug VCONN-powered accessory VCONN_Swap VDM VID Description Upstream Facing Port, specifically associated with the flow of data in a USB connection. The port on a device or a hub that connects to a host or the DFP of a hub. In its initial state, the UFP sinks VBUS and supports data. A USB Type-C to Type-C cable that only supports USB 2.0 data operation. This cable does not include USB 3.1 or SBU wires. A USB Type-C plug specifically designed to implement the USB 2.0 Type-C cable. A USB Type-C to Type-C cable that supports USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 data operation. This cable includes SBU wires. A USB Type-C plug specifically designed to implement the USB FullFeatured Type-C cable. An accessory that is powered from VCONN to operate in an Alternate Mode. USB PD VCONN Swap. Vendor Defined Message as defined by the USB PD specification. A Vendor ID (VID) is a unique 16-bit value assigned by the USB-IF to identify a vendor. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 18 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 2 Overview 2.1 Introduction The USB Type-C receptacle, plug and cable provide a smaller, thinner and more robust alternative to existing USB 3.1 interconnect (Standard and Micro USB cables and connectors). This new solution targets use in very thin platforms, ranging from ultra -thin notebook PCs down to smart phones where existing Standard-A and Micro-AB receptacles are deemed too large, difficult to use, or inadequately robust. Some key specific enhancements include:  The USB Type-C receptacle may be used in very thin platforms as its total system height for the mounted receptacle is under 3 mm  The USB Type-C plug enhances ease of use by being plug-able in either upside-up or upside-down directions  The USB Type-C cable enhances ease of use by being plug-able in either direction between host and devices While the USB Type-C interconnect no longer physically differentiates plugs on a cable by being an A-type or B-type, the USB interface still maintains such a host-to-device logical relationship. Determination of this host-to-device relationship is accomplished through a Configuration Channel (CC) that is connected through the cable. In addition, the Configuration Channel is used to set up and manage power and Alternate/Accessory Modes. Using the Configuration Channel, the USB Type-C interconnect defines a simplified 5 volt VBUS-based power delivery and charging solution that supplements what is already defined in the USB 3.1 Specification. More advanced power delivery and battery charging features over the USB Type-C interconnect are based on the USB Power Delivery Specification. As a product implementation improvement, the USB Type-C interconnect shifts the USB PD communication protocol from being communicated over VBUS to being delivered across the USB Type-C Configuration Channel. The USB Type-C receptacle, plug and cable designs are intended to support future USB functional extensions. As such, consideration was given to frequency scaling performance, pin-out arrangement and the configuration mechanisms when developing this solution. The definition of future USB functional extensions is not in the scope of this specification but rather will be provided in future releases of the base USB Specification, i.e., beyond the existing USB 3.1 Specification. Figure 2-1 illustrates the comprehensive functional signal plan for the USB Type-C receptacle, not all signals shown are required in all platforms or devices. As shown, the receptacle signal list functionally delivers both USB 2.0 (D+ and D−) and USB 3.1 (TX and RX pairs) data buses, USB power (VBUS) and ground (GND), Configuration Channel signals (CC1 and CC2), and two Sideband Use (SBU) signal pins. Multiple sets of USB data bus signal locations in this layout facilitate being able to functionally map the USB signals independent of plug orientation in the receptacle. For reference, the signal pins are labeled. Figure 2-1 USB Type-C Receptacle Interface (Front View) Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 19 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 2-2 illustrates the comprehensive functional signal plan for the USB Type-C plug. Only one CC pin is connected through the cable to establish signal orientation and the other CC pin is repurposed as VCONN for powering electronics in the USB Type-C plug. Also, only one set of USB 2.0 D+/D− wires are implemented in a USB Type-C cable. For USB Type-C cables that only intend to support USB 2.0 functionality, the USB 3.1 and SBU signals are not implemented. Figure 2-2 USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug Interface (Front View) 2.2 USB Type-C Receptacles, Plugs and Cables Cables and connectors, including USB Type-C to USB legacy cables and adapters, are explicitly defined within this specification. These are the only connectors and cables that are authorized by the licensing terms of this specification. All licensed cables and connectors are required to comply with the compliance and certification requirements that are developed and maintained by the USB-IF. The following USB Type-C receptacles and plugs are defined.  USB Type-C receptacle for USB 2.0, USB 3.1 and full-featured platforms and devices  USB Full-Featured Type-C plug  USB 2.0 Type-C plug The following USB Type-C cables are defined.  USB Full-Featured Type-C cable with a USB Full-Featured Type-C plug at both ends for USB 3.1 and full-featured applications  USB 2.0 Type-C cable with a USB 2.0 Type-C plug at both ends for USB 2.0 applications  Captive cable with either a USB Full-Featured Type-C plug or USB 2.0 Type-C plug at one end All of the defined USB Type-C receptacles, plugs and cables support USB charging applications, including support for the optional USB Type-C-specific implementation of the USB Power Delivery Specification (See Section 4.6.2.4). All USB Full-Featured Type-C cables are electronically marked. USB 2.0 Type-C cables may be electronically marked. See Section 4.9 for the requirements of Electronically Marked Cables. The following USB Type-C to USB legacy cables and adapters are defined.  USB 3.1 Type-C to Legacy Host cable with a USB Full-Featured Type-C plug at one end and a USB 3.1 Standard-A plug at the other end – this cable supports use of a USB Type-C-based device with a legacy USB host Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 20 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification  USB 2.0 Type-C to Legacy Host cable with a USB 2.0 Type-C plug at one end and a USB 2.0 Standard-A plug at the other end – this cable supports use of a USB Type-C-based device with a legacy USB 2.0 host (primarily for mobile charging and sync applications)  USB 3.1 Type-C to Legacy Device cable with a USB Full-Featured Type-C plug at one end and a USB 3.1 Standard-B plug at the other end – this cable supports use of legacy USB 3.1 hubs and devices with a USB Type-C-based host  USB 2.0 Type-C to Legacy Device cable with a USB 2.0 Type-C plug at one end and a USB 2.0 Standard-B plug at the other end – this cable supports use of legacy USB 2.0 hubs and devices with a USB Type-C-based host  USB 2.0 Type-C to Legacy Mini Device cable with a USB 2.0 Type-C plug at one end and a USB 2.0 Mini-B plug at the other end – this cable supports use of legacy devices with a USB 2.0 Type-C-based host  USB 3.1 Type-C to Legacy Micro Device cable with a USB Full-Featured Type-C plug at one end and a USB 3.1 Micro-B plug at the other end – this cable supports use of legacy USB 3.1 hubs and devices with a USB Type-C-based host  USB 2.0 Type-C to Legacy Micro Device cable with a USB 2.0 Type-C plug at one end and a USB 2.0 Micro-B plug at the other end – this cable supports use of legacy USB 2.0 hubs and devices with a USB Type-C-based host  USB 3.1 Type-C to Legacy Standard-A adapter with a USB Full-Featured Type-C plug at one end and a USB 3.1 Standard-A receptacle at the other end – this adapter supports use of a legacy USB “thumb drive” style device or a legacy USB ThinCard device with a USB 3.1 Type-C-based host  USB 2.0 Type-C to Legacy Micro-B adapter with a USB 2.0 Type-C plug at one end and a USB 2.0 Micro-B receptacle at the other end – this adapter supports charging a USB Type-C-based mobile device using a legacy USB Micro-B-based chargers, either captive cable-based or used in conjunction with a legacy USB 2.0 Standard-A to Micro-B cable Implementations of USB Type-C to USB legacy cables may support USB PD BFSK-based communications by incorporating the required USB PD plug and cable requirements for the legacy connector end of the cable. USB Type-C to USB legacy adapters do not support USB PD BFSK-based communications. USB Type-C receptacle to USB legacy adapters are explicitly not defined or allowed. Such adapters would allow many invalid and potentially unsafe cable connections to be constructed by users. 2.3 Configuration Process The USB Type-C receptacle, plug and cable solution incorporates a configuration process to detect a downstream facing port to upstream facing port (DFP-to-UFP) connection for VBUS management and host-to-device connected relationship determination. The configuration process is used for the following:  DFP-to-UFP attach/detach detection  Plug orientation/cable twist detection  Initial DFP-to-UFP (host-to-device) and power relationships detection  USB Type-C VBUS current detection and usage  USB PD communication  Discovery and configuration of functional extensions Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 21 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Two pins on the USB Type-C receptacle, CC1 and CC2, are used for this purpose. Within a standard USB Type-C cable, only a single CC pin position within each plug of the cable is connected through the cable. 2.3.1 DFP-to-UFP Attach/Detach Detection Initially, DFP-to-UFP attach is detected by a host or hub port (DFP) when one of the CC pins at its USB Type-C receptacle senses a specified resistance to GND. Subsequently, DFP-toUFP detach is detected when the CC pin that was terminated at its USB Type-C receptacle is no longer terminated to GND. Power is not applied to the USB Type-C host or hub receptacle (VBUS or VCONN) until the DFP detects the presence of an attached device (UFP) port. When a DFP-to-UFP attach is detected, the DFP is expected to enable power to the receptacle and proceed to normal USB operation with the attached device. When a DFP-to-UFP detach is detected, the port sourcing VBUS removes power. 2.3.2 Plug Orientation/Cable Twist Detection The USB Type-C plug can be inserted into a receptacle in either one of two orientations, therefore the CC pins enable a method for detecting plug orientation in order to determine which SuperSpeed USB data signal pairs are functionally connected through the cable. This allows for signal routing, if needed, within a DFP or UFP to be established for a successful connection. 2.3.3 Initial DFP-to-UFP (host-to-device) and Power Relationships Detection Unlike existing USB Type-A and Type-B receptacles and plugs, the mechanical characteristics of the USB Type-C receptacle and plug do not inherently establish the relationship of USB host and device ports. The CC pins on the receptacle also serve to establish an initial DFPto-UFP and power relationships prior to the normal USB enumeration process. For the purpose of defining how the CC pins are used to establish the initial DFP-to-UFP relationship, the following port behavior modes are defined. 1. Host-only – for this mode, the port exclusively behaves as a DFP 2. Device-only – for this mode, the port exclusively behaves as a UFP 3. Dual-role – for this mode, the port can behave either as a DFP or UFP The host-only and device-only ports behaviorally map to traditional USB host ports and USB device ports, respectively. When a host-only port is attached to a device-only port, the behavior from the user’s perspective follows the traditional USB host-to-device port model. However, the USB Type-C connector solution does not physically prevent host-to-host or device-to-device connections. In this case, the resulting host-to-host or device-to-device connection results in a safe but non-functional situation. Initially, the DFP sources VBUS and the UFP sinks VBUS. USB PD may then be used to independently swap both the data and power roles of the ports. USB hubs have two types of ports, a single UFP that is connected up to a host or another hub and one or more DFPs for connecting other devices. A port that supports dual-role operation by being able to shift to the appropriate connected mode when attached to either a host-only or device-only port is a DRP. In the special case of a DRP being attached to another DRP, an initialization protocol across the CC pins is used to establish the initial host-to-device relationship, and in this case, the determination of which is DFP or UFP is random from the user’s perspective. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 22 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Two methods are defined to allow a USB Type-C DRP to functionally swap data roles, one managed using USB PD DR_Swap and the other emulating a disconnect/reconnect sequence (see Figure 4-16). As an alternative to role swapping, a USB Type-C DRP may provide useful functionality by when operating as a host, exposing a CDC/network (preferably TCP/IP) stack or when operating as a device, exposing a CDC/network interface. 2.3.4 USB Type-C VBUS Current Detection and Usage With the USB Type-C connector solution, a DFP (host or downstream hub port) may implement higher source current over VBUS to enable faster charging of mobile devices or powering devices that require more current than is specified in the USB 3.1 Specification. All USB host and hub ports advertise via the CC pins the level of current that is presently available. The USB device port is required to manage its load to stay within the current level offered by the host or hub, including dynamically scaling back the load if the host or hub port changes its advertisement to a lower level as indicated over the CC pins. Three current levels at default VBUS are defined by USB Type-C Current:  Default values as defined by a USB Specification  1.5 A  3.0 A The higher USB Type-C Current levels that can be advertised allows hosts and devices that do not implement USB PD to take advantage of higher charging current. 2.3.5 USB PD Communication USB Power Delivery is a feature on products (hosts, hubs and devices). USB PD communications is used to:  Establish power contracts that allow voltage and current outside that defined by the USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 specifications.  Change the port sourcing VBUS.  Change the port sourcing VCONN.  Swap DFP and UFP roles.  Communicate with cables. The USB Type-C connector solution provides a new path for USB PD communications. Rather than superimposing a Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) on VBUS, the USB PD Bi-phase Mark Coded (BMC) communications are carried on the CC wire. In USB Type-C to legacy applications, the use of USB PD BFSK is allowed. 2.3.6 Functional Extensions Functional extensions (see Chapter 5) are enabled via a communications channel across CC using methods defined by the USB Power Delivery Specification. 2.4 VBUS VBUS provides a path to deliver power between a host and a device, and between a charger and a host/device. A simplified high-current supply capability is defined for hosts and chargers that optionally support current levels beyond the USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 specifications. The USB Power Delivery Specification is supported. Table 2-1 summarizes the power supply options available from the perspective of a device with the USB Type-C connector. Not all options will be available to the device from all host Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 23 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification or hub ports – only the first two listed options are mandated by the base USB specifications and form the basis of USB Type-C Current at the Default USB Power level. Table 2-1 Summary of power supply options Mode of Operation USB 2.0 USB 3.1 USB BC 1.2 USB Type-C Current @ 1.5 A USB Type-C Current @ 3.0 A USB PD Nominal Voltage 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V Configurable up to 20 V Maximum Current 500 mA 900 mA Up to 1.5 A 1.5 A 3A Configurable up to 5 A Notes Default Current, based on definitions in the base specifications Legacy charging Supports higher power devices Supports higher power devices Directional control and power level management The USB Type-C receptacle is specified for current capability of 5 A whereas standard USB Type-C cable assemblies are rated for 3 A. The higher rating of the receptacle enables systems to deliver more power over directly attached docking solutions or using appropriately designed chargers with captive cables when implementing USB PD. Also, USB Type-C cable assemblies designed for USB PD and appropriately identified via electronic marking are allowed to support up to 5 A. 2.5 VCONN Once the connection between host and device is established, the CC pin (CC1 or CC2) in the receptacle that is not connected via the CC wire through the standard cable is repurposed to source VCONN to power circuits in the plug needed to implement Electronically Marked Cables (see Section 4.9). Initially, the DFP sources VCONN and the source may be swapped using USB PD VCONN_Swap. Electronically marked cables may use VBUS instead of VCONN as VBUS is available across the cable. VCONN functionally differs from VBUS in that it is isolated from the other end of the cable. VCONN is independent of VBUS and, unlike VBUS which can use USB PD to support higher voltages, VCONN voltage is fixed at 5 V. 2.6 Hubs USB hubs implemented with USB Type-C receptacles are required to clearly identify the upstream facing port. This requirement is needed because a user can no longer know which port on a hub is the upstream facing port and which ports are the downstream facing ports by the type of receptacles that are exposed, i.e., USB Type-B is the upstream facing port and USB Type-A is a downstream facing port. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 24 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3 Mechanical 3.1 Overview 3.1.1 Compliant Connectors The USB Type-C specification defines the following standard connectors:  USB Type-C receptacle  USB Full-Featured Type-C plug  USB 2.0 Type-C plug 3.1.2 Compliant Cable Assemblies Table 3-1 summarizes the USB Type-C standard cable assemblies along with the primary differentiating characteristics. The cable lengths listed in the table are informative and represents the practical length based on cable performance requirements. All cabl es that are either full-featured and/or are rated at more than 3 A current are Electronically Marked Cables. Table 3-1 USB Type-C Standard Cable Assemblies Cable Ref Plug 1 Plug 2 CC2-3 C C CC2-5 CC3G1-3 C C CC3G1-5 CC3G2-3 C C CC3G2-5 USB Version USB 2.0 USB 3.1 Gen1 USB 3.1 Gen2 Cable Length ≤4m ≤2m ≤1m Current Rating 3A 5A 3A 5A 3A 5A USB Power Delivery (BMC) Supported USB Type-C Electronically Marked Optional Required Supported Required Supported Required USB Type-C products are also allowed to have a captive cable. See Section 3.4.3. 3.1.3 Compliant USB Type-C to Legacy Cable Assemblies Table 3-2 summarizes the USB Type-C legacy cable assemblies along with the primary differentiating characteristics. The cable lengths listed in the table are informative and represents the practical length based on cable performance requirements. All cables that are either USB 3.1 Gen2 and/or are rated at more than 3 A current are Electronically Marked Cables. USB 3.1 Type-C legacy cables assemblies that only offer performance up to USB 3.1 Gen1 are not allowed by this specification. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 25 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-2 USB Type-C Legacy Cable Assemblies Cable Ref Plug 1 Plug 2 USB Version Cable Length Current Rating USB Power Delivery (BFSK)1 USB Type-C Electronically Marked AC2-1.5 A AC2-5 1.5 A Optional N/A C2 USB 2.0 ≤4m 5A Supported Required AC3G2-1.5 A AC3G2-5 C2 USB 3.1 Gen2 ≤1m 1.5 A 5A Optional Supported N/A Required CB2-1.5 1.5 A Optional Optional C3 B USB 2.0 ≤4m CB2-5 5A Supported Required CB3G2-1.5 C3 CB3G2-5 B USB 3.1 Gen2 ≤1m 1.5 A 5A Optional Supported Required CmB2 C3 Mini-B USB 2.0 ≤4m 500 mA N/A N/A CμB2-1.5 CμB2-3 C3 Micro-B USB 2.0 ≤2m 1.5 A 3A Optional Supported Optional CμB3G2-1.5 C3 CμB3G2-3 Micro-B USB 3.1 Gen2 ≤1m 1.5 A 3A Optional Supported Required Notes: 1. 2. 3. This capability only functions with USB Type-C products that incorporate USB PD BFSK support in addition to USB PD BMC – support for USB PD BFSK will not likely be common for products based on USB Type-C. For all legacy adapter cables that will be certified for USB PD BFSK usage, the legacy plug is required to be the USB PD version of the plug and appropriate USB PD cable marking is required. See Section 4.6.3. USB Type-C plugs associated with the “B” end of a legacy adapter cable are required to have Rp termination incorporated into the plug assembly – see Section 4.5.3.2.2. USB Type-C plugs associated with the “A” end of a legacy adapter cable are required to have Rd termination incorporated into the plug assembly – see Section 4.5.3.2.1. 3.1.4 Compliant USB Type-C to Legacy Adapter Assemblies Table 3-3 summarizes the USB Type-C legacy adapter assemblies along with the primary differentiating characteristics. The cable lengths listed in the table are informative and represents the practical length based on cable performance requirements. Table 3-3 USB Type-C Legacy Adapter Assemblies Adapter Ref Plug Receptacle USB Version Cable Length Current Rating USB Power USB Type-C Delivery Electronically (BFSK) Marked CμBR2-1.5 C1 Micro-B USB 2.0 ≤ 0.15 m 1.5 A N/A N/A CAR3G1-1.5 C2 A USB 3.1 Gen1 ≤ 0.15 m 1.5 A N/A Optional Notes: 1. 2. USB Type-C plugs associated with the “B” end of a legacy adapter are required to have Rp termination incorporated into the plug assembly – see Section 4.5.3.2.2. USB Type-C plugs associated with the “A” end of a legacy adapter are required to have Rd termination incorporated into the plug assembly – see Section 4.5.3.2.1. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 26 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.2 USB Type-C Connector Mating Interfaces This section defines the connector mating interfaces, including the connector interface drawings, pin assignments and descriptions. 3.2.1 Interface Definition Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-3 show, respectively, the USB Type-C receptacle and USB FullFeatured Type-C plug interface dimensions. Figure 3-9 shows the USB 2.0 Type-C plug interface dimensions. The dimensions that govern the mating interoperability are specified. All the REF dimensions are provided for reference only, not hard requirements. Key features, configuration options, and design areas that need attention: 1. Figure 3-1 shows a vertical-mount receptacle. Other PCB mounting types such as right-angle mount and mid-mount are allowed. 2. A mid-plate is required between the top and bottom signals inside the receptacle tongue to manage crosstalk in full-featured applications. The mid-plate shall be connected to the PCB ground with at least two grounding points. A reference design of the mid-plate is provided in Section 3.2.2.1. 3. Retention of the cable assembly in the receptacle is achieved by the side-latches in the plug and features on the sides of the receptacle tongue. Side latches are required for all plugs except plugs used for docking with no cable attached. Side latches shall be connected to ground inside the plug. A reference design of the side latches is provided in Section 3.2.2.2 along with its grounding scheme. Docking applications may not have side latches, requiring special consideration regarding EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility). 4. The EMC shielding springs are required inside the cable plug. The shielding spring shall be connected to the plug shell. Section 3.2.2.3 shows reference designs of the EMC spring. 5. Shorting of any signal or power contact spring to the plug metal shell is not allowed. The spring in the deflected state should not touch the plug shell. An isolation layer (e.g., Kapton tape placed on the plug shell) is recommended to prevent accidental shorting due to plug shell deformation. 6. The USB Type-C receptacle shall provide an EMC ground return path through one of the following options:  Fingers in the receptacle outer shell  Internal EMC pads  Both external fingers in the shell and internal EMC pads If fingers in the receptacle outer shell are used, then the mated plug for receptacle springs shall make contact within the zones defined in Figure 3-2. A minimum of six separate contact points are required. Additional fingers and points of contact are allowed. See Section 3.2.2.4 for a reference design of the shell fingers. If internal EMC pads are present in the receptacle, then they shall comply with the requirements defined in Figure 3-1. The shielding pads shall be connected to the receptacle shell. If no receptacle shell is present, then the receptacle shall provide a means to connect the shielding pad to ground. See Section 3.2.2.3 for a reference design of the shielding pad and ground connection. 7. This specification defines the USB Type-C receptacle shell length. To be certified at the connector level, a USB Type-C receptacle connector shall have features that comply with the defined shell dimensions. The shell length is not applicable when Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 27 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification the USB Type-C receptacle certification is done at the system level instead of the component level. If a USB Type-C receptacle connector is certified at the system level, then the connector mounted in the associated system hardware shall pass all applicable electrical and mechanical compliance tests. 8. The USB Type-C connector mating interface is defined so that the electrical connection may be established without the receptacle shell. To prevent excessive misalignment of the plug when it enters or exits the receptacle, the enclosure should have features to guide the plug for insertion and withdrawal when a modified receptacle shell is present. If the USB Type-C receptacle shell is modified from the specified dimension, then the recommended lead in from the receptacle tongue to the plug point of entry is 1.5 mm minimum when mounted in the system. 9. A paddle card (e.g., PCB) may be used in the USB Type-C plug to manage wire termination and electrical performance. Section 3.2.2.5 includes the guidelines and a design example for a paddle card. 10. This specification does not define standard footprints. Figure 3-4 shows an example SMT (surface mount) footprint for the vertical receptacle shown in Figure 3-1. Additional reference footprints and mounting configurations are shown in Figure 3-5, Figure 3-6, Figure 3-7, and Figure 3-8. 11. The receptacle shell shall be connected to the PCB ground plane. 12. All VBUS pins shall be connected together in the USB Type-C plug. 13. All Ground return pins shall be connected together in the USB Type-C plug. 14. All VBUS pins shall be connected together at the USB Type-C receptacle when it is in its mounted condition (e.g., all VBUS pins bussed together in the PCB). 15. All Ground return pins shall be connected together at the USB Type-C receptacle when it is in its mounted condition (e.g., all Ground return pins bussed together in the PCB). Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 28 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-1 USB Type-C Receptacle Interface Dimensions Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 29 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-1 USB Type-C Receptacle Interface Dimensions, cont. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 30 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-2 Reference Design USB Type-C Plug External EMC Spring Contact Zones Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 31 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-3 USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug Interface Dimensions Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 32 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-3 USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug Interface Dimensions, cont. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 33 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-3 USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug Interface Dimensions, cont. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 34 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-4 Reference Footprint for a USB Type-C Vertical Mount Receptacle (Informative) Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 35 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-5 Reference Footprint for a USB Type-C Dual-Row SMT Right Angle Receptacle (Informative) Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 36 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-6 Reference Footprint for a USB Type-C Hybrid Right-Angle Receptacle (Informative) Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 37 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-7 Reference Footprint for a USB Type-C Mid-Mount Dual-Row SMT Receptacle (Informative) Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 38 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-8 Reference Footprint for a USB Type-C Mid-Mount Hybrid Receptacle (Informative) This specification requires that all contacts be present in the mating interface of the USB Type-C receptacle connector, but allows the plug to include only the contacts required for USB PD and USB 2.0 functionality for applications that only support USB 2.0. The USB 2.0 Type-C plug is shown in Figure 3-9. The following design simplifications may be made when only USB 2.0 is supported: Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 39 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification  Only the contacts necessary to support USB PD and USB 2.0 are required in the plug. All other pin locations may be unpopulated. See Table 3-5. All contacts are required to be present in the mating interface of the USB Type-C receptacle connector.  Unlike the USB Full-Featured Type-C plug, the internal EMC springs may be formed from the same strip as the signal, power, and ground contacts. The internal EMC springs contact the inner surface of the plug shell and mate with the receptacle EMC pads when the plug is seated in the receptacle.  A paddle card inside the plug may not be necessary if wires are directly attac hed to the contact pins. Figure 3-9 USB 2.0 Type-C Plug Interface Dimensions Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 40 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-9 USB 2.0 Type-C Plug Interface Dimensions, cont. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 41 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-9 USB 2.0 Type-C Plug Interface Dimensions, cont. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 42 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.2.2 Reference Designs This section provides reference designs for a few key features of the USB Type-C connector. The reference designs are provided as acceptable design examples. They are not normative . 3.2.2.1 Receptacle Mid-Plate (Informative) The signals between the top and bottom of the receptacle tongue are isolated by a mid-plate inside the tongue. Figure 3-10 shows a reference design of the mid-plate. It is important to pay attention to the following features of the middle plate:  The distance between the signal contacts and the mid-plate should be accurately controlled since the variation of this distance may significantly impact impedance of the connector.  The mid-plate in this particular design protrudes slightly beyond the front surface of the tongue. This is to protect the tongue front surface from damage caused by missinsertion of small objects into the receptacle.  The mid-plate is required to be directly connected to the PCB ground with at least two grounding points.  The sides of the mid-plate mate with the plug side latches, making ground connections to reduce EMC. Proper surface finishes are necessary in the areas where the side latches and mid-plate connections occur. Figure 3-10 Reference Design of Receptacle Mid-Plate Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 43 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.2.2.2 Side Latch (informative) The side latches (retention latches) are located in the plug. Figure 3-11 shows a reference design of a blanked side latch. The plug side latches should contact the receptacle mid-plate to provide an additional ground return path. Figure 3-11 Reference Design of the Retention Latch Figure 3-12 Illustration of the Latch Soldered to the Paddle Card Ground 3.2.2.3 Internal EMI Springs and Pads (Informative) Figure 3-13 is a reference design of the internal EMC spring located inside the USB FullFeatured Type-C plug. Figure 3-14 is a reference design of the internal EMC spring located inside the USB 2.0 Type-C plug. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 44 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-13 Reference Design of the USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug Internal EMC Spring Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 45 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-14 Reference Design of the USB 2.0 Type-C Plug Internal EMC Spring Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 46 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification It is critical that the internal EMC spring contacts the plug shell as close to the EMC spring mating interface as possible to minimize the length of the return path. The internal EMC pad (i.e., ground plate) shown in Figure 3-15 is inside the receptacle. It mates with the EMC spring in the plug. To provide an effective ground return, the EMC pads should have multiple connections with the receptacle shell. Figure 3-15 Reference Design of Internal EMC Pad Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 47 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.2.2.4 Optional External Receptacle EMC Springs (Informative) Some applications may use receptacles with EMC springs that contact the outside of the plug shell. Figure 3-16 shows a reference receptacle design with external EMC springs. The EMC spring contact landing zones for the fully mated condition are normative and defined in Section 3.2.1. Figure 3-16 Reference Design of a USB Type-C Receptacle with External EMC Springs Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 48 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.2.2.5 USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug Paddle Card (Informative) The use of a paddle card is expected in the USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug. Figure 3-17 illustrates the paddle card pin assignment and contact spring connection location for a USB Full-Featured Type-C plug. The following guidelines are provided for the paddle card design:  The paddle card should use high performance substrate material. The recommended paddle card thickness should have a tolerance less than or equal to ± 10%.  The USB SuperSpeed traces should be as short as possible and have a nominal differential characteristic impedance of 85 Ω.  The differential pairs should have a minimum pair-to pair separation of 0.5 mm.  It is recommended that a grounded coplanar waveguide (CPWG) system be selected as a transmission line method.  Use of vias should be minimized.  VBUS pins should be bussed together on the paddle card.  GND pins should be bussed together on the paddle card. Figure 3-17 Reference Design for a USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug Paddle Card Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 49 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.2.3 Pin Assignments and Descriptions The usage and assignments of the 24 pins for the USB Type-C receptacle interface are defined in Table 3-4. Table 3-4 USB Type-C Receptacle Interface Pin Assignments Pin Signal Name Description Mating Sequence Pin Signal Name Description Mating Sequence A1 GND Ground return First B12 GND Ground return First Positive half of first A2 SSTXp1 SuperSpeed TX Second differential pair B11 SSRXp1 Positive half of first SuperSpeed RX differential pair Second Negative half of A3 SSTXn1 first SuperSpeed TX Second differential pair B10 SSRXn1 Negative half of first SuperSpeed RX differential pair Second A4 VBUS Bus Power First B9 VBUS Bus Power First A5 CC1 Configuration Channel Second B8 SBU2 Sideband Use (SBU) Second A6 Dp1 Positive half of the USB 2.0 differential pair – Position 1 Second B7 Dn2 Negative half of the USB 2.0 differential pair – Position 2 Second A7 Dn1 Negative half of the USB 2.0 differential pair – Position 1 Second B6 Dp2 Positive half of the USB 2.0 differential pair – Position 2 Second A8 SBU1 Sideband Use (SBU) Second B5 CC2 Configuration Channel Second A9 VBUS Bus Power First B4 VBUS Bus Power First A10 SSRXn2 Negative half of second SuperSpeed RX differential pair Second Negative half of B3 SSTXn2 second SuperSpeed Second TX differential pair A11 SSRXp2 Positive half of second SuperSpeed RX differential pair Second Positive half of B2 SSTXp2 second SuperSpeed Second TX differential pair A12 GND Ground return First B1 GND Ground return First Notes: 1. 2. 3. Contacts B6 and B7 should not be present in the USB Type-C plug. The receptacle side shall support the USB 2.0 differential pair present on Dp1/Dn1 or Dp2/Dn2. The plug orientation determines which pair is active. In one implementation, Dp1 and Dp2 may be shorted on the host/device as close to the receptacle as possible to minimize stub length; Dn1 and Dn2 may also be shorted. The maximum shorting trace length should not exceed 3.5 mm. All VBUS pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug and shall be connected together at the USB Type-C receptacle connector when the receptacle is in its mounted condition (e.g., all VBUS pins bussed together on the PCB). All Ground return pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug and shall be connected together at the USB Type-C receptacle connector when the receptacle is in its mounted condition (e.g., all ground return pins bussed together on the PCB). The usage and assignments of the signals necessary for the support of only USB 2.0 with the USB Type-C mating interface are defined in Table 3-5. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 50 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-5 USB Type-C Receptacle Interface Pin Assignments for USB 2.0-only Support Pin Signal Name Description Mating Sequence Pin Signal Name Description Mating Sequence A1 GND Ground return First B12 GND Ground return First A2 B11 A3 B10 A4 VBUS Bus Power First B9 VBUS Bus Power First A5 CC1 Configuration Channel Second B8 SBU2 Sideband Use (SBU) Second A6 Dp1 Positive half of the USB 2.0 differential pair – Position 1 Second B7 Dn2 Negative half of the USB 2.0 differential pair – Position 2 Second A7 Dn1 Negative half of the USB 2.0 differential pair – Position 1 Second B6 Dp2 Positive half of the USB 2.0 differential pair – Position 2 Second A8 SBU1 Sideband Use (SBU) Second B5 CC2 Configuration Channel Second A9 VBUS Bus Power First B4 VBUS Bus Power First A10 B3 A11 B2 A12 GND Ground return First B1 GND Ground return First Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The unused contacts shall not be physically depopulated in the USB Type-C receptacle. Unused contact locations shall be electrically isolated from power, ground or signaling (i.e., not connected). Contacts B6 and B7 should not be present in the USB Type-C plug. The receptacle side shall support the USB 2.0 differential pair present on Dp1/Dn1 or Dp2/Dn2. The plug orientation determines which pair is active. In one implementation, Dp1 and Dp2 may be shorted on the host/device as close to the receptacle as possible to minimize stub length; Dn1 and Dn2 may also be shorted. The maximum shorting trace length should not exceed 3.5 mm. Contacts A8 and B8 (SBU1 and SBU2) shall be not connected unless required for a specified purpose (e.g., Audio Adapter Accessory Mode). All VBUS pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug and shall be connected together at the USB Type-C receptacle connector when the receptacle is in its mounted condition (e.g., all VBUS pins bussed together on the PCB). All Ground return pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug and shall be connected together at the USB Type-C receptacle connector when the receptacle is in its mounted condition (e.g., all ground return pins bussed together on the PCB). 3.3 Cable Construction and Wire Assignments This section discusses the USB Type-C cables, including cable construction, wire assignments, and wire gauges. 3.3.1 Cable Construction (Informative) Figure 3-18 illustrates an example of USB Full-Featured Type-C cable cross-section, using micro-coaxial wires for USB SuperSpeed. There are four groups of wires: USB D+/D− (typically unshielded twisted pairs (UTP)), USB SuperSpeed signal pairs (coaxial wires, twinaxial or shielded twisted pairs), sideband signal wires, and power and ground wires. In this example, the optional VCONN wire is shown whereas in Figure 3-19 the example is shown with the VCONN wire removed – the inclusion of VCONN or not relates to the implementation approach chosen for electronically marked cables (See Section 4.9). Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 51 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-18 Illustration of a USB Full-Featured Type-C Cable Cross Section, a Coaxial Wire Example with VCONN Figure 3-19 Illustration of a USB Full-Featured Type-C Cable Cross Section, a Coaxial Wire Example without VCONN The USB D+/D− signal pair is intended to transmit the USB 2.0 Low-Speed, Full-Speed and High-Speed signaling while the SuperSpeed signal pairs are used for USB 3.1 SuperSpeed signaling. Shielding is needed for the SuperSpeed differential pairs for signal integrity and EMC performance. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 52 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.3.2 Wire Assignments Table 3-6 defines the full set of possible wires needed to produce all standard USB Type-C cables assemblies. For some cable assemblies, not all of these wires are used. For example, a USB Type-C cable that only provides USB 2.0 functionality will not include wires 6–15. Table 3-6 USB Type-C Standard Cable Wire Assignments Wire Number Signal Name Description 1 GND_PWRrt1 Ground for power return 2 PWR_VBUS1 VBUS power 3 CC Configuration Channel 4 UTP_Dp Unshielded twist pair, positive 5 UTP_Dn Unshielded twist pair, negative 6 SDPp1 Shielded differential pair #1, positive 7 SDPn1 Shielded differential pair #1, negative 8 SDPp2 Shielded differential pair #2, positive 9 SDPn2 Shielded differential pair #2, negative 10 SDPp3 Shielded differential pair #3, positive 11 SDPn3 Shielded differential pair #3, negative 12 SDPp4 Shielded differential pair #4, positive 13 SDPn4 Shielded differential pair #4, negative 14 SBU_A Sideband Use 15 SBU_B Sideband Use 16 GND_PWRrt2 Ground for power return (optional) 17 PWR_VBUS2 VBUS power (optional) 18 PWR_VCONN VCONN power (optional, see Section 4.9) Braid Shield Cable external braid Note: 1. This table is based on the assumption that coaxial wire construction is used for all SDP’s and there are no drain wires. The signal ground return is through the shields of the coaxial wires. If shielded twisted or twin-axial pairs are used, then drain wires are needed. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 53 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-7 defines the full set of possible wires needed to produce USB Type-C to legacy cable assemblies. For some cable assemblies, not all of these wires are needed. For example, a USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-B cable will not include wires 5–10. Table 3-7 USB Type-C Cable Wire Assignments for Legacy Cables/Adapters Wire Number Signal Name Description 1 GND_PWRrt1 Ground for power return 2 PWR_VBUS1 VBUS power 3 UTP_Dp Unshielded twist pair, positive 4 UTP_Dn Unshielded twist pair, negative 5 SDPp1 Shielded differential pair #1, positive 6 SDPn1 Shielded differential pair #1, negative 7 SDP1_Drain Drain wire for SDPp1 and SDPn1 8 SDPp2 Shielded differential pair #2, positive 9 SDPn2 Shielded differential pair #2, negative 10 SDP2_Drain Drain wire for SDPp2 and SDPn2 Braid Shield Cable external braid Note: 1. This table is based on the assumption that shielded twisted pair is used for all SDP’s and there are drain wires. If coaxial wire construction is used, then no drain wires are needed and the signal ground return is through the shields of the coaxial wires. 3.3.3 Wire Gauges and Cable Diameters (Informative) This specification does not specify wire gauge. Table 3-8 and Table 3-9 list typical wire gauges for reference purposes only. A large gauge wire incurs less loss, but at the cost of cable diameter and flexibility. Multiple wires may be used for a single wire such as for VBUS or Ground. It is recommended to use the smallest possible wire gauges that meet the cable assembly electrical and mechanical requirements. To maximize cable flexibility, all wires should be stranded and the cable outer diameter should be minimized as much as possible. A typical USB Full-Featured Type-C cable outer diameter may range from 4 mm to 6 mm while a typical USB 2.0 Type-C cable outer diameter may range from 2 mm to 4 mm. A typical USB Type-C to USB 3.1 legacy cable outer diameter may range from 3 mm to 5 mm. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 54 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-8 Reference Wire Gauges for standard USB Type-C Cable Assemblies Wire Number Signal Name 1 GND_PWRrt1 2 PWR_VBUS1 3 CC 4 UTP_Dp 5 UTP_Dn 6 SDPp1 7 SDPn1 8 SDPp2 9 SDPn2 10 SDPp3 11 SDPn3 12 SDPp4 13 SDPn4 14 SBU_A 15 SBU_B 16 GND_PWRrt2 17 PWR_VBUS2 18 PWR_VCONN Wire Gauge (AWG) 20-28 20-28 32-34 28-34 28-34 26-34 26-34 26-34 26-34 26-34 26-34 26-34 26-34 32-34 32-34 20-28 20-28 32-34 Table 3-9 Reference Wire Gauges for USB Type-C to Legacy Cable Assemblies Wire Number Signal Name 1 GND_PWRrt1 2 PWR_VBUS1 3 UTP_Dp 4 UTP_Dn 5 SDPp1 6 SDPn1 7 SDP1_Drain 8 SDPp2 9 SDPn2 10 SDP2_Drain Wire Gauge (AWG) 20-28 20-28 28-34 28-34 26-34 26-34 28-34 26-34 26-34 28-34 Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 55 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.4 Standard USB Type-C Cable Assemblies Two standard USB Type-C cable assemblies are defined and allowed by this specification. In addition, captive cables are allowed (see Section 3.4.3). Shielding (braid) is required to enclose all the wires in the USB Type-C cable. The shield shall be terminated to the plug metal shells. The shield should be physically connected to the plug metal shell as close to 360° as possible, to control EMC. 3.4.1 USB Full-Featured Type-C Cable Assembly Figure 3-20 shows a USB Full-Featured Type-C standard cable assembly. Figure 3-20 USB Full-Featured Type-C Standard Cable Assembly Table 3-10 defines the wire connections for the USB Full-Featured Type-C standard cable assembly. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 56 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-10 USB Full-Featured Type-C Standard Cable Assembly Wiring USB Type-C Plug #1 Wire USB Type-C Plug #2 Pin Signal Name Wire Number Signal Name Pin Signal Name A1, B1, A12, B12 GND 1 [16] GND_PWRrt1 [GND_PWRrt2] A1, B1, A12, B12 GND A4, B4, A9, B9 VBUS 2 [17] PWR_VBUS1 [PWR_VBUS2] A4, B4, A9, B9 VBUS A5 CC 3 CC A5 CC B5 VCONN 18 PWR_VCONN (See Section 4.9) B5 VCONN A6 Dp1 4 UTP_Dp A6 Dp1 A7 Dn1 5 UTP_Dn A7 Dn1 A2 SSTXp1 6 SDPp1 B11 SSRXp1 A3 SSTXn1 7 SDPn1 B10 SSRXn1 B11 SSRXp1 8 SDPp2 A2 SSTXp1 B10 SSRXn1 9 SDPn2 A3 SSTXn1 B2 SSTXp2 10 SDPp3 A11 SSRXp2 B3 SSTXn2 11 SDPn3 A10 SSRXn2 A11 SSRXp2 12 SDPp4 B2 SSTXp2 A10 SSRXn2 13 SDPn4 B3 SSTXn2 A8 SBU1 14 SBU_A B8 SBU2 B8 SBU2 15 SBU_B A8 SBU1 Shell Shield Braid Shield Shell Shield Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. This table is based on the assumption that coaxial wire construction is used for all SDP’s and there are no drain wires. The shields of the coaxial wires are connected to the ground pins. If shielded twisted pair is used, then drain wires are needed and shall be connected to the GND pins. Pin B5 (VCONN) of the USB Type-C plug shall be used in electronically marked versions of this cable. See Section 4.9. Contacts B6 and B7 should not be present in the USB Type-C plug. All VBUS pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. A 10 nF bypass capacitor (minimum voltage rating of 30 V) is required for the VBUS pin in the full-featured cable at each end of the cable. The bypass capacitor should be placed as close as possible to the power supply pad. All GND pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. 3.4.2 USB 2.0 Type-C Cable Assembly A USB 2.0 Type-C standard cable assembly has the same form factor shown in Figure 3-20. Table 3-11 defines the wire connections for the USB 2.0 Type-C standard cable assembly. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 57 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-11 USB 2.0 Type-C Standard Cable Assembly Wiring USB Type-C Plug #1 Wire USB Type-C Plug #2 Pin Signal Name Wire Number Signal Name Pin Signal Name A1, B1, A12, B12 GND 1 GND_PWRrt1 A1, B1, A12, B12 GND A4, B4, A9, B9 VBUS 2 PWR_VBUS1 A4, B4, A9, B9 VBUS A5 CC 3 CC A5 CC B5 VCONN 18 PWR_VCONN (See Section 4.9) B5 VCONN A6 Dp1 4 UTP_Dp A6 Dp1 A7 Dn1 5 UTP_Dn A7 Dn1 Shell Shield Braid Shield Shell Shield Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pin B5 (VCONN) of the USB Type-C plug shall be used in electronically marked versions of this cable. See Section 4.9. Contacts B6 and B7 should not be present in the USB Type-C plug. All VBUS pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. A bypass capacitor is not required for the VBUS pin in the USB 2.0 Type-C cable. All GND pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. All USB Type-C plug pins that are not listed in this table shall be open (not connected). 3.4.3 USB Type-C Captive Cable Assemblies A captive cable assembly is a cable assembly that is terminated on one end with a USB TypeC plug and has a vendor-specific connect means (hardwired or custom detachable) on the opposite end. The cable assembly that is hardwired is not detachable from the device. The assembly wiring for captive USB Type-C cables follow the same wiring assignments as the standard cable assemblies (see Table 3-10 and Table 3-11) with the exception that the hardwired attachment on the device side substitutes for the USB Type-C Plug #2 end. The CC wire in a captive cable shall be terminated and behave as appropriate to the function of the product to which it is captive (e.g. host or device). This specification does not define how the hardwired attachment is physically done on the device side. 3.5 Legacy Cable Assemblies To enable interoperability between USB Type-C-based products and legacy USB products, the following standard legacy cable assemblies are defined. Only the cables defined within this specification are allowed. For all legacy cable assemblies that support USB PD BFSK usage, the legacy plug shall be the USB PD version of the plug and appropriate USB PD cable marking is required. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 58 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.5.1 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Cable Assembly Figure 3-21 shows a USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A cable assembly. Figure 3-21 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Cable Assembly Table 3-12 defines the wire connections for the USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A cable assembly. Table 3-12 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Cable Assembly Wiring USB Type-C Plug Wire USB 3.1 Standard-A plug Pin Signal Name Wire Number Signal Name Pin Signal Name A1, B1, A12, B12 GND 1 GND_PWRrt1 4 7, 10 SDP1_Drain, SDP2_Drain 7 GND GND_DRAIN A4, B4, A9, B9 VBUS 2 PWR_VBUS1 1 VBUS A5 CC B5 VCONN A6 Dp1 3 UTP_Dp 3 D+ A7 Dn1 4 UTP_Dn 2 D− A2 SSTXp1 5 SDPp1 6 StdA_SSRX+ A3 SSTXn1 6 SDPn1 5 StdA_SSRX− B11 SSRXp1 8 SDPp2 9 StdA_SSTX+ B10 SSRXn1 9 SDPn2 8 StdA_SSTX− Shell Shield Braid Shield Shell Shield Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. This table is based on the assumption that shielded twisted pair is used for all SDP’s and there are drain wires. If coaxial wire construction is used, then no drain wires are present and the shields of the coaxial wires are connected to the ground pins. Pin A5 (CC) of the USB Type-C plug shall be connected to VBUS through a resistor Rp. See Section 4.5.3.2.2 and Table 4-10 for the functional description and value of Rp. Pin B5 (VCONN) of the USB Type-C plug shall be used in electronically marked versions of this cable. See Section 4.9. Contacts B6 and B7 should not be present in the USB Type-C plug. All VBUS pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. A 10 nF bypass capacitor (minimum voltage rating of 30 V for cable assemblies supporting USB PD) is required for the VBUS pin in the USB Type-C plug end of the cable. The bypass capacitor should be placed as close as possible to the power supply pad. A bypass capacitor is not required for the VBUS pin in the Standard-A plug. All Ground return pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. All USB Type-C plug pins that are not listed in this table shall be open (not connected). Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 59 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.5.2 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-A Cable Assembly Figure 3-22 shows a USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-A cable assembly. Figure 3-22 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-A Cable Assembly Table 3-13 defines the wire connections for the USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-A cable assembly. Table 3-13 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-A Cable Assembly Wiring USB Type-C Plug Wire USB 2.0 Standard-A plug Pin Signal Name Wire Number Signal Name Pin Signal Name A1, B1, A12, B12 GND 1 GND_PWRrt1 4 GND A4, B4, A9, B9 VBUS 2 PWR_VBUS1 1 VBUS A5 CC B5 VCONN A6 Dp1 3 UTP_Dp 3 D+ A7 Dn1 4 UTP_Dn 2 D− Shell Shield Braid Shield Shell Shield Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Pin A5 (CC) of the USB Type-C plug shall be connected to VBUS through a resistor Rp. See Section 4.5.3.2.2 and Table 4-10 for the functional description and value of Rp. Pin B5 (VCONN) of the USB Type-C plug shall be used in electronically marked versions of this cable. See Section 4.9. Contacts B6 and B7 should not be present in the USB Type-C plug. All VBUS pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. Bypass capacitors are not required for the VBUS pins in this cable. All Ground return pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. All USB Type-C plug pins that are not listed in this table shall be open (not connected). Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 60 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.5.3 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-B Cable Assembly Figure 3-23 shows a USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-B cable assembly. Figure 3-23 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-B Cable Assembly Table 3-14 defines the wire connections for the USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-B cable assembly. Table 3-14 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-B Cable Assembly Wiring USB Type-C Plug Wire USB 3.1 Standard-B plug Pin Signal Name Wire Number Signal Name Pin Signal Name A1, B1, A12, B12 GND 1 GND_PWRrt1 4 7, 10 SDP1_Drain, SDP2_Drain 7 GND GND_DRAIN A4, B4, A9, B9 VBUS 2 PWR_VBUS1 1 VBUS A5 CC B5 VCONN A6 Dp1 3 UTP_Dp 3 D+ A7 Dn1 4 UTP_Dn 2 D− A2 SSTXp1 5 SDPp1 9 StdB_SSRX+ A3 SSTXn1 6 SDPn1 8 StdB_SSRX− B11 SSRXp1 8 SDPp2 6 StdB_SSTX+ B10 SSRXn1 9 SDPn2 5 StdB_SSTX− Shell Shield Braid Shield Shell Shield Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Pin A5 (CC) of the USB Type-C plug shall be connected to GND through a resistor Rd. See Section 4.5.3.2.1 and Table 4-11 for the functional description and value of Rd. Pin B5 (VCONN) of the USB Type-C plug shall be used in electronically marked versions of this cable. See Section 4.9. This table is based on the assumption that shielded twisted pair is used for all SDP’s and there are drain wires. If coaxial wire construction is used, then no drain wires are present and the shields of the coaxial wires are connected to the ground pins. Contacts B6 and B7 should not be present in the USB Type-C plug. All VBUS pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. A 10 nF bypass capacitor (minimum voltage rating of 30 V for cable assemblies supporting USB PD) is required for the VBUS pin in the USB Type-C plug end of the cable. The bypass capacitor should be placed as close as possible to the power supply pad. A bypass capacitor is not required for the VBUS pin in the Standard-B plug. All Ground return pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. All USB Type-C plug pins that are not listed in this table shall be open (not connected). Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 61 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.5.4 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-B Cable Assembly Figure 3-24 shows a USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-B cable assembly. Figure 3-24 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-B Cable Assembly Table 3-15 defines the wire connections for the USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-B cable assembly. Table 3-15 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Standard-B Cable Assembly Wiring USB Type-C Plug Wire USB 2.0 Standard-B plug Pin Signal Name Wire Number Signal Name Pin Signal Name A1, B1, A12, B12 GND 1 GND_PWRrt1 4 GND A4, B4, A9, B9 VBUS 2 PWR_VBUS1 1 VBUS A5 CC B5 VCONN A6 Dp1 3 UTP_Dp 3 D+ A7 Dn1 4 UTP_Dn 2 D− Shell Shield Braid Shield Shell Shield Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Pin A5 (CC) of the USB Type-C plug shall be connected to GND through a resistor Rd. See Section 4.5.3.2.1 and Table 4-11 for the functional description and value of Rd. Pin B5 (VCONN) of the USB Type-C plug shall be used in electronically marked versions of this cable. See Section 4.9. Contacts B6 and B7 should not be present in the USB Type-C plug. All VBUS pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. Bypass capacitors are not required for the VBUS pins in this cable. All Ground return pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. All USB Type-C plug pins that are not listed in this table shall be open (not connected). Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 62 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.5.5 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Mini-B Cable Assembly Figure 3-25 shows a USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Mini-B cable assembly. Figure 3-25 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Mini-B Cable Assembly Table 3-16 defines the wire connections for the USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Mini-B cable assembly. Table 3-16 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Mini-B Cable Assembly Wiring USB Type-C Plug Wire USB 2.0 Mini-B plug Pin Signal Name Wire Number Signal Name Pin Signal Name A1, B1, A12, B12 GND 1 GND_PWRrt1 5 GND A4, B4, A9, B9 VBUS 2 PWR_VBUS1 1 VBUS A5 CC A6 Dp1 3 UTP_Dp 3 D+ A7 Dn1 4 UTP_Dn 2 D− 4 ID Shell Shield Braid Shield Shell Shield Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Pin A5 of the USB Type-C plug shall be connected to GND through a resistor Rd. See Section 4.5.3.2.1 and Table 4-11 for the functional description and value of Rd. Contacts B6 and B7 should not be present in the USB Type-C plug. All VBUS pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. Bypass capacitors are not required for the VBUS pins in this cable. All Ground return pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. Pin 4 (ID) of the USB 2.0 Mini-B plug shall be terminated as defined in the applicable specification for the cable type. All USB Type-C plug pins that are not listed in this table shall be open (not connected). Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 63 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.5.6 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Micro-B Cable Assembly Figure 3-26 shows a USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Micro-B cable assembly. Figure 3-26 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Micro-B Cable Assembly Table 3-17 defines the wire connections for the USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Micro-B cable assembly. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 64 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-17 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Micro-B Cable Assembly Wiring USB Type-C Plug Wire USB 3.1 Micro-B plug Pin Signal Name Wire Number Signal Name Pin Signal Name A1, B1, A12, B12 GND 1 GND_PWRrt1 5 7, 10 SDP1_Drain, SDP2_Drain 8 GND GND_DRAIN A4, B4, A9, B9 VBUS 2 PWR_VBUS1 1 VBUS A5 CC B5 VCONN A6 Dp1 3 UTP_Dp 3 D+ A7 Dn1 4 UTP_Dn 2 D− A2 SSTXp1 5 SDPp1 10 MicB_SSRX+ A3 SSTXn1 6 SDPn1 9 MicB_SSRX− B11 SSRXp1 8 SDPp2 7 MicB_SSTX+ B10 SSRXn1 9 SDPn2 6 MicB_SSTX− 4 ID Shell Shield Braid Shield Shell Shield Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Pin A5 (CC) of the USB Type-C plug shall be connected to GND through a resistor Rd. See Section 4.5.3.2.1 and Table 4-11 for the functional description and value of Rd. Pin B5 (VCONN) of the USB Type-C plug shall be used in electronically marked versions of this cable. See Section 4.9. This table is based on the assumption that shielded twisted pair is used for all SDP’s and there are drain wires. If coaxial wire construction is used, then no drain wires are present and the shields of the coaxial wires are connected to the ground pins. Contacts B6 and B7 should not be present in the USB Type-C plug. All VBUS pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. A 10 nF bypass capacitor (minimum voltage rating of 30 V for cable assemblies supporting USB PD) is required for the VBUS pin in the USB Type-C plug end of the cable. The bypass capacitor should be placed as close as possible to the power supply pad. A bypass capacitor is not required for the VBUS pin in the MicroB plug. All Ground return pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. Pin 4 (ID) of the USB 3.1 Micro-B plug shall be terminated as defined in the applicable specification for the cable type. All USB Type-C plug pins that are not listed in this table shall be open (not connected). Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 65 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.5.7 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B Cable Assembly Figure 3-27 shows a USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B cable assembly. Figure 3-27 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B Cable Assembly Table 3-18 defines the wire connections for the USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B cable assembly. Table 3-18 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B Cable Assembly Wiring USB Type-C Plug Wire USB 2.0 Micro-B plug Pin Signal Name Wire Number Signal Name Pin Signal Name A1, B1, A12, B12 GND 1 GND_PWRrt1 5 GND A4, B4, A9, B9 VBUS 2 PWR_VBUS1 1 VBUS A5 CC B5 VCONN A6 Dp1 3 UTP_Dp 3 D+ A7 Dn1 4 UTP_Dn 2 D− 4 ID Shell Shield Braid Shield Shell Shield Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Pin A5 (CC) of the USB Type-C plug shall be connected to GND through a resistor Rd. See Section 4.5.3.2.1 and Table 4-11 for the functional description and value of Rd. Pin B5 (VCONN) of the USB Type-C plug shall be used in electronically marked versions of this cable. See Section 4.9. Contacts B6 and B7 should not be present in the USB Type-C plug. All VBUS pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. Bypass capacitors are not required for the VBUS pins in this cable. All Ground return pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. Pin 4 (ID) of the USB 2.0 Micro-B plug shall be terminated as defined in the applicable specification for the cable type. All USB Type-C plug pins that are not listed in this table shall be open (not connected). 3.6 Legacy Adapter Assemblies To enable interoperability between USB Type-C-based products and legacy USB products, the following standard legacy adapter assemblies are defined. Only the adapter assemblies defined in this specification are allowed. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 66 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.6.1 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Receptacle Adapter Assembly Figure 3-28 shows a USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A receptacle adapter assembly. This cable assembly is defined for direct connect to a USB device (e.g., a thumb drive). System functionality of using this adaptor assembly together with another USB cable assembly is not guaranteed. Figure 3-28 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Receptacle Adapter Assembly Table 3-19 defines the wire connections for the USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A receptacle adapter assembly. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 67 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-19 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Receptacle Adapter Assembly Wiring USB Type-C Plug USB 3.1 Standard-A receptacle Pin Signal Name Pin Signal Name 4 A1, B1, A12, B12 GND 7 GND GND_DRAIN A4, B4, A9, B9 VBUS 1 VBUS A5 CC B5 VCONN A6 Dp1 3 D+ A7 Dn1 2 D− A2 SSTXp1 9 StdA_SSTX+ A3 SSTXn1 8 StdA_SSTX− B11 SSRXp1 6 StdA_SSRX+ B10 SSRXn1 5 StdA_SSRX− Shell Shield Shell Shield Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Pin A5 (CC) of the USB Type-C plug shall be connected to GND through a resistor Rd. See Section 4.5.3.2.1 and Table 4-11 for the functional description and value of Rd. Pin B5 (VCONN) of the USB Type-C plug shall be used in electronically marked versions of this adapter. See Section 4.9. This table is based on the assumption that shielded twisted pair is used for all SDP’s and there are drain wires. If coaxial wire construction is used, then no drain wires are present and the shields of the coaxial wires are connected to the ground pins. Contacts B6 and B7 should not be present in the USB Type-C plug. All VBUS pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. A 10 nF bypass capacitor is required for the VBUS pin in the USB Type-C plug end of the cable. The bypass capacitor should be placed as close as possible to the power supply pad. A bypass capacitor is not required for the VBUS pin in the Standard-A receptacle. All Ground return pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. All USB Type-C plug pins that are not listed in this table shall be open (not connected). 3.6.2 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B Receptacle Adapter Assembly Figure 3-28 shows a USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B receptacle adapter assembly. Figure 3-29 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B Receptacle Adapter Assembly Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 68 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-19 defines the wire connections for the USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B receptacle adapter assembly. Table 3-20 USB Type-C to USB 2.0 Micro-B Receptacle Adapter Assembly Wiring USB Type-C Plug USB 2.0 Micro-B receptacle Signal Pin Name Pin Signal Name A1, B1, A12, B12 GND 5 GND A4, B4, A9, B9 VBUS 1 VBUS A5 CC A6 Dp1 3 D+ A7 Dn1 2 D− 4 ID Shell Shield Shell Shield Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pin A5 (CC) of the USB Type-C plug shall be connected to VBUS through a resistor Rp. See Section 4.5.3.2.2 and Table 4-10 for the functional description and value of Rp. Contacts B6 and B7 should not be present in the USB Type-C plug. All VBUS pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. Bypass capacitors are not required for the VBUS pins at the Micro-B receptacle end of this cable. All Ground return pins shall be connected together within the USB Type-C plug. All USB Type-C plug pins that are not listed in this table shall be open (not connected). Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 69 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.7 Electrical Characteristics This section defines the USB Type-C raw cable, connector, and cable assembly electrical requirements, including signal integrity, shielding effectiveness, and DC requirements. Chapter 4 defines additional requirements regarding functional signal definition, host/device discovery and configuration, and power delivery. Unless otherwise specified, all measurements are made at a temperature of 15° to 35° C, a relative humidity of 25% to 85%, and an atmospheric pressure of 86 to 106 kPa and all S parameters are normalized with an 85 Ω differential impedance. 3.7.1 Raw Cable (Informative) Informative raw cable electrical performance targets are provided to help cable assembly manufacturers manage the procurement of raw cable. These targets are not part of the USB Type-C compliance requirements. The normative requirement is that the cable assembly meets the performance characteristics specified in Sections 3.7.3, 3.7.4, and 3.7.5. The differential characteristic impedance for shielded differential pairs is recommended to be 90 Ω ± 5 Ω. The single-ended characteristic impedance of coaxial wires is recommended to be 45 Ω ± 3 Ω. The impedance should be evaluated using a 200 ps (10%-90%) rise time; a faster rise time is not necessary for raw cable since it will make cable test fixture discontinuities more prominent. 3.7.1.1 Intra-Pair Skew (Informative) The intra-pair skew for a differential pair is recommended to be less than 10 ps/m. It should be measured with a Time Domain Transmission (TDT) in a differential mode using a 200 ps (10%-90%) rise time with a crossing at 50% of the input voltage. 3.7.1.2 Differential Insertion Loss (Informative) Cable loss depends on wire gauges, plating and dielectric materials. Table 3-21 and Table 3-22 show examples of differential insertion losses. Table 3-21 Differential Insertion Loss Examples for USB SuperSpeed with Twisted Pair Construction Frequency 0.625 GHz 1.25 GHz 2.50 GHz 5.00 GHz 7.50 GHz 10.00 GHz 12.50 GHz 15.00 GHz 34AWG −1.8 dB/m −2.5 dB/m −3.7 dB/m −5.5 dB/m −7.0 dB/m −8.4 dB/m −9.5 dB/m −11.0 dB/m 32AWG −1.4 dB/m −2.0 dB/m −2.9 dB/m −4.5 dB/m −5.9 dB/m −7.2 dB/m −8.2 dB/m −9.5 dB/m 30AWG −1.2 dB/m −1.7 dB/m −2.5 dB/m −3.9 dB/m −5.0 dB/m −6.1 dB/m −7.3 dB/m −8.7 dB/m 28AWG −1.0 dB/m −1.4 dB/m −2.1 dB/m −3.1 dB/m −4.1 dB/m −4.8 dB/m −5.5 dB/m −6.5 dB/m Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 70 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-22 Differential Insertion Loss Examples for USB SuperSpeed with Coaxial Construction Frequency 0.625 GHz 1.25 GHz 2.50 GHz 5.00 GHz 7.50 GHz 10.0 GHz 12.5 GHz 15.0 GHz 34AWG −1.8 dB/m −2.8 dB/m −4.2 dB/m −6.1 dB/m −7.6 dB/m −8.8 dB/m −9.9 dB/m −12.1 dB/m 32AWG −1.5 dB/m −2.2 dB/m −3.4 dB/m −4.9 dB/m −6.5 dB/m −7.6 dB/m −8.6 dB/m −10.9 dB/m 30AWG −1.2 dB/m −1.8 dB/m −2.7 dB/m −4.0 dB/m −5.2 dB/m −6.1 dB/m −7.1 dB/m −9.0 dB/m 28AWG −1.0 dB/m −1.3 dB/m −1.9 dB/m −3.1 dB/m −4.2 dB/m −4.9 dB/m −5.7 dB/m −6.5 dB/m 3.7.2 Mated Connector (Normative) The mated connector as defined in this specification for USB Type-C consists of a receptacle mounted on a PCB, representing how the receptacle is used in a product, and a test plug also mounted on a PCB (paddle card) without cable. This is illustrated in Figure 3-30. Note that the test plug is used in host/device TX/RX testing also. Figure 3-30 Illustration of USB Type-C Mated Connector 3.7.2.1 Differential Impedance (Informative) The mated connector impedance target is specified to minimize reflection from the connector. The differential impedance of a mated connector should be within 85 Ω ± 9 Ω, as seen from a 40 ps (20%-80%) rise time. The impedance profile of a mated connector should fall within the limits shown in Figure 3-31. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 71 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-31 Recommended Impedance Limits of a USB Type-C Mated Connector The PCB stack up, lead geometry, and solder pad geometry should be modeled in 3D fieldsolver to optimize electrical performance. Example ground voids under signal pads are shown in Figure 3-32 based on pad geometry, mounting type, and PCB stack-up shown. Figure 3-32 Recommended Ground Void Dimensions for USB Type-C Receptacle Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 72 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.7.2.2 Differential Insertion Loss (Informative) The differential insertion loss measures the differential signal energy transmitted through the mated connector. Figure 3-33 shows the differential insertion loss limit, which is defined by the following vertices: (100 MHz, −0.25 dB), (2.5 GHz, −0.35 dB), (5 GHz, −0.45 dB), (10 GHz, −0.75 dB) and (15 GHz, −1.85 dB). Figure 3-33 Recommended Differential Insertion Loss Limits 3.7.2.3 Differential Return Loss (Informative) The differential return loss measures the differential signal reflection from the mated connector. Figure 3-34 shows the differential return loss limits as defined by the following vertices: (100 MHz, −20 dB), (5 GHz, -20 dB), (10 GHz, -13 dB), and (15 GHz, -6 dB). Figure 3-34 Recommended Differential Return Loss Limits 0 X: 1.5e+004 -5 Y: -6 Differential Return Loss, dB -10 -15 X: 100 Y: -20 -20 X: 5000 Y: -20 X: 1e+004 Y: -13 -25 -30 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Frequency, MHz Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 73 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.7.2.4 Differential Near-End and Far-End Crosstalk between SuperSpeed Pairs (Informative) The differential crosstalk measures the unwanted coupling between differential pairs. Both near-end crosstalk and far-end crosstalk for mated connector pairs are specified, as shown in Figure 3-35. The recommended limit is defined by the following vertices: (100 MHz, −40 dB), (5 GHz, -40 dB), (10 GHz, -36 dB), and (15 GHz, -30 dB). Figure 3-35 Recommended Differential Crosstalk Limits between SuperSpeed Pairs -20 Differential Crosstalk, dB -25 -30 -35 X: 100 Y: -40 -40 X: 5000 Y: -40 X: 1e+004 Y: -36 X: 1.5e+004 Y: -30 -45 -50 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Frequency, MHz 3.7.2.5 Differential Crosstalk between D+/D− and SuperSpeed Pairs (Informative) The differential near-end and far-end crosstalk between the D+/D− pair and the SuperSpeed pairs in mated connectors should be managed not to exceed the limit shown in Figure 3-36; the limit is defined by the following points: (100 MHz, -40 dB), (5 GHz, -40 dB), and (7.5 GHz, -36 dB). Figure 3-36 Recommended Differential Near-End and Far-End Crosstalk Limits between D+/D− Pair and SuperSpeed Pairs Differential Crosstalk, dB -30 -32 -34 -36 -38 X: 100 Y: -40 -40 -42 -44 -46 -48 X: 5000 Y: -40 X: 7500 Y: -36 -50 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Frequency, MHz Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 74 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.7.2.6 Differential-to-Common-Mode Conversion (Informative) Common mode noise is related to EMC performance. Figure 3-37 illustrates the recommended mode conversion limits for mated connector pairs as defined by the following vertices: (100 MHz, -30 dB), (6 GHz, -30 dB), and (10 GHz, -25 dB). Figure 3-37 Recommended Limits for Differential-to-Common-Mode Conversion -15 Differential to Common Mode Conversion, dB -20 -25 X: 100 Y: -30 -30 X: 6000 Y: -30 X: 1e+004 Y: -25 -35 -40 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Frequency, MHz 3.7.3 USB Type-C to Type-C Passive Cable Assemblies (Normative) A USB Type-C to Type-C cable assembly shall be tested using a test fixture with the receptacle tongue fabricated in the test fixture. This is illustrated in Figure 3-38. The USB Type-C receptacles are not present in the test fixture. Hosts and devices should acc ount for the additional signal degradation the receptacle introduces. The requirements are for the entire signal path of the cable assembly mated with the fixture PCB tongues, not including lead-in PCB traces. As illustrated in Figure 3-38, the measurement is between TP1 (test point 1) and TP2 (test point 2). Refer to documentation located at Cable Assembly and Connector Test Requirements page on the USB-IF website for a detailed description of a standardized test fixture. Figure 3-38 Illustration of Test Points for a Mated Cable Assembly The cable assembly requirements are divided into informative and normative requirements. The informative requirements are provided as design targets for cable assembly manufacturers. The normative requirements are the pass/failure criteria for cable assembly compliance. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 75 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.7.3.1 Recommended USB SuperSpeed Passive Cable Assembly Characteristics 3.7.3.1.1 Differential Insertion Loss (Informative) Figure 3-39 shows the differential insertion loss limit for a USB 3.1 Gen 2 Type-C cable assembly, which is defined by the following vertices: (100 MHz, −2 dB), (2.5 GHz, −4 dB), (5.0 GHz, −6 dB), (10 GHz, −11 dB) and (15 GHz, −20 dB). Figure 3-39 Recommended Differential Insertion Loss Requirement 0 X: 100 Y: -2 -5 -10 -15 X: 2500 Y: -4 X: 5000 Y: -6 X: 1e+004 Y: -11 Differential Insertion Loss, dB -20 X: 1.5e+004 Y: -20 -25 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Frequency, MHz 3.7.3.1.2 Differential Return Loss (Informative) Figure 3-40 shows the differential return loss limit, which is defined by the following points: (100 MHz, -18 dB), (5 GHz, -18 dB), (10 GHz, -12 dB), and (15 GHz, -5 dB). Figure 3-40 Recommended Differential Return Loss Requirement 0 X: 1.5e+004 Y: -5 -5 X: 1e+004 -10 Y: -12 -15 X: 100 Y: -18 -20 X: 5000 Y: -18 Differential Return Loss, dB -25 -30 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Frequency, MHz Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 76 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.7.3.1.3 Differential Near-End and Far-End Crosstalk between SuperSpeed Pairs (Informative) Both the near-end crosstalk (DDNEXT) and far-end crosstalk (DDFEXT) are specified, as shown in Figure 3-41. The DDNEXT/DDFEXT limits are defined by the following vertices: (100 MHz, -37 dB), (5 GHz, -37 dB), (10 GHz, -32 dB), and (15 GHz, -25 dB). Figure 3-41 Recommended Differential Crosstalk Requirement -20 X: 1.5e+004 Y: -25 -25 -30 X: 100 -35 Y: -37 X: 5000 Y: -37 X: 1e+004 Y: -32 -40 Differential Crosstalk, dB -45 -50 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Frequency, MHz 3.7.3.1.4 Differential Crosstalk between USB D+/D− and USB SuperSpeed Pairs (Informative) The differential near-end and far-end crosstalk between the USB D+/D− pair and the USB SuperSpeed pairs should be managed not to exceed the limits shown in Figure 3-42. The limits are defined by the following points: (100 MHz, -35 dB), (5 GHz, -35 dB), and (7.5 GHz, -30 dB). Figure 3-42 Recommended Differential Near-End and Far-End Crosstalk Requirement between USB D+/D− Pair and USB SuperSpeed Pair -20 Differential Crosstalk, dB -25 -30 X: 100 Y: -35 -35 X: 5000 Y: -35 X: 7500 Y: -30 -40 -45 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Frequency, MHz Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 77 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.7.3.2 Normative SuperSpeed Passive Cable Assembly Requirements The integrated parameters are used for cable assembly compliance (except for insertion loss and differential-to-common-mode conversion) to avoid potential rejection of a functioning cable assembly that may fail the traditional S-parameters spec at a few frequencies. 3.7.3.2.1 Insertion Loss Fit at Nyquist Frequencies (Normative) The insertion loss fit at Nyquist frequency measures the attenuation of the cable assembly. To obtain the insertion loss fit at Nyquist frequency, the measured cable assembly differential insertion loss is fitted with a smooth function. A standard fitting algorithm and tool shall be used to extract the insertion loss fit at Nyquist frequencies. Refer to documentation located at Cable Assembly and Connector Test Requirements page on the USB-IF website for a more detailed description about insertion loss fit. Figure 3-43 illustrates an example of a measured cable assembly insertion loss fitted with a smooth function; the insertion loss fit at the Nyquist frequency of USB SuperSpeed Gen 2 (5.0 GHz) is −5.8 dB. Figure 3-43 Illustration of Insertion Loss Fit at Nyquist Frequency The insertion loss fit at Nyquist frequency (ILfitatNq) shall meet the following requirements:  ≥ −4 dB at 2.5 GHz,  ≥ −6 dB at 5 GHz, and  ≥ −11 dB at 10 GHz. 2.5 GHz, 5.0 GHz and 10 GHz are the Nyquist frequencies for USB SuperSpeed Gen 1, USB SuperSpeed Gen 2, and a possible future 20 Gbps USB data rate, respectively. The USB SuperSpeed Gen 1-only Type-C to Type-C cable assembly is allowed by this specification and shall comply with the following insertion loss fit at Nyquist frequency requirements:  ≥ −7.0 dB at 2.5 GHz, and  > −12 dB at 5 GHz. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 78 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification This insertion fit at Nyquist frequency allows the USB SuperSpeed Gen 1-only Type-C to Type-C cable assembly to achieve an overall length of approximately 2 meters. 3.7.3.2.2 Integrated Multi-reflection (Normative) The insertion loss deviation, ILD, is defined as ILD( f )  IL( f )  ILfit( f ) It measures the ripple of the insertion loss, caused by multiple reflections inside the cable assembly (mated with the fixture). The integration of ILD(f) is called the integrated multireflection (IMR): = (√∫0∫|0(|)|2(|)|2()|2) where fmax = 15 GHz and Vin(f) is the input trapezoidal pulse spectrum, defined in Figure 3-44. Figure 3-44 Input Pulse Spectrum IMR has dependency on ILfitatNq. More IMR may be tolerated when ILfitatNq decreases. The IMR limit is specified as a function of ILfitatNq: ≤ 0.126 ∙ 2 + 3.024 ∙ − 29.353. This is plotted in Figure 3-45. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 IMR Limit, dB - 79 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-45 IMR Limit as Function of ILfitatNq -32 -34 -36 -38 -40 Fail -42 -44 Pass -46 -48 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 ILfitatNq, dB 3.7.3.2.3 Integrated Crosstalk between SuperSpeed Pairs (Normative) The integrated crosstalk between all USB SuperSpeed pairs is calculated with the equations below: = (√∫0|()|2(|()|2 + 0.1252 ∙ |2()|2) ∫0|()|2 + |()|2 |()|2 ) = (√∫0|()|2(|()|2 + 0.1252 ∙ |2()|2) ∫0|()|2 + |()|2 |()|2 ) where NEXT(f), FEXT(f), and C2D(f) are the measured near-end and far-end crosstalk between USB SuperSpeed pairs, and the common-mode-to-differential conversion, respectively. The factor of 0.1252 accounts for the assumption that the common mode amplitude is 12.5% of the differential amplitude. NEXTd(f) and FEXTd(f) are, respectively, the near-end and far-end crosstalk from the D+/D- pair to SuperSpeed pairs. Vdd(f) is the input pulse spectrum evaluated using the equation in Figure 3-44 with Tb=2.08 ns. The integration shall be done for each NEXT and FEXT between USB SuperSpeed pairs located at A2, A3 to B10, B11 and B2, B3 to A10, A11 (See Figure 2-2). Coupling between other combinations of USB SuperSpeed pairs is comparatively lower. The largest values of INEXT and IFEXT shall meet the following requirements:  INEXT ≤ −40 dB,  IFEXT ≤ −40 dB. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 80 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.7.3.2.4 Integrated Return Loss (Normative) The integrated return loss (IRL) manages the reflection between the cable assembly and the rest of the system (host and device). It is defined as: = (√∫0 |()|2 |21()|2(|11()|2 ∫0|()|2 + |22()|2) ) where SDD21(f) is the measured cable assembly differential insertion loss, SDD11(f) and SDD22(f) are the measured cable assembly return losses on the left and right sides, respectively, of a differential pair. The IRL also has a strong dependency on ILfitatNq, and its limit is specified as a function of ILfitatNq: ≤ 0.046 ∙ 2 + 1.812 ∙ − 15.825 It is shown in Figure 3-46. Figure 3-46 IRL Limit as Function of ILfitatNq -18 -20 -22 Fail -24 IRL Limit, dB -26 Pass -28 -30 -32 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 ILfitatNq, dB 3.7.3.2.5 Differential-to-Common-Mode Conversion (Normative) The differential-to-common-mode conversion is specified to control the injection of common mode noise from the cable assembly into the host or device. Figure 3-47 illustrates the differential-to-common mode conversion (SCD12/SCD21) requirement. A mated cable assembly passes if its SCD12/SCD21 is less than or equal to −20 dB from 100 MHz to 10 GHz. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 81 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-47 Differential-to-Common-Mode Conversion Requirement 3.7.3.3 Low-Speed Signal Requirements (Normative) This section specifies the low speed signal requirements including the impedance for CC and SBU wires and the coupling among CC, USB D+/D−, VBUS and SBU. CC and SBU wires shall have a characteristic impedance of 32 Ω to 53 Ω. These wires may be unshielded or shielded. Coupling or crosstalk, both near-end and far-end, among the low speed signals shall be controlled. Table 3-23 shows the matrix of couplings specified. Table 3-23 Coupling Matrix for Low Speed Signals Coupling Matrix D+/D− (DF) VBUS SBU_B/SBU_A CC FF, CT FF, CT FF D+/D− (DF) N/A FF, CT FF SBU_A/SBU_B FF FF FF DF: Differential; FF: Full-featured cable; CT: Charge-through cable (including USB 2.0 function). 3.7.3.3.1 CC to USB D+/D− (Normative) The differential coupling between the CC and D+/D− shall be below the limit shown in Figure 3-48. The limit is −40 dB at 1 MHz with a slope of 20 dB per decade until the slope intercepts a horizontal line at −18 dB, then continuing at −18 dB to 100 MHz. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 82 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-48 Requirement for Differential Coupling between CC and D+/D− 3.7.3.3.2 VBUS Coupling to SBU_A/SBU_B, CC, and USB D+/D− (Normative) The single-ended coupling between VBUS and SBU_A/SBU_B and between VBUS and CC shall be less than the limits shown in Figure 3-49. The limit is defined by the vertices of (1 MHz, −40 dB), (10 MHz, −20 dB), and (100 MHz, −20 dB). Figure 3-49 Requirement for Single-ended Coupling between VBUS and SBU_A/SBU_B and between VBUS and CC The differential coupling between VBUS and USB D+/D− is specified in Figure 3-50. The limit is defined by the following vertices: (1 MHz, −40 dB), (30 MHz, −40 dB), and (100 MHz, −30 dB). Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 83 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-50 Requirement for Differential Coupling between VBUS and D+/D− The loop inductance of the VBUS line shall be controlled to limit the noises caused by load release on the VBUS line. The maximum loop inductance allowed is 900 nH. 3.7.3.3.3 Coupling between SBU_A/SBU_B and CC, SBU_A/SBU_B and USB D+/D−, and SBU_A and SBU_B (Normative) The single-ended coupling between SBU_A/SBU_B and CC and between SBU_A and SBU_B shall be less than the limit shown in Figure 3-51. The limit is defined with the vertices of (1 MHz, −46 dB), (10 MHz, −26 dB), (11.2 MHz, −25 dB), and (500 MHz, −25 dB). The differential coupling between SBU_A/SBU_B and USB D+/D− shall comply with the requirement shown in Figure 3-51. Figure 3-51 Requirement for Single-Ended Coupling between SBU_A/SBU_B and CC, and for Differential Coupling between SBU_A/SBU_B and USB D+/D− -20 -25 Coupling Requirement, dB -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 0 10 1 2 10 10 Frequemcy, MHz Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 84 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.7.3.4 USB D+/D− Signal Requirements (Normative) The USB D+/D− lines of the USB Type-C to Type-C cable assembly shall meet the requirements defined in Table 3-24. Table 3-24 USB D+/D− Signal Integrity Requirements Items Differential Impedance Propagation Delay Intra-pair Skew D+/D− Pair Attenuation Descriptions and Procedures EIA 364-108 This test ensures that the D+/D− lines of the cable assembly have the proper impedance. For the entire cable assembly. EIA 364-103 The purpose of the test is to verify the end-to-end propagation of the D+/D− lines of the cable assembly. EIA 364 – 103 This test ensures that the signal on both the D+ and D− lines of cable assembly arrive at the receiver at the same time. EIA 364 – 101 This test ensures the D+/D− pair of a cable assembly is able to provide adequate signal strength to the receiver in order to maintain a low error rate. Requirements 75 ohms min and 105 ohms max. 400 ps rise time (20%-80%). 20 ns max. 400 ps rise time (20%-80%). 100 ps max. 400 ps rise time (20%-80%). ≥ −1.02 dB @ 50 MHz ≥ −1.43 dB @ 100 MHz ≥ −2.40 dB @ 200 MHz ≥ −4.35 dB @ 400 MHz 3.7.4 USB Type-C to Legacy Cable Assemblies (Normative) The USB Type-C to legacy cable assemblies may support USB 2.0 only or USB 3.1 Gen 2; USB 3.1 Gen 1-only Type-C to legacy cable assemblies are not allowed. 3.7.4.1 USB 2.0-only Cable Assemblies (Normative) The USB 2.0-only Type-C to legacy USB cable assemblies include:  USB Type-C plug to USB 2.0 Standard-A plug  USB Type-C plug to USB 2.0 Standard-B plug  USB Type-C plug to USB 2.0 Micro-B plug  USB Type-C plug to USB 2.0 Mini-B plug The USB D+/D− signal integrity requirements are specified in Table 3-25. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 85 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-25 USB D+/D− Signal Integrity Requirements for USB Type-C to Legacy USB Cable Assemblies Items Differential Impedance Propagation Delay Intra-pair Skew D+/D− Pair Attenuation Descriptions and Procedures EIA 364-108 This test ensures that the D+/D− lines of the cable assembly have the proper impedance. For the entire cable assembly. EIA 364-103 The purpose of the test is to verify the end-to-end propagation of the D+/D− lines of the cable assembly. EIA 364 – 103 This test ensures that the signal on both the D+ and D− lines of cable assembly arrive at the receiver at the same time. EIA 364 – 101 This test ensures the D+/D− pair of a cable assembly is able to provide adequate signal strength to the receiver in order to maintain a low error rate. Requirements 75 ohms min and 105 ohms max. 400 ps rise time (20%-80%). 10 ns max for USB Type-C to Micro-B cable assembly; 20 ns max for all other USB TypeC to legacy USB cable assemblies. 400 ps rise time (20%-80%). 100 ps max. 400 ps rise time (20%-80%). ≥ −1.02 dB @ 50 MHz ≥ −1.43 dB @ 100 MHz ≥ −2.40 dB @ 200 MHz ≥ −4.35 dB @ 400 MHz 3.7.4.2 USB 3.1 Gen 2 Cable Assemblies (Normative) The USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Gen 2 legacy cable assemblies include:  USB Type-C plug to USB 3.1 Standard-A plug  USB Type-C plug to USB 3.1 Standard-B plug  USB Type-C plug to USB 3.1 Micro-B plug The informative design targets for these cables are provided in Table 3-26. Table 3-26 Design Targets for USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Gen 2 Legacy Cable Assemblies (Informative) Items Differential Impedance Differential Insertion Loss Differential NEXT between SuperSpeed Pairs Differential NEXT and FEXT between D+/D- and SuperSpeed Pairs Design Targets 76 ohms min and 96 ohms max. 40 ps rise time (20%-80%). ≥ −2 dB @ 100 MHz ≥ −4 dB @ 2.5 GHz, except for the USB TypeC plug to USB 3.1 Standard-A plug cable assembly which is ≥−3.5 dB @ 2.5 GHz −6.0 dB max @ 5.0 GHz ≤ −34 dB to 5 GHz ≤ −30 dB to 5 GHz The normative requirements include the USB D+/D− signaling as specified in Table 3-25, and the USB SuperSpeed parameters specified in Table 3-27. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 86 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-27 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Gen 2 Legacy Cable Assembly Signal Integrity Requirements (Normative) Items Descriptions and Procedures Requirements Differential Insertion Loss Fit at Nyquist Frequencies (ILfitatNq) Integrated Differential Multireflection (IMR) ILfitatNq is evaluated at both the SuperSpeed Gen 1 and Gen 2 Nyquist frequencies. (√∫0∫|0(|)|2(|)|2()|2) ≥ −4 dB @ 2.5 GHz, except for the USB Type-C plug to USB 3.1 Standard-A plug cable assembly which is ≥ −3.5 dB @ 2.5 GHz ≥ −6.0 dB at 5.0 GHz ≤ 0.126 ∙ 2 + 3.024 ∙ − 27.353. See Figure 3-52. Integrated Differential Crosstalk on SuperSpeed (ISSXT) (√∫0(|()|2 |()|2 + |()|2|()|2 ∫0|()|2 ) ) where: NEXTs = NEXT between SuperSpeed pairs NEXTd = NEXT between D+/D− and SuperSpeed pairs Vdd(f) = Input pulse spectrum on D+/D− pair, evaluated using equation shown in Figure 3-44 with Tb (UI) = 2.08 ns. ≤ −38 dB Integrated Differential Crosstalk on D+/D(IDDXT) Integrated Return Loss (IRL) (√∫0(|()|2 |()|2 + |()|2|()|2 ∫0|()|2 ) ) where: NEXT = Near-end crosstalk from SuperSpeed to D+/D− FEXT = Far-end crosstalk from SuperSpeed to D+/D− fmax = 7.5 GHz (√∫0|()|2|21∫(0)|2|(|()1|12()|2 + |22()|2) ) ≤ −34 dB ≤ 0.046 ∙ 2 + 1.812 ∙ − 14.825. See Figure 3-53. Note: fmax = 10 GHz (unless otherwise specified); Vin(f) is defined in Figure 3-44 with Tb (UI) = 100 ps; and Vdd(f) is also defined in Figure 3-44 with Tb (UI) = 2.08 ns. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 87 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-52 IMR Limit as Function of ILfitatNq for USB Type-C to Legacy Cable Assembly Figure 3-53 IRL Limit as Function of ILfitatNq for USB Type-C to Legacy Cable Assembly 3.7.5 USB Type-C to USB Legacy Adapter Assemblies (Normative) Only the following standard legacy adapter assemblies are defined:  USB 2.0 Type-C plug to USB 2.0 Micro-B receptacle  USB Full-Featured Type-C plug to USB 3.1 Standard-A receptacle 3.7.5.1 USB 2.0 Type-C Plug to USB 2.0 Micro-B Receptacle Adapter Assembly (Normative) This adapter assembly supports only the USB 2.0 signaling. It shall not exceed 150 mm total length, measured from end to end. Table 3-28 defines the electrical requirements. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 88 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-28 USB D+/D− Signal Integrity Requirements for USB Type-C to Legacy USB Adapter Assemblies (Normative) Items Differential Impedance Intra-pair Skew Differential Insertion Loss Descriptions and Procedures EIA 364-108 This test ensures that the D+/D− lines of the adapter assembly have the proper impedance. For the entire adaptor assembly. EIA 364 – 103 This test ensures that the signal on both the D+ and D− lines of adapter assembly arrive at the receiver at the same time. EIA 364 – 101 This test ensures the D+/D− pair of an adapter assembly can provide adequate signal strength to the receiver. Requirements 75 ohms min and 105 ohms max. 400 ps rise time (20%-80%). 20 ps max. 400 ps rise time (20%-80%). −0.7 dB max @ 400 MHz 3.7.5.2 USB Full-Featured Type-C Plug to USB 3.1 Standard-A Receptacle Adapter Assembly (Normative) The USB Full-Featured Type-C plug to USB 3.1 Standard–A receptacle adapter assembly is intended to be used with a direct-attach device (e.g., USB thumb drive). A system is not guaranteed to function when using an adapter assembly together with a Standard USB cable assembly. To minimize the impact of the adapter assembly to system signal integrity, the adapter assembly should meet the informative design targets in Table 3-29. Table 3-29 Design Targets for USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Adapter Assemblies (Informative) Items Differential Return Loss Differential Insertion Loss Differential NEXT between SuperSpeed Pairs Differential NEXT and FEXT between D+/D− and SuperSpeed Pairs Design Targets ≤ −15 dB to 2.5 GHz Normalized with 85 ohms. ≥ −2 dB to 2.5 GHz ≤ −40 dB to 2.5 GHz ≤ −30 dB to 2.5 GHz The normative requirements for the adapter assembly are defined in Table 3-28 and Table 3-30. The adapter assembly total length is limited to 150 mm max. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 89 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-30 USB Type-C to USB 3.1 Standard-A Receptacle Adapter Assembly Signal Integrity Requirements (Normative) Items Descriptions and Procedures Requirements Differential Insertion Loss Fit at Nyquist Frequency (ILfitatNq) Integrated Differential Multireflection (IMR) ILfitatNq is evaluated at the SuperSpeed Gen 1 Nyquist frequency. (√∫0∫|0(|)|2(|)|2()|2) ≥ −2 dB at 2.5 GHz ≤ −38 dB Integrated Differential Crosstalk on SuperSpeed (ISSXT) Integrated Differential Crosstalk on D+/D(IDDXT) Integrated Return Loss (IRL) (√∫0(|()|2 |()|2 + |()|2|()|2 ∫0|()|2 ) ) where: NEXTs = NEXT between SuperSpeed pairs NEXTd = NEXT between D+/D− and SuperSpeed pairs Vdd(f) = Input pulse spectrum on D+/D− pair, evaluated using equation shown in Figure 3-44 with Tb (UI) = 2.08 ns. (√∫0(|()|2 |()|2 + |()|2|()|2 ∫0|()|2 ) ) where: NEXT = Near-end crosstalk from SuperSpeed to D+/D− FEXT = Far-end crosstalk from SuperSpeed to D+/D− fmax = 7.5 GHz (√∫0|()|2|∫201()||2(|()1|21()|2+|22()|2)), ≤ −38 dB ≤ −32 dB ≤ −24 dB Note: fmax = 7.5 GHz; Vin(f) is defined in Figure 3-44 with Tb (UI) = 200 ps; and Vdd(f) is also specified in Figure 3-44 with Tb (UI) = 2.08 ns. 3.7.6 Shielding Effectiveness Requirements (Normative) The cable assembly shielding effectiveness (SE) test measures the EMI and RFI levels from the cable assembly. To perform the measurement, the cable assembly shall be installed in the cable SE test fixture as shown in Figure 3-54. The coupling factors from the cable to the fixture are characterized with a VNA. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 90 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-54 Cable Assembly Shielding Effectiveness Testing All USB Type-C cable assemblies shall pass the shielding effectiveness test for compliance. The pass/fail criteria for the USB Type-C to USB Type-C cable assemblies is shown in Figure 3-55a while the pass/fail criteria for the USB Type-C to legacy USB cable assemblies is shown in Figure 3-55b. Note that the shielding effectiveness for the frequency band from 4 GHz to 5 GHz is not specified since there is no antenna operating in this frequency range. Figure 3-55 Shielding Effectiveness Pass/Fail Criteria (a) For USB Type-C to USB Type-C Cable Assemblies (b) For USB Type-C to legacy USB cable assemblies 3.7.7 DC Electrical Requirements (Normative) Unless otherwise stated, the tests in this section are performed on mated connector pairs. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 91 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.7.7.1 Low Level Contact Resistance (EIA 364-23B) The low level contact resistance (LLCR) measurement is made from the solder tail of the receptacle to the soldering point of the plug (including any internal paddle cards, contacts and substrates of the plug and receptacle). See Figure 3-56. The following requirements apply to the power and signal contacts:  40 mΩ (Max) initial for VBUS, GND and all other contacts.  Maximum change (delta) of +10 mΩ after environmental stresses.  Measure at 20 mV (Max) open circuit at 100 mA. Refer to Section 3.8 for environmental requirements and test sequences. Figure 3-56 LLCR Measurement Diagram 3.7.7.2 Dielectric Strength (EIA 364-20) No breakdown shall occur when 100 Volts AC (RMS) is applied between adjacent conta cts of unmated and mated connectors. 3.7.7.3 Insulation Resistance (EIA 364-21) A minimum of 100 MΩ insulation resistance is required between adjacent contacts of unmated and mated connectors. 3.7.7.4 Contact Current Rating (EIA 364-70, Method 2) A current of 5.0 A shall be applied collectively to VBUS pins (i.e., pins A4, A9, B4, and B9) and 1.25 A applied to the VCONN pin (i.e., B5 of the plug connector) with the return path through the corresponding GND pins (i.e., pins A1, A12, B1, and B12). A minimum current of 0.25 A shall also be applied individually to all the other contacts. When the currents are applied to the contacts, the temperature rise shall not exceed 30 °C at any point on the USB Type -C mated plug and receptacle under test, when measured at an ambient temperature of 25 °C. 3.8 Mechanical and Environmental Requirements (Normative) The requirements in this section apply to all USB Type-C connectors and/or cable assemblies unless otherwise specified. For USB Type-C plug connectors and cable assemblies, the test methods are based on an assumption that the cable exits the overmold in line with mating direction to a USB Type-C receptacle (i.e., straight out the back of the overmold). For USB Type-C plug connectors and cable assemblies with the cable exiting the overmold in a different direction than straight out the back (e.g., right angle to the mating direction), test fixtures and procedures shall be modified as required to accomplish the measurement. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 92 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3.8.1 Mechanical Requirements 3.8.1.1 Insertion Force (EIA 364-13) The initial connector insertion force shall be within the range from 5 N to 20 N at a maximum rate of 12.5 mm (0.492") per minute. This requirement does not apply when the connectors are used in a docking application. It is recommended to use a non-silicone based lubricant on the latching mechanism to reduce wear. The effects of lubricants should be restricted to insertion and extraction characteristics and should not increase the resistance of the mated connection. 3.8.1.2 Extraction Force (EIA 364-13) The connector extraction force shall be within the range of 8 N to 20 N before and after the specified insertion/extraction or durability cycles (at a maximum rate of 12.5 mm (0.492”) per minute). This requirement does not apply when the connectors are used in a mechanical docking application. It is recommended to use a non-silicone based lubricant on the latching mechanism to reduce wear. The effects of lubricants should be restricted to insertion and extraction characteristics and should not increase the resistance of the mated connection. 3.8.1.3 Durability or Insertion/Extraction Cycles (EIA 364-09) The durability rating shall be 10,000 cycles minimum for the USB Type-C connector family. The durability test shall be done at a maximum rate of 200 cycles per hour and no physical damage to any part of the connector and cable assembly shall occur. 3.8.1.4 Cable Flexing (EIA 364-41, Condition 1) No physical damage or discontinuity over 1ms during flexing shall occur to the cable assembly with Dimension X = 3.7 times the cable diameter and 100 cycles in each of two planes. 3.8.1.5 Cable Pull-Out (EIA 364-38, Method A) No physical damage to the cable assembly shall occur when it is subjected to a 40 N axial load for a minimum of 1 minute while clamping one end of the cable plug . 3.8.1.6 4-Axis Continuity Test The USB Type-C connector family shall be tested for continuity under stress using the test configurations shown in Figure 3-57. Plugs shall be supplied in a cable assembly with a representative overmold. A USB Type-C receptacle shall be mounted on a 2-layer printed circuit board (PCB) between 0.8 mm and 1.0 mm thickness. The PCB shall be clamped on either side of the receptacle no further than 5 mm away from the solder tails. The PCB shall initially be placed in a horizontal plane, and an 8 N tensile force shall be applied to the cable in a downward direction, perpendicular to the axis of insertion, for a period of at least 10 seconds. For receptacle designs that do not have a full length shell, the test shall be done with the connector and associated hardware mounted as in the final product configuration. The continuity across each contact shall be measured throughout the application of the tensile force. Each non-ground contact shall also be tested to confirm that it does not short to the shell during the stresses. The PCB shall then be rotated 90 degrees such that the cable is still inserted horizontally and the 8 N tensile force shall be applied again in the downward direction and continuity measured as before. This test is repeated for 180 degree and 270 degree rotations. Passing parts shall not exhibit any discontinuities or shorting to the shell greater than 1 μs duration in any of the four orientations. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 93 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification One method for measuring the continuity through the contacts is to short all the wires at the end of the cable pigtail and apply a voltage through a pull-up to each of VBUS, USB D+, USB D−, SBU, CC, and USB SuperSpeed pins, with the GND pins connected to ground. Alternate methods are allowed to verify continuity through all pins. Figure 3-57 4-Axis Continuity Test 3.8.1.7 Wrenching Strength The wrenching strength test shall be performed using virgin parts. Perpendicular forces (Fp) are applied to a plug when inserted at a distance (L) of 15 mm from the edge of the receptacle. These forces shall be applied in all four directions (i.e., left, right, up, and down). Compliant connectors shall meet the following force thresholds:  No plug or receptacle damage shall occur when a force of 0-50 N is applied  The plug may be damaged, but only in such a way that the receptacle does not sustain damage when a force of 50-75 N is applied.  The plug shall be mated with a different receptacle after the forces are applied to verify no damage has occurred that causes discontinuity or shorting. A plug should be tested with a full shell receptacle compliant with the receptacle dimensions shown in Figure 3-1. A receptacle should be tested with a cable assembly having a plug compliant with the dimensions shown in Figure 3-3. 3.8.1.8 Restriction of Hazardous Substances It is recommended that components be RoHS compliant. 3.8.2 Environmental Requirements The connector interface environmental tests shall follow EIA 364-1000.01, Environmental Test Methodology for Assessing the Performance of Electrical Connectors and Sockets Used in Business Office Applications. Since the connector defined has more than 0.127 mm wipe length, Test Group 6 in EIA 3641000.01 is not required. The temperature life test duration and the m ixed flowing gas test duration values are derived from EIA 364-1000.01 based on the field temperature per the following. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 94 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-31 Environmental Test Conditions Temperature Life test temperature and duration Temperature Life test temperature and duration for preconditioning Mixed flowing gas test duration 105 °C for 120 hours 105 °C for 72 hours 7 days The pass/fail criterion for the low level contact resistance (LLCR) is as defined in Section 3.7.7.1. The durability ratings are defined in Section 3.8.1.3. 3.8.2.1 Reference Materials (Informative) This specification does not specify materials for connectors and cables. Connector and cable manufacturers should select appropriate materials based on performance requirements. The information below is provided for reference only. Note: Connector and cable manufacturers should comply with contact plating requirements per the following options: Option I Receptacle Contact area: (Min) 0.05 μm Au + (Min) 0.75 μm Ni-Pd on top of (Min) 2.0 μm Ni Plug Contact area: (Min) 0.05 μm Au + (Min) 0.75 μm Ni-Pd on top of (Min) 2.0 μm Ni Option II Receptacle Contact area: (Min) 0.75 μm Au on top of (Min) 2.0 μm Ni Plug Contact area: (Min) 0.75 μm Au on top of (Min) 2.0 μm Ni Other reference materials that connector and cable manufacturers select based on performance parameters listed in Table 3-32 are for reference only. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 95 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 3-32 Reference Materials Component Materials Cable Conductor: copper with tin or silver plating SDP Shield: AL foil or AL/mylar foil Coaxial shield: copper strand Braid: Tin plated copper or aluminum Jacket: PVC or halogen free substitute material Cable Overmold Thermoset or thermoplastic Connector Shells Stainless steel or phosphor bronze Plug Side Latches Stainless steel Receptacle Mid-Plate Stainless steel Plug Internal EMC Spring Stainless steel or high yield strength copper alloy Receptacle EMC Pad Stainless steel or phosphor bronze Receptacle Shell Stainless steel or phosphor bronze Receptacle Tongue Glass-filled nylon Housing Thermoplastics capable of withstanding lead-free soldering temperature Note: Halogen-free materials should be considered for all plastics 3.9 Docking Applications (Informative) In this specification, docking refers to plugging a device directly into a dock without using a cable assembly. The USB Type-C connector is defined to support such applications. The connector is only part of a docking solution. A complete docking solution at the system level may also include retention or locking mechanisms, alignment mechanisms, docking plug mounting solutions, and protocols supported through the connector. This specification does not attempt to standardize system docking solutions, therefore there is no interoperability requirement for docking solutions. The following list includes the requirements and guidelines when using the USB Type -C connector for docking: 1. The USB Type-C plug used for docking shall work with compliant USB Type-C receptacle. It shall comply with all dimensional, electrical and mechanical requirements. 2. If the plug on the dock does not include the side latches, then the dock should provide a retention or locking mechanism to secure the device to the plug. The retention latches also serve as one of the ground return paths for EMC. The docking design should ensure adequate EMC performance without the side latches if they are not present. 3. The internal EMC fingers are not required for the docking plug as long as the receptacle and plug shells have adequate electrical connection. 4. Alignment is critical for docking. Depending on system design, standard USB Type-C connectors alone may not provide adequate alignment for mating. System level alignment is highly recommended. Alignment solutions are implementation-specific. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 96 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 5. Fine alignment is provided by the connector. The receptacle front face may have lead-in features for fine alignment. Figure 3-58 shows an example of a USB Type-C receptacle with a lead-in flange compared to a receptacle without the flange. Figure 3-58 USB Type-C Cable Receptacle Flange Example 3.10 Implementation Notes and Design Guides This section discusses a few implementation notes and design guides to help users design and use the USB Type-C connectors and cables. 3.10.1 EMC Management (Informative) Connector and cable assembly designers, as well as system implementers should pay attention to receptacle and cable assembly shielding to ensure a low-impedance grounding path. The following are guidelines for EMC management:  The quality of raw cables should be ensured. The intra-pair skew or the differential to common mode conversion of the SuperSpeed pairs has a significant impact on cable EMC and should be controlled within the limits of this specification.  The cable external braid should be physically connected to the plug metal shell as close to 360° as possible to control EMC. Without appropriate shielding termination, even a perfect cable with zero intra-pair skew may not meet EMC requirements. Copper tape may be needed to shield off the braid termination area.  The wire termination contributes to common-mode noise. The breakout distance for the wire termination should be kept as small as possible to optimize EMC and signal integrity performance. If possible, symmetry should be maintained for the two lines within a differential pair.  Besides the mechanical function, the side latches on the plug and the mid-plate in the receptacle also play a role for EMC. This is illustrated in Figure 3-59: 1. The side latch should have electrical connection to the receptacle mid-plate (a docking plug may not have side latches). Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 97 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 2. The side latches should be terminated to the paddle card GND plane inside the plug. 3. The mid-plate should be directly connected to system PCB GND plane with 3 or more solder leads/tails. Figure 3-59 EMC Guidelines for Side Latch and Mid-plate  The internal RFI finger inside the plug should have adequate connection points to the inner surface of the plug shell. Four or more connection points are recommended as illustrated in Figure 3-60. Figure 3-60 EMC Finger Connections to Plug Shell  The EMC fingers inside the plug mates with the EMC pad in the receptacle. It is important for the EMC pad to have adequate connections to the receptacle shell. As illustrated in Figure 3-61, there are multiple laser welding points between the EMC pads and the receptacle shell, top and bottom. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 98 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification  The receptacle shell should have sufficient connection points to the system PCB GND plane with apertures as small as possible. Figure 3-61 illustrates an example with multiple solder tails to connect the receptacle shell to system PCB GND. Figure 3-61 EMC Pad Connections to Receptacle Shell  Apertures in the receptacle and plug shells should be minimized. If apertures are unavoidable, a maximum aperture size of 1.5 mm is recommended. See Figure 3-62 for aperture illustrations. Copper tape may be applied to seal the apertures inside the cable plug. Figure 3-62 Examples of Connector Apertures  The receptacle connectors should be connected to metal chassis or enclosures through grounding fingers, screws, or any other way to manage EMC. 3.10.2 Stacked and Side-by-Side Connector Physical Spacing (Informative) Stacked and side-by-side USB connectors are commonly used in PC systems. Figure 3-63 illustrates the recommended spacing between connectors for stacked and side-by-side configurations. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 99 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 3-63 Recommended Minimum Spacing between Connectors 3.10.3 Cable Mating Considerations (Informative) The receptacle mounting location, exterior product surfaces, cable overmold, and plug mating length need to be considered to ensure the USB Type-C plug is allowed to fully engage the USB Type-C receptacle. Figure 3-64 illustrates the recommended minimum plug overmold clearance to allow the cable plug to fully seat in the product receptacle. Figure 3-64 Recommended Minimum Plug Overmold Clearance Figure 3-65 illustrates special considerations required when external walls are angled. For such applications, the USB Type-C receptacle shell may not provide as much mechanical alignment protection to the receptacle tongue as in the full shell design. Design options to allow the receptacle to pass mechanical test requirements include relief in the exterior wall surface to allow use of a full shell receptacle or use of a receptacle specifically designed for the application. Figure 3-65 Cable Plug Overmold and an Angled Surface Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 100 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4 Functional This chapter covers the functional requirements for the signaling across the USB Type -C cables and connectors. This includes functional signal definition, discovery and configuration processes, and power delivery. For purposes of this description, a USB port operating as a host is referred to as the Downstream Facing Port (DFP) and a USB port operating as a device is referred to as the Upstream Facing Port (UFP). Chapter 5 defines functional extensions that are optional. 4.1 Signal Summary Table 4-1 summarizes the list of signals used on the USB Type-C connectors. Table 4-1 USB Type-C List of Signals Signal Group USB 3.1 USB 2.0 Configuration Auxiliary signals Power Signal SSTXp1, SSTXn1 SSRXp1, SSRXn1 SSTXp2, SSTXn2 SSRXp2, SSRXn2 Dp1, Dn1 Dp2, Dn2 CC1, CC2 (receptacle) CC (plug) SBU1, SBU2 VBUS VCONN (plug) GND Description SuperSpeed USB serial data interface defines 1 differential transmit pair and 1 differential receive pair. On a USB Type-C receptacle, two sets of SuperSpeed USB signal pins are defined to enable plug flipping feature USB 2.0 serial data interface defines a differential pair. On a USB Type-C receptacle, two set of USB 2.0 signal pins are defined to enable plug flipping feature CC channel in the plug used for connection detect, interface configuration and VCONN Sideband Use USB cable bus power USB plug power USB cable return current path 4.2 Signal Pin Descriptions 4.2.1 SuperSpeed USB Pins SSTXp1, SSTXn1 (SSTXp2, SSTXn2) These pins are required to implement the system’s transmit path of a USB 3.1 SuperSpeed interface. The transmitter differential pair in a port are routed to the receiver differential pair in the port at the opposite end of the path. The USB 3.1 Specification defines all electrical characteristics, enumeration, protocol, and management features for this interface. Two pairs of pins are defined to enable the plug flipping feature – see Section 4.5.1.1 for further definition. SSRXp1, SSRXn1 (SSRXp2, SSRXn2) These pins are required to implement the system’s receive path of a USB 3.1 SuperSpeed interface. The receiver differential pair in a port are routed to the transmitter differential pair in the port at the opposite end of the path. The USB 3.1 Specification defines all electrical characteristics, enumeration, protocol, and management features for this interface. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 101 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Two pairs of pins are defined to enable the plug flipping feature – see Section 4.5.1.1 for further definition. 4.2.2 USB 2.0 Pins Dp1, Dn1 (Dp2, Dn2) These pins are required to implement USB 2.0 functionality. USB 2.0 in all three modes (LS, FS, and HS) is supported. The USB 2.0 Specification defines all electrical characteristics, enumeration, and bus protocol and bus management features for this interface. Two pairs of pins are defined to enable the plug flipping feature – see Section 4.5.1.1 for further definition. 4.2.3 Auxiliary Signal Pins SBU1, SBU2 These pins are assigned to sideband use. Refer to Section 4.3 for the functional requirements. 4.2.4 Power and Ground Pins VBUS These pins are for USB cable bus power as defined by the USB specifications. This source is only present when a DFP-to-UFP connection across the CC channel is present – see Section 4.5.1.2.1. Refer to Section 4.4.2 for the functional requirements for VBUS. VCONN VCONN is applied to the unused CC pin to supply power to the local plug. Refer to Section 4.4.3 for the functional requirements for VCONN. GND Return current path. 4.2.5 Configuration Pins CC1, CC2, CC These pins are used to detect connections and configure the interface across the USB Type-C cables and connectors. Refer to Section 4.5 for the functional definition. Once a connection is established, CC1 or CC2 will be reassigned for providing power over the VCONN pin of the plug – see Section 4.5.1.2.1. 4.3 Sideband Use (SBU) The Sideband Use pins (SBU1 and SBU2) are limited to the uses as defined by this specification and additional functionality will be defined in future versions of the USB specifications. See Section 5.1 and Appendix A for use of the SBU pins in Alternate Modes and Audio Adapter Accessory Mode. The SBU pins on a port shall either be open circuit or have a weak pull-down to ground no stronger than zSBUTermination. These pins are pre-wired in the standard USB Full-Featured Type-C cable as individual single-ended wires (SBU_A and SBU_B). Note that SBU1 and SBU2 are cross-connected in the cable. 4.4 Power and Ground 4.4.1 IR Drop The maximum allowable cable IR drop for ground shall be 250 mV and for VBUS shall be 500 mV through the cable to the cable’s maximum rated VBUS current capacity. When VCONN is being sourced, the IR drop for the ground shall still be met considering any additional V CONN return current. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 102 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-1 illustrates what parameters contribute to the IR drop and where it shall be measured. The IR drop includes the contact resistance of the mated plug and receptacles at each end. Figure 4-1 Cable IR Drop Figure 4-2 illustrates what parameters contribute to the IR drop for a powered cable and where it shall be measured. Note that the powered cable includes isolation elements (Iso) and loads (L1 and L2) for the functions in the powered cable such as USB PD controllers. The IR drop shall remain below 250 mV in all cases. Figure 4-2 Cable IR Drop for powered cables 4.4.2 VBUS The allowable default range for VBUS as measured at the DFP receptacle shall be as defined by the USB 2.0 Specification and USB 3.1 Specification. Note that due to higher currents allowed, legacy devices may experience a higher voltage (up to 5.5V maximum) at light loads. The DFP’s USB Type-C receptacle VBUS pin shall remain unpowered until a UFP is attached. The VBUS pin shall return to the unpowered state when the UFP is detached. See Table 4-15 for VBUS timing values. Legacy hosts/chargers that by default source VBUS when connected Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 103 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification using any legacy USB connector (Standard-A, Micro-B, etc.) to USB Type-C cable or adapter are exempted from these two requirements. 4.4.3 VCONN VCONN is provided by the DFP to power cables with electronics in the plug. VCONN is provided over the CC pin that is determined not to be connected to the CC wire of the cable. Initially, VCONN shall be sourced on all DFP USB Type-C receptacles that utilize the SSTX and SSRX pins during specific connection states as described in Section 4.5.2.2. VCONN may be sourced on DFP USB Type-C receptacles that do not utilize the SSTX and SSRX pins as described in Section 4.5.2.2. USB PD VCONN_Swap command also provides the DFP a means to request that the attached UFP source VCONN. Table 4-2 provides the voltage and power requirements that shall be met for VCONN. See Section 4.9 for more details about Electronically Marked Cables. See Section 4.10 for a wider VCONN voltage operating range for VCONN-powered accessories. See Section 5.1 regarding optional support for an increased VCONN power range in Alternate Modes. Table 4-2 VCONN Source Characteristics Voltage Power Bulk Capacitance Minimum 4.75 V 1.0 W 10 μF Maximum 5.5 V 220 μF Notes Ports that support VCONN-powered accessories are allowed to supply at a lower minimum of 2.7 V when operating in the Powered.Accessory state. Source may latch-off VCONN if excessive power is drawn beyond the specified inrush and mode wattage. The VCONN source shall disconnect the bulk capacitance from the receptacle when VCONN is powered off. To aid in reducing the power associated with supplying VCONN, a DFP is allowed to either not source VCONN or turn off Vconn under any of the following conditions:  Ra is not detected on the CC pin that is not connected to the CC wire  After completing the USB PD Discover Identity process and determining that VCONN is not needed  If there is no response to USB PD Discover Identity messages Table 4-3 provides the requirements that shall be met for cables that consume VCONN power. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 104 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 4-3 VCONN Sink Characteristics Inrush Capacitance Power for Electronically Marked Cables Power for Active Cables tVCONNDischarge vVCONNDischarge Minimum Maximum 10 μF 70 mW Notes A cable shall not present more than the equivalent inrush capacitance to the VCONN source. The active cable is responsible for discharging its capacitance. See Section 4.9. 1.0 W 250 ms 150 mV See Section 5.2. The time from the point that the cable is detached until vVCONNDischarge shall be met. The VCONN voltage following cable detach and self-discharge. The cable may remove or weaken Ra when VCONN is above 1.0 V as long as the other requirements are met. See Section 4.5.1.2.1. 4.5 Configuration Channel (CC) 4.5.1 Architectural Overview For the USB Type-C solution, two pins on the connector, CC1 and CC2, are used to establish and manage the DFP-to-UFP connection. Note that in this section, “direct connect” is used to refer to a device connected directly to a host (e.g., a thumb drive). When the device is connected through a hub, the connection between a UFP on the hub and the host port and the connection between the device port and a DFP on the hub, are treated as separate connections. Functionally, the configuration channel is used to serve the following purposes.  Detect attach of USB ports, e.g. a DFP to a UFP  Resolve cable orientation and twist connections to establish USB data bus routing  Establish DFP and UFP roles between two attached ports  Discover and configure VBUS: USB Type-C Current modes or USB Power Delivery  Configure VCONN  Discover and configure optional Alternate and Accessory modes 4.5.1.1 USB Data Bus Interface and USB Type-C Plug Flip-ability Since the USB Type-C plug can be inserted in either right-side-up or upside-down position, the hosts and devices that support USB data bus functionality must operate on the signal pins that are actually connected end-to-end. In the case of USB 2.0, this is done by shorting together the two D+ signal pins and the two D− signal pins in the DFP and UFP receptacles. In the case of USB SuperSpeed signals, it requires the functional equivalent of a switch in both the DFP and UFP to appropriately route the SuperSpeed TX and RX signal pairs to the connected path through the cable. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 105 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-3 illustrates the logical data bus model for a USB Type-C-based DFP connected to a USB Type-C-based UFP. The USB cable that sits between a DFP and UFP can be in one of four possible connected states when viewed by the DFP:  Un-flipped straight through – Position   Position   Un-flipped twisted through – Position   Position   Flipped straight through – Position   Position   Flipped twisted through – Position   Position  To establish the proper routing of the active USB data bus from DFP to UFP, the standard USB Type-C cable is wired such that a single CC wire is position aligned with the first USB SuperSpeed signal pairs (SSTXp1/SSTXn1 and SSRXp1/SSRXn1) – in this way, the CC wire and USB SuperSpeed data bus wires that are used for signaling within the cable track with regard to the orientation and twist of the cable. By being able to detect which of the CC pins (CC1 or CC2) at the receptacle is terminated by the UFP, the DFP is able to determine which SuperSpeed USB signals are to be used for the connection and the DFP can use this to control the functional switch for routing the SuperSpeed USB signal pairs. Similarly in the UFP, detecting which of the CC pins at the receptacle is terminated by the DFP allows the UFP to control the functional switch that routes its SuperSpeed USB signal pairs. Figure 4-3 Logical Model for Data Bus Routing across USB Type-C-based Ports While Figure 4-3 illustrates the functional model as a DFP connected to a UFP, this model equally applies to a USB hub’s DFPs as well. Figure 4-4 illustrates the logical data bus model for a USB Type-C-based UFP (implemented with a USB Type-C plug either physically incorporated into the device or permanently attached as a captive cable) connected directly to a USB Type-C-based DFP. For the UFP, the location of the USB SuperSpeed data bus, USB 2.0 data bus, CC and VCONN pins are fixed by design. Given that the UFP pin locations are fixed, only two possible connected states exist when viewed by the DFP. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 106 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-4 Logical Model for USB Type-C-based Ports for the Direct Connect Device The functional requirements for implementing SuperSpeed USB data bus routing for the USB Type-C receptacle are not included in the scope of this specification. There are multiple host, device and hub architectures that can be used to accomplish this which could include either discrete or integrated switching, and could include merging this functionality with other USB 3.1 design elements, e.g. a bus repeater. 4.5.1.2 Connecting DFPs and UFPs Given that the USB Type-C receptacle and plug no longer differentiate host and device roles based on connector shape, e.g., as was the case with USB Type-A and Type-B connectors, any two ports that have USB Type-C receptacles can be connected together with a standard USB Type-C cable. Table 4-4 summarizes the expected results when interconnecting DFP, UFP and DRP ports. Table 4-4 USB Type-C-based Port Interoperability DFP UFP DRP DFP Non-functional Functional Functional UFP Functional Non-functional Functional DRP Functional Functional Functional* * Resolution of roles may be automatic or manually driven In the cases where no function results, neither port shall be harmed by this connection. The user has to independently realize the invalid combination and take appropriate action to resolve. While these two invalid combinations mimic traditional USB where DFP-to-DFP and UFP-to-UFP connections are not intended to work, the non-keyed USB Type-C solution does not prevent the user from attempting such interconnects. VBUS and VCONN shall not be applied by a DFP in these cases. The typical flow for the configuration of the interface in the general USB case of a DFP to a UFP is as follows: 1. Detect a valid connection between the ports (including determining cable orientation and DFP/UFP relationship) 2. Optionally discover the cable’s capabilities Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 107 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 3. Optionally establish alternatives to traditional USB power (See Section 4.6.2) a. USB PD communication over CC for advanced power delivery negotiation b. USB Type-C Current modes c. USB BC 1.2 4. USB Device Enumeration For cases of DRPs connecting to either DFP, UFP or another DRP, the process is essentially the same except that during the detecting a valid connection step, the DRP alternates between operating as a DFP for detecting an attached UFP and presenting as a UFP to be detected by an attached DFP. Ultimately this results in a DFP-to-UFP connection. 4.5.1.2.1 Detecting a Valid DFP-to-UFP Connection The general concept for setting up a valid connection between a DFP and UFP is based on being able to detect terminations residing in the product being attached. To aid in defining the functional behavior of CC, a pull-up (Rp) and pull-down (Rd) termination model is used – actual implementation in hosts and devices may vary, for example, the pull-up termination could be replaced by a current source. Figure 4-5 and Figure 4-6 illustrates two models, the first based on a pull-up resistor in the DFP and the second replacing this with a current source. Figure 4-5 Pull-Up/Pull-Down CC Model Figure 4-6 Current Source/Pull-Down CC Model Initially, a DFP exposes Rp terminations on its CC pins and a UFP exposes Rd terminations on its CC pins, the DFP-to-UFP combination of this circuit configuration represents a valid Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 108 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification connection. To detect this, the DFP monitors both CC pins for a voltage lower than its unterminated voltage – the choice of Rp is a function of the pull-up termination voltage and the DFP’s detection circuit. This indicates that either a UFP, a powered cable, or a UFP connected via a powered cable has been attached. Prior to application of VCONN, a powered cable exposes Ra on its VCONN pin. Ra represents the load on VCONN plus any resistive elements to ground. In some cable plugs it might be a pure resistance and in others it may be simply the load. The DFP has to be able to differentiate between the presence of Rd and Ra to know whether there is a UFP attached and where to apply VCONN. The DFP is not required to source VCONN unless Ra is detected. Two special termination combinations on the CC pins as seen by a DFP are defined for directly attached Accessory Modes: Ra/Ra for Audio Adapter Accessory Mode (Appendix A) and Rd/Rd for Debug Accessory Mode (Appendix B). The DFP uses de-bounce timers to reliably detect states on the CC pins to de-bounce the connection (tCCDebounce), and hide USB PD BMC communications (tPDDebounce). Table 4-5 summarizes the port state from the DFP’s perspective. Table 4-5 DFP Perspective CC1 Open Rd Open Open Ra Rd Ra Rd Ra CC2 Open Open Rd Ra Open Ra Rd Rd Ra State Nothing attached UFP attached Powered cable/No UFP attached Powered cable/UFP attached Debug Accessory Mode attached (Appendix B) Audio Adapter Accessory Mode attached (Appendix A) Position N/A       N/A N/A When the UFP senses VBUS, the UFP monitors both CC pins for a voltage greater than its local ground. The CC pin that is at a higher voltage (i.e. pulled up by Rp in the DFP) indicates the orientation of the plug. Table 4-6 summarizes the typical behaviors for simple DFPs and UFPs for each state in Table 4-5. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 109 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 4-6 DFP and UFP Behaviors by State State Nothing attached UFP attached Powered cable/No UFP attached Powered cable/UFP attached Debug Accessory Mode attached Audio Adapter Accessory Mode attached DFP Behavior  Sense CC pins for attach  Do not apply VBUS or VCONN  Sense CC for orientation  Sense CC for detach  Apply VBUS and VCONN  Sense CC pins for attach  Do not apply VBUS or VCONN  Sense CC for orientation  Sense CC for detach  Apply VBUS and VCONN  Sense CC pins for detach  Reconfigure for debug  Sense CC pins for detach  Reconfigure for analog audio UFP Behavior  Sense VBUS for attach  Sense CC pins for orientation  Sense loss of VBUS for detach  Sense VBUS for attach  Sense CC pins for orientation  Sense loss of VBUS for detach  N/A  N/A Figure 4-3 shows how the inserted plug orientation is detected at the DFP’s receptacle by noting on which of the two CC pins in the receptacle an Rd termination is sensed. Now that the DFP has recognized that a UFP is attached and the plug orientation is determined, it configures the SuperSpeed USB data bus routing to the receptacle. The DFP then turns on VBUS. For the CC pin that does not connect DFP-to-UFP through the cable, the DFP supplies VCONN and may remove the termination. With the UFP now powered, it configures the USB data path. This completes the DFP-to-UFP connection. The DFP monitors the CC wire for the loss of pull-down termination to detect detach. If the UFP is removed, the DFP port removes any voltage applied to VBUS and VCONN, resets its interface configuration and resumes looking for a new UFP attach. Once a valid DFP-to-UFP connection is established, alternatives to traditional USB power (VBUS as defined by either USB 2.0 or USB 3.1 specifications) may be available depending on the capabilities of the host and device. These include USB Type-C Current, USB Power Delivery, and USB Battery Charging 1.2. In the case where USB PD PR_Swap is used to swap the source and sink of VBUS, the source of VCONN remains unchanged during and after the VBUS power swap. The new source monitors the CC wire and the new sink monitors VBUS to detect detach. When a detach event is detected, any voltages applied to VBUS and VCONN are removed, each port resets its interface configuration and resumes looking for an attach event. In the case where USB PD DR_Swap is used to swap the DFP and UFP, the new UFP maintains sourcing VCONN during and after the data role swap. In the case where USB PD VCONN_Swap is used to swap the VCONN source, the VBUS source/sink and DFP/UFP roles are maintained during and after the VCONN swap. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 110 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification The last step in the normal USB Type-C connect process is for the USB device to be attached and enumerated per standard USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 processes. 4.5.1.3 Configuration Channel Functional Models The functional models for the configuration channel behavior based on the CC1 and CC2 pins are described in this section for each port type: DFP, UFP and DRP. The figures in the following sections illustrate the CC1 and CC2 routing after the CC detection process is complete. In these figures, VBUS and VCONN may or may not actually be available. 4.5.1.3.1 DFP Configuration Channel Functional Model Figure 4-7 illustrates the functional model for CC1 and CC2 for a DFP prior to attach. This illustration includes consideration for the USB PD Provider. Figure 4-7 DFP Functional Model for CC1 and CC2 Referring to Figure 4-7, a port that behaves as a DFP has the following functional characteristics: 1. The DFP uses a FET to enable/disable power delivery across VBUS and initially the DFP has VBUS disabled. 2. The DFP supplies pull-up resistors (Rp) on CC1 and CC2 and monitors both CC pins to detect a UFP – the presence of an Rd pull-down resistor on either pin indicates that a UFP is being attached. The value of Rp indicates the initial USB Type-C Current level supported by the host. 3. The DFP uses the CC pin pull-down characteristic to detect and establish the correct routing for the USB SuperSpeed data path and determine which CC pin is intended for supplying VCONN. 4. Once a UFP is detected, the DFP enables VBUS and VCONN. 5. The DFP can dynamically adjust the value of Rp to indicate a change in available USB Type-C Current to a UFP. 6. The DFP monitors the continued presence of Rd to detect UFP detach. When a detach event is detected, the DFP removes VBUS and VCONN, and returns to step 2. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 111 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 7. If the DFP supports advanced functions (USB Power Delivery and/or Alternate Modes), USB PD communication is required. Figure 4-8 illustrates the functional model for CC1 and CC2 for a DFP that is a USB PD Provider/Consumer (e.g., supports USB PD PR_Swap) prior to attach. Figure 4-8 DFP Functional Model Supporting USB PD Provider/Consumer 4.5.1.3.2 UFP Configuration Channel Functional Model Figure 4-9 illustrates the functional model for CC1 and CC2 for a UFP. This illustration includes consideration for both USB Type-C Current and USB PD Consumer. Figure 4-9 UFP Functional Model for CC1 and CC2 Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 112 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Referring to Figure 4-9, a port that behaves as a UFP has the following functional characteristics: 1. The UFP terminates both CC1 and CC2 to GND using pull-down resistors. 2. The UFP determines that a DFP is attached by the presence of power on VBUS. 3. The UFP uses the CC pin pull-up characteristic to detect and establish the correct routing for the USB SuperSpeed data path. 4. The UFP can optionally monitor CC to detect an available higher USB Type-C Current from the DFP. The UFP shall manage its load to stay within the detected DFP current limit. 5. If the UFP supports advanced functions (USB Power Delivery and/or Alternate Modes), USB PD communication is required. Figure 4-10 illustrates the functional model for CC1 and CC2 for a UFP that is a USB PD Consumer/Provider (e.g., supports USB PD PR_Swap) and supports USB PD VCONN_Swap prior to attach. Figure 4-10 UFP Functional Model Supporting USB PD Consumer/Provider and VCONN_Swap Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 113 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.5.1.3.3 DRP Configuration Channel Functional Model Figure 4-11 illustrates the functional model for CC1 and CC2 for a DRP presenting as a DFP prior to attach. This illustration includes consideration for both the USB Type-C Current and the USB PD features. Figure 4-11 DRP Functional Model for CC1 and CC2 Referring to Figure 4-11, a port that can alternate between DFP and UFP behaviors has the following functional characteristics: 1. The DRP uses a FET to enable/disable power delivery across VBUS and initially when in DFP mode has VBUS disabled. 2. The DRP uses switches for presenting as a DFP or UFP. 3. The DRP has logic used during initial attach to toggle between DFP and UFP operation: a. Until a specific stable state is established, the DRP alternates between exposing itself as a DFP and UFP. The timing of this process is dictated by a period (tDRP), percentage of time that a DRP exposes Rp (dcDFP.DRP) and role transition time (tDRPTransition). b. When the DRP is presenting as a DFP, it follows DFP operation to detect an attached UFP – if a UFP is detected, it applies VBUS, VCONN, and continues to operate as a DFP for a minimum of tDRPHold (e.g., cease alternating). c. When the DRP is presenting as a UFP, it monitors VBUS to detect that it is attached to a DFP – if a DFP is detected, it continues to operate as a UFP (cease alternating). 4. If the DRP supports advanced functions (USB Power Delivery and/or Alternate Modes), USB PD communication is required. a. If a DRP supports USB PD, initially the USB PD role follows the port role, i.e., when operating as a DFP, the USB PD operates as a Provider/Consumer and when operating as a UFP, the USB PD operates as a Consumer/Provider. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 114 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.5.1.4 USB PD-based Power Role, Data Role and VCONN Swapping Table 4-7 summarizes the behaviors of a port in response to the three USB PD swap commands. Table 4-7 USB PD Swapping Port Behavior Summary Host/Device Data Roles PR_Swap Unchanged DR_Swap Swapped VCONN_Swap Unchanged * Swapping of VCONN source port Rp/Rd Swapped Unchanged Unchanged VBUS Source/Sink Swapped Unchanged Unchanged VCONN Source Unchanged Unchanged Swapped* Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 115 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.5.2 CC Functional and Behavioral Requirements This section provides the functional and behavioral requirements for implementing CC. The first sub-section provides connection state diagrams that are the basis for the remaining sub-sections. 4.5.2.1 Connection State Diagrams This section provides reference connection state diagrams for CC-based behaviors. Refer to Section 4.5.2.2 for the specific state transition requirements related to each state shown in the diagrams. Figure 4-12 illustrates a connection state diagram for a DFP. Figure 4-12 Connection State Diagram: DFP ErrorRecovery Directed from any state Disabled Directed from any state Directed from any state tErrorRecovery AudioAcc Detected AudioAccessory Unattached.DFP AudioAcc Removed DebugAcc Removed UFP Detected DebugAcc Detected DebugAccessory UFP Removed Attached.DFP Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 116 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-13 illustrates a connection state diagram for a simple UFP. Figure 4-13 Connection State Diagram: UFP Directed from any state ErrorRecovery Directed from any state tErrorRecovery Dead Battery Unattached.UFP Disabled Directed from any state DFP Detected DFP Removed Attached.UFP Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 117 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-14 illustrates a connection state diagram for a UFP that supports Accessory Modes. Figure 4-14 Connection State Diagram: UFP with Accessory Support Directed from any state ErrorRecovery Directed from any state tErrorRecovery Directed from any state Accessory Toggle Dead Battery Unattached.UFP Accessory Toggle Unattached .Accessory PowAcc Detected Disabled AudioAcc Detected DebugAcc Detected Directed from any state AudioAccessory AudioAcc Removed DebugAccessory DFP Detected DebugAcc Removed DFP Removed PowAcc Removed VBUS Removed Attached.UFP Accessory Detected Accessory .Present PowAcc Removed DebugAcc Detected Unsupported .Accessory Powered .Accessory Alternate Mode Failed AudioAcc Detected Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 118 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-15 illustrates a connection state diagram for a simple DRP. Figure 4-15 Connection State Diagram: DRP ErrorRecovery tErrorRecovery tErrorRecovery Directed from any state Directed from any state Disabled Directed from any state Directed from any state Dead Battery DRP Toggle Unattached.UFP Unattached.DFP UFP Detected DRP Toggle or VBUS detected DFP Detected DFP Removed Attached.UFP tDRPLock Attach.DFP .DRPWait tDRPHold DFP Detected PD Data Role Swap Lock.UFP UFP Removed PD Data Role Swap Attached.DFP Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 119 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-16 illustrates a connection state diagram for a DRP that supports all possible states including Accessory Modes and Try.DFP. Figure 4-16 Connection State Diagram: DRP with Accessory and Try.DFP Support ErrorRecovery tErrorRecovery tErrorRecovery Directed from any state Directed from any state Disabled AudioAcc Detected Directed from any state AudioAccessory Directed from any state DRP Toggle Unattached.DFP Dead Battery Unattached.UFP DRP Toggle or VBUS detected UFP DFP Detected Detected UFP Detected AudioAcc Removed DebugAcc Removed DebugAcc Detected DebugAccessory DFP Detected Try.DFP tDRPTry tDRPLock Attach.DFP .DRPWait tDRPHold DFP Removed DFP Detected Lock.UFP UFP Removed Attached.UFP Accessory Detected PD Data Role Swap PD Data Role Swap Attached.DFP VBUS Removed Accessory .Present DebugAcc Detected AudioAcc Detected Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 120 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.5.2.2 Connection State Machine Requirements 4.5.2.2.1 Disabled State This state appears in Figure 4-12, Figure 4-13, Figure 4-14, Figure 4-15 and Figure 4-16. The Disabled state is where the port prevents connection from occurring by removing all terminations from the CC pins. The port should transition to the Disabled state from any other state when directed. A port may choose not to support the Disabled state. If the Disabled state is not supported, the port shall be directed to either the Unattached.UFP or Unattached.DFP states after power-on. 4.5.2.2.1.1 Disabled State Requirements The source port (Rp) shall not drive VBUS or VCONN. The sink port (Rd) shall present a high-impedance to ground (above zOPEN) on its CC pins. 4.5.2.2.1.2 Exiting From Disabled State A UFP shall transition to Unattached.UFP when directed. A DFP shall transition to Unattached.DFP when directed. A DRP shall transition to either Unattached.UFP or Unattached.DFP when directed. 4.5.2.2.2 ErrorRecovery State This state appears in Figure 4-12, Figure 4-13, Figure 4-14, Figure 4-15 and Figure 4-16. The ErrorRecovery state is where the port cycles its connection by removing all terminations from the CC pins for tErrorRecovery followed by transitioning to the appropriate Unattached.UFP or Unattached.DFP state based on port type. The port should transition to the ErrorRecovery state from any other state when directed. A port may choose not to support the ErrorRecovery state. If the ErrorRecovery state is not supported, the port shall be directed to the Disabled state if supported. If the Disabled state is not supported, the port shall be directed to either the Unattached.UFP or Unattached.DFP states. 4.5.2.2.2.1 ErrorRecovery State Requirements The source port (Rp) shall not drive VBUS or VCONN. The sink port (Rd) shall present a high-impedance to ground (above zOPEN) on its CC pins. 4.5.2.2.2.2 Exiting From ErrorRecovery State A UFP shall transition to Unattached.UFP after tErrorRecovery. A DFP shall transition to Unattached.DFP after tErrorRecovery. A DRP shall transition to either Unattached.UFP or Unattached.DFP after tErrorRecovery. 4.5.2.2.3 Unattached.UFP State This state appears in Figure 4-13, Figure 4-14, Figure 4-15 and Figure 4-16. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 121 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification When in the Unattached.UFP state, the port is waiting to detect the presence of a DFP. A port with a dead battery shall enter this state while unpowered. This allows it to charge by transitioning to Attached.UFP when a DFP is attached. 4.5.2.2.3.1 Unattached.UFP Requirements The port shall not drive VBUS or VCONN. Both CC pins shall be independently terminated to ground through Rd. 4.5.2.2.3.2 Exiting from Unattached.UFP State The port shall transition to Attached.UFP when VBUS is detected. The port shall not transition to Attached.UFP based on a change of voltage on one of its CC pins. A DRP that does not support USB Power Delivery or strongly prefers the DFP role may optionally transition to Try.DFP instead of Attached.UFP when VBUS is detected. A DRP shall transition to Unattached.DFP within tDRPTransition after tDRP − dcDFP.DRP ∙ tDRP or if VBUS is detected or if directed. A UFP with accessory support shall transition to Unattached.Accessory within tDRPTransition after dcDFP.DRP ∙ tDRP or if directed. 4.5.2.2.4 Attached.UFP State This state appears in Figure 4-13, Figure 4-14, Figure 4-15 and Figure 4-16. When in the Attached.UFP state, the port is attached and operating as a UFP. 4.5.2.2.4.1 Attached.UFP Requirements Since only one CC pin is connected through the cable, only one CC pin will be within the vRdConnect range. The port shall continue to terminate this CC pin to ground through Rd. If the port supports signaling on USB SuperSpeed pairs, it shall functionally connect the USB SuperSpeed pairs. The port shall meet the UFP Power Sub-State requirements specified in Section 4.5.2.3. The port may negotiate a USB PD PR_Swap. When the port successfully completes a USB PD PR_Swap, it shall source current on the CC pin connected through the cable and monitor its voltage. The port may act as a VBUS power source either as a result of a USB PD PR_Swap, or may continue to act as a power source when entering the Attached.UFP state from the Attached.DFP state after a USB PD DR_Swap. VCONN by default shall not be supplied by the UFP. A USB PD VCONN_Swap may be used to change the port sourcing VCONN to the UFP. A USB PD DR_Swap or PR_Swap shall not change the port sourcing VCONN. 4.5.2.2.4.2 Exiting from Attached.UFP State A port that is acting as a power sink shall transition to Unattached.UFP when VBUS is no longer present. For a port that has completed a USB PD PR_Swap and as a result is sourcing VBUS: Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 122 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification  The port shall transition to Unattached.UFP when the voltage on the monitored CC pin is within the vOPEN range. The UFP may de-bounce for tPDDebounce.  The port shall cease to supply VBUS within tVBUSOFF of exiting Attached.UFP. A port that is supplying VCONN shall cease to supply it within tVCONNOFF of exiting Attached.UFP, unless it is exiting as a result of a USB PD DR_Swap. A port that negotiates a USB PD DR_Swap shall transition to Attached.DFP, and maintains its power role and CC termination. If the port supports Audio Adapter Accessory Mode or Debug Accessory Mode and is acting as a power sink, it shall transition to Accessory.Present if the voltage on both CC pins is within the vRa range for longer than tAccDetect. 4.5.2.2.5 Accessory.Present State This state appears in Figure 4-14 and Figure 4-16. If a port enters Attached.UFP but does not detect Rp on either of the CC pins, this means an accessory is attached. 4.5.2.2.5.1 Accessory.Present Requirements In order to establish a proper termination on the CC pins for detecting which accessory is attached, the port shall advertise Default USB Power (see Table 4-10) on both CC pins independently. The port may sink current over VBUS from the accessory, but shall not draw more than 500 mA from VBUS. 4.5.2.2.5.2 Exiting from Accessory.Present The port shall transition to AudioAccessory when the voltage on both CC pins is within the vRa range for longer than tCCDebounce. The port shall transition to DebugAccessory when the voltage on both CC pins is within the vRd range for longer than tCCDebounce. The port shall transition to Unattached.UFP if VBUS is no longer present. 4.5.2.2.6 Unattached.DFP State This state appears in Figure 4-12, Figure 4-15 and Figure 4-16. When in the Unattached.DFP state, the port is waiting to detect the presence of a UFP. 4.5.2.2.6.1 Unattached.DFP Requirements The port shall not drive VBUS or VCONN. The port shall source current on both CC pins independently. In order to establish a proper termination on the CC pins for detecting the attach of a UFP, the port shall provide an Rp that falls between the maximum resistance for Default USB Power and the minimum resistance for 3.0 A, alternatively between the minimum current for Default USB Power and the maximum current for 3.0 A, as specified in Table 4-10. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 123 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.5.2.2.6.2 Exiting from Unattached.DFP State If the port is not operating in DRP mode, it shall transition to Attached.DFP when the voltage on exactly one of the CC pins is within the vRd range for longer than tCCDebounce. A DRP shall transition to Attach.DFP.DRPWait when the voltage on exactly one of the CC pins is within the vRd range for longer than tCCDebounce. A DRP shall transition to Unattached.UFP within tDRPTransition after dcDFP.DRP ∙ tDRP or if VBUS is detected or if directed. If the port supports Audio Adapter Accessory Mode, it shall transition to AudioAccessory when both CC pins are within the vRa range for longer than tAccDetect. If the port supports Debug Accessory Mode, it shall transition to DebugAccessory when both CC pins are within the vRd range for longer than tAccDetect. 4.5.2.2.7 Attached.DFP State This state appears in Figure 4-12, Figure 4-15 and Figure 4-16. When in the Attached.DFP state, the port is attached and operating as a DFP. 4.5.2.2.7.1 Attached.DFP Requirements Since only one CC pin is connected through the cable, only one CC pin will be within the vRd range. The port shall source current on this CC pin and monitor its voltage. The port shall advertise one of the three levels of VBUS power capability as specified in Table 4-10. The port may change its VBUS power capability advertisement at any time. The port shall supply VBUS within tVBUSON of entering this state, and for as long as it is operating as a power source. If the port supports signaling on USB SuperSpeed pairs, it shall:  Functionally connect the USB SuperSpeed pairs  For VCONN, do one of two things: o Apply VCONN unconditionally to the unused CC pin, or o Apply VCONN to the unused CC pin if the voltage on the unused CC pin is within the vRa range for longer than tCCDebounce. A port that does not support signaling on USB SuperSpeed pairs may supply VCONN in the same manner described above. If the port supplies VCONN, it shall do so within tVCONNON. The port shall not supply VCONN if it has entered this state as a result of a USB PD DR_Swap, and was not previously supplying VCONN. The port may negotiate a USB PD PR_Swap. When the port successfully completes a USB PD PR_Swap, it shall to terminate the CC pin connected through the cable to ground through Rd. The port may act as a power sink as a result of either a USB PD PR_Swap, or by entering the Attached.DFP state from the Attached.UFP state after a USB PD DR_Swap. A port that is acting as a power sink shall not supply VBUS. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 124 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification The port may negotiate a USB PD VCONN_Swap. When the port successfully executes USB PD VCONN_Swap operation, it shall stop sourcing VCONN within tVCONNOFF. 4.5.2.2.7.2 Exiting from Attached.DFP State A DFP shall transition to Unattached.DFP when the voltage on the monitored CC pin is within the vOPEN range. The DFP may de-bounce for tPDDebounce. A DRP shall transition to Lock.UFP when the voltage on the monitored CC pin is within the vOPEN range. The DFP may de-bounce for tPDDebounce. A port that is supplying VBUS shall cease to supply it within tVBUSOFF of exiting Attached.DFP. A port that is supplying VCONN shall cease to supply it within tVCONNOFF of exiting Attached.DFP, unless it is exiting as a result of a USB PD DR_Swap. For a port that has completed a USB PD PR_Swap and as a result is sinking VBUS, the port shall transition to Unattached.DFP when VBUS is no longer present. A DRP that negotiates a USB PD DR_Swap shall transition to Attached.UFP, and continue to act as a VBUS and VCONN source, and maintain its CC termination. 4.5.2.2.8 Attach.DFP.DRPWait State This state appears in Figure 4-15 and Figure 4-16. The Attach.DFP.DRPWait state is used to halt the UFP/DFP toggling for a period of tDRPHold once a DRP detects the presence of a UFP. This ensures that both ports have a chance to resolve to their respective roles. The requirements for this state are identical to Attached.DFP, except that USB PD PR_Swap, USB PD DR_Swap and USB PD VCONN_Swap are not permitted. 4.5.2.2.8.1 Attach.DFP.DRPWait Requirements Since only one CC pin is connected through the cable, only one CC pin will be within the vRd range. The port shall source current on this CC pin. The port shall advertise one of the three levels of VBUS power capability as specified in Table 4-10. The port may change its VBUS power capability advertisement at any time. The port shall supply VBUS within tVBUSON. If the port supports signaling on USB SuperSpeed pairs, it shall:  Functionally connect the USB SuperSpeed pairs  For VCONN, do one of two things: o Apply VCONN unconditionally to the unused CC pin, or o Apply VCONN to the unused CC pin if the voltage on the unused CC pin is within the vRa range for longer than tCCDebounce. A port that does not support signaling on USB SuperSpeed pairs may supply VCONN in the same manner described above. If the port supplies VCONN, it shall do so within tVCONNON. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 125 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification The port shall not negotiate a USB PD PR_Swap, a USB PD DR_Swap or a USB PD VCONN_Swap until after it has entered the Attached.DFP state. 4.5.2.2.8.2 Exiting from Attach.DFP.DRPWait State The port shall transition to Attached.DFP after tDRPHold. 4.5.2.2.9 Lock.UFP State This state appears in Figure 4-15 and Figure 4-16. When a DRP sees a UFP removed, the DRP maintains the Lock.UFP state to avoid juggling the DFP role with its port partner. 4.5.2.2.9.1 Lock.UFP Requirements The port shall not drive VBUS or VCONN. Both CC pins shall be independently terminated to ground through Rd. 4.5.2.2.9.2 Exiting from Lock.UFP State The port shall transition to Attached.UFP when VBUS is detected. The port shall transition to Unattached.DFP after tDRPLock. 4.5.2.2.10 Try.DFP State This state appears in Figure 4-16. When in the Try.DFP state, the port is querying to determine if the port partner supports the UFP role. 4.5.2.2.10.1 Try.DFP Requirements The port shall not drive VBUS or VCONN. The port shall source current on both CC pins independently. The port shall advertise one of the three levels of VBUS power capability as specified in Table 4-10. The port may change its VBUS power capability advertisement at any time. 4.5.2.2.10.2 Exiting from Try.DFP State A DRP shall transition to Attach.DFP.DRPWait when the voltage on exactly one of the CC pins is within the vRd range for longer than tCCDebounce. A DRP shall transition to Lock.UFP after tDRPTry. 4.5.2.2.11 Unattached.Accessory State This state appears in Figure 4-14. The Unattached.Accessory state allows accessory-supporting UFPs to connect to accessories, or to power Alternate Mode accessories from VCONN. This state is functionally equivalent to the Unattached.DFP state in a DRP, except that Attached.DFP is not supported. 4.5.2.2.11.1 Unattached.Accessory Requirements The port shall not drive VBUS or VCONN. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 126 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification In order to establish a proper termination on the CC pins independently for detecting the attach of an accessory, the port shall provide an Rp that falls between the maximum resistance for Default USB Power and the minimum resistance for 3.0 A, alternatively between the minimum current for Default USB Power and the maximum current for 3.0 A, as specified in Table 4-10. 4.5.2.2.11.2 Exiting from Unattached.Accessory State The port shall transition to Unattached.UFP within tDRPTransition after dcDFP.DRP ∙ tDRP. If the port supports Audio Adapter Accessory Mode, it shall transition to AudioAccessory when the voltage on both CC pins is within the vRa range for longer than tAccDetect. If the port supports Debug Accessory Mode, it shall transition to DebugAccessory when the voltage on both CC pins is within the vRd range for longer than tAccDetect. If the port supports VCONN-powered accessories, it shall transition to Powered.Accessory when the voltage on one of the CC pins is within the vRd range for longer than tCCDebounce and the voltage on the other CC pin is within the vRa range for longer than tCCDebounce. 4.5.2.2.12 AudioAccessory State This state appears in Figure 4-12, Figure 4-14 and Figure 4-16. The AudioAccessory state is used for the Audio Adapter Accessory Mode specified in Appendix A. 4.5.2.2.12.1 AudioAccessory Requirements The port shall reconfigure its pins as detailed in Appendix A. A port that sinks current from the audio accessory over VBUS shall not draw more than 500 mA. The port shall advertise Default USB Power (see Table 4-10) on both CC pins independently. The port shall monitor at least one of the CC pins to detect when the voltage is no longer inside the vRa range. 4.5.2.2.12.2 Exiting from AudioAccessory State If the port is a UFP, the port shall transition to Unattached.UFP when the voltage of the monitored CC pins is outside the vRa range for longer than tCCDebounce and VBUS is not being supplied from the accessory. If the port is a DFP or DRP, the port shall transition to Unattached.DFP when the voltage of the monitored CC pins is outside the vRa range for longer than tCCDebounce and VBUS is not being supplied from the accessory. 4.5.2.2.13 DebugAccessory This state appears in Figure 4-12, Figure 4-14 and Figure 4-16. The DebugAccessory state is used for the Debug Accessory Mode specified in Appendix B. 4.5.2.2.13.1 DebugAccessory Requirements This mode is for debug only and shall not be used for communicating with commercial products. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 127 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification The port shall advertise Default USB Power (see Table 4-10) on both CC pins independently. The port shall monitor at least one of the CC pins to detect when the voltage rises above the vRd range. 4.5.2.2.13.2 Exiting from DebugAccessory State If the port is a UFP, the port shall transition to Unattached.UFP when the voltage of the monitored CC pins is outside the vRd range for longer than tPDDebounce and VBUS is not being supplied from the accessory. If the port is a DFP or DRP, the port shall transition to Unattached.DFP when the voltage of the monitored CC pins is outside the vRd range for longer than tPDDebounce and VBUS is not being supplied from the accessory. 4.5.2.2.14 Powered.Accessory State This state appears in Figure 4-14. When in the Powered.Accessory state, the port is powering a VCONN–Powered Accessory. 4.5.2.2.14.1 Powered.Accessory Requirements Since only one CC pin is connected through the cable, only one CC pin will be within the vRd range. The port shall advertise Default USB Power (see Table 4-10) on this CC pin and monitor its voltage. The port shall supply VCONN (2.7 V minimum) on the unused CC pin within tVconnON-PA of entering the Powered.Accessory state. The port shall not drive VBUS. The port shall use USB Power Delivery Structured Vendor Defined Messages (Structured VDMs) to identify the accessory and enter an Alternate Mode. 4.5.2.2.14.2 Exiting from Powered.Accessory State The port shall transition to Unattached.UFP when the voltage on the monitored CC pin is outside the vRd range for longer than tPDDebounce. The port shall transition to Unsupported.Accessory if it does not successfully enter an Alternate Mode within tAMETimeout (see Section 5.1). The port shall cease to supply VCONN within tVCONNOFF of exiting the Powered.Accessory state. 4.5.2.2.15 Unsupported.Accessory State This state appears in Figure 4-14. If a VCONN–powered accessory does not enter an Alternate Mode, the Unsupported.Accessory state is used to wait until the accessory is unplugged before continuing. 4.5.2.2.15.1 Unsupported.Accessory Requirements Since only one CC pin is connected through the cable, only one CC pin will be within the vRd range. The port shall advertise Default USB Power (see Table 4-10) on this CC pin and monitor its voltage. The port shall not drive VBUS or VCONN. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 128 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.5.2.2.15.2 Exiting from Unsupported.Accessory The port shall transition to Unattached.UFP when the voltage on the monitored CC pin is outside the vRd range for longer than tCCDebounce. 4.5.2.3 UFP Power Sub-State Requirements When in the Attached.UFP state, and when the DFP is supplying default VBUS, the port shall operate in one of the sub-states shown in Figure 4-17. The initial UFP Power Sub-State is PowerDefault.UFP. Subsequently, the UFP Power Sub-State is determined by DFP’s USB Type-C current advertisement. The Attached.UFP shall remain within the UFP Power SubStates until either VBUS is removed or a USB PD contract is established with the DFP. Figure 4-17 UFP Power Sub-States Attached.UFP PowerDefault .UFP Power1.5.UFP Power3.0.UFP The UFP is only required to implement UFP Power Sub-State transitions if the UFP wants to consume more than default USB current. 4.5.2.3.1 PowerDefault.UFP Sub-State This sub-state supports UFPs consuming current within the lowest range (default) of DFPsupplied current. 4.5.2.3.1.1 PowerDefault.UFP Requirements The port shall draw no more than the default USB power from VBUS. See Section 4.6.2.1. If the port wants to consume more than the default USB power, it shall monitor vRd to determine if more current is available from the DFP. 4.5.2.3.1.2 Exiting from PowerDefault.UFP For any change on CC indicating a change in allowable power, the port shall not transition until the new vRd on CC has been stable for tPDDebounce. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 129 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification For a vRd in the vRd-1.5 range, the port shall transition to the Power1.5.UFP Sub-State. For a vRd in the vRd-3.0 range, the port shall transition to the Power3.0.UFP Sub-State. 4.5.2.3.2 Power1.5.UFP Sub-State This sub-state supports UFPs consuming current within the two lower ranges (default and 1.5 A) of DFP-supplied current. 4.5.2.3.2.1 Power1.5.UFP Requirements The port shall draw no more than 1.5 A from VBUS. The port shall monitor vRd while it is in this sub-state. 4.5.2.3.2.2 Exiting from Power1.5.UFP For any change on CC indicating a change in allowable power, the port shall not transition until the new vRd on CC has been stable for tPDDebounce. For a vRd in the vRd-USB range, the port shall transition to the PowerDefault.UFP Sub-State and reduce its power consumption to the new range within tSinkAdj. For a vRd in the vRd-3.0 range, the port shall transition to the Power3.0.UFP Sub-State. 4.5.2.3.3 Power3.0.UFP Sub-State This sub-state supports UFPs consuming current within all three ranges (default, 1.5 A and 3.0 A) of DFP-supplied current. 4.5.2.3.3.1 Power3.0.UFP Requirements The port shall draw no more than 3.0 A from VBUS. The port shall monitor vRd while it is in this sub-state. 4.5.2.3.3.2 Exiting from Power3.0.UFP For any change on CC indicating a change in allowable power, the port shall not transition until the new vRd on CC has been stable for tPDDebounce. For a vRd in the vRd-USB range, the port shall transition to the PowerDefault.UFP Sub-State and reduce its power consumption to the new range within tSinkAdj. For a vRd in the vRd-1.5 range, the port shall transition to the Power1.5.UFP Sub-State and reduce its power consumption to the new range within tSinkAdj. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 130 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.5.2.4 Connection States Summary Table 4-8 defines the mandatory and optional states for each type of port. Table 4-8 Mandatory and Optional States Disabled ErrorRecovery Unattached.UFP Attached.UFP Unattached.DFP Attached.DFP Attach.DFP.DRPWait Lock.UFP Try.DFP Accessory.Present AudioAccessory DebugAccessory Unattached.Accessory Powered.Accessory Unsupported.Accessory PowerDefault.UFP Power1.5.UFP Power3.0.UFP DFP Optional Optional N/A N/A Mandatory Mandatory N/A N/A N/A N/A Optional Optional N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A UFP Optional Optional Mandatory Mandatory N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Optional Optional Optional Optional Optional Optional Mandatory Optional Optional DRP Optional Optional Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Optional Optional Optional Optional N/A N/A N/A Mandatory Optional Optional Support for USB PD and USB PD swapping mechanisms (PR_Swap, DR_Swap, and VCONN_Swap) are optional for all port types. When used, USB PD communications shall only occur within the following connection states:  Attached.UFP  Attached.DFP  Powered.Accessory  DebugAccessory Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 131 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.5.3 USB Port Interoperability Behavior This section describes interoperability behavior between USB Type-C to USB Type-C ports and between USB Type-C to legacy USB ports. 4.5.3.1 USB Type-C Port to USB Type-C Port Interoperability Behaviors The following sub-sections describe typical port-to-port interoperability behaviors for the various combinations of USB Type-C DFP, UFP and DRPs as presented in Table 4-4. In all of the described behaviors, the impact of USB PD-based swaps (PR_Swap, DR_Swap or VCONN_Swap) are not considered. The figures in the following sections illustrate the CC1 and CC2 routing after the CC detection process is complete. 4.5.3.1.1 DFP to UFP Behavior Figure 4-18 illustrates the functional model for a DFP connected to a UFP. The single CC wire that is in a standard cable is only shown in one of the four possible connection routes, CC1 to CC1. Figure 4-18 DFP to UFP Functional Model The following describes the behavior when a DFP is connected to a UFP. 1. DFP and UFP in the unattached state 2. DFP transitions from Unattached.DFP to Attached.DFP  DFP detects the UFP’s pull-down on CC and enters Attached.DFP  DFP turns on VBUS and VCONN 3. UFP transitions from Unattached.UFP to Attached.UFP  UFP detects VBUS and enters Attached.UFP 4. While the DFP and UFP are in the attached state:  DFP adjusts Rp as needed to limit the current the UFP may draw  UFP detects and monitors vRd for available current on VBUS  DFP monitors CC for detach and when detected, enters Unattached.DFP  UFP monitors VBUS for detach and when detected, enters Unattached.UFP Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 132 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.5.3.1.2 DFP to DRP Behavior Figure 4-19 illustrates the functional model for a DFP connected to a DRP. The single CC wire that is in a standard cable is only shown in one of the four possible connection routes, CC1 to CC1. Figure 4-19 DFP to DRP Functional Model The following describes the behavior when a DFP is connected to a DRP. 1. DFP and DRP in the unattached state  DRP alternates between Unattached.DFP and Unattached.UFP 2. DFP transitions from Unattached.DFP to Attached.DFP  DFP detects the DRP’s pull-down on CC and enters Attached.DFP  DFP turns on VBUS and VCONN 3. DRP transitions from Unattached.UFP to Attached.UFP  DRP in Unattached.UFP detects VBUS and enters Attached.UFP 4. While the DFP and DRP are in their respective attached states:  DFP adjusts Rp as needed to limit the current the UFP may draw  DRP detects and monitors vRd for available current on VBUS  DFP monitors CC for detach and when detected, enters Unattached.DFP  DRP monitors VBUS for detach and when detected, enters Unattached.UFP (and resumes toggling between Unattached.UFP and Unattached.DFP) Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 133 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.5.3.1.3 DRP to UFP Behavior Figure 4-20 illustrates the functional model for a DRP connected to a UFP. The single CC wire that is in a standard cable is only shown in one of the four possible connection routes, CC1 to CC1. Figure 4-20 DRP to UFP Functional Model The following describes the behavior when a DRP is connected to a UFP. 1. DRP and UFP in the unattached state  DRP alternates between Unattached.DFP and Unattached.UFP 2. DRP transitions from Unattached.DFP to Attach.DFP.DRPWait  DRP in Unattached.DFP detects the UFP in Unattached.UFP’s pull-down on CC and enters Attach.DFP.DRPWait  DRP in Attach.DFP.DRPWait turns on VBUS and VCONN 3. UFP transitions from Unattached.UFP to Attached.UFP  UFP detects VBUS and enters Attached.UFP 4. DRP transitions from Attach.DFP.DRPWait to Attached.DFP  DRP in Attach.DFP.DRPWait times out (tDRPHold) and transitions to Attached.DFP 5. While the DRP and UFP are in their respective attached states:  DRP adjusts Rp as needed to limit the current the UFP may draw  UFP detects and monitors vRd for available current on VBUS  DRP monitors CC for detach and when detected, enters Lock.UFP  DRP in Lock.UFP times out (tDRPLock) and transitions to Unattached.DFP (and resumes toggling between Unattached.UFP and Unattached.DFP)  UFP monitors VBUS for detach and when detected, enters Unattached.UFP 4.5.3.1.4 DRP to DRP Behavior Two behavior descriptions based on the connection state diagrams are provided below. In the first case, the two DRPs accept the resulting DFP-to-UFP relationship achieved randomly Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 134 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification whereas in the second case the DRP #2 chooses to drive the random result to the opposite result using the Try.DFP mechanism. Figure 4-21 illustrates the functional model for a DRP connected to a DRP in the first case described. The single CC wire that is in a standard cable is only shown in one of the four possible connection routes, CC1 to CC1. Port numbers have been arbitrarily assigned in the diagram to assist the reader to understand the process description. Figure 4-21 DRP to DRP Functional Model – CASE 1 CASE 1: The following describes the behavior when a DRP is connected to another DRP. In this flow, the two DRPs accept the resulting DFP-to-UFP relationship achieved randomly. 1. Both DRPs in the unattached state  DRP #1 and DRP #2 alternate between Unattached.DFP and Unattached.UFP 2. DRP #1 transitions from Unattached.DFP to Attach.DFP.DRPWait  DRP #1 in Unattached.DFP detects the DRP #2 in Unattached.UFP’s pull-down on CC and enters Attach.DFP.DRPWait  DRP #1 in Attach.DFP.DRPWait turns on VBUS and VCONN 3. DRP #2 transitions from Unattached.UFP to Attached.UFP  DRP #2 in Unattached.UFP detects VBUS and enters Attached.UFP 4. DRP #1 transitions from Attach.DFP.DRPWait to Attached.DFP  DRP #1 in Attach.DFP.DRPWait times out (tDRPHold) and transitions to Attached.DFP 5. While the DRPs are in their respective attached states:  DRP #1 adjusts Rp as needed to limit the current DRP #2 may draw  DRP #2 detects and monitors vRd for available current on VBUS  DRP #1 monitors CC for detach and when detected, enters Lock.UFP  DRP #1 in Lock.UFP times out (tDRPLock) and transitions to Unattached.DFP (and resumes toggling between Unattached.UFP and Unattached.DFP)  DRP #2 monitors VBUS for detach and when detected, enters Unattached.UFP (and resumes toggling between Unattached.UFP and Unattached.DFP) Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 135 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-22 illustrates the functional model for a DRP connected to a DRP in the second case described. Figure 4-22 DRP to DRP Functional Model – CASE 2 CASE 2: The following describes the behavior when a DRP is connected to another DRP. In this flow, the DRP #2 chooses to drive the random result to the opposite result using the Try.DFP mechanism. 1. Both DRPs in the unattached state  DRP #1 and DRP #2 alternate between Unattached.DFP and Unattached.UFP 2. DRP #1 transitions from Unattached.DFP to Attach.DFP.DRPWait  DRP #1 in Unattached.DFP detects the DRP #2 in Unattached.UFP’s pull-down on CC and enters Attach.DFP.DRPWait  DRP #1 in Attach.DFP.DRPWait turns on VBUS and VCONN 3. DRP #2 transitions from Unattached.UFP to Try.DFP  DRP #2 in Unattached.UFP detects VBUS but strongly prefers the DFP role, so transitions to Try.DFP  DRP #2 in Try.DFP asserts a pull-up on CC and waits 4. DRP #1 transitions from Attach.DFP.DRPWait to Lock.UFP via Attached.DFP  DRP #1 in Attach.DFP.DRPWait times out (tDRPHold) and transitions to Attached.DFP  DRP #1 in Attached.DFP no longer detects DRP #2’s pull-down on CC and transitions to Lock.UFP.  DRP #1 in Lock.UFP turns off VBUS and VCONN and applies a pull-down on CC 5. DRP #2 transitions from Try.DFP to Attached.DFP via Attach.DFP.DRPWait  DRP #2 in Try.DFP detects the DRP #1 in Lock.UFP’s pull-down on CC and enters Attach.DFP.DRPWait  DRP #2 in Attach.DFP.DRPWait turns on VBUS  DRP #2 in Attach.DFP.DRPWait times out (tDRPHold) and transitions to Attached.DFP Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 136 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification  DRP #2 in Attached.DFP turns on VCONN 6. DRP #1 transitions from Lock.UFP to Attached.UFP  DRP #1 in Lock.UFP detects VBUS and enters Attached.UFP 7. While the DRPs are in their respective attached states:  DRP #2 adjusts Rp as needed to limit the current DRP #1 may draw  DRP #1 detects and monitors vRd for available current on VBUS  DRP #2 monitors CC for detach and when detected, enters Lock.UFP  DRP #2 in Lock.UFP times out (tDRPLock) and transitions to Unattached.DFP (and resumes toggling between Unattached.UFP and Unattached.DFP)  DRP #1 monitors VBUS for detach and when detected, enters Unattached.UFP (and resumes toggling between Unattached.UFP and Unattached.DFP) 4.5.3.1.5 DFP to DFP Behavior Figure 4-23 illustrates the functional model for a DFP connected to a DFP. The single CC wire that is in a standard cable is only shown in one of the four possible connection routes, CC1 to CC1. Port numbers have been arbitrarily assigned in the diagram to assist the reader to understand the process description. Figure 4-23 DFP to DFP Functional Model The following describes the behavior when a DFP is connected to another DFP. 1. Both DFPs in the unattached state  DFP #1 fails to detect a UFP’s pull-down on CC and remains in Unattached.DFP  DFP #2 fails to detect a UFP’s pull-down on CC and remains in Unattached.DFP 4.5.3.1.6 UFP to UFP Behavior Figure 4-24 illustrates the functional model for a UFP connected to a UFP. The single CC wire that is in a standard cable is only shown in one of the four possible connection routes, CC1 to CC1. Port numbers have been arbitrarily assigned in the diagram to assist the reader to understand the process description. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 137 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-24 UFP to UFP Functional Model The following describes the behavior when a UFP is connected to another UFP. 1. Both UFPs in the unattached state  UFP #1 fails to detect VBUS supplied by a DFP and remains in Unattached.UFP  UFP #2 fails to detect VBUS supplied by a DFP and remains in Unattached.UFP 4.5.3.2 USB Type-C port to Legacy Port Interoperability Behaviors The following sub-sections describe port-to-port interoperability behaviors for the various combinations of USB Type-C DFP, UFP and DRPs and legacy USB ports. 4.5.3.2.1 DFP to Legacy Device Port Behavior Figure 4-25 illustrates the functional model for a DFP connected to a legacy device port. This model is based on having an adapter present as a UFP to the DFP. This adapter has a USB Type-C plug on one end plugged into the DFP and either a USB Standard-B plug, USB Micro-B plug, USB Mini-B plug, or a USB Standard-A receptacle on the other end. Figure 4-25 DFP to Legacy Device Port Functional Model Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 138 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification The following describes the behavior when a DFP is connected to a legacy device adapter that has an Rd to ground so as to mimic the behavior of a UFP. 1. DFP in the unattached state 2. DFP transitions from Unattached.DFP to Attached.DFP  DFP detects the adapter’s pull-down on CC and enters Attached.DFP  DFP turns on VBUS and VCONN 3. While the DFP is in the attached state:  DFP monitors CC for detach and when detected, enters Unattached.DFP 4.5.3.2.2 Legacy Host Port to UFP Behavior Figure 4-26 illustrates the functional model for a legacy host port connected to a UFP. This model is based on having an adapter that presents itself as a host to the UFP, this adapter is either a USB Standard-A legacy plug or a USB Micro-B legacy receptacle on one end and the USB Type-C plug on the other end plugged into a UFP. Figure 4-26 Legacy Host Port to UFP Functional Model The following describes the behavior when a legacy host adapter that has an Rp to VBUS so as to mimic the behavior of a DFP that is connected to a UFP. The value of Rp shall indicate an advertisement of Default USB Power (See Table 4-10). 1. UFP in the unattached state 2. UFP transitions from Unattached.UFP to Attached.UFP  UFP detects VBUS and enters Attached.UFP 3. While the UFP is in the attached state:  UFP monitors VBUS for detach and when detected, enters Unattached.UFP USB Type-C-based products that support USB PD BFSK are responsible for protecting the CC inputs from voltages greater than 5 V – see Section 4.6.2.4. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 139 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.5.3.2.3 DRP to Legacy Device Port Behavior Figure 4-27 illustrates the functional model for a DRP connected to a legacy device port. This model is based on having an adapter present as a UFP to the DRP. This adapter has a USB Type-C plug on one end plugged into a DRP and either a USB Standard-B plug, USB Micro-B plug, USB Mini-B plug, or a USB Standard-A receptacle on the other end. Figure 4-27 DRP to Legacy Device Port Functional Model The following describes the behavior when a DRP is connected to a legacy device adapter that has an Rd to ground so as to mimic the behavior of a UFP. 1. DRP in the unattached state  DRP alternates between Unattached.DFP and Unattached.UFP 2. DRP transitions from Unattached.DFP to Attached.DFP  DRP in Unattached.DFP detects the adapter’s pull-down on CC and enters Attach.DFP.DRPWait  DRP in Attach.DFP.DRPWait turns on VBUS and VCONN  DRP in Attach.DFP.DRPWait times out (tDRPHold) and transitions to Attached.DFP 3. While the DRP is in the attached state:  DRP monitors CC for detach and when detected, enters Lock.UFP  DRP in Lock.UFP times out (tDRPLock) and transitions to Unattached.DFP (and resumes toggling between Unattached.UFP and Unattached.DFP) Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 140 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.5.3.2.4 Legacy Host Port to DRP Behavior Figure 4-28 illustrates the functional model for a legacy host port connected to a DRP operating as a UFP. This model is based on having an adapter that presents itself as a host to the DRP operating as a UFP, this adapter is either a USB Standard-A legacy plug or a USB Micro-B legacy receptacle on one end and the USB Type-C plug on the other end plugged into a DRP. Figure 4-28 Legacy Host Port to DRP Functional Model The following describes the behavior when a legacy host adapter that has an Rp to VBUS so as to mimic the behavior of a DFP is connected to a DRP. The value of Rp shall indicate an advertisement of Default USB Power (See Table 4-10). 1. DRP in the unattached state  DRP alternates between Unattached.DFP and Unattached.UFP 2. DRP transitions from Unattached.UFP to Attached.UFP  DRP in Unattached.UFP detects VBUS and enters Attached.UFP  DRP in Unattached.UFP may support Try.DFP and if so, may transition through Try.DFP and Lock.UFP prior to entering Attached.UFP 3. While the DRP is in the attached state:  DRP monitors VBUS for detach and when detected, enters Unattached.UFP (and resumes toggling between Unattached.UFP and Unattached.DFP) USB Type-C-based products that support USB PD BFSK are responsible for protecting the CC inputs from voltages greater than 5 V – see Section 4.6.2.4. 4.6 Power Power delivery over the USB Type-C connector takes advantage of the existing USB methods as defined by: the USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 specifications, the USB BC 1.2 specification and the USB Power Delivery specification. The USB Type-C Current mechanism allows the DFP to offer more current than defined by the USB BC 1.2 specification. All USB Type-C-based devices shall support USB Type-C Current and may support other USBdefined methods for power. The following order of precedence of power negotiation shall be followed: USB BC 1.2 supersedes the USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 specifications, USB Type-C Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 141 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Current at 1.5 A and 3.0 A supersedes USB BC 1.2, and USB Power Delivery supersedes USB Type-C Current. Table 4-9 summarizes this order of precedence of power source usage. Table 4-9 Precedence of power source usage Precedence Highest ↓ Lowest Mode of Operation USB PD USB Type-C Current @ 3.0 A USB Type-C Current @ 1.5 A USB BC 1.2 USB 3.1 Default USB Power USB 2.0 Nominal Voltage Configurable 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V Maximum Current 5A 3.0 A 1.5 A Up to 1.5 A 900 mA 500 mA For example, once the PD mode (e.g. a power contract has been negotiated) has been entered, the device shall abide by that power contract ignoring any other previously made or offered by the USB Type-C Current, USB BC 1.2 or USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 specifications. When the PD mode is exited, the device shall fallback in order to the USB Type-C Current, USB BC 1.2 or USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 specification power levels. All USB Type-C ports shall tolerate being connected to USB power source supplying default USB power, e.g. a host being connected to a legacy USB charger that always supplies VBUS. 4.6.1 Power Requirements during USB Suspend USB Type-C implementations with USB Type-C Current, USB PD and VCONN, along with active cables, requires the need to expand the traditional USB suspend definition. 4.6.1.1 VBUS Requirements during USB Suspend The USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 specifications define the amount of current a UFP is allowed to consume during suspend. USB suspend power rules shall apply when the USB Type-C Current is at the Default USB Power level or when USB PD is being used and the Suspend bit is set appropriately. When USB Type-C Current is set at 1.5 A or 3.0 A, the UFP is allowed to continue to draw current from VBUS during USB suspend. During USB suspend, the UFP’s requirement to track and meet the USB Type-C Current advertisement remains in force (See Section 4.5.2.3). USB PD provides a method for the source to communicate to the sink whether or not the sink has to follow the USB power rules for suspend. 4.6.1.2 VCONN Requirements during USB Suspend If the DFP supplies VBUS power during USB suspend, it shall also supply at least 7.5 mA to VCONN. Electronically marked cables shall draw no more than 7.5 mA from VCONN during USB suspend. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 142 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.6.2 VBUS Power Provided Over a USB Type-C Cable The minimum requirement for VBUS power supplied over the USB Type-C cable matches the existing requirement for VBUS supplied over existing legacy USB cables. USB Power Delivery is an optional capability that is intended to work over un-modified USB Type-C to USB TypeC cables, therefore any USB Type-C cable assembly that incorporates electronics that gets it power from VBUS shall be tolerant up to 20 V. 4.6.2.1 USB Type-C Current Default USB voltage and current are defined by the USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 specifications. All USB Type-C current advertisements are at the USB VBUS voltage defined by these specifications. The USB Type-C Current feature provides the following extensions:  Higher current than defined by the USB 2.0, the USB 3.1 or the BC 1.2 specifications  Allows the power source to manage the current it provides The USB Type-C connector uses CC pins for configuration including an ability for a DFP to advertise to its port partner (UFP) the amount of current it can supply:  Default values defined by the USB Specification  1.5 A  3.0 A A UFP that takes advantage of the additional current offered (e.g., 1.5 A or 3.0 A) shall monitor the CC pins and shall adjust its current consumption within tSinkAdj to remain within the value advertised by the DFP. While a USB PD contract is in place, a UFP is not required to monitor USB Type-C current advertisements and shall not respond to USB Type-C current advertisements. The DFP shall source VBUS to the UFP within tVBUSON. VBUS shall be in the specified voltage range at the advertised current. A port sourcing VBUS shall protect itself from a sink that draws current in excess of the port’s USB Type-C Current advertisement. The DFP adjusts Rp (or current source) to advertise which of the three current levels it supports. See Table 4-10 for the termination requirements for the DFP to advertise currents. The value of Rp establishes a voltage (vRd) on CC that is used by the UFP to determine the maximum current it may draw. Table 4-21 defines the CC voltage range observed by the UFP that only support default USB current. If the UFP wants to consume more than the default USB current, it shall track vRd to determine the maximum current it may draw. See Table 4-22. Figure 4-29 and Figure 4-30 illustrate where the UFP monitors CC for vRd to detect if the host advertises more than the default USB current. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 143 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-29 UFP Monitoring for Current in Pull-Up/Pull-Down CC Model Figure 4-30 UFP Monitoring for Current in Current Source/Pull-Down CC Model 4.6.2.2 USB Battery Charging 1.2 USB Battery Charging Specification, Revision 1.2 defines a method that uses the USB 2.0 D+ and D− pins to advertise VBUS can supply up to 1.5 A. Support for USB BC 1.2 charging is optional. USB Type-C-based BC 1.2 chargers that are capable of supplying at least 1.5 A shall advertise USB Type-C Current at the 1.5 A level, otherwise the charger shall advertise USB Type-C Current at the Default USB Power level. A USB Type-C-based BC 1.2 charger that also supports USB Type-C Current at 3.0 A may advertise USB Type-C Current at 3.0 A. 4.6.2.3 Proprietary Power Source A proprietary power source (i.e., battery charger) with a USB Type-C-captive cable or a USB Type-C receptacle that is capable of supplying at least 1.5 A and less than 3.0 A shall advertise USB Type-C Current at least at the 1.5 A level. A proprietary power source with a USB Type-C-captive cable or a USB Type-C receptacle that is capable of supplying at least 3.0 A shall advertise USB Type-C Current at least at the 3.0 A level. 4.6.2.4 USB Power Delivery USB Power Delivery is a feature on the USB Type-C connector. When USB PD is implemented, USB PD Bi-phase Mark Coded (BMC) carried on the CC wire shall be used for USB PD communications between USB Type-C ports. At attach, VBUS shall be operationally stable prior to initiating USB PD communications. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 144 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-31 illustrates how the USB PD BMC signaling is carried over the USB Type-C cable’s CC wire. Figure 4-31 USB PD over CC Pins Figure 4-32 illustrates USB PD BMC signaling as seen on CC from both the perspective of the DFP and UFP. The breaks in the signaling are intended to represent the passage of time. Figure 4-32 USB PD BMC Signaling over CC While a USB PD contract is in place, the provider shall advertise a USB Type-C Current of either 1.5 A or 3.0 A. 4.6.3 Supporting USB PD BFSK in Addition to USB PD BMC For USB Type-C to legacy cables and adapters, two situations exist where USB PD BFSK may be used to negotiate greater than 5 V: USB Type-C to USB Standard-A PD cable and USB Type-C to USB Micro-B receptacle adapter. In both of these cases, Rp may be pulled up to a value higher than 5 V because VBUS may range up to 20 V for a USB PD negotiated contract. USB Type-C-based products that support USB PD BFSK and request a voltage greater than 5 V shall protect the CC inputs from termination voltages higher than 5 V as some adapters may present an Rp pulled up to VBUS that may be as high as 20 V. Figure 4-33 illustrates an example of protecting the CC input from a higher voltage and does so in a manner that does not interfere with USB PD BMC communication. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 145 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-33 Example implementation of CC input protection in a UFP The USB PD Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) on VBUS may in addition be used to communicate with legacy USB PD products. USB PD BFSK shall only be used if USB PD BMC fails to establish PD communication, i.e. fails to receive a USB PD GoodCRC message in response to a USB PD Capabilities message following two hard resets. USB Type-C-based UFPs that support USB PD BFSK and want to request more than 1.5 A shall supply VCONN and confirm that the cable is electronically marked and capable of the desired current level (see Section 5.2.2). 4.7 USB Hubs USB hubs are defined by the USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 specifications. USB hubs implemented with one or more USB Type-C connectors shall comply with the USB 3.1 Specification. USB hubs shall have one UFP that may be a Charging UFP (See Section 4.8.3). The hub shall clearly identify to the user its UFP. This may be accomplished by physical isolation, labeling or a combination of both. USB hub’s DFPs shall not have DRP capability. CC pins are used for port-to-port connections and shall be supported on all USB Type-C connections on the hub. USB hub ports shall not implement or pass-through Alternate or Accessory Modes. SBU pins shall not be connected (zSBUTermination) on any USB hub port. The USB hub’s DFPs shall support power source requirements for a DFP. See Section 4.8.1. 4.8 Chargers 4.8.1 DFP as a Power Source DFPs (e.g. battery chargers, hub DFPs and hosts) may all be used for battery charging. When a charger with a USB Type-C receptacle or a USB Type-C captive cable, it shall follow all the applicable requirements. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 146 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification  A DFP shall expose its power capabilities using the USB Type-C Current method and it may additionally support other USB-standard methods (USB BC 1.2 or USB-PD).  A DFP may also expose its identity and/or power capabilities using a proprietary (e.g. non-USB-standard) method. A proprietary method may source up to 5 A if it has a captive cable capable of carrying that level of current. See Section 4.6.2.3 for additional requirements.  A USB Type-C power provider advertising its current capability using USB BC 1.2 shall meet the requirements in Section 4.6.2.2 regarding USB Type-C Current advertisement.  A USB Type-C power provider that has negotiated a USB-PD contract shall meet the requirements in Section 4.6.2.4 regarding USB Type-C Current advertisement.  If a USB Type-C power provider is capable of supplying a voltage greater than default VBUS, it shall fully conform to the USB-PD specification, and shall negotiate its power contracts using only USB-PD.  If a USB Type-C power provider is capable of reversing source and sink power roles, it shall fully conform to the USB-PD specification, and shall negotiate its power contracts using only USB-PD.  If a USB Type-C power provider is capable of supplying a current greater than 3.0 A, it shall use the USB-PD Discovery Identity to determine the current carrying capacity of the cable. 4.8.1.1 Chargers with USB Type-C Receptacles  A charger with a USB Type-C receptacle (DFP) shall only apply power to VBUS when it detects a UFP is attached and shall remove power from VBUS when it detects the UFP is detached (vOPEN).  A charger with a USB Type-C receptacle shall not advertise current exceeding 3.0 A except when it uses the USB-PD Discover Identity mechanism to determine the cable’s actual current carrying capability and then it shall limit the advertised current accordingly. 4.8.1.2 Chargers with USB Type-C Captive Cables  A charger with a USB Type-C captive cable may supply VBUS at any time. It is recommended that such a charger only apply power to VBUS when it detects a UFP is present and remove power from VBUS when it detects the UFP is not present (vOPEN).  A charger with a USB Type-C captive cable shall limit its current advertisement so as not to exceed the current capability of the cable (up to 5 A). 4.8.2 Non-USB Charging Methods A charger with a USB Type-C connector may employ additional proprietary charging methods to source power beyond what is allowed by the USB defined methods. When implemented, proprietary methods must meet the following requirements:  The method shall only be used to establish identity and/or a current level at default VBUS voltage in a manner not defined by the USB methods  The method shall only define the current level and shall not change the voltage delivered on VBUS  The method shall not alter the DFP’s role to source VBUS or the UFP’s role to sink VBUS Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 147 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification  See Section 4.6.2.3 for additional requirements regarding USB Type-C Current advertisement. A product with a USB Type-C connector that sinks power may support proprietary charging methods, these products shall not support methods that redefine VBUS voltage beyond what is defined by the USB 2.0 and USB 3.1 specifications. 4.8.3 Charging UFP A Charging UFP is a special sub-class of a DRP that is capable of supplying power, but not capable of acting as a host. For example a hub’s UFP or a monitor’s UFP that operates as a device but not as a host. The Charging UFP shall follow the rules for a DRP (See Section 4.5.1.4 and Figure 4-15). It shall also follow the requirements for the DFP as Power Source (See Section 4.8.1). The Charging UFP shall support USB PD and shall support the DR_Swap command. 4.8.4 Charging a System with a Dead Battery A system that supports being charged by USB whose battery is dead shall apply Rd to both CC1 and CC2 and follow all UFP rules. When it is connected to a DFP or Charging UFP, the system will receive the default VBUS. It may use any allowed method to increase the amount of power it can use to charge its battery. Circuitry to present Rd in a dead battery case only needs to guarantee the voltage on CC is pulled within the same range as the voltage clamp implementation of Rd in order for a DFP to recognize the UFP and provide VBUS. For example, a 20% resistor of value Rd in series with a FET with VGTH(max) < VCLAMP(max) with the gate weakly pulled to CC would guarantee detection and be removable upon power up. When the system with a dead battery has sufficient charge, it may use the USB PD DR_Swap message to become the DFP. 4.9 Electronically Marked Cables All USB Full-Featured Type-C cables shall be electronically marked. USB 2.0 Type-C cables may be electronically marked. Electronically marked cables shall support USB Power Delivery Structured VDM Discover Identity command directed to SOP’. This provides a method to determine the characteristics of the cable, e.g. its current carrying capability, its performance, vendor identification, etc. This may be referred to as the USB Type-C Cable ID function. Prior to an explicit USB PD contract, a Charging UFP is allowed to use SOP’ to discover the cable’s identity. After an explicit USB PD contract has been negotiated, only the DFP shall communicate with SOP’. An electronically marked cable incorporates electronics that require VCONN, although VBUS or another source may be used. Electronically marked cables that do not incorporate data bus signal conditioning circuits shall consume no more than 70 mW from VCONN. During USB suspend, electronically marked cables shall not draw more than 7.5 mA from VCONN, see Section 4.6.1.2. Figure 4-34 illustrates a typical electronically marked cable. The isolation elements (Iso) shall prevent VCONN from traversing end-to-end through the cable. Ra is required in the cable to allow the DFP to determine that VCONN is needed. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 148 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 4-34 Electronically Marked Cable with VCONN connected through the cable Figure 4-35 illustrates an electronically marked cable where the VCONN wire does not extend through the cable, therefore an SOP’ element is required at each end of the cable. In this case, no isolation elements are needed. Figure 4-35 Electronically Marked Cable with SOP’ at both ends For cables that only respond to SOP’, the location of the responder is not relevant. An active cable is an electronically marked cable that incorporates data bus signal conditioning circuits, for example to allow for implementing longer cables. Active cables shall not draw more than 1 W from VCONN, see Section 4.4.3. Active cables may or may not require configuration management. Requirements for active cables that require configuration management are provided in Section 5.2. Refer to Section 4.4.3 for the requirements of a DFP to supply VCONN. When VCONN is not present, a powered cable shall not interfere with normal CC operation including UFP detection, current advertisement and USB PD operation. 4.10 VCONN-Powered Accessories A VCONN-powered accessory is a direct-attach UFP that implements an Alternate Mode (See Section 5.1) and can operate with just VCONN. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 149 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification The VCONN-powered accessory exposes a maximum impedance to ground of Ra on the VCONN pin and Rd on the CC pin. When operating in the UFP role and when VBUS is not present, VCONN-powered accessories shall treat the application of VCONN as an attach signal, and shall respond to USB Power Delivery messages. When powered by only VCONN, a VCONN-powered accessory shall negotiate an Alternate Mode. If it fails to negotiate an Alternate Mode within tAMETimeout, its port partner removes VCONN. VCONN-powered accessories shall be able to operate over a range of 2.7 V to 5.5 V on VCONN. The removal of VCONN when VBUS is not present shall be treated as a detach event. When VBUS is supplied, a VCONN-powered accessory is subject to all of the requirements for UFPs, including presenting a USB Billboard Device Class interface if negotiation for an Alternate Mode fails. 4.11 Parameter Values 4.11.1 Termination Parameters Table 4-10 provides the values that shall be used for the DFP’s Rp or current source. Other pull-up voltages shall be allowed if they remain less than 5.5 V and fall within the correct voltage ranges on the UFP side – see Table 4-18, Table 4-19 and Table 4-20. Note: when two DFPs are connected together, they may use different termination methods which could result in unexpected current flow. Table 4-10 DFP CC Termination (Rp) Requirements DFP Advertisement Default USB Power 1.5 A @ 5 V 3.0 A @ 5 V Current Source to 1.7 – 5.5 V 80 μA ± 20% 180 μA ± 8% 330 μA ± 8% Resistor pull-up to Resistor pull-up to 4.75 – 5.5 V 3.3 V ± 5% 56 kΩ ± 20% 36 kΩ ± 20% 22 kΩ ± 5% 12 kΩ ± 5% 10 kΩ ± 5% 4.7 kΩ ± 5% The UFP may find it convenient to implement Rd in multiple ways simultaneously (a wide range Rd when unpowered and a trimmed Rd when powered). Transitions between Rd implementations that do not exceed tCCDebounce shall not be interpreted as exceeding the wider Rd range. Table 4-11 provides the methods and values that shall be used for the UFP’s Rd implementation. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 150 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 4-11 UFP CC Termination (Rd) Requirements Rd Implementation Nominal value Can detect power capability? Max voltage on pin ± 20% voltage clamp1 1.1 V No 1.32 V ± 20% resistor to GND 5.1 kΩ No 2.18 V ± 10% resistor to GND 5.1 kΩ Yes 2.04 V Note: 1. The clamp implementation inhibits USB PD communication although the system can start with the clamp and transition to the resistor once it is able to do USB PD. Table 4-12 provides the impedance value to ground on VCONN in powered cables. Table 4-12 Powered cable Termination Requirements Minimum Impedance Maximum Impedance Ra 800 Ω1 1.2 kΩ Note: 1. The minimum impedance may be less when powering active circuitry. Table 4-13 provides the minimum impedance value to ground on CC for a self-powered device (UFP) to be undetected by a DFP. Table 4-13 UFP CC Termination Requirements zOPEN Minimum Impedance to GND 126 kΩ Table 4-14 provides the impedance value for an SBU to appear open. Table 4-14 SBU Termination Requirements zSBUTermination Termination ≥ 950 kΩ Notes Functional equivalent to an open circuit Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 151 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.11.2 Timing Parameters Table 4-15 provides the timing values that shall be met for delivering power over VBUS and VCONN. Table 4-15 VBUS and VCONN Timing Parameters tVBUSON tVBUSOFF tVCONNON tVCONNON-PA tVCONNOFF tSinkAdj Minimum 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms tPDDebounce Maximum 275 ms 650 ms 10 ms 100 ms 35 ms 60 ms Description From the time the UFP is attached until the DFP supplies VBUS. From the time the UFP is detached until the DFP removes VBUS and reaches vSafe0V (See USB PD). Note: In the case where the UFP is sourcing VBUS, e.g. USB PD PR_Swap, the UFP monitors vRd to detect detach. From the time the DFP supplied VBUS in either the Attach.DFP.DRPWait or Attached.DFP states. From the time a UFP with accessory support enters the Powered.Accessory state until the UFP sources VCONN. From the time that a UFP is detached or as directed until the VCONN supply is disconnected and bulk capacitance is removed. Response time for a UFP to adjust its current consumption to be in the specified range due to a change in USB Type-C Current advertisement Figure 4-36 illustrates the timing parameters associated with the DRP toggling process. The tDRP parameter represents the overall period for a single cycle during which the port is exposed as both a DFP and a UFP. The portion of the period where the DRP is exposed as a DFP is established by dcDFP.DRP and the maximum transition time between the exposed states is dictated by tDRPTransition. Figure 4-36 DRP Timing Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 152 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 4-16 provides the timing values that shall be met for DRPs. The clock used to control DRP swap should not be derived from a precision timing source such as a crystal, ceramic resonator, etc. to help minimize the probability of two DRP devices indefinitely failing to resolve into a DFP to UFP relationship. Similarly, the percentage of time that a DRP spends advertising DFP not be derived from a precision timing source. Table 4-16 DRP Timing Parameters tDRP dcDFP.DRP Minimum 50 ms 30% tDRPTransition 0 ms tDRPHold tDRPLock tDRPTry 100 ms 100 ms 400 ms Maximum 100 ms 70% 1 ms 150 ms 150 ms 450 ms Description The period a DRP shall complete a DFP to UFP and back advertisement The percent of time that a DRP shall advertise DFP during tDRP The time a DRP shall complete transitions between DFP and UFP roles during role resolution Wait time associated with the Attach.DFP.DRPWait state Wait time associated with the Lock.UFP state Wait time associated with the Try.DFP Table 4-17 provides the timing requirement for CC connection behaviors. Table 4-17 CC Timing tCCDebounce Minimum 2 ms tPDDebounce 10 ms tAccDetect tErrorRecovery 50 ms 25 ms Maximum 15 ms 20 ms 200 ms Description Time a port shall wait before it can determine it is attached Time a port shall wait before it can determine it is either detached or a change in USB Type-C current due to the potential for USB PD BMC signaling on CC Time before Accessory Mode shall be entered Time a port shall remain in the ErrorRecovery state. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 153 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.11.3 Voltage Parameters Table 4-18, Table 4-19 and Table 4-20 provide the CC voltage values that a DFP shall use to detect what is attached based on the USB Type-C Current advertisement (Default USB, 1.5 A @ 5 V, or 3.0 A @ 5 V) that the DFP is offering. Table 4-18 CC Voltages on DFP Side – Default USB Powered cable/adapter (vRa) UFP (vRd) No connect (vOPEN) Minimum Voltage Maximum Voltage 0.00 V 0.15 V 0.25 V 1.65 V 1.50 V Threshold 0.20 V 1.60 V Table 4-19 CC Voltages on DFP Side – 1.5 A @ 5 V Powered cable/adapter (vRa) UFP (vRd) No connect (vOPEN) Minimum Voltage Maximum Voltage 0.00 V 0.35 V 0.45 V 1.65 V 1.50 V Threshold 0.40 V 1.60 V Table 4-20 CC Voltages on DFP Side – 3.0 A @ 5 V Powered cable/adapter (vRa) UFP (vRd) No connect (vOPEN) Minimum Voltage Maximum Voltage 0.00 V 0.75 V 0.85 V 2.75 V 2.45 V Threshold 0.80 V 2.60 V Table 4-21 provides the CC voltage values that shall be detected across a UFP’s Rd for a UFP that does not support higher than default USB Type-C Current DFP advertisements. Table 4-21 Voltage on UFP CC Pins (Default USB Type-C Current only) Detection vRa vRd-Connect Min voltage −0.25 V 0.25 V Max voltage 0.15 V 2.18 V Threshold 0.2 V Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 154 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table 4-22 provides the CC voltage values that shall be detected across a UFP’s Rd for a UFP that implements detection of higher than default USB Type-C Current DFP advertisements. This table includes consideration for the effect that the IR drop across the cable GND has on the voltage across the UFP’s Rd. Table 4-22 Voltage on UFP CC pins (Multiple DFP Current Advertisements) Detection vRa vRd-Connect vRd-USB vRd-1.5 vRd-3.0 Min voltage −0.25 V 0.25 V 0.25 V 0.70 V 1.31 V Max voltage 0.15 V 2.04 V 0.61 V 1.16 V 2.04 V Threshold 0.2 V 0.66 V 1.23 V Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 155 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 4.12 Summary of Ports by Product Type The USB Type-C ports can exist in any one of 16 possible states. These states are characterized by:  DFP (host-mode) or UFP (device-mode)  Sourcing (Rp) or sinking (Rd) VBUS  Data capable or not  Sourcing VCONN Table 4-23 summarizes all of the port states as differentiated by these four characteristics. This informative table may be helpful in understanding where a port starts (as indicated by bold  marks) and the states the port traverses to get to an end condition for a particular type of host, hub or device. It should be noted that some products are shown to have multiple possible starting states, these port types include DRPs, DFPs that default to UFPs in dead battery conditions, or UFPs that support upstream charging of dead battery hosts. If applicable, the two primary USB PD-based swapping mechanisms are listed in the table for each product port types:  Power Swap (PS) using USB PD PR_Swap : swaps VBUS source (Rp) and sink (Rd)  Data Swap (DS) using USB PD DR_Swap : swaps DFP (host-mode) and UFP (devicemode) roles For product port types that support USB PD, a third USB PD-based swapping mechanism may be supported:  VCONN Swap using USB PD VCONN_Swap : swaps which end sources of VCONN Subscripts highlight which of these three swapping mechanisms may be used in the transition from one port state to another. For example, for a Host DFP that supports PR_Swap under normal conditions, the initial port state would be 1 ( DFP, Source, Yes, On) but would transition to 2 (DFP, Sink, Yes, On) with a USB-PD PR_Swap. For a DRP-based product, port transitions are dependent on the order that swaps are applied from the initial port state. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 DFP/UFP DFP DFP DFP DFP DFP DFP DFP DFP UFP UFP UFP UFP UFP UFP UFP UFP VBUS Source Sink Source Sink Source Sink Source Sink Source Sink Source Sink Source Sink Source Sink Data Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No - 156 - Table 4-23 Summary of Ports and Behaviors by Product Type Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. VCONN On On On On Off Off Off Off On On On On Off Off Off Off 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Host DFP DFP with PS   1   1,3 4 DRP    Host/ DRP with PS  Device DRP with DS  DRP with PS/DS  Device UFP UFP with PS Hub (UFP) Hub UFP Charging UFP Hub Hub DFP  (DFP) DFP with PS  Power supply/Charger 1 1 4 1   1,3   1,3 4   1,3  1,3 2,3 1, 2,3 3 1,3 3 3 1,3 3 1  4 2  1,2  4  1   1  USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Power sucking device  Notes: 1 = PR_Swap (PS) used; 2 = DR_Swap (DS) used; 3 = VCONN_Swap used; 4 = Dead battery state/support Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 157 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 5 Functional Extensions 5.1 Alternate Modes All hosts and devices (except chargers) using a USB Type-C receptacle shall expose a USB interface. In the case where the host or device optionally supports Alternate Modes:  The host and device shall use USB Power Delivery Structured Vendor Defined Messages (Structured VDMs) to discover, configure and enter/exit modes to enable Alternate Modes  The device is strongly encouraged to provide equivalent USB functionality where such exists for best user experience  Where no equivalent USB functionality is implemented, the device shall provide a USB interface exposing a USB Billboard Device Class used to provide information needed to identify the device As Alternate Modes do not traverse the USB hub topology, they shall only be used between a directly connected host and device. 5.1.1 Alternate Mode Architecture The USB Power Delivery Structured VDMs are defined to extend the functionality a device exposes. Only Structured VDMs shall be used to alter the USB functionality or reconfigure the pins the USB Type-C Connector exposes. Structured VDMs provide a standard method to identify the modes a device supports and to command the device to enter and exit a mode. The use of Structured VDMs are in addition to the normal USB PD messages used to manage power. Structured VDMs may be interspersed within the normal USB PD messaging stream, however they may not be inserted in the middle of an ongoing PD power negotiation . The Structured VDMs consist of a request followed by a response. The response is either a successful completion of the request (ACK), an indication that the device needs time before it can service a request (BUSY), or a rejection of the request (NAK). A host and device do not enter a mode when either a NAK or BUSY is returned. Multiple modes may exist and/or function concurrently. For example, a Structured VDM may be used to manage an active cable at the same time that another Structured VDM is used to manage the device so that both the cable and device are operating in a compatible mode. 5.1.2 Alternate Mode Requirements The host and device shall negotiate a USB PD Explicit Contract before Structured VDMs may be used to discover or enter an Alternate Mode. The ACK shall be sent after switching to the Alternate Mode has been completed by the UFP for Enter Mode and Exit Mode requests. See Section 6.4.4 in the USB Power Delivery Specification. If a device fails to successfully enter an Alternate Mode within tAMETimeout then the device shall minimally expose a USB 2.0 interface (USB Billboard Device Class) that is powered by VBUS. When a device offers multiple modes, especially where multiple Alternate Mode definitions are needed in order to be compatible with multiple host-side implementations, successfully entering an Alternate Mode may be predicated on only one of the available modes being successfully recognized by a host. In this case, the device is not required to expose but may still expose a USB Billboard Device Class interface to indicate to the host the availability and status of the modes it supports. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 158 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification The host may send an Enter Mode after tAMETimeout. If the device enters the mode, it shall respond with an ACK and discontinue exposing the USB Billboard Device Class interface. The device may expose the USB Billboard Device Class interface again with updated capabilities. The current supplied over VCONN may be redefined by a specific Alternate Mode but the power shall not exceed the current rating of the pin (See Section 3.7.7.4). 5.1.2.1 Alternate Mode Pin Reassignment Figure 5-1 illustrates the only pins that shall be available for functional reconfiguration in a full-featured cable. The pins highlighted in yellow are the only pins that shall be reconfigured. Figure 5-1 Pins Available for Reconfiguration over the Full-Featured Cable Figure 5-2 illustrates the only pins that shall be available for functional reconfiguration in direct connect applications such as a cradle dock, captive cable or a detachable notebook. The pins highlighted in yellow are the only pins that shall be reconfigured. Three additional pins are available because this configuration is not limited by the cable wiring. Figure 5-2 Pins Available for Reconfiguration for Direct Connect Applications 5.1.2.2 Alternate Mode Electrical Requirements Signaling during the use of Alternate Modes shall comply with all relevant cable assembly, adapter assembly and electrical requirements of Chapter 3. Two requirements are specified in order to minimize risk of damage to the USB SuperSpeed transmitters and receivers in a USB host or device:  When operating in an Alternate Mode and pin pairs A2, A3 (TX1) and B2, B3 (TX2) are used, these shall be AC coupled in or before the plug.  Alternate Mode signals being received at the USB Type-C receptacle shall not exceed the value specified for VTX-DIFF-PP in Table 6-17 of the USB 3.1 specification. When in an Alternate Mode, activity on the SBU lines shall not interfere with USB PD BMC communications or interfere with detach detection. The USB Safe State is defined by the USB PD specification. The USB Safe State defines an electrical state for the SBU1/2 and SSTX/SSRX for DFPs, UFPs, and Active Cables when transitioning between USB and an Alternate Mode. SBU1/2 and SSTX/SSRX must transition Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 159 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification to the USB Safe State before entering to or exiting from an Alternate Mode. Table 5-1 defines the electrical requirements for the USB Safe State. See the USB-PD Specification for more detail on entry/exit mechanisms to the USB Safe State. Table 5-1 USB Safe State Electrical Requirements SBU1/2 SSTX1,2 SSRX2 B6/B74 Common-mode voltage 0 to 1.5 V 0 to 1.5 V 0 to 1.5 V 0 to 1.5 V Impedance to ground3 < 4 MΩ < 4 MΩ 25 KΩ – 4 MΩ < 4 MΩ Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. SSTX common-mode voltage is defined on the integrated circuit side of the AC coupling capacitors. Unused SSTX and SSRX signals should transition to USB Safe State if wired to the connector but not used. The DFP and UFP shall provide a discharge path to ground in USB Safe State when a connection to the USB Type-C receptacle is present. Applies to docking solutions that redefine pins B6 and B7. 5.1.3 Parameter Values Table 5-2 provides the timeout requirement for a device that supports Alternate Modes to enable a USB Billboard Device Class interface when none of the modes supported by the device are successfully recognized and configured by the DFP to which the device is attached. Table 5-2 USB Billboard Device Class Availability Following Alternate Mode Entry Failure tAMETimeout Maximum 1000 ms Description The time between a UFP attach until a USB Billboard Device Class interface is exposed when an Alternate Mode is not successfully entered While operating in an Alternate Mode, the signaling shall not cause noise ingression onto USB signals operating concurrently that exceeds the Vnoise parameters given in Table 5-3. Table 5-3 Alternate Mode Signal Noise Ingression Requirements Limit Bandwidth Vnoise on BMC 10 mV 100 ns time constant filter Vnoise on D+/D− (Single-ended) 40 mV 500 MHz Vnoise on D+/D− (Differential) 10 mV 500 MHz Note: Each Vnoise parameter is the max noise ingression level allowed onto the respective interface that is due to all aggressors from the Alternate Mode signaling, under respective worse case scenarios. Aggressors include Alternate Mode interface signals on the SBU wires that couple within USB Type-C cable to the respective victim interface, according to USB Type C cable specification Section 3.7.3.3. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 160 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 5.1.4 Example Alternate Mode – USB/PCIe Dock This example illustrates the use of Structured VDMs to expose and access functionality beyond the basic functionality defined by the USB Type-C Connector. The device uses its USB Type-C connector to make connection when placed in a cradle dock. This example only illustrates the functional connections. 5.1.4.1 USB/PCIe Dock Example  The cradle dock provides mechanical alignment and attachment in addition to those provided by the USB Type C connector and allows for only one orientation.  The dock uses USB PD to manage charge/power to the Device.  The dock uses PCIe to connect additional dock functions, e.g. a network controller.  The dock has a USB hub that exposes three external USB ports and attached internal USB Devices, e.g. a USB audio Device (a 3.5 mm audio jack). Figure 5-3 illustrates the USB/PCIe dock example in a block diagram form. Figure 5-3 USB/PCIe Dock Example The system uses USB PD Structured VDMs to communicate with the dock to discover that it supports a compatible Alternate Mode. The system then uses a Structured VDM to enter the dock mode. Since USB PD is used, it may also be used to negotiate power for the system and dock. In this example, the USB SuperSpeed signals allow the dock to work as a USB-only dock with a system that does not fully support the dock or even USB PD. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 161 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 5.1.4.2 Functional Overview The following summarizes the behavior resulting from attaching the example USB/PCIe Dock for three likely host system cases. 1. Host system does not support USB PD or supports USB PD without Structured VDMs o Since the Host does not support USB PD, it will not look for SVIDs using the Structured VDM method. o The host discovers the USB hub and operates as it would when connected to any USB hub. o Since the host does not support USB PD, after tAMETimeout the dock will expose a USB Billboard Device Class interface that the host will enumerate. The host then reports to the user that an unsupported Device has been connected, identifying the type of Device from the USB Billboard Device Class information. 2. Host system supports USB PD and Structured VDMs but does not support this specific USB/PCIe Dock o The host discovers the USB hub and operates as it would when connected to any USB hub. o The Host looks for SVIDs that it recognizes. The VID associated with this USB/PCIe Dock may or may not be recognized by the Host. o If that VID is recognized by the Host, the Host then requests the modes associated with this VID. The mode associated with this USB/PCIe Dock is not recognized by the Host. o Since the host does not recognize the mode as being supported, after tAMETimeout the dock will expose a USB Billboard Device Class interface that the host will enumerate. The host then reports to the user that an unsupported Device has been connected, identifying the type of Device from the USB Billboard Device Class information. 3. Host system supports this specific USB/PCIe Dock o The Host looks for SVIDs that it recognizes. The VID associated with this USB/PCIe Dock is recognized by the Host. o The Host then requests the modes associated with this VID. The mode associated with this USB/PCIe Dock is recognized by the Host. o Since this mode is recognized as supported, the Host uses the Enter Mode command to reconfigure the USB Type-C receptacle and enter the USB/PCIe Dock mode. o The device may expose the USB Billboard Device Class interface with updated capabilities. 5.1.4.3 Operational Summary The following summarizes the basic process of discovery through configuration when the USB/PCIe Dock is attached to the Host. 1. Host detects presence of a device (CC pins) and connector orientation 2. Host applies default VBUS 3. Host applies VCONN because the dock presents Ra 4. Host uses USB PD to make power contract with the Dock device Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 162 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 5. Host runs the Discover Identify process a. Sends Discover Identity message b. Receives an ACK message with information identifying the cable 6. Host runs the Discover SVIDs process a. Sends Discover SVID message b. Receives an ACK message with list of SVIDs for which the Dock device has modes 7. Host runs the Discover Modes process a. Sends Discover Modes VDM for the VIDs previously discovered b. Receives an ACK message with a list of modes associated with each VID c. If USB/PCIe Dock mode not found – fall out and enumerate USB bus for the USB Billboard Device Class interface and inform the user of the error - done d. Else 8. Host runs the Enter Mode process a. Sends Enter Mode VDM with VID and USB/PCIe Dock mode b. Receives an ACK message – Host is now attached to the USB/PCIe Dock and supports PCIe signaling to interface additional functions in combination with USB signaling 9. Host stays in the USB/PCIe Dock mode until a. Explicitly exited by an Exit Mode VDM b. System physically removed from the USB/PCIe Dock c. Hard Reset on USB PD d. VBUS is removed 5.2 Managed Active Cables Active cables that require configuration (managed active cable) shall use USB Power Delivery Structured VDMs to discover and configure the cable. USB Power Delivery Structured VDMs provide a standardized mechanism for identifying and managing the functionality of active cables. Some managed active cables only have a single USB PD controller in the cable that responds to USB PD Structured VDMs sent to SOP’. When a managed active cable requires independent management at each end of the cable, separate USB PD controllers responding to USB PD Structured VDMs sent to SOP’ and SOP” can be located in each plug. 5.2.1 Requirements for Managed Active Cables that respond to SOP’ and SOP” After a power-on reset event or a USB PD Hard Reset, the USB PD controller attached to the DFP is assigned SOP’ and the USB PD controller attached to the UFP is assigned SOP”. After a USB PD Cable Reset, the plug being supplied VCONN responds to SOP’ independent of whether it is the plug attached to the DFP or UFP. The controllers can sense whether they are SOP’ or SOP” based on the presence of VCONN at the plug’s VCONN pin as only one port supplies VCONN. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 163 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Figure 5-4 illustrates the process that shall be followed to assign SOP’ and SOP” to the ends attached to the DFP and UFP, respectively, at power on. In the Unassigned state, the active cable will not respond to any USB PD communication sent to SOP’ or SOP”. The parameter tVCONNStable allows time for the active cable to set up to communicate. Figure 5-4 Managed Active Cable Plug SOP’ and SOP” Assignment VCONN on Cable Reset Unassigned (SOP , SOP ) tVCONNSta bl e Present Local VCONN Present/Absent Absent Assigned SOP Assigned SOP When VCONN is removed, the plug’s local VCONN shall discharge to below its SOP’ detection threshold within 20 ms. A managed active cable shall assure that the two USB PD controllers are uniquely assigned via the mechanism described here, one as SOP’ and the other as SOP”. USB PD supports three types of USB Type-C-related swaps that may or may not impact VCONN:  USB PD VCONN_Swap – The port previously not supplying VCONN sources VCONN and the assignment of SOP’ and SOP” remain unchanged.  USB PD DR_Swap – The assignment of SOP’ and SOP” remain unchanged.  USB PD PR_Swap – The assignment of SOP’ and SOP” remain unchanged. Managed active USB Type-C to USB Type-C cables shall by default support USB operation. Multi-modal cables (e.g., an active cable that supports an Alternate Mode in addition to USB SuperSpeed) that use the TX/RX signal pairs shall minimally support USB 3.1 Gen 1 operation. They are encouraged to support both Gen 1 and Gen 2 operation. Figure 5-5 illustrates a typical managed active cable. The isolation elements (Iso) shall prevent VCONN from traversing end-to-end through the cable. Ra is required in the cable to allow the DFP to determine that VCONN is needed. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 164 Figure 5-5 Managed Active Cable USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 5.2.1.1 Parameter Values Table 5-2 provides the power on timing requirements for SOP’ and SOP” to be ready to communicate. Table 5-4 SOP’ and SOP” Timing tVCONNStable Maximum 100 ms Description The time between the application of VCONN until SOP’ and SOP” shall be ready for communication. 5.2.2 Cable Message Structure USB PD Structured VDMs shall be used to identify and manage active cables. Cables that require additional functionality, for example to program parameters in the active electronics, may define proprietary Structured VDMs to provide the necessary functionality. In all cases, these messages shall only use SOP’ and SOP’’. They shall not use SOP. SOP’ and SOP’’ are defined to allow a vendor to communicate individually with each end the cable. With one exception, only the DFP shall be allowed to communicate with SOP’ and SOP” after an explicit USB PD contract has been entered. The exception is when a UFP has confirmed that it is communicating with a USB PD BFSK-based source and needs to communicate with SOP’ to identify if the cable is capable of greater than 1.5 A. For active cables that support both SOP’ and SOP”, after attach or a USB PD Cable Reset, the plug directly connected to the DFP shall only respond to SOP’ and the plug directly connected to the UFP shall only respond to SOP”. The assignment of SOP’ and SOP” to each plug remains persistent until VCONN is removed or a subsequent USB PD Cable Reset. The Discover Identity message shall start with SOP’. 5.2.3 Modal Cable Management In addition to supporting the Discover Identity message, managed active cables shall support the following USB Power Delivery Structured VDMs. These VDMs shall start with SOP’. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 165 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification 5.2.3.1 Discover SVIDs The managed active cable shall return a list of SVIDs that it supports. 5.2.3.2 Discover Modes The managed active cable shall return a list of Alternate Modes it supports for each SVID. 5.2.3.3 Enter Mode The managed active cable shall use the Enter Mode command to enter an Alternate Mode. The behavior of the cable following Enter Mode is vendor specific. 5.2.3.4 Exit Mode The managed active cable shall use the Exit Mode command to exit an Alternate Mode previously entered. Exit Mode shall return the cable to its default USB operation. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 166 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification A Audio Adapter Accessory Mode A.1. Overview Analog audio headsets are supported by multiplexing four analog audio signals onto pins on the USB Type-C connector when in the Audio Adapter Accessory Mode. The four analog audio signals are the same as those used by a traditional 3.5 mm headset jack. This makes it possible to use existing analog headsets with a 3.5 mm to USB Type-C adapter. The audio adapter architecture allows for an audio peripheral to provide up to 500 mA back to the system for charging. An analog audio adapter could be a very basic USB Type-C adapter that only has a 3.5 mm jack or it could be an analog audio adapter with a 3.5 mm jack and a USB Type-C receptacle to enable charge-through. It could also be a headset that replaces its 3.5 mm plug with a USB Type-C plug. A.2. Detail An analog audio adapter shall use a captive cable with a USB Type-C plug or include an integrated USB Type-C plug. The analog audio adapter shall identify itself by presenting a resistance to GND of ≤ Ra on both A5 (CC) and B5 (VCONN) of the USB Type-C plug. If pins A5 and B5 are shorted together, the effective resistance to GND shall be less than Ra/2. A DFP that supports analog audio adapters shall detect the presence of an analog audio adapter by detecting a resistance to GND of less than Ra on both A5 (CC) and B5 (VCONN). Table A-1 shows the pin assignments at the USB Type-C plug that shall be used to support analog audio. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 167 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification Table A-1 USB Type-C Analog Audio Pin Assignments Plug Pin A5 USB Name CC Analog Audio Function B5 VCONN A6/B6 Dp Right A7/B7 Dn Left A8 SBU1 B8 SBU2 A1/A12 B1/B12 A4/A9 B4/B9 GND VBUS Others Mic/AGND AGND/Mic Location on 3.5 mm Jack Ring 1 Tip Ring 2 Sleeve Notes Connected to digital GND with resistance ≤ Ra. System uses for presence detect. Connected to digital GND with resistance ≤ Ra. System uses for presence detect. Analog audio right channel A6 and B6 may be shorted together in the adapter. Analog audio left channel A7 and B7 may be shorted together in the adapter. Analog audio microphone (OMTP & YD/T) or Audio GND (CTIA). Audio GND (OMTP & YD/T or analog audio microphone (CTIA). Digital GND (DGND) used as the ground reference and current return for CC1, CC2, and VBUS. Not connected unless the audio adapter uses this connection to provide 5 V @ 500 mA for charging the system’s battery. Other pins shall not be connected. The analog audio signaling presented by the headset on the 3.5 mm jack is expected to comply with at least one of the following:  The traditional American headset jack pin assignment, with the jack sleeve used for the microphone signal, supported by CTIA-The Wireless Association  “Local Connectivity: Wired Analogue Audio” from the Open Mobile Terminal Forum (OMTP) forum  “Technical Requirements and Test Methods for Wired Headset Interface of Mobile Communication Terminal” (YT/D 1885-2009) from the China Communications Standards Association When in the Audio Adapter Accessory Mode, the system shall not provide VCONN power on either CC1 or CC2. Failure to do this may result in VCONN being shorted to GND when an analog audio peripheral is present. The system shall connect A6/B6, A7/B7, A8 and B8 to an appropriate audio codec upon entry into the Audio Adapter Accessory Mode. The connections for A8 (SBU1) and B8 (SBU2) pins are dependent on the adapter’s orientation. Depending on the orientation, the microphone and analog ground pins may be swapped. These pins are already reversed between the two major standards for headset jacks and support for this is built into the headset connection of many codecs or can be implemented using an autonomous audio headset switch. The system shall work correctly with either configuration. A.3. Electrical Requirements The maximum ratings for pin voltages are referenced to GND (pins A1, A12, B1, and B12). The non-GND pins on the plug shall be isolated from GND on the USB Type-C connector and shall be isolated from the USB plug shell. To minimize the possibility of ground loops Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 168 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification between systems, AGND shall be connected to GND only within the system containing the USB Type-C receptacle. Both the system and audio device implementations shall be able to tolerate the Right, Left, Mic, and AGND signals being shorted to GND. The current provided by the amplifier driving the Right and Left signals shall not exceed ±150 mA per audio channel, even when driving a 0 Ω load. Table A-2 shows allowable voltage ranges on the pins in the USB Type-C plug that shall be met. Table A-2 USB Type-C Analog Audio Pin Electrical Parameter Ratings Plug Pin A6/B6 USB Name Dp A7/B7 A8 B8 Dn SBU1 SBU2 Analog Audio Function Right Left Mic/AGND AGND/Mic Min Max Units Notes −3.0 3.0 −3.0 3.0 −0.4 3.3 −0.4 3.3 V A6 and B6 may be shorted together in the analog audio adapter V A7 and B7 may be shorted together in the analog audio adapter V V The maximum voltage ratings for Left and Right signals are selected to encompass a 2 Vrms sine wave (2.828 Vp = 5.657 Vpp = 6 dBV) which is a common full-scale voltage for headset audio output. Headset microphones operate on a positive bias voltage provided by the system’s audio codec and AC-couple the audio signal onto it. Some headsets may produce an audio signal level up to 0.5 Vrms (0.707 Vp = 1.414 Vpp = -6 dBV) but this is biased so that the voltage does not swing below GND. The bias voltage during operation is typically around 1.25 V but it varies quite a bit depending on the specifics of the manufacturer’s design, therefore the maximum voltage rating for the SBU pins is selected to allow a variety of existing solutions. While one SBU pin carries the Mic signal, the other SBU pin serves as AGND carrying the return current for Left, Right, and Mic. If we assume a worst-case headset speaker impedance of 16 Ω per speaker, then the worst-case return current for the speakers is ± 0.2 A. If we assume that the worst-case resistance from the AGND pin to GND within the USB Type-C system is 1 Ω (due to FET RON within the signal multiplexer, contact, and trace resistances), then the voltage of the AGND pin with respect to USB Type-C GND can vary between ± 0.2 V. The minimum voltage rating for the SBU pins has been selected to allow for this scenario with some additional margin to account for Mic signal return current and tolerances. The system shall exhibit no more than -48 dB linear crosstalk between the Left and Right audio channels and exhibit no more than -51 dB linear crosstalk from the Left or Right channel to the Mic channel. Crosstalk measurements shall be made using a measurement adapter plug that supports USB Type-C analog audio connections according to Table A-1. In the measurement adapter, the Left and Right channels are terminated with 32 Ω resistors to AGND, the Mic channel is terminated with 2k Ω resistor to AGND; AGND is connected to USB Type-C Plug Pin A8, and the Mic channel is connected to USB Type-C Plug Pin B8. Crosstalk shall be measured by using the system to drive a sine wave signal to the Left output channel and zero signal to the Right output channel. The system shall configure the Mic channel according to the default Mic operating mode supported by the system. AC voltage levels at the Left, Right and Mic channels are measured across the corresponding termination resistors using a third-octave filter at the sine signal frequency. Left – Right Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 169 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification crosstalk is reported as ratio of the Right channel voltage to the Left channel voltage expressed in decibels. Similarly, the Left – Mic crosstalk is reported. The measurements shall be conducted at 31.5, 63, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 and 16000 Hz frequencies. The measurements shall be repeated so that the sine wave signal is driven to the Right channel and Right – Left and Right – Mic crosstalk results are obtained. Both USB Type-C plug orientations shall be measured.” A.4. Example Implementations A.4.1. Passive 3.5 mm to USB Type-C Adapter – Single Pole Detection Switch Figure A-1 illustrates how a simple 3.5 mm analog audio adapter can be made. In this design, there is an audio plug that contains a single-pole detection switch that is used to completely disconnect the CC and VCONN pins from digital GND when no 3.5 mm plug is inserted. This has the effect of triggering the USB Type-C presence detect logic upon insertion or removal of either the 3.5 mm plug or the audio adapter itself. Figure A-1 Example Passive 3.5 mm to USB Type-C Adapter A.4.2. 3.5 mm to USB Type-C Adapter Supporting 500 mA Charge-Through Figure A-2 illustrates a 3.5 mm analog audio adapter that supports charge-through operation. Charging power comes into the adapter through a USB Type-C receptacle and is routed directly to the adapter’s USB Type-C plug, which is plugged into the device being charged. This design is limited to providing 500 mA of charge-through current since it has no way to advertise greater current-sourcing capability. The USB Type-C receptacle presents Rd on both of its CC pins because a CC pull-down must be present for the receptacle to indicate that it wants to consume VBUS current. USB Type-C systems that support analog audio should ensure that charging is not interrupted by insertion or removal of the 3.5 mm audio plug and that audio is not interrupted by insertion or removal of the cable connected Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 170 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification to the audio adapter’s USB Type-C receptacle by using the system’s presence detection logic monitoring the states of both CC pins and VBUS. Figure A-2 Example 3.5 mm to USB Type-C Adapter Supporting 500 mA ChargeThrough Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved. Release 1.0 August 11, 2014 - 171 - USB Type-C Cable and Connector Specification B Debug Accessory Mode This appendix is reserved for the future definition of the Debug Accessory Mode. Copyright © 2014 USB 3.0 Promoter Group. All rights reserved.

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