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    I2C-bus specification and user manual

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    UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 User manual Document information Info Content Keywords I2C, I2C-bus, Standard-mode, Fast-mode, Fast-mode Plus, Fm+, Ultra Fast-mode, UFm, High Speed, Hs, inter-IC, SDA, SCL, USDA, USCL Abstract Philips Semiconductors (now NXP Semiconductors) developed a simple bidirectional 2-wire bus for efficient inter-IC control. This bus is called the Inter-IC or I2C-bus. Only two bus lines are required: a serial data line (SDA) and a serial clock line (SCL). Serial, 8-bit oriented, bidirectional data transfers can be made at up to 100 kbit/s in the Standard-mode, up to 400 kbit/s in the Fast-mode, up to 1 Mbit/s in the Fast-mode Plus (Fm+), or up to 3.4 Mbit/s in the High-speed mode. The Ultra Fast-mode is a uni-directional mode with data transfers of up to 5 Mbit/s. NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual Revision history Rev Date Description v.5 20121009 Modifications: User manual; fifth release • Section 3.1.7 “Clock synchronization”, first paragraph, first sentence changed from “idle bus” to “free bus” • Section 3.1.8 “Arbitration”, third paragraph, second sentence changed from “the bus is idle” to “the bus is free” • Section 3.1.12 “Reserved addresses”: – Table 3 “Reserved addresses”, slave address 1111 1XX: R/W bit changed from “X” to “1”; description changed from “reserved for future purposes” to “device ID” – deleted (old) third paragraph • Section 3.1.17 “Device ID”: – in numbered list following second paragraph: “START command” changed to “START condition” – in numbered list following second paragraph: “STOP command” changed to “STOP condition” – in Remark paragraph: “NACK command” changed to “NACK” – Table 4 “Assigned manufacturer IDs” updated • Section 3.2.8 “10-bit addressing”: – fifth paragraph (bullet item): “NA1” changed to “W” in third sentence; deleted “(NA2)” from fourth sentence – Figure 29 “A master-transmitter addresses a slave-receiver with a 10-bit address” modified • Section 3.2.9 “Reserved addresses in UFm”: deleted (old) third paragraph • Section 7.2.1 “Reduced fSCL”, third paragraph corrected from “30 % to 30 %, or 70 % to 70 %” to “30 % to 70 %, or 70 % to 30 %” v.4 20120213 User manual Rev. 4 v.3 20070619 Many of today’s applications require longer buses and/or faster speeds. Fast-mode Plus was introduced to meet this need by increasing drive strength by as much as 10× and increasing the data rate to 1 Mbit/s while maintaining downward compatibility to Fast-mode and Standard-mode speeds and software commands. v2.1 2000 Version 2.1 of the I2C-bus specification v2.0 1998 The I2C-bus has become a de facto world standard that is now implemented in over 1000 different ICs and licensed to more than 50 companies. Many of today’s applications, however, require higher bus speeds and lower supply voltages. This updated version of the I2C-bus specification meets those requirements. v1.0 1992 Version 1.0 of the I2C-bus specification Original 1982 first release Contact information For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com For sales office addresses, please send an email to: salesaddresses@nxp.com UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 2 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 1. Introduction The I2C-bus is a de facto world standard that is now implemented in over 1000 different ICs manufactured by more than 50 companies. Additionally, the versatile I2C-bus is used in various control architectures such as System Management Bus (SMBus), Power Management Bus (PMBus), Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI), Display Data Channel (DDC) and Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA). This document assists device and system designers to understand how the I2C-bus works and implement a working application. Various operating modes are described. It contains a comprehensive introduction to the I2C-bus data transfer, handshaking and bus arbitration schemes. Detailed sections cover the timing and electrical specifications for the I2C-bus in each of its operating modes. Designers of I2C-compatible chips should use this document as a reference and ensure that new devices meet all limits specified in this document. Designers of systems that include I2C devices should review this document and also refer to individual component data sheets. 2. I2C-bus features In consumer electronics, telecommunications and industrial electronics, there are often many similarities between seemingly unrelated designs. For example, nearly every system includes: • Some intelligent control, usually a single-chip microcontroller • General-purpose circuits like LCD and LED drivers, remote I/O ports, RAM, EEPROM, real-time clocks or A/D and D/A converters • Application-oriented circuits such as digital tuning and signal processing circuits for radio and video systems, temperature sensors, and smart cards To exploit these similarities to the benefit of both systems designers and equipment manufacturers, as well as to maximize hardware efficiency and circuit simplicity, Philips Semiconductors (now NXP Semiconductors) developed a simple bidirectional 2-wire bus for efficient inter-IC control. This bus is called the Inter IC or I2C-bus. All I2C-bus compatible devices incorporate an on-chip interface which allows them to communicate directly with each other via the I2C-bus. This design concept solves the many interfacing problems encountered when designing digital control circuits. Here are some of the features of the I2C-bus: • Only two bus lines are required; a serial data line (SDA) and a serial clock line (SCL). • Each device connected to the bus is software addressable by a unique address and simple master/slave relationships exist at all times; masters can operate as master-transmitters or as master-receivers. • It is a true multi-master bus including collision detection and arbitration to prevent data corruption if two or more masters simultaneously initiate data transfer. • Serial, 8-bit oriented, bidirectional data transfers can be made at up to 100 kbit/s in the Standard-mode, up to 400 kbit/s in the Fast-mode, up to 1 Mbit/s in Fast-mode Plus, or up to 3.4 Mbit/s in the High-speed mode. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 3 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual • Serial, 8-bit oriented, unidirectional data transfers up to 5 Mbit/s in Ultra Fast-mode • On-chip filtering rejects spikes on the bus data line to preserve data integrity. • The number of ICs that can be connected to the same bus is limited only by a maximum bus capacitance. More capacitance may be allowed under some conditions. Refer to Section 7.2. Figure 1 shows an example of I2C-bus applications. I2C A/D or D/A Converters I2C General Purpose I/O Expanders I2C LED Controllers I2C DIP Switches VDD4 VDD2 I2C Multiplexers and Switches VDD0 PCA9541 I2C Master Selector/ Demux VDD1 I2C Repeaters/ Hubs/Extenders VDD5 I2C Port via HW or Bit Banging MCUs I2C 8 Bus Controllers MCUs I2C Slave I2C Serial EEPROMs LCD Drivers (with I2C) I2C Real Time Clock/ Calendars I2C Temperature Sensors VDD3 Fig 1. Example of I2C-bus applications Bridges (with I2C) SPI UART USB 002aac858 2.1 Designer benefits I2C-bus compatible ICs allow a system design to progress rapidly directly from a functional block diagram to a prototype. Moreover, since they ‘clip’ directly onto the I2C-bus without any additional external interfacing, they allow a prototype system to be modified or upgraded simply by ‘clipping’ or ‘unclipping’ ICs to or from the bus. Here are some of the features of I2C-bus compatible ICs that are particularly attractive to designers: • Functional blocks on the block diagram correspond with the actual ICs; designs proceed rapidly from block diagram to final schematic. • No need to design bus interfaces because the I2C-bus interface is already integrated on-chip. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 4 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual • Integrated addressing and data-transfer protocol allow systems to be completely software-defined. • The same IC types can often be used in many different applications. • Design-time reduces as designers quickly become familiar with the frequently used functional blocks represented by I2C-bus compatible ICs. • ICs can be added to or removed from a system without affecting any other circuits on the bus. • Fault diagnosis and debugging are simple; malfunctions can be immediately traced. • Software development time can be reduced by assembling a library of reusable software modules. In addition to these advantages, the CMOS ICs in the I2C-bus compatible range offer designers special features which are particularly attractive for portable equipment and battery-backed systems. They all have: • Extremely low current consumption • High noise immunity • Wide supply voltage range • Wide operating temperature range. 2.2 Manufacturer benefits I2C-bus compatible ICs not only assist designers, they also give a wide range of benefits to equipment manufacturers because: • The simple 2-wire serial I2C-bus minimizes interconnections so ICs have fewer pins and there are not so many PCB tracks; result — smaller and less expensive PCBs. • The completely integrated I2C-bus protocol eliminates the need for address decoders and other ‘glue logic’. • The multi-master capability of the I2C-bus allows rapid testing and alignment of end-user equipment via external connections to an assembly line. • The availability of I2C-bus compatible ICs in various leadless packages reduces space requirements even more. These are just some of the benefits. In addition, I2C-bus compatible ICs increase system design flexibility by allowing simple construction of equipment variants and easy upgrading to keep designs up-to-date. In this way, an entire family of equipment can be developed around a basic model. Upgrades for new equipment, or enhanced-feature models (that is, extended memory, remote control, etc.) can then be produced simply by clipping the appropriate ICs onto the bus. If a larger ROM is needed, it is simply a matter of selecting a microcontroller with a larger ROM from our comprehensive range. As new ICs supersede older ones, it is easy to add new features to equipment or to increase its performance by simply unclipping the outdated IC from the bus and clipping on its successor. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 5 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 2.3 IC designer benefits Designers of microcontrollers are frequently under pressure to conserve output pins. The I2C protocol allows connection of a wide variety of peripherals without the need for separate addressing or chip enable signals. Additionally, a microcontroller that includes an I2C interface is more successful in the marketplace due to the wide variety of existing peripheral devices available. 3. The I2C-bus protocol 3.1 Standard-mode, Fast-mode and Fast-mode Plus I2C-bus protocols Two wires, serial data (SDA) and serial clock (SCL), carry information between the devices connected to the bus. Each device is recognized by a unique address (whether it is a microcontroller, LCD driver, memory or keyboard interface) and can operate as either a transmitter or receiver, depending on the function of the device. An LCD driver may be only a receiver, whereas a memory can both receive and transmit data. In addition to transmitters and receivers, devices can also be considered as masters or slaves when performing data transfers (see Table 1). A master is the device which initiates a data transfer on the bus and generates the clock signals to permit that transfer. At that time, any device addressed is considered a slave. Table 1. Definition of I2C-bus terminology Term Description Transmitter the device which sends data to the bus Receiver the device which receives data from the bus Master the device which initiates a transfer, generates clock signals and terminates a transfer Slave the device addressed by a master Multi-master more than one master can attempt to control the bus at the same time without corrupting the message Arbitration procedure to ensure that, if more than one master simultaneously tries to control the bus, only one is allowed to do so and the winning message is not corrupted Synchronization procedure to synchronize the clock signals of two or more devices The I2C-bus is a multi-master bus. This means that more than one device capable of controlling the bus can be connected to it. As masters are usually microcontrollers, let us consider the case of a data transfer between two microcontrollers connected to the I2C-bus (see Figure 2). UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 6 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual UM10204 User manual MICRO CONTROLLER A LCD DRIVER STATIC RAM OR EEPROM SDA SCL GATE ARRAY ADC MICRO CONTROLLER B mbc645 Fig 2. Example of an I2C-bus configuration using two microcontrollers This example highlights the master-slave and receiver-transmitter relationships found on the I2C-bus. Note that these relationships are not permanent, but only depend on the direction of data transfer at that time. The transfer of data would proceed as follows: 1. Suppose microcontroller A wants to send information to microcontroller B: – microcontroller A (master), addresses microcontroller B (slave) – microcontroller A (master-transmitter), sends data to microcontroller B (slave-receiver) – microcontroller A terminates the transfer. 2. If microcontroller A wants to receive information from microcontroller B: – microcontroller A (master) addresses microcontroller B (slave) – microcontroller A (master-receiver) receives data from microcontroller B (slave-transmitter) – microcontroller A terminates the transfer. Even in this case, the master (microcontroller A) generates the timing and terminates the transfer. The possibility of connecting more than one microcontroller to the I2C-bus means that more than one master could try to initiate a data transfer at the same time. To avoid the chaos that might ensue from such an event, an arbitration procedure has been developed. This procedure relies on the wired-AND connection of all I2C interfaces to the I2C-bus. If two or more masters try to put information onto the bus, the first to produce a ‘one’ when the other produces a ‘zero’ loses the arbitration. The clock signals during arbitration are a synchronized combination of the clocks generated by the masters using the wired-AND connection to the SCL line (for more detailed information concerning arbitration see Section 3.1.8). Generation of clock signals on the I2C-bus is always the responsibility of master devices; each master generates its own clock signals when transferring data on the bus. Bus clock signals from a master can only be altered when they are stretched by a slow slave device holding down the clock line or by another master when arbitration occurs. Table 2 summarizes the use of mandatory and optional portions of the I2C-bus specification and which system configurations use them. All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 7 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual Table 2. Applicability of I2C-bus protocol features M = mandatory; O = optional; n/a = not applicable. Feature Configuration Single master Multi-master START condition M M STOP condition M M Acknowledge M M Synchronization n/a M Arbitration n/a M Clock stretching O[2] O[2] 7-bit slave address M M 10-bit slave address O O General Call address O O Software Reset O O START byte n/a O[3] Device ID n/a n/a Slave[1] M M M n/a n/a O M O O O n/a O [1] Also refers to a master acting as a slave. [2] Clock stretching is a feature of some slaves. If no slaves in a system can stretch the clock (hold SCL LOW), the master need not be designed to handle this procedure. [3] ‘Bit banging’ (software emulation) multi-master systems should consider a START byte. See Section 3.1.15. 3.1.1 SDA and SCL signals Both SDA and SCL are bidirectional lines, connected to a positive supply voltage via a current-source or pull-up resistor (see Figure 3). When the bus is free, both lines are HIGH. The output stages of devices connected to the bus must have an open-drain or open-collector to perform the wired-AND function. Data on the I2C-bus can be transferred at rates of up to 100 kbit/s in the Standard-mode, up to 400 kbit/s in the Fast-mode, up to 1 Mbit/s in Fast-mode Plus, or up to 3.4 Mbit/s in the High-speed mode. The bus capacitance limits the number of interfaces connected to the bus. For a single master application, the master’s SCL output can be a push-pull driver design if there are no devices on the bus which would stretch the clock. VDD1 = 5 V ± 10 % VDD2 VDD3 Rp Rp SDA SCL CMOS CMOS NMOS BIPOLAR 002aac860 VDD2, VDD3 are device-dependent (for example, 12 V). Fig 3. Devices with various supply voltages sharing the same bus UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 8 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 3.1.2 SDA and SCL logic levels Due to the variety of different technology devices (CMOS, NMOS, bipolar) that can be connected to the I2C-bus, the levels of the logical ‘0’ (LOW) and ‘1’ (HIGH) are not fixed and depend on the associated level of VDD. Input reference levels are set as 30 % and 70 % of VDD; VIL is 0.3VDD and VIH is 0.7VDD. See Figure 38, timing diagram. Some legacy device input levels were fixed at VIL = 1.5 V and VIH = 3.0 V, but all new devices require this 30 %/70 % specification. See Section 6 for electrical specifications. 3.1.3 Data validity The data on the SDA line must be stable during the HIGH period of the clock. The HIGH or LOW state of the data line can only change when the clock signal on the SCL line is LOW (see Figure 4). One clock pulse is generated for each data bit transferred. SDA SCL data line stable; data valid Fig 4. Bit transfer on the I2C-bus change of data allowed mba607 3.1.4 START and STOP conditions All transactions begin with a START (S) and are terminated by a STOP (P) (see Figure 5). A HIGH to LOW transition on the SDA line while SCL is HIGH defines a START condition. A LOW to HIGH transition on the SDA line while SCL is HIGH defines a STOP condition. SDA SCL S START condition Fig 5. START and STOP conditions P STOP condition mba608 START and STOP conditions are always generated by the master. The bus is considered to be busy after the START condition. The bus is considered to be free again a certain time after the STOP condition. This bus free situation is specified in Section 6. The bus stays busy if a repeated START (Sr) is generated instead of a STOP condition. In this respect, the START (S) and repeated START (Sr) conditions are functionally identical. For the remainder of this document, therefore, the S symbol is used as a generic term to represent both the START and repeated START conditions, unless Sr is particularly relevant. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 9 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual Detection of START and STOP conditions by devices connected to the bus is easy if they incorporate the necessary interfacing hardware. However, microcontrollers with no such interface have to sample the SDA line at least twice per clock period to sense the transition. 3.1.5 Byte format Every byte put on the SDA line must be eight bits long. The number of bytes that can be transmitted per transfer is unrestricted. Each byte must be followed by an Acknowledge bit. Data is transferred with the Most Significant Bit (MSB) first (see Figure 6). If a slave cannot receive or transmit another complete byte of data until it has performed some other function, for example servicing an internal interrupt, it can hold the clock line SCL LOW to force the master into a wait state. Data transfer then continues when the slave is ready for another byte of data and releases clock line SCL. SDA MSB acknowledgement signal from slave P acknowledgement Sr signal from receiver SCL S or Sr 1 2 START or repeated START condition 7 8 9 ACK byte complete, interrupt within slave Fig 6. Data transfer on the I2C-bus 1 2 3 to 8 9 ACK clock line held LOW while interrupts are serviced Sr or P STOP or repeated START condition 002aac861 3.1.6 Acknowledge (ACK) and Not Acknowledge (NACK) The acknowledge takes place after every byte. The acknowledge bit allows the receiver to signal the transmitter that the byte was successfully received and another byte may be sent. The master generates all clock pulses, including the acknowledge ninth clock pulse. The Acknowledge signal is defined as follows: the transmitter releases the SDA line during the acknowledge clock pulse so the receiver can pull the SDA line LOW and it remains stable LOW during the HIGH period of this clock pulse (see Figure 4). Set-up and hold times (specified in Section 6) must also be taken into account. When SDA remains HIGH during this ninth clock pulse, this is defined as the Not Acknowledge signal. The master can then generate either a STOP condition to abort the transfer, or a repeated START condition to start a new transfer. There are five conditions that lead to the generation of a NACK: 1. No receiver is present on the bus with the transmitted address so there is no device to respond with an acknowledge. 2. The receiver is unable to receive or transmit because it is performing some real-time function and is not ready to start communication with the master. 3. During the transfer, the receiver gets data or commands that it does not understand. 4. During the transfer, the receiver cannot receive any more data bytes. 5. A master-receiver must signal the end of the transfer to the slave transmitter. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 10 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 3.1.7 Clock synchronization Two masters can begin transmitting on a free bus at the same time and there must be a method for deciding which takes control of the bus and complete its transmission. This is done by clock synchronization and arbitration. In single master systems, clock synchronization and arbitration are not needed. Clock synchronization is performed using the wired-AND connection of I2C interfaces to the SCL line. This means that a HIGH to LOW transition on the SCL line causes the masters concerned to start counting off their LOW period and, once a master clock has gone LOW, it holds the SCL line in that state until the clock HIGH state is reached (see Figure 7). However, if another clock is still within its LOW period, the LOW to HIGH transition of this clock may not change the state of the SCL line. The SCL line is therefore held LOW by the master with the longest LOW period. Masters with shorter LOW periods enter a HIGH wait-state during this time. wait state start counting HIGH period CLK 1 counter CLK reset 2 SCL mbc632 Fig 7. Clock synchronization during the arbitration procedure When all masters concerned have counted off their LOW period, the clock line is released and goes HIGH. There is then no difference between the master clocks and the state of the SCL line, and all the masters start counting their HIGH periods. The first master to complete its HIGH period pulls the SCL line LOW again. In this way, a synchronized SCL clock is generated with its LOW period determined by the master with the longest clock LOW period, and its HIGH period determined by the one with the shortest clock HIGH period. 3.1.8 Arbitration Arbitration, like synchronization, refers to a portion of the protocol required only if more than one master is used in the system. Slaves are not involved in the arbitration procedure. A master may start a transfer only if the bus is free. Two masters may generate a START condition within the minimum hold time (tHD;STA) of the START condition which results in a valid START condition on the bus. Arbitration is then required to determine which master will complete its transmission. Arbitration proceeds bit by bit. During every bit, while SCL is HIGH, each master checks to see if the SDA level matches what it has sent. This process may take many bits. Two masters can actually complete an entire transaction without error, as long as the UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 11 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual transmissions are identical. The first time a master tries to send a HIGH, but detects that the SDA level is LOW, the master knows that it has lost the arbitration and turns off its SDA output driver. The other master goes on to complete its transaction. No information is lost during the arbitration process. A master that loses the arbitration can generate clock pulses until the end of the byte in which it loses the arbitration and must restart its transaction when the bus is free. If a master also incorporates a slave function and it loses arbitration during the addressing stage, it is possible that the winning master is trying to address it. The losing master must therefore switch over immediately to its slave mode. Figure 8 shows the arbitration procedure for two masters. More may be involved depending on how many masters are connected to the bus. The moment there is a difference between the internal data level of the master generating DATA1 and the actual level on the SDA line, the DATA1 output is switched off. This does not affect the data transfer initiated by the winning master. DATA 1 master 1 loses arbitration DATA 1 SDA DATA 2 SDA SCL S msc609 Fig 8. Arbitration procedure of two masters Since control of the I2C-bus is decided solely on the address and data sent by competing masters, there is no central master, nor any order of priority on the bus. There is an undefined condition if the arbitration procedure is still in progress at the moment when one master sends a repeated START or a STOP condition while the other master is still sending data. In other words, the following combinations result in an undefined condition: • Master 1 sends a repeated START condition and master 2 sends a data bit. • Master 1 sends a STOP condition and master 2 sends a data bit. • Master 1 sends a repeated START condition and master 2 sends a STOP condition. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 12 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 3.1.9 Clock stretching Clock stretching pauses a transaction by holding the SCL line LOW. The transaction cannot continue until the line is released HIGH again. Clock stretching is optional and in fact, most slave devices do not include an SCL driver so they are unable to stretch the clock. On the byte level, a device may be able to receive bytes of data at a fast rate, but needs more time to store a received byte or prepare another byte to be transmitted. Slaves can then hold the SCL line LOW after reception and acknowledgment of a byte to force the master into a wait state until the slave is ready for the next byte transfer in a type of handshake procedure (see Figure 7). On the bit level, a device such as a microcontroller with or without limited hardware for the I2C-bus, can slow down the bus clock by extending each clock LOW period. The speed of any master is adapted to the internal operating rate of this device. In Hs-mode, this handshake feature can only be used on byte level (see Section 5.3.2). 3.1.10 The slave address and R/W bit Data transfers follow the format shown in Figure 9. After the START condition (S), a slave address is sent. This address is seven bits long followed by an eighth bit which is a data direction bit (R/W) — a ‘zero’ indicates a transmission (WRITE), a ‘one’ indicates a request for data (READ) (refer to Figure 10). A data transfer is always terminated by a STOP condition (P) generated by the master. However, if a master still wishes to communicate on the bus, it can generate a repeated START condition (Sr) and address another slave without first generating a STOP condition. Various combinations of read/write formats are then possible within such a transfer. SDA SCL 1-7 S START ADDRESS condition 8 R/W 9 ACK Fig 9. A complete data transfer 1-7 8 9 DATA ACK 1-7 8 DATA 9 P ACK STOP condition mbc604 UM10204 User manual MSB slave address Fig 10. The first byte after the START procedure LSB R/W mbc608 All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 13 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual Possible data transfer formats are: • Master-transmitter transmits to slave-receiver. The transfer direction is not changed (see Figure 11). The slave receiver acknowledges each byte. • Master reads slave immediately after first byte (see Figure 12). At the moment of the first acknowledge, the master-transmitter becomes a master-receiver and the slave-receiver becomes a slave-transmitter. This first acknowledge is still generated by the slave. The master generates subsequent acknowledges. The STOP condition is generated by the master, which sends a not-acknowledge (A) just before the STOP condition. • Combined format (see Figure 13). During a change of direction within a transfer, the START condition and the slave address are both repeated, but with the R/W bit reversed. If a master-receiver sends a repeated START condition, it sends a not-acknowledge (A) just before the repeated START condition. Notes: 1. Combined formats can be used, for example, to control a serial memory. The internal memory location must be written during the first data byte. After the START condition and slave address is repeated, data can be transferred. 2. All decisions on auto-increment or decrement of previously accessed memory locations, etc., are taken by the designer of the device. 3. Each byte is followed by an acknowledgment bit as indicated by the A or A blocks in the sequence. 4. I2C-bus compatible devices must reset their bus logic on receipt of a START or repeated START condition such that they all anticipate the sending of a slave address, even if these START conditions are not positioned according to the proper format. 5. A START condition immediately followed by a STOP condition (void message) is an illegal format. Many devices however are designed to operate properly under this condition. 6. Each device connected to the bus is addressable by a unique address. Normally a simple master/slave relationship exists, but it is possible to have multiple identical slaves that can receive and respond simultaneously, for example in a group broadcast. This technique works best when using bus switching devices like the PCA9546A where all four channels are on and identical devices are configured at the same time, understanding that it is impossible to determine that each slave acknowledges, and then turn on one channel at a time to read back each individual device’s configuration to confirm the programming. Refer to individual component data sheets. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 14 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual S SLAVE ADDRESS R/W A DATA A DATA A/A P '0' (write) data transferred (n bytes + acknowledge) from master to slave from slave to master A = acknowledge (SDA LOW) A = not acknowledge (SDA HIGH) S = START condition P = STOP condition mbc605 Fig 11. A master-transmitter addressing a slave receiver with a 7-bit address (the transfer direction is not changed) 1 S SLAVE ADDRESS R/W A DATA A DATA A P (read) data transferred (n bytes + acknowledge) mbc606 Fig 12. A master reads a slave immediately after the first byte S SLAVE ADDRESS R/W A DATA A/A Sr SLAVE ADDRESS R/W A DATA A/A P (n bytes read or write + ack.)* read or write *not shaded because transfer direction of data and acknowledge bits depends on R/W bits. Sr = repeated START condition (n bytes + ack.)* direction of transfer may change at this point. mbc607 Fig 13. Combined format 3.1.11 10-bit addressing 10-bit addressing expands the number of possible addresses. Devices with 7-bit and 10-bit addresses can be connected to the same I2C-bus, and both 7-bit and 10-bit addressing can be used in all bus speed modes. Currently, 10-bit addressing is not being widely used. The 10-bit slave address is formed from the first two bytes following a START condition (S) or a repeated START condition (Sr). The first seven bits of the first byte are the combination 1111 0XX of which the last two bits (XX) are the two Most-Significant Bits (MSB) of the 10-bit address; the eighth bit of the first byte is the R/W bit that determines the direction of the message. Although there are eight possible combinations of the reserved address bits 1111 XXX, only the four combinations 1111 0XX are used for 10-bit addressing. The remaining four combinations 1111 1XX are reserved for future I2C-bus enhancements. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 15 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual All combinations of read/write formats previously described for 7-bit addressing are possible with 10-bit addressing. Two are detailed here: • Master-transmitter transmits to slave-receiver with a 10-bit slave address. The transfer direction is not changed (see Figure 14). When a 10-bit address follows a START condition, each slave compares the first seven bits of the first byte of the slave address (1111 0XX) with its own address and tests if the eighth bit (R/W direction bit) is 0. It is possible that more than one device finds a match and generate an acknowledge (A1). All slaves that found a match compare the eight bits of the second byte of the slave address (XXXX XXXX) with their own addresses, but only one slave finds a match and generates an acknowledge (A2). The matching slave remains addressed by the master until it receives a STOP condition (P) or a repeated START condition (Sr) followed by a different slave address. • Master-receiver reads slave-transmitter with a 10-bit slave address. The transfer direction is changed after the second R/W bit (Figure 15). Up to and including acknowledge bit A2, the procedure is the same as that described for a master-transmitter addressing a slave-receiver. After the repeated START condition (Sr), a matching slave remembers that it was addressed before. This slave then checks if the first seven bits of the first byte of the slave address following Sr are the same as they were after the START condition (S), and tests if the eighth (R/W) bit is 1. If there is a match, the slave considers that it has been addressed as a transmitter and generates acknowledge A3. The slave-transmitter remains addressed until it receives a STOP condition (P) or until it receives another repeated START condition (Sr) followed by a different slave address. After a repeated START condition (Sr), all the other slave devices will also compare the first seven bits of the first byte of the slave address (1111 0XX) with their own addresses and test the eighth (R/W) bit. However, none of them will be addressed because R/W = 1 (for 10-bit devices), or the 1111 0XX slave address (for 7-bit devices) does not match. 11110XX 0 S SLAVE 1st ADDRESS 7 BITS R/W A1 SLAVE ADDRESS 2nd BYTE A2 DATA A DATA A/A P (write) Fig 14. A master-transmitter addresses a slave-receiver with a 10-bit address mbc613 11110XX 0 11110XX 1 S SLAVE 1st ADDRESS 7 BITS R/W A1 SLAVE ADDRESS 2nd BYTE A2 Sr SLAVE ADDRESS 1st 7 BITS R/W A3 DATA A DATA A P (write) (read) Fig 15. A master-receiver addresses a slave-transmitter with a 10-bit address mbc614 Slave devices with 10-bit addressing react to a ‘general call’ in the same way as slave devices with 7-bit addressing. Hardware masters can transmit their 10-bit address after a ‘general call’. In this case, the ‘general call’ address byte is followed by two successive bytes containing the 10-bit address of the master-transmitter. The format is as shown in Figure 15 where the first DATA byte contains the eight least-significant bits of the master address. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 16 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual The START byte 0000 0001 (01h) can precede the 10-bit addressing in the same way as for 7-bit addressing (see Section 3.1.15). 3.1.12 Reserved addresses Two groups of eight addresses (0000 XXX and 1111 XXX) are reserved for the purposes shown in Table 3. Table 3. Reserved addresses X = don’t care; 1 = HIGH; 0 = LOW. Slave address R/W bit Description 0000 000 0 general call address[1] 0000 000 1 START byte[2] 0000 001 X CBUS address[3] 0000 010 X reserved for different bus format[4] 0000 011 X reserved for future purposes 0000 1XX X Hs-mode master code 1111 1XX 1 device ID 1111 0XX X 10-bit slave addressing [1] The general call address is used for several functions including software reset. [2] No device is allowed to acknowledge at the reception of the START byte. [3] The CBUS address has been reserved to enable the inter-mixing of CBUS compatible and I2C-bus compatible devices in the same system. I2C-bus compatible devices are not allowed to respond on reception of this address. [4] The address reserved for a different bus format is included to enable I2C and other protocols to be mixed. Only I2C-bus compatible devices that can work with such formats and protocols are allowed to respond to this address. Assignment of addresses within a local system is up to the system architect who must take into account the devices being used on the bus and any future interaction with other conventional I2C-buses. For example, a device with seven user-assignable address pins allows all 128 addresses to be assigned. If it is known that the reserved address is never going to be used for its intended purpose, a reserved address can be used for a slave address. 3.1.13 General call address The general call address is for addressing every device connected to the I2C-bus at the same time. However, if a device does not need any of the data supplied within the general call structure, it can ignore this address by not issuing an acknowledgment. If a device does require data from a general call address, it acknowledges this address and behave as a slave-receiver. The master does not actually know how many devices acknowledged if one or more devices respond. The second and following bytes are acknowledged by every slave-receiver capable of handling this data. A slave who cannot process one of these bytes must ignore it by not-acknowledging. Again, if one or more slaves acknowledge, the not-acknowledge will not be seen by the master. The meaning of the general call address is always specified in the second byte (see Figure 16). UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 17 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual LSB 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 AXXXXXXXBA first byte (general call address) second byte mbc623 Fig 16. General call address format There are two cases to consider: • When the least significant bit B is a ‘zero’. • When the least significant bit B is a ‘one’. When bit B is a ‘zero’, the second byte has the following definition: • 0000 0110 (06h): Reset and write programmable part of slave address by hardware. On receiving this 2-byte sequence, all devices designed to respond to the general call address reset and take in the programmable part of their address. Precautions must be taken to ensure that a device is not pulling down the SDA or SCL line after applying the supply voltage, since these low levels would block the bus. • 0000 0100 (04h): Write programmable part of slave address by hardware. Behaves as above, but the device does not reset. • 0000 0000 (00h): This code is not allowed to be used as the second byte. Sequences of programming procedure are published in the appropriate device data sheets. The remaining codes have not been fixed and devices must ignore them. When bit B is a ‘one’, the 2-byte sequence is a ‘hardware general call’. This means that the sequence is transmitted by a hardware master device, such as a keyboard scanner, which can be programmed to transmit a desired slave address. Since a hardware master does not know in advance to which device the message has to be transferred, it can only generate this hardware general call and its own address — identifying itself to the system (see Figure 17). S 00000000 A MASTER ADDRESS 1 A DATA A DATA A P general call address (B) second byte (n bytes + ack.) mbc624 Fig 17. Data transfer from a hardware master-transmitter The seven bits remaining in the second byte contain the address of the hardware master. This address is recognized by an intelligent device (for example, a microcontroller) connected to the bus which then accepts the information from the hardware master. If the hardware master can also act as a slave, the slave address is identical to the master address. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 18 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual In some systems, an alternative could be that the hardware master transmitter is set in the slave-receiver mode after the system reset. In this way, a system configuring master can tell the hardware master-transmitter (which is now in slave-receiver mode) to which address data must be sent (see Figure 18). After this programming procedure, the hardware master remains in the master-transmitter mode. S SLAVE ADDR. H/W MASTER R/W A DUMP ADDR. FOR H/W MASTER X A P write a. Configuring master sends dump address to hardware master 002aac885 S DUMP ADDR. FROM H/W MASTER R/W A DATA A DATA A/A P write (n bytes + ack.) 002aac886 b. Hardware master dumps data to selected slave Fig 18. Data transfer by a hardware-transmitter capable of dumping data directly to slave devices 3.1.14 Software reset Following a General Call, (0000 0000), sending 0000 0110 (06h) as the second byte causes a software reset. This feature is optional and not all devices respond to this command. On receiving this 2-byte sequence, all devices designed to respond to the general call address reset and take in the programmable part of their address. Precautions must be taken to ensure that a device is not pulling down the SDA or SCL line after applying the supply voltage, since these low levels would block the bus. 3.1.15 START byte Microcontrollers can be connected to the I2C-bus in two ways. A microcontroller with an on-chip hardware I2C-bus interface can be programmed to be only interrupted by requests from the bus. When the device does not have such an interface, it must constantly monitor the bus via software. Obviously, the more times the microcontroller monitors, or polls the bus, the less time it can spend carrying out its intended function. There is therefore a speed difference between fast hardware devices and a relatively slow microcontroller which relies on software polling. In this case, data transfer can be preceded by a start procedure which is much longer than normal (see Figure 19). The start procedure consists of: • A START condition (S) • A START byte (0000 0001) • An acknowledge clock pulse (ACK) • A repeated START condition (Sr). UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 19 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual SDA dummy acknowledge (HIGH) SCL S 1 2 7 8 START byte 0000 0001 Fig 19. START byte procedure 9 NACK Sr 002aac997 After the START condition S has been transmitted by a master which requires bus access, the START byte (0000 0001) is transmitted. Another microcontroller can therefore sample the SDA line at a low sampling rate until one of the seven zeros in the START byte is detected. After detection of this LOW level on the SDA line, the microcontroller can switch to a higher sampling rate to find the repeated START condition Sr which is then used for synchronization. A hardware receiver resets upon receipt of the repeated START condition Sr and therefore ignores the START byte. An acknowledge-related clock pulse is generated after the START byte. This is present only to conform with the byte handling format used on the bus. No device is allowed to acknowledge the START byte. 3.1.16 Bus clear In the unlikely event where the clock (SCL) is stuck LOW, the preferential procedure is to reset the bus using the HW reset signal if your I2C devices have HW reset inputs. If the I2C devices do not have HW reset inputs, cycle power to the devices to activate the mandatory internal Power-On Reset (POR) circuit. If the data line (SDA) is stuck LOW, the master should send nine clock pulses. The device that held the bus LOW should release it sometime within those nine clocks. If not, then use the HW reset or cycle power to clear the bus. 3.1.17 Device ID The Device ID field (see Figure 20) is an optional 3-byte read-only (24 bits) word giving the following information: • Twelve bits with the manufacturer name, unique per manufacturer (for example, NXP) • Nine bits with the part identification, assigned by manufacturer (for example, PCA9698) • Three bits with the die revision, assigned by manufacturer (for example, RevX) UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 20 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual manufacturer 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 part identification 000000000 revision 000 002aab942 Fig 20. Device ID field The Device ID is read-only, hard-wired in the device and can be accessed as follows: 1. START condition 2. The master sends the Reserved Device ID I2C-bus address followed by the R/W bit set to ‘0’ (write): ‘1111 1000’. 3. The master sends the I2C-bus slave address of the slave device it must identify. The LSB is a ‘Don’t care’ value. Only one device must acknowledge this byte (the one that has the I2C-bus slave address). 4. The master sends a Re-START condition. Remark: A STOP condition followed by a START condition resets the slave state machine and the Device ID Read cannot be performed. Also, a STOP condition or a Re-START condition followed by an access to another slave device resets the slave state machine and the Device ID Read cannot be performed. 5. The master sends the Reserved Device ID I2C-bus address followed by the R/W bit set to ‘1’ (read): ‘1111 1001’. 6. The Device ID Read can be done, starting with the 12 manufacturer bits (first byte + four MSBs of the second byte), followed by the nine part identification bits (four LSBs of the second byte + five MSBs of the third byte), and then the three die revision bits (three LSBs of the third byte). 7. The master ends the reading sequence by NACKing the last byte, thus resetting the slave device state machine and allowing the master to send the STOP condition. Remark: The reading of the Device ID can be stopped anytime by sending a NACK. If the master continues to ACK the bytes after the third byte, the slave rolls back to the first byte and keeps sending the Device ID sequence until a NACK has been detected. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 21 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual Table 4. Assigned manufacturer IDs Manufacturer bits Company 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NXP Semiconductors 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 NXP Semiconductors (reserved) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 NXP Semiconductors (reserved) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 NXP Semiconductors (reserved) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Ramtron International 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Analog Devices 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 STMicroelectronics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 ON Semiconductor 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Sprintek Corporation 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 ESPROS Photonics AG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 Fujitsu Semiconductor 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 Flir 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 O2Micro 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 Atmel Designers of new I2C devices who want to implement the device ID feature should contact NXP at i2c.support@nxp.com to have a unique manufacturer ID assigned. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 22 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 3.2 Ultra Fast-mode I2C-bus protocol The UFm I2C-bus is a 2-wire push-pull serial bus that operates from DC to 5 MHz transmitting data in one direction. It is most useful for speeds greater than 1 MHz to drive LED controllers and other devices that do not need feedback. The UFm I2C-bus protocol is based on the standard I2C-bus protocol that consists of a START, slave address, command bit, ninth clock, and a STOP bit. The command bit is a ‘write’ only, and the data bit on the ninth clock is driven HIGH, ignoring the ACK cycle due to the unidirectional nature of the bus. The 2-wire push-pull driver consists of a UFm serial clock (USCL) and serial data (USDA). Slave devices contain a unique address (whether it is a microcontroller, LCD driver, LED controller, GPO) and operate only as receivers. An LED driver may be only a receiver and can be supported by UFm, whereas a memory can both receive and transmit data and is not supported by UFm. Since UFm I2C-bus uses push-pull drivers, it does not have the multi-master capability of the wired-AND open-drain Sm, Fm, and Fm+ I2C-buses. In UFm, a master is the only device that initiates a data transfer on the bus and generates the clock signals to permit that transfer. All other devices addressed are considered slaves. Table 5. Definition of UFm I2C-bus terminology Term Description Transmitter the device that sends data to the bus Receiver the device that receives data from the bus Master the device that initiates a transfer, generates clock signals and terminates a transfer Slave the device addressed by a master Let us consider the case of a data transfer between a master and multiple slaves connected to the UFm I2C-bus (see Figure 21). Master ASIC LCD DRIVER LED controller 3 USDA USCL LED controller 1 LED controller 2 Fig 21. Example of UFm I2C-bus configuration GPO 002aag654 UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 23 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual This highlights the master/transmitter-slave/receiver relationship found on the UFm I2C-bus. Note that these relationships are permanent, as data transfer is only permitted in one direction. The transfer of data would proceed as follows: Suppose that the master ASIC wants to send information to the LED controller 2: • ASIC A (master-transmitter), addresses LED controller 2 (slave-receiver) by sending the address on the USDA and generating the clock on USCL. • ASIC A (master-transmitter), sends data to LED controller 2 (slave-receiver) on the USDA and generates the clock on USCL. • ASIC A terminates the transfer. The possibility of connecting more than one UFm master to the UFm I2C-bus is not allowed due to bus contention on the push-pull outputs. If an additional master is required in the system, it must be fully isolated from the other master (that is, with a true ‘one hot’ MUX) as only one master is allowed on the bus at a time. Generation of clock signals on the UFm I2C-bus is always the responsibility of the master device, that is, the master generates the clock signals when transferring data on the bus. Bus clock signals from a master cannot be altered by a slave device with clock stretching and the process of arbitration and clock synchronization does not exist within the UFm I2C-bus. Table 6 summarizes the use of mandatory and optional portions of the UFm I2C-bus specification. Table 6. Applicability of I2C-bus features to UFm M = mandatory; O = optional; n/p = not possible Feature Configuration Single master START condition M STOP condition M Acknowledge n/p Synchronization n/p Arbitration n/p Clock stretching n/p 7-bit slave address M 10-bit slave address O General Call address O Software Reset O START byte O Device ID n/p UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 24 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 3.2.1 USDA and USCL signals Both USDA and USCL are unidirectional lines, with push-pull outputs. When the bus is free, both lines are pulled HIGH by the upper transistor of the output stage. Data on the I2C-bus can be transferred at rates of up to 5000 kbit/s in the Ultra Fast-mode. The number of interfaces connected to the bus is limited by the bus loading, reflections from cable ends, connectors, and stubs. VDD(IO) USCL or USDA pin VSS 002aag655 Fig 22. Simplified schematic of USCL, USDA outputs 3.2.2 USDA and USCL logic levels Due to the variety of different technology devices (CMOS, NMOS, bipolar) that can be connected to the I2C-bus, the levels of the logical ‘0’ (LOW) and ‘1’ (HIGH) are not fixed and depend on the associated level of VDD. Input reference levels are set as 30 % and 70 % of VDD; VIL is 0.3VDD and VIH is 0.7VDD. See Figure 40, timing diagram. See Section 6 for electrical specifications. 3.2.3 Data validity The data on the USDA line must be stable during the HIGH period of the clock. The HIGH or LOW state of the data line can only change when the clock signal on the USCL line is LOW (see Figure 23). One clock pulse is generated for each data bit transferred. USDA USCL data line stable; data valid Fig 23. Bit transfer on the UFm I2C-bus change of data allowed 002aaf113 3.2.4 START and STOP conditions Both data and clock lines remain HIGH when the bus is not busy. All transactions begin with a START (S) and can be terminated by a STOP (P) (see Figure 24). A HIGH to LOW transition on the USDA line while USCL is HIGH defines a START condition. A LOW to HIGH transition on the USDA line while USCL is HIGH defines a STOP condition. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 25 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual USDA USCL S P START condition STOP condition 002aaf145 Fig 24. Definition of START and STOP conditions for UFm I2C-bus START and STOP conditions are always generated by the master. The bus is considered to be busy after the START condition. The bus is considered to be free again a certain time after the STOP condition. This bus free situation is specified in Section 6. The bus stays busy if a repeated START (Sr) is generated instead of a STOP condition. In this respect, the START (S) and repeated START (Sr) conditions are functionally identical. For the remainder of this document, therefore, the S symbol is used as a generic term to represent both the START and repeated START conditions, unless Sr is particularly relevant. Detection of START and STOP conditions by devices connected to the bus is easy if they incorporate the necessary interfacing hardware. However, microcontrollers with no such interface have to sample the USDA line at least twice per clock period to sense the transition. 3.2.5 Byte format Every byte put on the USDA line must be eight bits long. The number of bytes that can be transmitted per transfer is unrestricted. The master drives the USDA HIGH after each byte during the Acknowledge cycle. Data is transferred with the Most Significant Bit (MSB) first (see Figure 25). A slave is not allowed to hold the clock LOW if it cannot receive another complete byte of data or while it is performing some other function, for example servicing an internal interrupt. USDA MSB P Master drives the line HIGH on 9th clock cycle. Sr Slave never drives the USDA line. USCL S or Sr 1 2 START or repeated START condition 8 9 NACK byte complete, interrupt within slave 1 2 3 to 7 8 9 Sr or P NACK STOP or repeated START condition 002aag657 Fig 25. Data transfer on the UFm I2C-bus UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 26 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 3.2.6 Acknowledge (ACK) and Not Acknowledge (NACK) Since the slaves are not able to respond the ninth clock cycle, the ACK and NACK are not required. However, the clock cycle is preserved in the UFm to be compatible with the I2C-bus protocol. The ACK and NACK are also referred to as the ninth clock cycle. The master generates all clock pulses, including the ninth clock pulse. The ninth data bit is always driven HIGH (‘1’). Slave devices are not allowed to drive the SDA line at any time. 3.2.7 The slave address and R/W bit Data transfers follow the format shown in Figure 26. After the START condition (S), a slave address is sent. This address is seven bits long followed by an eighth bit which is a data direction bit (W) — a ‘zero’ indicates a transmission (WRITE); a ‘one’ indicates a request for data (READ) and is not supported by UFm (except for the START byte, Section 3.2.12) since the communication is unidirectional (refer to Figure 27). A data transfer is always terminated by a STOP condition (P) generated by the master. However, if a master still wishes to communicate on the bus, it can generate a repeated START condition (Sr) and address another slave without first generating a STOP condition. USDA USCL 1-7 8 9 S START ADDRESS W NACK condition Fig 26. A complete UFm data transfer 1-7 8 9 DATA NACK 1-7 8 DATA 9 P NACK STOP condition 002aag658 MSB LSB W slave address 002aag659 Fig 27. The first byte after the START procedure The UFm data transfer format is: • Master-transmitter transmits to slave-receiver. The transfer direction is not changed (see Figure 28). The master never acknowledges because it never receives any data but generates the ‘1’ on the ninth bit for the slave to conform to the I2C-bus protocol. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 27 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual S SLAVE ADDRESS W A DATA A DATA A P ‘0’ (write) data transferred (n bytes + not acknowledge) from master to slave A = not acknowledge (USDA HIGH) S = START condition P = STOP condition 002aag660 Fig 28. A master-transmitter addressing a slave receiver with a 7-bit address Notes: 1. Individual transaction or repeated START formats addressing multiple slaves in one transaction can be used. After the START condition and slave address is repeated, data can be transferred. 2. All decisions on auto-increment or decrement of previously accessed memory locations, etc., are taken by the designer of the device. 3. Each byte is followed by a Not-Acknowledgment bit as indicated by the A blocks in the sequence. 4. I2C-bus compatible devices must reset their bus logic on receipt of a START or repeated START condition such that they all anticipate the sending of a slave address, even if these START conditions are not positioned according to the proper format. 5. A START condition immediately followed by a STOP condition (void message) is an illegal format. Many devices however are designed to operate properly under this condition. 6. Each device connected to the bus is addressable by a unique address. A simple master/slave relationship exists, but it is possible to have multiple identical slaves that can receive and respond simultaneously, for example, in a group broadcast where all identical devices are configured at the same time, understanding that it is impossible to determine that each slave is responsive. Refer to individual component data sheets. 3.2.8 10-bit addressing 10-bit addressing expands the number of possible addresses. Devices with 7-bit and 10-bit addresses can be connected to the same I2C-bus, and both 7-bit and 10-bit addressing can be used in all bus speed modes. The 10-bit slave address is formed from the first two bytes following a START condition (S) or a repeated START condition (Sr). The first seven bits of the first byte are the combination 1111 0XX of which the last two bits (XX) are the two Most Significant Bits (MSBs) of the 10-bit address; the eighth bit of the first byte is the R/W bit that determines the direction of the message. Although there are eight possible combinations of the reserved address bits 1111 XXX, only the four combinations 1111 0XX are used for 10-bit addressing. The remaining four combinations 1111 1XX are reserved for future I2C-bus enhancements. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 28 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual Only the write format previously described for 7-bit addressing is possible with 10-bit addressing. Detailed here: • Master-transmitter transmits to slave-receiver with a 10-bit slave address. The transfer direction is not changed (see Figure 29). When a 10-bit address follows a START condition, each slave compares the first seven bits of the first byte of the slave address (1111 0XX) with its own address and tests if the eighth bit (R/W direction bit) is 0 (W). All slaves that found a match compare the eight bits of the second byte of the slave address (XXXX XXXX) with their own addresses, but only one slave finds a match. The matching slave remains addressed by the master until it receives a STOP condition (P) or a repeated START condition (Sr) followed by a different slave address. 11110XX 0 S SLAVE ADDRESS 1st 7 BITS W A SLAVE ADDRESS 2nd BYTE A DATA A DATA NA P (write) 002aag661 Fig 29. A master-transmitter addresses a slave-receiver with a 10-bit address The START byte 0000 0001 (01h) can precede the 10-bit addressing in the same way as for 7-bit addressing (see Section 3.2.12). 3.2.9 Reserved addresses in UFm The UFm I2C-bus has a different physical layer than the other I2C-bus modes. Therefore the available slave address range is different. Two groups of eight addresses (0000 XXX and 1111 XXX) are reserved for the purposes shown in Table 7. Table 7. Reserved addresses X = don’t care; 1 = HIGH; 0 = LOW. Slave address R/W bit Description 0000 000 0 general call address[1] 0000 000 1 START byte[2] 0000 001 X reserved for future purposes 0000 010 X reserved for future purposes 0000 011 X reserved for future purposes 0000 1XX X reserved for future purposes 1111 1XX X reserved for future purposes 1111 0XX X 10-bit slave addressing [1] The general call address is used for several functions including software reset. [2] No UFm device is allowed to acknowledge at the reception of the START byte. Assignment of addresses within a local system is up to the system architect who must take into account the devices being used on the bus and any future interaction with reserved addresses. For example, a device with seven user-assignable address pins allows all 128 addresses to be assigned. If it is known that the reserved address is never going to be used for its intended purpose, then a reserved address can be used for a slave address. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 29 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 3.2.10 General call address The general call address is for addressing every device connected to the I2C-bus at the same time. However, if a device does not need any of the data supplied within the general call structure, it can ignore this address. If a device does require data from a general call address, it behaves as a slave-receiver. The master does not actually know how many devices are responsive to the general call. The second and following bytes are received by every slave-receiver capable of handling this data. A slave that cannot process one of these bytes must ignore it. The meaning of the general call address is always specified in the second byte (see Figure 30). LSB 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 AXXXXXXXBA first byte (general call address) second byte 002aag662 Fig 30. General call address format There are two cases to consider: • When the least significant bit B is a ‘zero’ • When the least significant bit B is a ‘one’ When bit B is a ‘zero’, the second byte has the following definition: 0000 0110 (06h) — Reset and write programmable part of slave address by hardware. On receiving this 2-byte sequence, all devices designed to respond to the general call address reset and take in the programmable part of their address. 0000 0100 (04h) — Write programmable part of slave address by hardware. Behaves as above, but the device does not reset. 0000 0000 (00h) — This code is not allowed to be used as the second byte. Sequences of programming procedure are published in the appropriate device data sheets. The remaining codes have not been fixed and devices must ignore them. When bit B is a ‘one’, the 2-byte sequence is ignored. 3.2.11 Software reset Following a General Call, (0000 0000), sending 0000 0110 (06h) as the second byte causes a software reset. This feature is optional and not all devices respond to this command. On receiving this 2-byte sequence, all devices designed to respond to the general call address reset and take in the programmable part of their address. 3.2.12 START byte Microcontrollers can be connected to the I2C-bus in two ways. A microcontroller with an on-chip hardware I2C-bus interface can be programmed to be only interrupted by requests from the bus. When the device does not have such an interface, it must constantly monitor the bus via software. Obviously, the more times the microcontroller monitors, or polls the bus, the less time it can spend carrying out its intended function. UM10204 User manual There is therefore a speed difference between fast hardware devices and a relatively slow microcontroller which relies on software polling. All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 30 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual In this case, data transfer can be preceded by a start procedure which is much longer than normal (see Figure 31). The start procedure consists of: • A START condition (S) • A START byte (0000 0001) • A Not Acknowledge clock pulse (NACK) • A repeated START condition (Sr) USDA dummy acknowledge (HIGH) USCL S 1 2 7 8 START byte 0000 0001 Fig 31. START byte procedure 9 NACK Sr 002aag663 After the START condition S has been transmitted by a master which requires bus access, the START byte (0000 0001) is transmitted. Another microcontroller can therefore sample the USDA line at a low sampling rate until one of the seven zeros in the START byte is detected. After detection of this LOW level on the USDA line, the microcontroller can switch to a higher sampling rate to find the repeated START condition Sr, which is then used for synchronization. A hardware receiver resets upon receipt of the repeated START condition Sr and therefore ignores the START byte. An acknowledge-related clock pulse is generated after the START byte. This is present only to conform with the byte handling format used on the bus. No device is allowed to acknowledge the START byte. 3.2.13 Unresponsive slave reset In the unlikely event where the slave becomes unresponsive (for example, determined through external feedback, not through UFm I2C-bus), the preferential procedure is to reset the slave by using the software reset command or the hardware reset signal. If the slaves do not support these features, then cycle power to the devices to activate the mandatory internal Power-On Reset (POR) circuit. 3.2.14 Device ID The Device ID field is not supported in UFm. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 31 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 4. Other uses of the I2C-bus communications protocol The I2C-bus is used as the communications protocol for several system architectures. These architectures have added command sets and application-specific extensions in addition to the base I2C specification. In general, simple I2C-bus devices such as I/O extenders could be used in any one of these architectures since the protocol and physical interfaces are the same. 4.1 CBUS compatibility CBUS receivers can be connected to the Standard-mode I2C-bus. However, a third bus line called DLEN must then be connected and the acknowledge bit omitted. Normally, I2C transmissions are sequences of 8-bit bytes; CBUS compatible devices have different formats. In a mixed bus structure, I2C-bus devices must not respond to the CBUS message. For this reason, a special CBUS address (0000 001X) to which no I2C-bus compatible device responds has been reserved. After transmission of the CBUS address, the DLEN line can be made active and a CBUS-format transmission sent. After the STOP condition, all devices are again ready to accept data. Master-transmitters can send CBUS formats after sending the CBUS address. The transmission is ended by a STOP condition, recognized by all devices. Remark: If the CBUS configuration is known, and expansion with CBUS compatible devices is not foreseen, the designer is allowed to adapt the hold time to the specific requirements of the device(s) used. UM10204 User manual 4.2 SMBus - System Management Bus The SMBus uses I2C hardware and I2C hardware addressing, but adds second-level software for building special systems. In particular, its specifications include an Address Resolution Protocol that can make dynamic address allocations. Dynamic reconfiguration of the hardware and software allow bus devices to be ‘hot-plugged’ and used immediately, without restarting the system. The devices are recognized automatically and assigned unique addresses. This advantage results in a plug-and-play user interface. In both those protocols, there is a very useful distinction made between a System Host and all the other devices in the system that can have the names and functions of masters or slaves. SMBus is used today as a system management bus in most PCs. Developed by Intel and others in 1995, it modified some I2C electrical and software characteristics for better compatibility with the quickly decreasing power supply budget of portable equipment. SMBus also has a ‘High Power’ version 2.0 that includes a 4 mA sink current that cannot be driven by I2C chips unless the pull-up resistor is sized to I2C-bus levels. 4.2.1 I2C/SMBus compliancy SMBus and I2C protocols are basically the same: A SMBus master is able to control I2C devices and vice versa at the protocol level. The SMBus clock is defined from 10 kHz to 100 kHz while I2C can be 0 Hz to 100 kHz, 0 Hz to 400 kHz, 0 Hz to 1 MHz and 0 Hz to 3.4 MHz, depending on the mode. This means that an I2C-bus running at less than 10 kHz is not SMBus compliant since the SMBus devices may time-out. All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 32 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual Logic levels are slightly different also: TTL for SMBus: LOW = 0.8 V and HIGH = 2.1 V, versus the 30 %/70 % VDD CMOS level for I2C. This is not a problem if VDD > 3.0 V. If the I2C device is below 3.0 V, then there could be a problem if the logic HIGH/LOW levels are not properly recognized. 4.2.2 Time-out feature SMBus has a time-out feature which resets devices if a communication takes too long. This explains the minimum clock frequency of 10 kHz to prevent locking up the bus. I2C can be a ‘DC’ bus, meaning that a slave device stretches the master clock when performing some routine while the master is accessing it. This notifies the master that the slave is busy but does not want to lose the communication. The slave device will allow continuation after its task is complete. There is no limit in the I2C-bus protocol as to how long this delay can be, whereas for a SMBus system, it would be limited to 35 ms. SMBus protocol just assumes that if something takes too long, then it means that there is a problem on the bus and that all devices must reset in order to clear this mode. Slave devices are not then allowed to hold the clock LOW too long. 4.2.3 Differences between SMBus 1.0 and SMBus 2.0 The SMBus specification defines two classes of electrical characteristics: low power and high power. The first class, originally defined in the SMBus 1.0 and 1.1 specifications, was designed primarily with Smart Batteries in mind, but could be used with other low-power devices. The 2.0 version introduces an alternative higher power set of electrical characteristics. This class is appropriate for use when higher drive capability is required, for example with SMBus devices on PCI add-in cards and for connecting such cards across the PCI connector between each other and to SMBus devices on the system board. Devices may be powered by the bus VDD or by another power source, VBus (as with, for example, Smart Batteries), and will inter-operate as long as they adhere to the SMBus electrical specifications for their class. NXP devices have a higher power set of electrical characteristics than SMBus 1.0. The main difference is the current sink capability with VOL = 0.4 V. • SMBus low power = 350 μA • SMBus high power = 4 mA • I2C-bus = 3 mA SMBus ‘high power’ devices and I2C-bus devices will work together if the pull-up resistor is sized for 3 mA. For more information, refer to: www.nxp.com/redirect/smbus.org. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 33 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 4.3 PMBus - Power Management Bus PMBus is a standard way to communicate between power converters and a system host over the SMBus to provide more intelligent control of the power converters. The PMBus specification defines a standard set of device commands so that devices from multiple sources function identically. PMBus devices use the SMBus Version 1.1 plus extensions for transport. For more information, refer to: www.nxp.com/redirect/pmbus.org. 4.4 Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) defines a standardized, abstracted, message-based interface for intelligent platform management hardware. IPMI also defines standardized records for describing platform management devices and their characteristics. IPMI increases reliability of systems by monitoring parameters such as temperatures, voltages, fans and chassis intrusion. IPMI provides general system management functions such as automatic alerting, automatic system shutdown and restart, remote restart and power control. The standardized interface to intelligent platform management hardware aids in prediction and early monitoring of hardware failures as well as diagnosis of hardware problems. This standardized bus and protocol for extending management control, monitoring, and event delivery within the chassis: • I2C based • Multi-master • Simple Request/Response Protocol • Uses IPMI Command sets • Supports non-IPMI devices • Physically I2C but write-only (master capable devices); hot swap not required • Enables the Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) to accept IPMI request messages from other management controllers in the system • Allows non-intelligent devices as well as management controllers on the bus • BMC serves as a controller to give system software access to IPMB. Hardware implementation is isolated from software implementation so that new sensors and events can then be added without any software changes. For more information, refer to: www.nxp.com/redirect/intel.com/design/servers/ipmi. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 34 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 4.5 Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) is a follow-on to Compact PCI (cPCI), providing a standardized form-factor with larger card area, larger pitch and larger power supply for use in advanced rack-mounted telecom hardware. It includes a fault-tolerant scheme for thermal management that uses I2C-bus communications between boards. Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) is backed by more than 100 companies including many of the large players such as Intel, Lucent, and Motorola. There are two general compliant approaches to an ATCA-compliant fan control: the first is an Intelligent FRU (Field Replaceable Unit) which means that the fan control would be directly connected to the IPMB (Intelligent Platform Management Bus); the second is a Managed or Non-intelligent FRU. One requirement is the inclusion of hardware and software to manage the dual I2C-buses. This requires an on-board isolated supply to power the circuitry, a buffered dual I2C-bus with rise time accelerators, and 3-state capability. The I2C controller must be able to support a multi-master I2C dual bus and handle the standard set of fan commands outlined in the protocol. In addition, on-board temperature reporting, tray capability reporting, fan turn-off capabilities, and non-volatile storage are required. For more information, refer to: www.nxp.com/redirect/picmg.org/v2internal/newinitiative. 4.6 Display Data Channel (DDC) The Display Data Channel (DDC) allows a monitor or display to inform the host about its identity and capabilities. The specification for DDC version 2 calls for compliance with the I2C-bus standard mode specification. It allows bidirectional communication between the display and the host, enabling control of monitor functions such as how images are displayed and communication with other devices attached to the I2C-bus. For more information, refer to: www.nxp.com/redirect/vesa.org. 5. Bus speeds Originally, the I2C-bus was limited to 100 kbit/s operation. Over time there have been several additions to the specification so that there are now five operating speed categories. Standard-mode, Fast-mode (Fm), Fast-mode Plus (Fm+), and High-speed mode (Hs-mode) devices are downward-compatible — any device may be operated at a lower bus speed. Ultra Fast-mode devices are not compatible with previous versions since the bus is unidirectional. • Bidirectional bus: – Standard-mode (Sm), with a bit rate up to 100 kbit/s – Fast-mode (Fm), with a bit rate up to 400 kbit/s – Fast-mode Plus (Fm+), with a bit rate up to 1 Mbit/s – High-speed mode (Hs-mode), with a bit rate up to 3.4 Mbit/s. • Unidirectional bus: – Ultra Fast-mode (UFm), with a bit rate up to 5 Mbit/s UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 35 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 5.1 Fast-mode Fast-mode devices can receive and transmit at up to 400 kbit/s. The minimum requirement is that they can synchronize with a 400 kbit/s transfer; they can then prolong the LOW period of the SCL signal to slow down the transfer. The protocol, format, logic levels and maximum capacitive load for the SDA and SCL lines are the same as the Standard-mode I2C-bus specification. Fast-mode devices are downward-compatible and can communicate with Standard-mode devices in a 0 to 100 kbit/s I2C-bus system. As Standard-mode devices, however, are not upward compatible; they should not be incorporated in a Fast-mode I2C-bus system as they cannot follow the higher transfer rate and unpredictable states would occur. The Fast-mode I2C-bus specification has the following additional features compared with the Standard-mode: • The maximum bit rate is increased to 400 kbit/s. • Timing of the serial data (SDA) and serial clock (SCL) signals has been adapted. There is no need for compatibility with other bus systems such as CBUS because they cannot operate at the increased bit rate. • The inputs of Fast-mode devices incorporate spike suppression and a Schmitt trigger at the SDA and SCL inputs. • The output buffers of Fast-mode devices incorporate slope control of the falling edges of the SDA and SCL signals. • If the power supply to a Fast-mode device is switched off, the SDA and SCL I/O pins must be floating so that they do not obstruct the bus lines. The external pull-up devices connected to the bus lines must be adapted to accommodate the shorter maximum permissible rise time for the Fast-mode I2C-bus. For bus loads up to 200 pF, the pull-up device for each bus line can be a resistor; for bus loads between 200 pF and 400 pF, the pull-up device can be a current source (3 mA max.) or a switched resistor circuit (see Section 7.2.4). 5.2 Fast-mode Plus Fast-mode Plus (Fm+) devices offer an increase in I2C-bus transfer speeds and total bus capacitance. Fm+ devices can transfer information at bit rates of up to 1 Mbit/s, yet they remain fully downward compatible with Fast- or Standard-mode devices for bidirectional communication in a mixed-speed bus system. The same serial bus protocol and data format is maintained as with the Fast- or Standard-mode system. Fm+ devices also offer increased drive current over Fast- or Standard-mode devices allowing them to drive longer and/or more heavily loaded buses so that bus buffers do not need to be used. The drivers in Fast-mode Plus parts are strong enough to satisfy the Fast-mode Plus timing specification with the same 400 pF load as Standard-mode parts. To be backward compatible with Standard-mode, they are also tolerant of the 1 μs rise time of Standard-mode parts. In applications where only Fast-mode Plus parts are present, the high drive strength and tolerance for slow rise and fall times allow the use of larger bus capacitance as long as set-up, minimum LOW time and minimum HIGH time for Fast-mode Plus are all satisfied and the fall time and rise time do not exceed the 300 ns tf and 1 μs tr specifications of Standard-mode. Bus speed can be traded against load capacitance to increase the maximum capacitance by about a factor of ten. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 36 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 5.3 Hs-mode High-speed mode (Hs-mode) devices offer a quantum leap in I2C-bus transfer speeds. Hs-mode devices can transfer information at bit rates of up to 3.4 Mbit/s, yet they remain fully downward compatible with Fast-mode Plus, Fast- or Standard-mode (F/S) devices for bidirectional communication in a mixed-speed bus system. With the exception that arbitration and clock synchronization is not performed during the Hs-mode transfer, the same serial bus protocol and data format is maintained as with the F/S-mode system. 5.3.1 High speed transfer To achieve a bit transfer of up to 3.4 Mbit/s, the following improvements have been made to the regular I2C-bus specification: • Hs-mode master devices have an open-drain output buffer for the SDAH signal and a combination of an open-drain pull-down and current-source pull-up circuit on the SCLH output. This current-source circuit shortens the rise time of the SCLH signal. Only the current-source of one master is enabled at any one time, and only during Hs-mode. • No arbitration or clock synchronization is performed during Hs-mode transfer in multi-master systems, which speeds-up bit handling capabilities. The arbitration procedure always finishes after a preceding master code transmission in F/S-mode. • Hs-mode master devices generate a serial clock signal with a HIGH to LOW ratio of 1 to 2. This relieves the timing requirements for set-up and hold times. • As an option, Hs-mode master devices can have a built-in bridge. During Hs-mode transfer, the high-speed data (SDAH) and high-speed serial clock (SCLH) lines of Hs-mode devices are separated by this bridge from the SDA and SCL lines of F/S-mode devices. This reduces the capacitive load of the SDAH and SCLH lines resulting in faster rise and fall times. • The only difference between Hs-mode slave devices and F/S-mode slave devices is the speed at which they operate. Hs-mode slaves have open-drain output buffers on the SCLH and SDAH outputs. Optional pull-down transistors on the SCLH pin can be used to stretch the LOW level of the SCLH signal, although this is only allowed after the acknowledge bit in Hs-mode transfers. • The inputs of Hs-mode devices incorporate spike suppression and a Schmitt trigger at the SDAH and SCLH inputs. • The output buffers of Hs-mode devices incorporate slope control of the falling edges of the SDAH and SCLH signals. Figure 32 shows the physical I2C-bus configuration in a system with only Hs-mode devices. Pins SDA and SCL on the master devices are only used in mixed-speed bus systems and are not connected in an Hs-mode only system. In such cases, these pins can be used for other functions. Optional series resistors Rs protect the I/O stages of the I2C-bus devices from high-voltage spikes on the bus lines and minimize ringing and interference. Pull-up resistors Rp maintain the SDAH and SCLH lines at a HIGH level when the bus is free and ensure that the signals are pulled up from a LOW to a HIGH level within the required rise time. For higher capacitive bus-line loads (>100 pF), the resistor Rp can be replaced by external current source pull-ups to meet the rise time requirements. Unless UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 37 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual proceeded by an acknowledge bit, the rise time of the SCLH clock pulses in Hs-mode transfers is shortened by the internal current-source pull-up circuit MCS of the active master. VDD SDAH Rp Rp SCLH Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs (1) (1) SDAH SCLH SDAH SCLH SDAH SCLH SDA SCL Rs Rs (1) (1) SDAH SCLH SDA SCL (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (4) (4) VSS VSS VSS MCS (3) VDD (2) (2) VSS MCS (3) VDD SLAVE SLAVE MASTER/SLAVE MASTER/SLAVE msc612 (1) SDA and SCL are not used here but may be used for other functions. (2) To input filter. (3) Only the active master can enable its current-source pull-up circuit. (4) Dotted transistors are optional open-drain outputs which can stretch the serial clock signal SCLH. Fig 32. I2C-bus configuration with Hs-mode devices only 5.3.2 Serial data format in Hs-mode Serial data transfer format in Hs-mode meets the Standard-mode I2C-bus specification. Hs-mode can only commence after the following conditions (all of which are in F/S-mode): 1. START condition (S) 2. 8-bit master code (0000 1XXX) 3. Not-acknowledge bit (A) Figure 33 and Figure 34 show this in more detail. This master code has two main functions: • It allows arbitration and synchronization between competing masters at F/S-mode speeds, resulting in one winning master. • It indicates the beginning of an Hs-mode transfer. Hs-mode master codes are reserved 8-bit codes, which are not used for slave addressing or other purposes. Furthermore, as each master has its own unique master code, up to eight Hs-mode masters can be present on the one I2C-bus system (although master code 0000 1000 should be reserved for test and diagnostic purposes). The master code for an Hs-mode master device is software programmable and is chosen by the System Designer. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 38 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual Arbitration and clock synchronization only take place during the transmission of the master code and not-acknowledge bit (A), after which one winning master remains active. The master code indicates to other devices that an Hs-mode transfer is to begin and the connected devices must meet the Hs-mode specification. As no device is allowed to acknowledge the master code, the master code is followed by a not-acknowledge (A). After the not-acknowledge bit (A), and the SCLH line has been pulled-up to a HIGH level, the active master switches to Hs-mode and enables (at time tH, see Figure 34) the current-source pull-up circuit for the SCLH signal. As other devices can delay the serial transfer before tH by stretching the LOW period of the SCLH signal, the active master enables its current-source pull-up circuit when all devices have released the SCLH line and the SCLH signal has reached a HIGH level, thus speeding up the last part of the rise time of the SCLH signal. The active master then sends a repeated START condition (Sr) followed by a 7-bit slave address (or 10-bit slave address, see Section 3.1.11) with a R/W bit address, and receives an acknowledge bit (A) from the selected slave. After a repeated START condition and after each acknowledge bit (A) or not-acknowledge bit (A), the active master disables its current-source pull-up circuit. This enables other devices to delay the serial transfer by stretching the LOW period of the SCLH signal. The active master re-enables its current-source pull-up circuit again when all devices have released and the SCLH signal reaches a HIGH level, and so speeds up the last part of the SCLH signal’s rise time. Data transfer continues in Hs-mode after the next repeated START (Sr), and only switches back to F/S-mode after a STOP condition (P). To reduce the overhead of the master code, it is possible that a master links a number of Hs-mode transfers, separated by repeated START conditions (Sr). F/S-mode Hs-mode (current-source for SCLH enabled) F/S-mode S MASTER CODE A Sr SLAVE ADD. R/W A DATA A/A P (n bytes + ack.) Hs-mode continues Fig 33. Data transfer format in Hs-mode Sr SLAVE ADD. msc616 UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 39 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual S SDAH 8-bit master code 0000 1xxx A t1 tH SCLH 1 2 to 5 6 7 8 9 F/S-mode Sr SDAH 7-bit SLA R/W A n + (8-bit data + A/A) Sr P SCLH 1 2 to 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 to 5 6 7 8 9 Hs-mode tH = Master current source pull-up = Resistor pull-up If P then F/S-mode If Sr (dotted lines) then Hs-mode tFS msc618 Fig 34. A complete Hs-mode transfer 5.3.3 Switching from F/S-mode to Hs-mode and back After reset and initialization, Hs-mode devices must be in Fast-mode (which is in effect F/S-mode, as Fast-mode is downward compatible with Standard-mode). Each Hs-mode device can switch from Fast-mode to Hs-mode and back and is controlled by the serial transfer on the I2C-bus. Before time t1 in Figure 34, each connected device operates in Fast-mode. Between times t1 and tH (this time interval can be stretched by any device) each connected device must recognize the ‘S 00001XXX A’ sequence and has to switch its internal circuit from the Fast-mode setting to the Hs-mode setting. Between times t1 and tH, the connected master and slave devices perform this switching by the following actions. The active (winning) master: 1. Adapts its SDAH and SCLH input filters according to the spike suppression requirement in Hs-mode. 2. Adapts the set-up and hold times according to the Hs-mode requirements. 3. Adapts the slope control of its SDAH and SCLH output stages according to the Hs-mode requirement. 4. Switches to the Hs-mode bit-rate, which is required after time tH. 5. Enables the current source pull-up circuit of its SCLH output stage at time tH. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 40 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual The non-active, or losing masters: 1. Adapt their SDAH and SCLH input filters according to the spike suppression requirement in Hs-mode. 2. Wait for a STOP condition to detect when the bus is free again. All slaves: 1. Adapt their SDAH and SCLH input filters according to the spike suppression requirement in Hs-mode. 2. Adapt the set-up and hold times according to the Hs-mode requirements. This requirement may already be fulfilled by the adaptation of the input filters. 3. Adapt the slope control of their SDAH output stages, if necessary. For slave devices, slope control is applicable for the SDAH output stage only and, depending on circuit tolerances, both the Fast-mode and Hs-mode requirements may be fulfilled without switching its internal circuit. At time tFS in Figure 34, each connected device must recognize the STOP condition (P) and switch its internal circuit from the Hs-mode setting back to the Fast-mode setting as present before time t1. This must be completed within the minimum bus free time as specified in Table 10 according to the Fast-mode specification. 5.3.4 Hs-mode devices at lower speed modes Hs-mode devices are fully downwards compatible, and can be connected to an F/S-mode I2C-bus system (see Figure 35). As no master code is transmitted in such a configuration, all Hs-mode master devices stay in F/S-mode and communicate at F/S-mode speeds with their current-source disabled. The SDAH and SCLH pins are used to connect to the F/S-mode bus system, allowing the SDA and SCL pins (if present) on the Hs-mode master device to be used for other functions. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 41 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual VDD SDA Rp Rp SCL Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs (1) (1) SDAH SCLH SDAH SCLH SDAH SCLH SDA SCL Rs Rs Rs Rs SDA SCL SDA SCL (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (4) (4) VSS VSS VSS (3) VDD (2) (2) VSS (2) (2) (4) VSS Hs-mode SLAVE Hs-mode SLAVE Hs-mode MASTER/SLAVE F/S-mode MASTER/SLAVE F/S-mode SLAVE msc613 (1) Bridge not used. SDA and SCL may have an alternative function. (2) To input filter. (3) The current-source pull-up circuit stays disabled. (4) Dotted transistors are optional open-drain outputs which can stretch the serial clock signal SCL. Fig 35. Hs-mode devices at F/S-mode speed UM10204 User manual 5.3.5 Mixed speed modes on one serial bus system If a system has a combination of Hs-mode, Fast-mode and/or Standard-mode devices, it is possible, by using an interconnection bridge, to have different bit rates between different devices (see Figure 36 and Figure 37). One bridge is required to connect/disconnect an Hs-mode section to/from an F/S-mode section at the appropriate time. This bridge includes a level shift function that allows devices with different supply voltages to be connected. For example F/S-mode devices with a VDD2 of 5 V can be connected to Hs-mode devices with a VDD1 of 3 V or less (that is, where VDD2 ≥ VDD1), provided SDA and SCL pins are 5 V tolerant. This bridge is incorporated in Hs-mode master devices and is completely controlled by the serial signals SDAH, SCLH, SDA and SCL. Such a bridge can be implemented in any IC as an autonomous circuit. TR1, TR2 and TR3 are N-channel transistors. TR1 and TR2 have a transfer gate function, and TR3 is an open-drain pull-down stage. If TR1 or TR2 are switched on they transfer a LOW level in both directions, otherwise when both the drain and source rise to a HIGH level there is a high-impedance between the drain and source of each switched-on transistor. In the latter case, the transistors act as a level shifter as SDAH and SCLH are pulled-up to VDD1 and SDA and SCL are pulled-up to VDD2. During F/S-mode speed, a bridge on one of the Hs-mode masters connects the SDAH and SCLH lines to the corresponding SDA and SCL lines thus permitting Hs-mode devices to communicate with F/S-mode devices at slower speeds. Arbitration and synchronization are possible during the total F/S-mode transfer between all connected devices as described in Section 3.1.7. During Hs-mode transfer, however, the bridge All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 42 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual opens to separate the two bus sections and allows Hs-mode devices to communicate with each other at 3.4 Mbit/s. Arbitration between Hs-mode devices and F/S-mode devices is only performed during the master code (0000 1XXX), and normally won by one Hs-mode master as no slave address has four leading zeros. Other masters can win the arbitration only if they send a reserved 8-bit code (0000 0XXX). In such cases, the bridge remains closed and the transfer proceeds in F/S-mode. Table 8 gives the possible communication speeds in such a system. VDD1 SDAH Rp Rp Rs SDAH BRIDGE TR1 VDD2 SDA Rp Rp SCLH Rs SCLH TR2 SCL Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs (1) (1) SDAH SCLH SDAH SCLH SDAH SCLH SDA SCL TR3 VSS Rs Rs Rs Rs SDA SCL SDA SCL (2) (2) (4) VSS Hs-mode SLAVE (2) (2) (4) VSS Hs-mode SLAVE (2) (2) VSS MCS (3) VDD Hs-mode MASTER/SLAVE (2) (2) VSS MCS (3) VDD Hs-mode MASTER/SLAVE (2) (2) (2) (2) (4) VSS F/S-mode MASTER/SLAVE VSS F/S-mode SLAVE msc614 (1) Bridge not used. SDA and SCL may have an alternative function. (2) To input filter. (3) Only the active master can enable its current-source pull-up circuit. (4) Dotted transistors are optional open-drain outputs which can stretch the serial clock signal SCL or SCLH. Fig 36. Bus system with transfer at Hs-mode and F/S-mode speeds Table 8. Communication bit rates in a mixed-speed bus system Transfer between Serial bus system configuration Hs + Fast + Standard Hs + Fast Hs + Standard Hs ↔ Hs 0 to 3.4 Mbit/s 0 to 3.4 Mbit/s 0 to 3.4 Mbit/s Hs ↔ Fast 0 to 100 kbit/s 0 to 400 kbit/s - Hs ↔ Standard 0 to 100 kbit/s - 0 to 100 kbit/s Fast ↔ Standard 0 to 100 kbit/s - - Fast ↔ Fast 0 to 100 kbit/s 0 to 400 kbit/s - Standard ↔ Standard 0 to 100 kbit/s - 0 to 100 kbit/s Fast + Standard 0 to 100 kbit/s 0 to 100 kbit/s 0 to 100 kbit/s Remark: Table 8 assumes that the Hs devices are isolated from the Fm and Sm devices when operating at 3.4 Mbit/s. The bus speed is always constrained to the maximum communication rate of the slowest device attached to the bus. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 43 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 5.3.6 Standard, Fast-mode and Fast-mode Plus transfer in a mixed-speed bus system The bridge shown in Figure 36 interconnects corresponding serial bus lines, forming one serial bus system. As no master code (0000 1XXX) is transmitted, the current-source pull-up circuits stay disabled and all output stages are open-drain. All devices, including Hs-mode devices, communicate with each other according to the protocol, format and speed of the F/S-mode I2C-bus specification. 5.3.7 Hs-mode transfer in a mixed-speed bus system Figure 37 shows the timing diagram of a complete Hs-mode transfer, which is invoked by a START condition, a master code, and a not-acknowledge A (at F/S-mode speed). Although this timing diagram is split in two parts, it should be viewed as one timing diagram were time point tH is a common point for both parts. The master code is recognized by the bridge in the active or non-active master (see Figure 36). The bridge performs the following actions: 1. Between t1 and tH (see Figure 37), transistor TR1 opens to separate the SDAH and SDA lines, after which transistor TR3 closes to pull-down the SDA line to VSS. 2. When both SCLH and SCL become HIGH (tH in Figure 37), transistor TR2 opens to separate the SCLH and SCL lines. TR2 must be opened before SCLH goes LOW after Sr. Hs-mode transfer starts after tH with a repeated START condition (Sr). During Hs-mode transfer, the SCL line stays at a HIGH and the SDA line at a LOW steady-state level, and so is prepared for the transfer of a STOP condition (P). After each acknowledge (A) or not-acknowledge bit (A), the active master disables its current-source pull-up circuit. This enables other devices to delay the serial transfer by stretching the LOW period of the SCLH signal. The active master re-enables its current-source pull-up circuit again when all devices are released and the SCLH signal reaches a HIGH level, and so speeds up the last part of the SCLH signal rise time. In irregular situations, F/S-mode devices can close the bridge (TR1 and TR2 closed, TR3 open) at any time by pulling down the SCL line for at least 1 μs, for example, to recover from a bus hang-up. Hs-mode finishes with a STOP condition and brings the bus system back into the F/S-mode. The active master disables its current-source MCS when the STOP condition (P) at SDAH is detected (tFS in Figure 37). The bridge also recognizes this STOP condition and takes the following actions: 1. Transistor TR2 closes after tFS to connect SCLH with SCL; both of which are HIGH at this time. Transistor TR3 opens after tFS, which releases the SDA line and allows it to be pulled HIGH by the pull-up resistor Rp. This is the STOP condition for the F/S-mode devices. TR3 must open fast enough to ensure the bus free time between the STOP condition and the earliest next START condition is according to the Fast-mode specification (see tBUF in Table 10). 2. When SDA reaches a HIGH (t2 in Figure 37), transistor TR1 closes to connect SDAH with SDA. (Note: interconnections are made when all lines are HIGH, thus preventing spikes on the bus lines.) TR1 and TR2 must be closed within the minimum bus free time according to the Fast-mode specification (see tBUF in Table 10). UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 44 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual S SDAH 8-bit Master code 00001xxx A t1 tH SCLH SDA 1 2 to 5 6 7 8 9 SCL 1 2 to 5 6 7 8 9 F/S mode SDAH SCLH SDA Sr 7-bit SLA R/W A n × (8-bit DATA + A/A) Sr P 1 2 to 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 to 5 6 7 8 9 P t2 SCL tH = MCS current source pull-up Hs-mode If P then F/S mode If Sr (dotted lines) then Hs-mode tFS mcs611 = Rp resistor pull-up Fig 37. A complete Hs-mode transfer in a mixed-speed bus system 5.3.8 Timing requirements for the bridge in a mixed-speed bus system It can be seen from Figure 37 that the actions of the bridge at t1, tH and tFS must be so fast that it does not affect the SDAH and SCLH lines. Furthermore the bridge must meet the related timing requirements of the Fast-mode specification for the SDA and SCL lines. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 45 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 5.4 Ultra Fast-mode Ultra Fast-mode (UFm) devices offer an increase in I2C-bus transfer speeds. UFm devices can transfer information at bit rates of up to 5 Mbit/s. UFm devices offer push-pull drivers, eliminating the pull-up resistors, allowing higher transfer rates. The same serial bus protocol and data format is maintained as with the Sm, Fm, or Fm+ system. UFm bus devices are not compatible with bidirectional I2C-bus devices. 6. Electrical specifications and timing for I/O stages and bus lines 6.1 Standard-, Fast-, and Fast-mode Plus devices The I/O levels, I/O current, spike suppression, output slope control and pin capacitance are given in Table 9. The I2C-bus timing characteristics, bus-line capacitance and noise margin are given in Table 10. Figure 38 shows the timing definitions for the I2C-bus. The minimum HIGH and LOW periods of the SCL clock specified in Table 10 determine the maximum bit transfer rates of 100 kbit/s for Standard-mode devices, 400 kbit/s for Fast-mode devices, and 1000 kbit/s for Fast-mode Plus. Devices must be able to follow transfers at their own maximum bit rates, either by being able to transmit or receive at that speed or by applying the clock synchronization procedure described in Section 3.1.7 which forces the master into a wait state and stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal. In the latter case, the bit transfer rate is reduced. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 46 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 User manual xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx x x x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Table 9. Characteristics of the SDA and SCL I/O stages n/a = not applicable. Symbol Parameter Conditions Standard-mode Fast-mode Fast-mode Plus Unit VIL VIH Vhys VOL1 VOL2 IOL tof tSP Ii Ci LOW-level input voltage[1] HIGH-level input voltage[1] hysteresis of Schmitt trigger inputs LOW-level output voltage 1 LOW-level output voltage 2 LOW-level output current output fall time from VIHmin to VILmax pulse width of spikes that must be suppressed by the input filter (open-drain or open-collector) at 3 mA sink current; VDD > 2 V (open-drain or open-collector) at 2 mA sink current[3]; VDD ≤ 2 V VOL = 0.4 V VOL = 0.6 V[4] input current each I/O pin capacitance for each I/O pin[10] 0.1VDD < VI < 0.9VDDmax Min −0.5 0.7VDD 0 - 3 - - −10 - Max 0.3VDD [2] 0.4 Min −0.5 0.7VDD 0.05VDD 0 Max 0.3VDD [2] 0.4 Min −0.5 0.7VDD[1] 0.05VDD 0 Max 0.3VDD V [2] V -V 0.4 V - 0 0.2VDD 0 0.2VDD V 250[5] - 3 6 20 × (VDD / 5.5 V)[6] 0 250[5] 50[8] 20 - 20 × (VDD / 5.5 V)[6] 0 - mA - mA 120[7] ns 50[8] ns +10 −10[9] +10[9] −10[9] +10[9] μA 10 - 10 - 10 pF All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual [1] Some legacy Standard-mode devices had fixed input levels of VIL = 1.5 V and VIH = 3.0 V. Refer to component data sheets. [2] Maximum VIH = VDD(max) + 0.5 V or 5.5 V, which ever is lower. See component data sheets. [3] The same resistor value to drive 3 mA at 3.0 V VDD provides the same RC time constant when using <2 V VDD with a smaller current draw. [4] In order to drive full bus load at 400 kHz, 6 mA IOL is required at 0.6 V VOL. Parts not meeting this specification can still function, but not at 400 kHz and 400 pF. [5] The maximum tf for the SDA and SCL bus lines quoted in Table 10 (300 ns) is longer than the specified maximum tof for the output stages (250 ns). This allows series protection resistors (Rs) to be connected between the SDA/SCL pins and the SDA/SCL bus lines as shown in Figure 45 without exceeding the maximum specified tf. [6] Necessary to be backwards compatible with Fast-mode. [7] In Fast-mode Plus, fall time is specified the same for both output stage and bus timing. If series resistors are used, designers should allow for this when considering bus timing. [8] Input filters on the SDA and SCL inputs suppress noise spikes of less than 50 ns. [9] If VDD is switched off, I/O pins of Fast-mode and Fast-mode Plus devices must not obstruct the SDA and SCL lines. [10] Special purpose devices such as multiplexers and switches may exceed this capacitance because they connect multiple paths together. © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 47 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 User manual Table 10. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx x x x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Characteristics of the SDA and SCL bus lines for Standard, Fast, and Fast-mode Plus I2C-bus devices[1] Symbol Parameter Conditions Standard-mode Fast-mode Fast-mode Plus Unit Min Max Min Max Min Max fSCL tHD;STA SCL clock frequency hold time (repeated) START condition After this period, the first clock pulse is generated. 0 100 4.0 - 0 400 0 1000 kHz 0.6 - 0.26 - μs tLOW tHIGH tSU;STA LOW period of the SCL clock HIGH period of the SCL clock set-up time for a repeated START condition 4.7 - 4.0 - 4.7 - 1.3 - 0.5 0.6 - 0.26 0.6 - 0.26 - μs - μs - μs tHD;DAT data hold time[2] CBUS compatible masters 5.0 - - - - (see Remark in Section 4.1) - μs I2C-bus devices 0[3] -[4] 0[3] -[4] 0 - μs tSU;DAT tr tf tSU;STO tBUF data set-up time rise time of both SDA and SCL signals fall time of both SDA and SCL signals[3][6][7][8] set-up time for STOP condition bus free time between a STOP and START condition 250 - 100[5] - 50 - ns - 1000 20 300 - 120 ns - 300 20 × 300 20 × 120[8] ns (VDD / 5.5 V) (VDD / 5.5 V)[9] 4.0 - 0.6 - 0.26 - μs 4.7 - 1.3 - 0.5 - μs Cb tVD;DAT tVD;ACK VnL capacitive load for each bus line[10] data valid time[11] data valid acknowledge time[12] noise margin at the LOW level for each connected device (including hysteresis) 0.1VDD 400 3.45[4] 3.45[4] - 0.1VDD 400 0.9[4] 0.9[4] - 0.1VDD 550 pF 0.45[4] μs 0.45[4] μs -V VnH noise margin at the HIGH level for each connected device 0.2VDD - (including hysteresis) 0.2VDD - 0.2VDD -V All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 48 of 64 [1] All values referred to VIH(min) (0.3VDD) and VIL(max) (0.7VDD) levels (see Table 9). [2] tHD;DAT is the data hold time that is measured from the falling edge of SCL, applies to data in transmission and the acknowledge. [3] A device must internally provide a hold time of at least 300 ns for the SDA signal (with respect to the VIH(min) of the SCL signal) to bridge the undefined region of the falling edge of SCL. [4] The maximum tHD;DAT could be 3.45 μs and 0.9 μs for Standard-mode and Fast-mode, but must be less than the maximum of tVD;DAT or tVD;ACK by a transition time. This maximum must only be met if the device does not stretch the LOW period (tLOW) of the SCL signal. If the clock stretches the SCL, the data must be valid by the set-up time before it releases the clock. NXP Semiconductors UM10204 User manual xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx x x x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx [5] A Fast-mode I2C-bus device can be used in a Standard-mode I2C-bus system, but the requirement tSU;DAT 250 ns must then be met. This will automatically be the case if the device does not stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal. If such a device does stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal, it must output the next data bit to the SDA line tr(max) + tSU;DAT = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns (according to the Standard-mode I2C-bus specification) before the SCL line is released. Also the acknowledge timing must meet this set-up time. [6] If mixed with Hs-mode devices, faster fall times according to Table 10 are allowed. [7] The maximum tf for the SDA and SCL bus lines is specified at 300 ns. The maximum fall time for the SDA output stage tf is specified at 250 ns. This allows series protection resistors to be connected in between the SDA and the SCL pins and the SDA/SCL bus lines without exceeding the maximum specified tf. [8] In Fast-mode Plus, fall time is specified the same for both output stage and bus timing. If series resistors are used, designers should allow for this when considering bus timing. [9] Necessary to be backwards compatible to Fast-mode. [10] The maximum bus capacitance allowable may vary from this value depending on the actual operating voltage and frequency of the application. Section 7.2 discusses techniques for coping with higher bus capacitances. [11] tVD;DAT = time for data signal from SCL LOW to SDA output (HIGH or LOW, depending on which one is worse). [12] tVD;ACK = time for Acknowledgement signal from SCL LOW to SDA output (HIGH or LOW, depending on which one is worse). All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 49 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual tf tr tSU;DAT 70 % SDA 30 % tf 70 % 30 % tHD;DAT SCL 70 % 30 % tHD;STA S 1 / fSCL 1st clock cycle 70 % 30 % tr 70 % 30 % tLOW SDA tSU;STA tHD;STA tSP tVD;ACK tHIGH tVD;DAT 70 % 30 % tBUF tSU;STO SCL Sr 70 % 30 % 9th clock VIL = 0.3VDD VIH = 0.7VDD Fig 38. Definition of timing for F/S-mode devices on the I2C-bus P S cont. cont. 9th clock 002aac938 UM10204 User manual 6.2 Hs-mode devices The I/O levels, I/O current, spike suppression, output slope control and pin capacitance for I2C-bus Hs-mode devices are given in Table 11. The noise margin for HIGH and LOW levels on the bus lines are the same as specified for F/S-mode I2C-bus devices. Figure 39 shows all timing parameters for the Hs-mode timing. The ‘normal’ START condition S does not exist in Hs-mode. Timing parameters for Address bits, R/W bit, Acknowledge bit and DATA bits are all the same. Only the rising edge of the first SCLH clock signal after an acknowledge bit has a larger value because the external Rp has to pull up SCLH without the help of the internal current-source. The Hs-mode timing parameters for the bus lines are specified in Table 12. The minimum HIGH and LOW periods and the maximum rise and fall times of the SCLH clock signal determine the highest bit rate. With an internally generated SCLH signal with LOW and HIGH level periods of 200 ns and 100 ns respectively, an Hs-mode master fulfills the timing requirements for the external SCLH clock pulses (taking the rise and fall times into account) for the maximum bit rate of 3.4 Mbit/s. So a basic frequency of 10 MHz, or a multiple of 10 MHz, can be used by an Hs-mode master to generate the SCLH signal. There are no limits for maximum HIGH and LOW periods of the SCLH clock, and there is no limit for a lowest bit rate. Timing parameters are independent for capacitive load up to 100 pF for each bus line allowing the maximum possible bit rate of 3.4 Mbit/s. At a higher capacitive load on the bus lines, the bit rate decreases gradually. The timing parameters for a capacitive bus load of 400 pF are specified in Table 12, allowing a maximum bit rate of 1.7 Mbit/s. For All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 50 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual capacitive bus loads between 100 pF and 400 pF, the timing parameters must be interpolated linearly. Rise and fall times are in accordance with the maximum propagation time of the transmission lines SDAH and SCLH to prevent reflections of the open ends. Table 11. Characteristics of the SDAH, SCLH, SDA and SCL I/O stages for Hs-mode I2C-bus devices Symbol Parameter Conditions Hs-mode Unit Min Max VIL LOW-level input voltage −0.5 0.3VDD[1] V VIH HIGH-level input voltage 0.7VDD[1] VDD + 0.5[2] V Vhys hysteresis of Schmitt trigger inputs 0.1VDD[1] - V VOL LOW-level output voltage (open-drain) at 3 mA sink current at SDAH, SDA and SCLH RonL transfer gate on resistance for currents between SDA and SDAH, or SCL and SCLH VDD > 2 V VDD ≤ 2 V VOL level; IOL = 3 mA 0 0.4 V 0 0.2VDD V - 50 Ω RonH[2] transfer gate on resistance between both signals (SDA and SDAH, or SCL 50 SDA and SDAH, or SCL and SCLH and SCLH) at VDD level ICS pull-up current of the SCLH current-source SCLH output levels between 0.3VDD and 3 0.7VDD trCL rise time of SCLH signal output rise time (current-source enabled) with an external pull-up current source of 3 mA - kΩ 12 mA capacitive load from 10 pF to 100 pF 10 40 ns capacitive load of 400 pF[3] 20 80 ns tfCL fall time of SCLH signal output fall time (current-source enabled) with an external pull-up current source of 3 mA capacitive load from 10 pF to 100 pF 10 40 ns capacitive load of 400 pF[3] 20 80 ns tfDA fall time of SDAH signal capacitive load from 10 pF to 100 pF 10 80 ns capacitive load of 400 pF[3] 20 160 ns tSP pulse width of spikes that must be SDAH and SCLH suppressed by the input filter 0 10 ns Ii[4] input current each I/O pin input voltage between 0.1VDD and 0.9VDD Ci capacitance for each I/O pin[5] - 10 μA - 10 pF [1] Devices that use non-standard supply voltages which do not conform to the intended I2C-bus system levels must relate their input levels to the VDD voltage to which the pull-up resistors Rp are connected. [2] Devices that offer the level shift function must tolerate a maximum input voltage of 5.5 V at SDA and SCL. [3] For capacitive bus loads between 100 pF and 400 pF, the rise and fall time values must be linearly interpolated. [4] If their supply voltage has been switched off, SDAH and SCLH I/O stages of Hs-mode slave devices must have floating outputs. Due to the current-source output circuit, which normally has a clipping diode to VDD, this requirement is not mandatory for the SCLH or the SDAH I/O stage of Hs-mode master devices. This means that the supply voltage of Hs-mode master devices cannot be switched off without affecting the SDAH and SCLH lines. [5] Special purpose devices such as multiplexers and switches may exceed this capacitance because they connect multiple paths together. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 51 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual Table 12. Characteristics of the SDAH, SCLH, SDA and SCL bus lines for Hs-mode I2C-bus devices[1] Symbol Parameter Conditions Cb = 100 pF (max) Min Max Cb = 400 pF[2] Min Max fSCLH tSU;STA SCLH clock frequency set-up time for a repeated START condition 0 3.4 0 1.7 160 - 160 - tHD;STA hold time (repeated) START condition 160 - 160 - tLOW tHIGH tSU;DAT tHD;DAT trCL trCL1 LOW period of the SCL clock HIGH period of the SCL clock data set-up time data hold time rise time of SCLH signal rise time of SCLH signal after a repeated START condition and after an acknowledge bit 160 - 320 - 60 - 120 - 10 - 10 - 0[3] 70 0[3] 150 10 40 20 80 10 80 20 160 tfCL trDA tfDA tSU;STO Cb[2] fall time of SCLH signal rise time of SDAH signal fall time of SDAH signal set-up time for STOP condition capacitive load for each bus line SDAH and SCLH lines SDAH + SDA line and SCLH + SCL line 10 40 20 80 10 80 20 160 10 80 20 160 160 - 160 - - 100 - 400 - 400 - 400 VnL noise margin at the LOW level for each connected device 0.1VDD - 0.1VDD - (including hysteresis) VnH noise margin at the HIGH level for each connected device 0.2VDD - 0.2VDD - (including hysteresis) Unit MHz ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns pF pF V V [1] All values referred to VIH(min) and VIL(max) levels (see Table 11). [2] For bus line loads Cb between 100 pF and 400 pF the timing parameters must be linearly interpolated. [3] A device must internally provide a data hold time to bridge the undefined part between VIH and VIL of the falling edge of the SCLH signal. An input circuit with a threshold as low as possible for the falling edge of the SCLH signal minimizes this hold time. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 52 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual Sr tfDA trDA SDAH tSU;STA tHD;DAT tHD;STA tSU;DAT SCLH (1) tfCL trCL1 tHIGH = MCS current source pull-up tLOW trCL tLOW tHIGH = Rp resistor pull-up (1) First rising edge of the SCLH signal after Sr and after each acknowledge bit. Fig 39. Definition of timing for Hs-mode devices on the I2C-bus Sr P tSU;STO 0.7 × VDD 0.3 × VDD trCL1 (1) 0.7 × VDD 0.3 × VDD 002aag825 6.3 Ultra Fast-mode devices The I/O levels, I/O current, spike suppression, output slope control and pin capacitance are given in Table 13. The UFm I2C-bus timing characteristics are given in Table 14. Figure 40 shows the timing definitions for the I2C-bus. The minimum HIGH and LOW periods of the SCL clock specified in Table 14 determine the maximum bit transfer rates of 5000 kbit/s for Ultra Fast-mode. Devices must be able to follow transfers at their own maximum bit rates, either by being able to transmit or receive at that speed. Table 13. Characteristics of the USDA and USCL I/O stages n/a = not applicable. Symbol Parameter Conditions VIL LOW-level input voltage[1] VIH HIGH-level input voltage[1] Vhys hysteresis of Schmitt trigger inputs VOL LOW-level output voltage at 4 mA sink current; VDD > 2 V VOH HIGH-level output voltage at 4 mA source current; VDD > 2 V IL leakage current VDD = 3.6 V VDD = 5.5 V Ci input capacitance tSP pulse width of spikes that must be suppressed by the input filter Ultra Fast-mode Unit Min Max −0.5 +0.3VDD V 0.7VDD[1] -[2] V 0.05VDD - V 0 0.4 V VDD − 0.4 - V −1 +1 μA −10 +10 μA [3] - 10 pF [4] - 10 ns [1] Refer to component data sheets for actual switching points. [2] Maximum VIH = VDD(max) + 0.5 V or 5.5 V, whichever is lower. See component data sheets. [3] Special purpose devices such as multiplexers and switches may exceed this capacitance because they connect multiple paths together. [4] Input filters on the USDA and USCL slave inputs suppress noise spikes of less than 10 ns. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 53 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual Table 14. UFm I2C-bus frequency and timing specifications Symbol Parameter Conditions fUSCL tBUF tHD;STA tSU;STA tSU;STO tHD;DAT tVD;DAT tSU;DAT tLOW tHIGH tf tr USCL clock frequency bus free time between a STOP and START condition hold time (repeated) START condition set-up time for a repeated START condition set-up time for STOP condition data hold time data valid time data set-up time LOW period of the USCL clock HIGH period of the USCL clock fall time of both USDA and USCL signals rise time of both USDA and USCL signals Ultra Fast-mode Unit Min Max 0 5000 kHz 80 - ns 50 - ns 50 - ns 50 - ns 10 - ns [1] 10 - ns 30 - ns 50 - ns 50 - ns -[2] 50 ns -[2] 50 ns [1] tVD;DAT = minimum time for USDA data out to be valid following USCL LOW. [2] Typical rise time or fall time for UFm signals is 25 ns measured from the 30 % level to the 70 % level (rise time) or from the 70 % level to the 30 % level (fall time). tf tr tSU;DAT 70 % USDA 30 % tf 70 % 30 % tHD;DAT USCL 70 % 30 % tHD;STA S 1 / fUSCL 1st clock cycle 70 % 30 % tr 70 % 30 % tLOW USDA tSU;STA tHD;STA tSP tVD;ACK tHIGH tVD;DAT 70 % 30 % tBUF tSU;STO USCL Sr 70 % 30 % 9th clock P S Fig 40. Definition of timing for Ultra Fast-mode devices on the I2C-bus cont. cont. 9th clock 002aag826 UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 54 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 7. Electrical connections of I2C-bus devices to the bus lines 7.1 Pull-up resistor sizing The bus capacitance is the total capacitance of wire, connections and pins. This capacitance limits the maximum value of Rp due to the specified rise time. Figure 41 shows Rp(max) as a function of bus capacitance. Consider the VDD related input threshold of VIH = 0.7VDD and VIL = 0.3VDD for the purposes of RC time constant calculation. Then V(t) = VDD (1 − e−t / RC), where t is the time since the charging started and RC is the time constant. V(t1) = 0.3 × VDD = VDD (1 − e−t1 / RC); then t1 = 0.3566749 × RC V(t2) = 0.7 × VDD = VDD (1 − e−t2 / RC); then t2 = 1.2039729 × RC T = t2 − t1 = 0.8473 × RC Figure 41 and Equation 1 shows maximum Rp as a function of bus capacitance for Standard-, Fast- and Fast-mode Plus. For each mode, the Rp(max) is a function of the rise time maximum (tr) from Table 10 and the estimated bus capacitance (Cb): Rp(max) = -------------t--r------------0.8473 × Cb (1) 20 Rp(max) (1) (kΩ) 16 002aac883 12 8 (2) 4 (3) 0 0 200 400 600 Cb (pF) (1) Standard-mode (2) Fast-mode (3) Fast-mode Plus Fig 41. Rp(max) as a function of bus capacitance 4 Rp(min) (kΩ) 3 002aac884 2 (1) 1 (2) 0 0 5 10 15 20 VDD (V) (1) Fast-mode and Standard-mode (2) Fast-mode Plus Fig 42. Rp(min) as a function of VDD The supply voltage limits the minimum value of resistor Rp due to the specified minimum sink current of 3 mA for Standard-mode and Fast-mode, or 20 mA for Fast-mode Plus. Rp(min) as a function of VDD is shown in Figure 42. The traces are calculated using Equation 2: Rp(min) = V----D----D-----–----V----O----L---(-m----a---x--) IOL (2) UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 55 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual The designer now has the minimum and maximum value of Rp that is required to meet the timing specification. Portable designs with sensitivity to supply current consumption can use a value toward the higher end of the range in order to limit IDD. 7.2 Operating above the maximum allowable bus capacitance Bus capacitance limit is specified to limit rise time reductions and allow operating at the rated frequency. While most designs can easily stay within this limit, some applications may exceed it. There are several strategies available to system designers to cope with excess bus capacitance. • Reduced fSCL (Section 7.2.1): The bus may be operated at a lower speed (lower fSCL). • Higher drive outputs (Section 7.2.2): Devices with higher drive current such as those rated for Fast-mode Plus can be used (PCA96xx). • Bus buffers (Section 7.2.3): There are a number of bus buffer devices available that can divide the bus into segments so that each segment has a capacitance below the allowable limit, such as the PCA9517 bus buffer or the PCA9546A switch. • Switched pull-up circuit (Section 7.2.4): A switched pull-up circuit can be used to accelerate rising edges by switching a low value pull-up alternately in and out when needed. 7.2.1 Reduced fSCL To determine a lower allowable bus operating frequency, begin by finding the tLOW and tHIGH of the most limiting device on the bus. Refer to individual component data sheets for these values. Actual rise time (tr) depends on the RC time constant. The most limiting fall time (tf) depends on the lowest output drive on the bus. Be sure to allow for any devices that have a minimum tr or tf. Refer to Equation 3 for the resulting fmax. fmax = ------------------------------------------------------1-----------------------------------------------------tLOW(min) + tHIGH(min) + tr(actual) + tf(actual) (3) Remark: Very long buses must also account for time of flight of signals. Actual results are slower, as real parts do not tend to control tLOW and tHIGH to the minimum from 30 % to 70 %, or 70 % to 30 %, respectively. 7.2.2 Higher drive outputs If higher drive devices like the PCA96xx Fast-mode Plus or the P82B bus buffers are used, the higher strength output drivers sink more current which results in considerably faster edge rates, or, looked at another way, allows a higher bus capacitance. Refer to individual component data sheets for actual output drive capability. Repeat the calculation above using the new values of Cb, Rp, tr and tf to determine maximum frequency. Bear in mind that the maximum rating for fSCL as specified in Table 10 (100 kHz, 400 kHz and 1000 kHz) may become limiting. 7.2.3 Bus buffers, multiplexers and switches Another approach to coping with excess bus capacitance is to divide the bus into smaller segments using bus buffers, multiplexers or switches. Figure 43 shows an example of a bus that uses a PCA9515 buffer to deal with high bus capacitance. Each segment is then allowed to have the maximum capacitance so the total bus can have twice the maximum UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 56 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual capacitance. Keep in mind that adding a buffer always adds delays — a buffer delay plus an additional transition time to each edge, which reduces the maximum operating frequency and may also introduce special VIL and VOL considerations. Refer to application notes AN255, I2C / SMBus Repeaters, Hubs and Expanders and AN262, PCA954x Family of I2C / SMBus Multiplexers and Switches for more details on this subject and the devices available from NXP Semiconductors. VDD1 VDD2 SDA SCL 400 pF BUFFER 400 pF slaves and masters slaves and masters Remark: Some buffers allow VDD1 and VDD2 to be different levels. Fig 43. Using a buffer to divide bus capacitance 002aac882 7.2.4 Switched pull-up circuit The supply voltage (VDD) and the maximum output LOW level determine the minimum value of pull-up resistor Rp (see Section 7.1). For example, with a supply voltage of VDD = 5 V ± 10 % and VOL(max) = 0.4 V at 3 mA, Rp(min) = (5.5 − 0.4) / 0.003 = 1.7 kΩ. As shown in Figure 42, this value of Rp limits the maximum bus capacitance to about 200 pF to meet the maximum tr requirement of 300 ns. If the bus has a higher capacitance than this, a switched pull-up circuit (as shown in Figure 44) can be used. 1/4 HCT4066 nE P nY VCC N VDD 5V 10 % nZ GND 1.3 kΩ Rp2 100 Ω R s 100 Ω R s 1.7 kΩ R p1 SDA or SCL bus line I/O I/O N N Cb 400 pF max. FAST - MODE I2C BUS DEVICES VSS mbc620 Fig 44. Switched pull-up circuit UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 57 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual The switched pull-up circuit in Figure 44 is for a supply voltage of VDD = 5 V ± 10 % and a maximum capacitive load of 400 pF. Since it is controlled by the bus levels, it needs no additional switching control signals. During the rising/falling edges, the bilateral switch in the HCT4066 switches pull-up resistor Rp2 on/off at bus levels between 0.8 V and 2.0 V. Combined resistors Rp1 and Rp2 can pull up the bus line within the maximum specified rise time (tr) of 300 ns. Series resistors Rs are optional. They protect the I/O stages of the I2C-bus devices from high-voltage spikes on the bus lines, and minimize crosstalk and undershoot of the bus line signals. The maximum value of Rs is determined by the maximum permitted voltage drop across this resistor when the bus line is switched to the LOW level in order to switch off Rp2. Additionally, some bus buffers contain integral rise time accelerators. Stand-alone rise time accelerators are also available. 7.3 Series protection resistors As shown in Figure 45, series resistors (Rs) of, for example, 300 Ω can be used for protection against high-voltage spikes on the SDA and SCL lines (resulting from the flash-over of a TV picture tube, for example). If series resistors are used, designers must add the additional resistance into their calculations for Rp and allowable bus capacitance. VDD VDD I2C DEVICE I2C DEVICE Rp Rp Rs Rs SDA SCL Rs Rs mbc627 Fig 45. Series resistors (Rs) for protection against high-voltage spikes The required noise margin of 0.1VDD for the LOW level, limits the maximum value of Rs. Rs(max) as a function of Rp is shown in Figure 46. Note that series resistors affect the output fall time. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 58 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 10 Rp (kΩ) 8 VDD = 2.5 V mbc629 5V 6 15 V 4 10 V 2 0 0 400 800 1200 1600 maximum value Rs (Ω) Fig 46. Maximum value of Rs as a function of the value of Rp with supply voltage as a parameter 7.4 Input leakage The maximum HIGH level input current of each input/output connection has a specified maximum value of 10 μA. Due to the required noise margin of 0.2VDD for the HIGH level, this input current limits the maximum value of Rp. This limit depends on VDD. The total HIGH-level input current is shown as a function of Rp(max) in Figure 47. 20 maximum value R p (kΩ) 16 mbc630 12 VDD = 15 V 8 10 V 4 5V 2.5 V 0 0 40 80 120 160 200 total high level input current (μA) Fig 47. Total HIGH-level input current as a function of the maximum value of Rp with supply voltage as a parameter UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 59 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 7.5 Wiring pattern of the bus lines In general, the wiring must be chosen so that crosstalk and interference to/from the bus lines is minimized. The bus lines are most susceptible to crosstalk and interference at the HIGH level because of the relatively high impedance of the pull-up devices. If the length of the bus lines on a PCB or ribbon cable exceeds 10 cm and includes the VDD and VSS lines, the wiring pattern should be: SDA _______________________ VDD ________________________ VSS ________________________ SCL _______________________ If only the VSS line is included, the wiring pattern should be: SDA _______________________ VSS ________________________ SCL _______________________ These wiring patterns also result in identical capacitive loads for the SDA and SCL lines. If a PCB with a VSS and/or VDD layer is used, the VSS and VDD lines can be omitted. If the bus lines are twisted-pairs, each bus line must be twisted with a VSS return. Alternatively, the SCL line can be twisted with a VSS return, and the SDA line twisted with a VDD return. In the latter case, capacitors must be used to decouple the VDD line to the VSS line at both ends of the twisted pairs. If the bus lines are shielded (shield connected to VSS), interference is minimized. However, the shielded cable must have low capacitive coupling between the SDA and SCL lines to minimize crosstalk. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 60 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 8. Abbreviations Table 15. Abbreviations Acronym Description A/D Analog-to-Digital ATCA Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture BMC Baseboard Management Controller CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor cPCI compact Peripheral Component Interconnect D/A Digital-to-Analog DIP Dual In-line Package EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory HW Hardware I/O Input/Output I2C-bus Inter-Integrated Circuit bus IC Integrated Circuit IPMI Intelligent Platform Management Interface LCD Liquid Crystal Display LED Light Emitting Diode LSB Least Significant Bit MCU Microcontroller MSB Most Significant Bit NMOS Negative-channel Metal-Oxide Semiconductor PCB Printed-Circuit Board PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect PMBus Power Management Bus RAM Random Access Memory ROM Read-Only Memory SMBus System Management Bus SPI Serial Peripheral Interface UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter USB Universal Serial Bus UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 61 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 9. Legal information 9.1 Definitions Draft — The document is a draft version only. The content is still under internal review and subject to formal approval, which may result in modifications or additions. NXP Semiconductors does not give any representations or warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of information included herein and shall have no liability for the consequences of use of such information. 9.2 Disclaimers Limited warranty and liability — Information in this document is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, NXP Semiconductors does not give any representations or warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of such information and shall have no liability for the consequences of use of such information. NXP Semiconductors takes no responsibility for the content in this document if provided by an information source outside of NXP Semiconductors. In no event shall NXP Semiconductors be liable for any indirect, incidental, punitive, special or consequential damages (including - without limitation - lost profits, lost savings, business interruption, costs related to the removal or replacement of any products or rework charges) whether or not such damages are based on tort (including negligence), warranty, breach of contract or any other legal theory. Notwithstanding any damages that customer might incur for any reason whatsoever, NXP Semiconductors’ aggregate and cumulative liability towards customer for the products described herein shall be limited in accordance with the Terms and conditions of commercial sale of NXP Semiconductors. Right to make changes — NXP Semiconductors reserves the right to make changes to information published in this document, including without limitation specifications and product descriptions, at any time and without notice. This document supersedes and replaces all information supplied prior to the publication hereof. Suitability for use — NXP Semiconductors products are not designed, authorized or warranted to be suitable for use in life support, life-critical or safety-critical systems or equipment, nor in applications where failure or malfunction of an NXP Semiconductors product can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury, death or severe property or environmental damage. NXP Semiconductors and its suppliers accept no liability for inclusion and/or use of NXP Semiconductors products in such equipment or applications and therefore such inclusion and/or use is at the customer’s own risk. Applications — Applications that are described herein for any of these products are for illustrative purposes only. NXP Semiconductors makes no representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the specified use without further testing or modification. Customers are responsible for the design and operation of their applications and products using NXP Semiconductors products, and NXP Semiconductors accepts no liability for any assistance with applications or customer product design. It is customer’s sole responsibility to determine whether the NXP Semiconductors product is suitable and fit for the customer’s applications and products planned, as well as for the planned application and use of customer’s third party customer(s). Customers should provide appropriate design and operating safeguards to minimize the risks associated with their applications and products. NXP Semiconductors does not accept any liability related to any default, damage, costs or problem which is based on any weakness or default in the customer’s applications or products, or the application or use by customer’s third party customer(s). Customer is responsible for doing all necessary testing for the customer’s applications and products using NXP Semiconductors products in order to avoid a default of the applications and the products or of the application or use by customer’s third party customer(s). NXP does not accept any liability in this respect. Export control — This document as well as the item(s) described herein may be subject to export control regulations. Export might require a prior authorization from competent authorities. Translations — A non-English (translated) version of a document is for reference only. The English version shall prevail in case of any discrepancy between the translated and English versions. 9.3 Trademarks Notice: All referenced brands, product names, service names and trademarks are the property of their respective owners. I2C-bus — logo is a trademark of NXP B.V. UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 62 of 64 NXP Semiconductors UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual 10. Contents 1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6 3.1.7 3.1.8 3.1.9 3.1.10 3.1.11 3.1.12 3.1.13 3.1.14 3.1.15 3.1.16 3.1.17 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.2.8 3.2.9 3.2.10 3.2.11 3.2.12 3.2.13 3.2.14 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 I2C-bus features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Designer benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Manufacturer benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 IC designer benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The I2C-bus protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Standard-mode, Fast-mode and Fast-mode Plus I2C-bus protocols . . . . . . . . . . 6 SDA and SCL signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 SDA and SCL logic levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Data validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 START and STOP conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Byte format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Acknowledge (ACK) and Not Acknowledge (NACK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Clock synchronization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Arbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Clock stretching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The slave address and R/W bit . . . . . . . . . . . 13 10-bit addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Reserved addresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 General call address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Software reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 START byte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Bus clear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Device ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Ultra Fast-mode I2C-bus protocol . . . . . . . . . . 23 USDA and USCL signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 USDA and USCL logic levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Data validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 START and STOP conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Byte format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Acknowledge (ACK) and Not Acknowledge (NACK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 The slave address and R/W bit . . . . . . . . . . . 27 10-bit addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Reserved addresses in UFm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 General call address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Software reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 START byte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Unresponsive slave reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Device ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Other uses of the I2C-bus communications protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 CBUS compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 SMBus - System Management Bus . . . . . . . . 32 I2C/SMBus compliancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.3.8 5.4 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 7 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.3 7.4 7.5 8 Time-out feature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Differences between SMBus 1.0 and SMBus 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 PMBus - Power Management Bus. . . . . . . . . 34 Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Display Data Channel (DDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Bus speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Fast-mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Fast-mode Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Hs-mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 High speed transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Serial data format in Hs-mode . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Switching from F/S-mode to Hs-mode and back . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Hs-mode devices at lower speed modes . . . . 41 Mixed speed modes on one serial bus system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Standard, Fast-mode and Fast-mode Plus transfer in a mixed-speed bus system . . . . . . 44 Hs-mode transfer in a mixed-speed bus system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Timing requirements for the bridge in a mixed-speed bus system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Ultra Fast-mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Electrical specifications and timing for I/O stages and bus lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Standard-, Fast-, and Fast-mode Plus devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Hs-mode devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Ultra Fast-mode devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Electrical connections of I2C-bus devices to the bus lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Pull-up resistor sizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Operating above the maximum allowable bus capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Reduced fSCL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Higher drive outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Bus buffers, multiplexers and switches . . . . . 56 Switched pull-up circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Series protection resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Input leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Wiring pattern of the bus lines . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 continued >> UM10204 User manual All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers. Rev. 5 — 9 October 2012 © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. 63 of 64 NXP Semiconductors 9 Legal information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 9.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 9.2 Disclaimers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 9.3 Trademarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 10 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 UM10204 I2C-bus specification and user manual Please be aware that important notices concerning this document and the product(s) described herein, have been included in section ‘Legal information’. © NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved. For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com For sales office addresses, please send an email to: salesaddresses@nxp.com Date of release: 9 October 2012 Document identifier: UM10204

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