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    Designation: E 1025 – 05 Standard Practice for Design, Manufacture, and Material Grouping Classification of Hole-Type Image Quality Indicators (IQI) Used for Radiology1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 1025; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. --`,,`,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 1. Scope 1.1 This practice2 covers the design, material grouping classification, and manufacture of hole-type image quality indicators (IQI) used to indicate the quality of radiologic images. 1.2 This practice is applicable to X-ray and gamma-ray radiology. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards: 3 B 139 Specification for Phosphor Bronze Rod, Bar, and Shapes B 150 Specification for Aluminum Bronze Rod, Bar, and Shapes B 161 Specification for Nickel Seamless Pipe and Tube B 164 Specification for Nickel-Copper Alloy Rod, Bar, and Wire B 166 Specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, and N06690) and NickelChromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (UNS N06617) Rod, Bar, and Wire E 746 Test Method for Determining Relative Image Quality Response of Industrial Radiographic Film 1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E07 on Nondestructive Testing and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.01 on Radiographic Practice and Penetrameters. Current edition approved June 1, 2005. Published June 2005. Originally approved in 1984. Last previous edition approved in 1998 as E 1025 - 98. 2 For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Practice SE-1025 in Section II of that Code. 3 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on the ASTM website. E 747 Practice for Design, Manufacture, and Material Grouping Classification of Wire Image Quality Indicators (IQI) Used for Radiology E 1735 Test Method for Determining Relative Image Quality of Industrial Radiographic Film Exposed to X-radiation from 4 to 25 MV E 1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Testing 3. Terminology 3.1 Definitions—The definitions of terms relating to gamma and X-radiology in Terminology E 1316, Section D, shall apply to the terms used in this practice. 4. Hole-Type IQI Requirements 4.1 Image quality indicators (IQIs) used to determine radiologic-image quality levels shall conform to the following requirements. 4.1.1 Standard Hole-Type IQIs: 4.1.1.1 Image quality indicators (IQIs) shall be fabricated from materials or alloys identified or listed in accordance with 7.3. Other materials may be used in accordance with 7.4. 4.1.1.2 Image quality indicators (IQIs) shall dimensionally conform to the requirements of Fig. 1. 4.1.1.3 Both the rectangular and the circular IQI shall be identified with number(s) made of lead or a material of similar radiation opacity. The number shall be bonded to the rectangular IQI’s and shall be placed adjacent to circular IQI’s to provide identification of the IQI on the image. The identification numbers shall indicate the thickness of the IQI in thousandths of an inch, that is, a number 10 IQI is 0.010 in. thick, a number 100 IQI is 0.100 in. thick, etc. Additional identification requirements are provided in 7.2. 4.1.1.4 Alloy-group identification shall be in accordance with Fig. 2. Rectangular IQI’s shall be notched. Image quality indicators (IQI’s) shall be vibrotooled or etched as specified. 4.1.2 Modified Hole-Type IQI: 4.1.2.1 The rectangular IQI may be modified in length and width as necessary for special applications, provided the hole size(s) and IQI thickness conform to Fig. 1. Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. Copyright ASTM International 1 Reproduced by IHS under lCiceonspeywrithigAhSTtMby ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); No reproduction or networkRingepperrmoitdteduwcitthioount licaeunstehfroomriIzHeSd per License Agreement with Kathe HooNpoet fror(RAesSaleTMIHS Account); Tue Jul 5 16:47:15 EDT 2005 E 1025 – 05 NOTE 1—All dimensions in inches (Note 6). NOTE 2—Tolerances for IQI thickness and hole diameter. NOTE 3—XX identification number equals T in .001 inches. NOTE 4—IQIs No. 1 through 9 are not 1T, 2T, and 4T. NOTE 5—Holes shall be true and normal to the IQI. Do not chamfer. NOTE 6—To convert inch dimensions to metric, multiply by 25.4. --`,,`,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Identification Number T (Note 3) 1–4 5–20 21–50 Over 50–160 Over 160 A 1.500 60.015 1.500 60.015 ... 2.250 60.030 1.330T 60.005 B 0.750 60.015 0.750 60.015 ... 1.375 60.030 0.830T 60.005 C 0.438 60.015 0.438 60.015 ... 0.750 60.030 ... D 0.250 60.015 0.250 60.015 ... 0.375 60.030 ... E 0.500 60.015 0.500 60.015 ... 1.000 60.030 ... F 0.250 60.030 0.250 60.030 ... 0.375 60.030 ... Tolerances (Note 2) 610% 60.0005 60.0025 60.005 60.010 FIG. 1 IQI Design 4.1.2.2 The IQI’s shall be identified as specified in 4.1.1.3, except that the identification numbers may be placed adjacent to the IQI if placement on the IQI is impractical. 4.1.2.3 When modified IQI’s are used, details of the modification shall be documented in the records accompanying the examination results. 5. IQI Procurement 5.1 When selecting IQI’s for procurement, the following factors should be considered: 5.1.1 Determine the alloy group(s) of the material to be examined. Copyright ASTM International 2 Reproduced by IHS under lCiceonspeywrithigAhSTtMby ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); No reproduction or networkRingepperrmoitdteduwcitthioount licaeunstehfroomriIzHeSd per License Agreement with Kathe HooNpoet fror(RAesSaleTMIHS Account); Tue Jul 5 16:47:15 EDT 2005 --`,,`,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- E 1025 – 05 Group 03 IQI for Magnesium Group 02 IQI for Aluminum Group 01 IQI for Titanium Group 1 IQI for Carbon Alloy and Stainless Steel Group 2 IQI for Aluminum Bronze Group 3 IQI for Nickel-Chromium-Iron Group 4 IQI for Nickel-Copper (70-30) Group 5 IQI for Tin Bronze Detail of Notch 1⁄16 in. (1.588 mm) NOTCH TOLERANCES Width +15° −0° Depth +1⁄16 in. (1.588mm) −1⁄32 in. (.794mm) FIG. 2 Rectangular IQI Notch Identification and Material Grouping 5.1.2 Determine the thickness or thickness range of the material(s) to be examined. 5.1.3 Select the applicable IQI’s that represent the required IQI thickness and alloy(s). NOTE 1—This practice does not recommend or suggest specific IQI sets to be procured. Section 5 is an aid in selecting IQI’s based on specific needs. 6. Image Quality Levels 6.1 Image quality levels are designated by a two part expression X-YT. The first part of the expression X refers to the IQI thickness expressed as a percentage of the specimen thickness. The second part of the expression YT refers to the diameter of the hole and is expressed as a multiple of the IQI thickness, T. The image quality level 2-2T means that the IQI thickness T is 2 % of the specimen thickness and that the diameter of the IQI imaged hole is 2 3 the IQI thickness. NOTE 2—Image Quality Indicators (IQI’s) less than number 10 have hole sizes 0.010, 0.020, and 0.040 in. diameter regardless of the IQI thickness. Therefore, IQI’s less than number 10 do not represent the quality levels specified in 6.1 and Table 1. The equivalent sensitivity can be computed from data furnished in Appendix X1. 6.2 Typical image quality level designations are shown in Table 1. The level of inspection specified should be based on service requirements of the product. Care should be taken in specifying image quality levels 2-1T, 1-1T, and 1-2T by first determining that these levels can be maintained in production. 6.3 In specifying image quality levels, the contract, purchase order, product specification, or drawing should state the proper two-part expression and clearly indicate the thickness of the metal to which the level refers. In place of a designated two–part expression, the IQI number and minimum discernible hole size shall be specified. 6.4 Appendix X1 of this practice provides methods for determining equivalent penetrameter sensitivity (EPS) in percent. Under certain conditions (as described within the purchaser-supplier agreement), EPS may be useful in relating a discernible hole size of the IQI thickness with the section thickness radiographed for establishing an overall technical image quality equivalency. This is not an alternative IQI provision for the originally specified IQI requirement of this practice, but may be a useful tool for establishing technical image equivalency on a case basis need with specific customer approvals. 6.5 Practice E 747 contains provisions for wire IQI’s that use varying length and diameter wires to affect image quality requirements. The requirements of Practice E 747 are different from this standard; however, Practice E 747 (see Table 4) contains provisions whereby wire sizes equivalent to corresponding 1T, 2T and 4T holes for various plaque thicknesses are provided. Appendix X1 of Practice E 747 also provides methods for determining equivalencies between wire and hole type IQI’s. This is not an alternative IQI provision for the originally specified IQI requirements of this practice, but may be useful for establishing technical image equivalency on a case basis need with specific customer approvals. 6.6 Test Methods E 746 and E 1735 provide additional tools for determining relative image quality response of industrial TABLE 1 Typical Image Quality Levels Standard Image Quality Levels Minimum Image Quality Levels IQI Thickness Preceptible Hole Diameter 2-1T 1⁄50 (2 %) of Specimen Thickness 1T 2-2TB 2T 2-4T 4T Special Image Quality Levels 1-1T 1⁄100 (1 %) of Specimen Thickness 1T 1-2T 2T 4-2T 1⁄25 (4 %) of Specimen Thickness 2T Equivalent IQI Sensitivity, %A 1.4 2.0 2.8 0.7 1 4 AEquivalent IQI sensitivity is that thickness of the IQI, expressed as a percentage of the part thickness, in which the 2T hole would be visible under the same conditions. BFor Level 2-2T Radiologic—The 2T hole in an IQI, 1⁄50 (2 %) of the specimen thickness, is visible. Copyright ASTM International 3 Reproduced by IHS under lCiceonspeywrithigAhSTtMby ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); No reproduction or networkRingepperrmoitdteduwcitthioount licaeunstehfroomriIzHeSd per License Agreement with Kathe HooNpoet fror(RAesSaleTMIHS Account); Tue Jul 5 16:47:15 EDT 2005 E 1025 – 05 radiographic film systems when exposed to energy levels described within those test methods. Both of these test methods use the “equivalent penetrameter sensitivity” (EPS) concept to provide statistical image quality information that allows the film system or other exposure components to be assessed on a relative basis. These test methods are not alternative IQI provisions for the originally specified IQI requirements of this practice, but may be useful on a case basis with specific customer approvals, for establishing technical image equivalency of certain aspects of the radiographic imaging process. 7. Material Groups 7.1 General: 7.1.1 Materials have been designated in eight groups based on their radiation absorption characteristics: Groups 03, 02, and 01 for light metals and Groups 1 through 5 for heavy metals. 7.1.2 The light metal groups, magnesium (Mg), aluminum (A1), and titanium (Ti) are identified 03, 02, and 01 respectively for their predominant alloying constituent. The materials are listed in order of increasing radiation absorption. 7.1.3 The heavy metal groups, steel, copper base, nickel base, and kindred alloys are identified 1 through 5. The materials increase in radiation absorption with increasing numerical designation. NOTE 3—These groups were established experimentally at 180 kV on 3⁄4-in. (19-mm) thick specimens. They apply from 125 kV to the multivolt range. 7.1.4 Common trade names or alloy designations have been used for clarification of the pertinent materials. 7.1.5 The materials from which the IQI for the group are to be made are designated in each case, and these IQI’s are applicable for all materials listed in that group. In addition, any group IQI may be used for any material with a higher group number, provided the applicable quality level is maintained. 7.2 Identification System: 7.2.1 A notching system has been designated for the eight groups of IQI’s and is shown in Fig. 2. 7.2.2 For circular IQI’s, a group designation shall be vibrotooled or chemically etched on the IQI to identify it by using the letter “G” followed by the group number, that is, G4 for a Group 4 IQI. For identification of the group on the image, corresponding lead characters shall be placed adjacent to the circular IQI, just as is done with the lead numbers identifying the thickness. The identification is shown in Fig. 3. 7.3 Materials Groups: 7.3.1 Materials Group 03: 7.3.1.1 Image quality indicators (IQI’s) shall be made of magnesium or magnesium shall be the predominant alloying constituent. 7.3.1.2 Use on all alloys of which magnesium is the predominant alloying constituent. 7.3.2 Materials Group 02: 7.3.2.1 Image quality indicators (IQI’s) shall be made of aluminum or aluminum shall be the predominant alloying constituent. 7.3.2.2 Use on all alloys of which aluminum is the predominant alloying constituent. 7.3.3 Materials Group 01: 7.3.3.1 Image quality indicators (IQI’s) shall be made of titanium or titanium shall be the predominant alloying constituent. 7.3.3.2 Use on all alloys of which titanium is the predominant alloying constituent. 7.3.4 Materials Group 1: 7.3.4.1 Image quality indicators (IQI’s) shall be made of carbon steel or Type 300 series stainless steel. 7.3.4.2 Use on all carbon steel, all low-alloy steels, all stainless steels, manganese-nickel-aluminum bronze (Superston).4 7.3.5 Materials Group 2: 7.3.5.1 Image quality indicators (IQI’s) shall be made of aluminum bronze (Alloy No. 623, of Specification B 150 or equivalent, or nickel-aluminum bronze (Alloy No. 630 of Specification B 150) or equivalent. 7.3.5.2 Use on all aluminum bronzes and all nickelaluminum bronzes. 7.3.6 Materials Group 3: 7.3.6.1 Image quality indicators (IQI’s) shall be made of nickel-chromium-iron alloy (UNS No. NO6600) (Inconel).5 (See Specification B 166.) 7.3.6.2 Use on nickel-chromium-iron alloy and 18 % nickel-maraging steel. 7.3.7 Materials Group 4: 7.3.7.1 Image quality indicators (IQI’s) shall be made of 70 to 30 nickel-copper alloy (Monel)6 (Class A or B of Specification B 164) or equivalent, or 70 to 30 copper-nickel alloy, (Alloy G of Specification B 161) or equivalent. 7.3.7.2 Use on nickel, copper, all nickel-copper series, or copper-nickel series of alloys, and all brasses (copper-zinc alloys). Group 4 IQI’s may be used on the leaded brasses, since leaded brass increases in attenuation with increase in lead content. This would be equivalent to using a lower group IQI. 7.3.8 Materials Group 5: 7.3.8.1 Image quality indicators (IQI’s) shall be made of tin bronze (Alloy D of Specification B 139). 7.3.8.2 Use on tin bronzes including gun-metal and valve bronze, leaded-tin bronze of higher lead content than valve bronze. Group 5 IQI’s may be used on bronze of higher lead FIG. 3 Circular IQI Identification 4 Superston is a registered trademark of Superston Corp., Jersey City, NJ. 5 Inconel is a registered trademark of The International Nickel Co., Inc., Huntington, WV 25720. 6 Monel is a registered trademark of The International Nickel Co., Inc., Huntington, WV 25720. Copyright ASTM International Reproduced by IHS under lCiceonspeywrithigAhSTtMby ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); 4 --`,,`,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- No reproduction or networkRingepperrmoitdteduwcitthioount licaeunstehfroomriIzHeSd per License Agreement with Kathe HooNpoet fror(RAesSaleTMIHS Account); Tue Jul 5 16:47:15 EDT 2005 E 1025 – 05 content since leaded bronze increases in attenuation with increase in lead content. This would be equivalent to using a lower group IQI. NOTE 4—In developing the eight listed materials groups, a number of other trade names or other nominal alloy designations were evaluated. For the purpose of making this practice as useful as possible, these materials are listed and categorized, by group, as follows: (1) Group 2—Haynes Alloy IN-100.7 (2) Group 3—Haynes Alloy No. 713C, Hastelloy D,8 G.E. Alloy SEL, Haynes Stellite Alloy No. 21,8 GMR-235 Alloy, Haynes Alloy No. 93, Inconel X,5 Inconel 718, and Haynes Stellite Alloy NO. S-816. (3) Group 4—Hastelloy Alloy F, Hastelloy Alloy X, and Multimeter Alloy Rene 41. (4) Group 5—Alloys in order of increasing attenuation: Hastelloy Alloy B, Hastelloy Alloy C, Haynes Stellite Alloy No. 31, Thetaloy, Haynes Stellite No. 3, Haynes Alloy No. 25. IQIs of any of these materials are considered applicable for the materials that follow it. NOTE 5—The committee formulating these recommendations, recommended other materials may be added to the materials groups listed as the need arises or as more information is gained, or that additional materials groups may be added. 7.4 Radiographic Method for Other Materials: 7.4.1 For materials not herein covered, IQI’s of the same materials, or any other material, may be used if the following requirements are met. Two blocks of equal thickness, one of 7 All Haynes alloys are registered trademarks of Union Carbide Corp., New York, NY. 8 All Hastelloys and Haynes Stellite alloys are registered trademarks of Cabot Corp., Boston, MA. the material to be examined (production material) and one of the IQI material, shall be radiographed on one film by one exposure at the lowest energy level to be used for production. Transmission densitometer readings for both materials shall be read from the film and shall be between 2.0 and 4.0 (radiographic) density for both materials. If the radiographic image density of the material from which the IQI’s are to be fabricated is within +15 to −0 % of the radiographic image density of the production material, the IQI material may be used to fabricate IQI’s for examination of the production material. The percentage figure is based on the radiographic density of the IQI material. 7.4.2 It shall always be permissible to use IQI’s of similar composition as the material being examined. 8. IQI Certification 8.1 Records shall be available that attest to the conformance of the material type, grouping (notches), and dimensional tolerances of the IQI’s specified by this practice. 9. Precision and Bias 9.1 Precision and Bias—No statement is made about the precision or bias for indicating the quality of radiographs since the results merely state whether there is conformance to the criteria for success specified in this practice. 10. Keywords 10.1 density; image quality level; IQI; radiologic; radiology; X-ray and gamma radiation APPENDIX (Nonmandatory Information) X1. EQUIVALENT IQI (PENETRAMETER) SENSITIVITY (EPS)9 X1.1 To find the equivalent IQI sensitivity (percent), the hole size (diameter in inches), of the IQI thickness (inches), for a section thickness (inches), the following computations may be used: where: Œ a = 100 TH X 2, a = equivalent IQI sensitivity, %, X = section thickness to be examined, in., T = IQI Thickness, in., and H = hole diameter, in. X1.2 Alternate method for determining EPS using Fig. X1.1 Nomograph: 9 O’Connor, D. T., and Criscuolo, E. L., “The Quality of Radiographic Inspection,” ASTM Bulletin, ASTM, Vol 213, 1956, p. 52. Example: Given: Solution: X 5 0.5 in., T 5 0.005 in., and H 5 0.0625 in. 100T 100 3 0.005 A 5 X 5 0.5 5 1.0 % 100H 100 3 0.0625 B5 X 5 0.5 5 12.5 % (X1.1) (X1.2) (X1.3) X1.3 Proceed to the nomograph (Fig. X1.1) and draw a line joining the 1.0 % Value A and the 12.5 % Value B and look on the center percent scale where the line crosses it and read the answer—2.5 %. Thus under the given conditions, equivalent IQI (penetrameter) sensitivity (EPS) is 2.5 %. --`,,`,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright ASTM International 5 Reproduced by IHS under lCiceonspeywrithigAhSTtMby ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); No reproduction or networkRingepperrmoitdteduwcitthioount licaeunstehfroomriIzHeSd per License Agreement with Kathe HooNpoet fror(RAesSaleTMIHS Account); Tue Jul 5 16:47:15 EDT 2005 E 1025 – 05 --`,,`,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Definitions: A equals the visible IQI (penetrameter) plaque thickness (T) expressed as a percentage of the section (object) thickness to be radiographed in (inches). B equals the diameter of the smallest IQI (penetrameter) hole (H) for which the image is visibly expressed as a percentage of the section (object) thickness to be radiographed in (inches). NOTE 1—The nomograph is used for computing equivalent IQI sensitivity from T (T equals penetrameter thickness) inches and H (H equals hole diameter) inches. Draw a straight line joining the values on any two scales, and look on the third scale where the line crosses and read the answer. Due to normal reproduction methods in producing the nomograph, some small error (that is, less than 5 %) may occur. If more accurate results are required, the formula in Appendix X1 should be used. FIG. X1.1 Equivalent IQI (Penetrameter) Sensitivity Nomograph ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below. Copyright ASTM International 6 Reproduced by IHS under lCiceonspeywrithigAhSTtMby ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); No reproduction or networkRingepperrmoitdteduwcitthioount licaeunstehfroomriIzHeSd per License Agreement with Kathe HooNpoet fror(RAesSaleTMIHS Account); Tue Jul 5 16:47:15 EDT 2005 E 1025 – 05 This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website (www.astm.org). --`,,`,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright ASTM International 7 Reproduced by IHS under lCiceonspeywrithigAhSTtMby ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); No reproduction or networkRingepperrmoitdteduwcitthioount licaeunstehfroomriIzHeSd per License Agreement with Kathe HooNpoet fror(RAesSaleTMIHS Account); Tue Jul 5 16:47:15 EDT 2005

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