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    CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 CMMI® for Development, Version 1.3 CMMI-DEV, V1.3 CMMI Product Team CMMI 产品团队 Improving processes for developing better products and services 提升过程,开发更好的产品和服务 November 2010,2010 年 11 月 Technical Report 技术报告 CMU/SEI-2010-TR-033 ESC-TR-2010-033 Software Engineering Process Management Program Unlimited distribution subject to the copyright. http://www.sei.cmu.edu This report was prepared for the 本报告由 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 SEI Administrative Agent SEI 管理机构提供,地址如下: ESC/XPK 5 Eglin Street Hanscom AFB, MA 01731-2100 The ideas and findings in this report should not be construed as an official DoD position. It is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange. This work is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense. The Software Engineering Institute is a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense. Copyright 2010 Carnegie Mellon University. NO WARRANTY THIS CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE MATERIAL IS FURNISHED ON AN “AS-IS” BASIS. CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY MAKES NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, AS TO ANY MATTER INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR PURPOSE OR MERCHANTABILITY, EXCLUSIVITY, OR RESULTS OBTAINED FROM USE OF THE MATERIAL. CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY DOES NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH RESPECT TO FREEDOM FROM PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT. Use of any trademarks in this report is not intended in any way to infringe on the rights of the trademark holder. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Internal use. Permission to reproduce this document and to prepare derivative works from this document for internal use is granted, provided the copyright and “No Warranty” statements are included with all reproductions and derivative works. External use. This document may be reproduced in its entirety, without modification, and freely distributed in written or electronic form without requesting formal permission. Permission is required for any other external and/or commercial use. Requests for permission should be directed to the Software Engineering Institute at permission@sei.cmu.edu. This work was created in the performance of Federal Government Contract Number FA8721-05-C-0003 with Carnegie Mellon University for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally funded research and development center. The Government of the United States has a royalty-free government-purpose license to use, duplicate, or disclose the work, in whole or in part and in any manner, and to have or permit others to do so, for government purposes pursuant to the copyright license under the clause at 252.227-7013. For information about SEI publications, please visit the library on the SEI website (www.sei.cmu.edu/library). The following service marks and registered marks are used in this document:Capability Maturity Model Carnegie Mellon CERT CMM CMMI CMM Integration IDEALSM SCAMPISM CMMI, CMM, CERT, CMM Integration, Carnegie Mellon, and Capability Maturity Model are registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. SCAMPI and IDEAL are service marks of Carnegie Mellon University. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com Preface 前言 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 CMMI® (Capability Maturity Model® Integration) models are collections of best practices that help organizations to improve their processes. These models are developed by product teams with members from industry, government, and the Software Engineering Institute (SEI). CMMI®(能力成熟度模型集成)模型是有助于企业提升过程的最佳实践的集合。这些模型 由来自于企业、政府和软件工程研究所建立的产品团队共同开发。 This model, called CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV), provides a comprehensive integrated set of guidelines for developing products and services. 本模型,即 CMMI 开发模型,为开发产品和服务提供了一个全面集成的指南。 Purpose 目的 The CMMI-DEV model provides guidance for applying CMMI best practices in a development organization. Best practices in the model focus on activities for developing quality products and services to meet the needs of customers and end users. CMMI-DEV 模型为研发机构实施 CMMI 最佳实践提供了指南。模型中的最佳实践着眼于开发高质量的 产品和服务所需要的活动,以满足客户和最终用户的需求。 The CMMI-DEV, V1.3 model is a collection of development best practices from government and industry that is generated from the CMMI V1.3 Architecture and Framework.1 CMMI-DEV is based on the CMMI Model Foundation or CMF (i.e., model components common to all CMMI models and constellations2) and incorporates work by development organizations to adapt CMMI for use in the development of products and services. 1 The CMMI Framework is the basic structure that organizes CMMI components and combines them into CMMI constellations and models.CMMI 框架是 CMMI 组件和将它们组合成 CMMI 星形结构和模型的基本结构。 2 A constellation is a collection of CMMI components that are used to construct models, training materials, and appraisal related documents for an area of interest (e.g., development, acquisition, services).星形结构是 CMMI 组件的汇总,它用于构建 对感兴趣的领域相关的模型,培训材料和文档评估(例如,开发,采购,服务)。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com iv CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 CMMI-DEV 模型是来自于政府和业界研发最佳实践的汇总,并形成了 CMMI V1.3 的架构和 框架.1。CMMI-DEV 基于 CMMI 模型基础框架,简称 CMF(例如:对于所有 CMMI 模型和 星形结构都满足的通用组件模型),并整合了研发企业在产品和服务研发过程中实施 CMMI 的各种实践。 Acknowledgments 致谢 Many talented people were involved in the development of the V1.3 CMMI Product Suite. Three primary groups were the CMMI Steering Group, Product Team, and Configuration Control Board (CCB). 许多有才能的人参与开发 CMMI V1.3 产品系列。包括三个基本组,CMMI 管理组,产品团 队,配置管理组(CCB)。 The Steering Group guided and approved the plans of the Product Team, provided consultation on significant CMMI project issues, and ensured involvement from a variety of interested communities. CMMI 管理组指导和批准产品团队的工作计划,为重要的 CMMI 项目问题提供帮助,保证各 种兴趣小组参与其中。 The Steering Group oversaw the development of the Development constellation recognizing the importance of providing best practices to development organizations. 管理组监视星形开发团队的活动,帮助他们认识到提供最佳实践给开发企业的重要性。 The Product Team wrote, reviewed, revised, discussed, and agreed on the structure and technical content of the CMMI Product Suite, including the framework, models, training, and appraisal materials. Development activities were based on multiple inputs. These inputs included an A-Specification and guidance specific to each release provided by the Steering Group, source models, change requests received from the user community, and input received from pilots and other stakeholders. 产品团队编写,评审,修订,讨论,并对 CMMI 产品系列的结构和技术内容达成一致,包 括框架,模型,培训和评估材料。开发活动来自于多个输入。这些输入包括一个由管理团队 提交的规范和指南,源模型,来自于用户组织的变更请求,也包括来自于试点项目和其他干 系人的输入。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com v CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 The CCB is the official mechanism for controlling changes to CMMI models, appraisal related documents, and Introduction to CMMI training. As such, this group ensures integrity over the life of the product suite by reviewing all proposed changes to the baseline and approving only those changes that satisfy identified issues and meet criteria for the upcoming release. CBB 是 CMMI 模型、相关评估文档和 CMMI 培训教材等资料的变更的正式控制机制。CCB 保证对产品生命周期内所有提议的基线变更进行审查,确保只有那些满足已识别的问题进行 变更以满足发布的标准。 Members of the groups involved in developing CMMI-DEV, V1.3 are listed in Appendix C. 参与开发 CMMI-DEV V1.3 的小组成员,请参考附录 C。 Audience 读者 The audience for CMMI-DEV includes anyone interested in process improvement in a development environment. Whether you are familiar with the concept of Capability Maturity Models or are seeking information to begin improving your development processes, CMMI-DEV will be useful to you. This model is also intended for organizations that want to use a reference model for an appraisal of their development related processes. 3 CMMI-DEV 的读者包括对过程改进有兴趣的任何人。不管是否熟悉能力成熟度模型,抑或 正在为提升开发过程能力查找资料,CMMI-DEV 都会对你有所帮助。这个模型也适合那些 正在试图为评估他们开发相关过程的企业,模型可以为他们提供一个有用的参考。 Organization of this Document 本文的组织结构 This document is organized into three main parts: 本文档由三部分构成:  Part One: About CMMI for Development 3 An appraisal is an examination of one or more processes by a trained team of professionals using a reference model (e.g., CMMI-DEV) as the basis for determining strengths and weaknesses.评估是经过培训的专业团队使用一个参考模型(例如, CMMI-DEV)为基础对一个或多个过程进行评估以确定其优点和不足之处。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com vi CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 第一部分:关于 CMMI -DEV 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Part Two: Generic Goals and Generic Practices, and the Process Areas 第二部分:通用目标和通用实践,以及过程域  Part Three: The Appendices and Glossary 第三部分:附录和词汇表 Part One: About CMMI for Development, consists of five chapters: 第一部分:关于 CMMI-DEV,由 5 个章节组成:  Chapter 1, Introduction, offers a broad view of CMMI and the CMMI for Development constellation, concepts of process improvement, and the history of models used for process improvement and different process improvement approaches. 第一章,简介,提供了 CMMI 和 CMMI-DEV 星形结构的轮廓,过 程改进的概念,以及用于过程改进模型和过程改进方法的历 史。  Chapter 2, Process Area Components, describes all of the components of the CMMI for Development process areas. 第二章,过程域组件,描述所有 CMMI-DEV 过程域的组件。  Chapter 3, Tying It All Together, assembles the model components and explains the concepts of maturity levels and capability levels. 第三章,集成,把模型组件汇总,解释成熟度等级和能力等级 的概念。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com vii CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Chapter 4, Relationships Among Process Areas, provides insight into the meaning and interactions among the CMMI-DEV process areas. 第四章,过程域之间关系,提供 CMMI-DEV 过程域内涵和相互 关联之间的涵义。  Chapter 5, Using CMMI Models, describes paths to adoption and the use of CMMI for process improvement and benchmarking of practices in a development organization. 第五章,CMMI 模型的使用,描述研发企业采用 CMMI 过程改进 和标杆实践的路径。 Part Two: Generic Goals and Generic Practices, and the Process Areas, contains all of this CMMI model’s required and expected components. It also contains related informative components, including subpractices, notes, examples, and example work products. 第二部分,通用目标和通用实践,过程域,以及组成 CMMI 模型所必须和期望的组件。它 也包含了相关的信息组件,包括子实践,注释,样例和工作产品样例。 Part Two contains 23 sections. The first section contains the generic goals and practices. The remaining 22 sections each represent one of the CMMI-DEV process areas. 第二部分有 23 个章节。第一章节包括通用目标和实践,其余 22 章节每个代表一个 CMMI-DEV 的过程域。 To make these process areas easy to find, they are organized alphabetically by process area acronym. Each section contains descriptions of goals, best practices, and examples. 为了让这些过程域能容易的被检索出来,它们以过程域简称的字母先后顺序进行排列的。每 个章节都包含了对目标,最佳实践和样例的描述。 Part Three: The Appendices and Glossary, consists of four sections: 第三部分:附录和词汇表,由 4 个章节组成: 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com viii CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Appendix A: References, contains references you can use to locate documented sources of information such as reports, process improvement models, industry standards, and books that are related to CMMI-DEV. 附录 A:索引,包括用于文档定位所有信息的索引,例如报告、 过程改进模型,工业标准,以及与 CMMI-DEV 相关的书籍。  Appendix B: Acronyms, defines the acronyms used in the model. 附录 B:缩略语,定义了本模型用到的所有缩略语。  Appendix C: CMMI Version 1.3 Project Participants contains lists of team members who participated in the development of CMMI-DEV, V1.3. 附 录 C : CMMI V1.3 项 目 的 参 与 者 , 包 括 所 有 参 加 开 发 CMMI-DEV V1.3 的团队成员。  Appendix D: Glossary, defines many of the terms used in CMMI-DEV. 附录 D:词汇表,CMMI-DEV 模型中使用的词汇。 How to Use this Document 如何使用本文档 Whether you are new to process improvement, new to CMMI, or already familiar with CMMI, Part One can help you understand why CMMI-DEV is the model to use for improving your development processes. 无论您对于过程改进和 CMMI 感觉很新奇,亦或是您已经熟悉 CMMI,第一部分都能让您 了解到为什么 CMMI-DEV 是对提升过程改进非常有用的一个模型。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ix CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Readers New to Process Improvement 刚接 触过程改进的读者 If you are new to process improvement or new to the Capability Maturity Model (CMM®) concept, we suggest that you read Chapter 1 first. Chapter 1 contains an overview of process improvement that explains what CMMI is all about. 如果您刚接触过程改进或能力成熟度模型概念,我们建议您首先阅 读第一章。第一章包含了过程改进模型的概述,它解释了什么是 CMMI。 Next, skim Part Two, including generic goals and practices and specific goals and practices, to get a feel for the scope of the best practices contained in the model. Pay close attention to the purpose and introductory notes at the beginning of each process area. 下一步,跳过第二部分,即通用目标和实践以及特定目标和实践, 获得模型中所包含的最佳实践范围的一些感受。请特别注意在每个 过程域前的目的和介绍环节。 In Part Three, look through the references in Appendix A and select additional sources you think would be beneficial to read before moving forward with using CMMI-DEV. Read through the acronyms and glossary to become familiar with the language of CMMI. Then, go back and read the details of Part Two. 在第三部分,在阅读使用 CMM-DEV 模型之前,请浏览附录 A 的 索引以及任何有助于读者理解的其他资源。浏览缩略语和词汇表有 助于熟悉 CMMI 语言。然后,回头仔细研读第二部分。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com x CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Readers Experienced with Process Improvement 有过程改进经验的读者 If you are new to CMMI but have experience with other process improvement models, such as the Software CMM or the Systems Engineering Capability Model (i.e., EIA 731), you will immediately recognize many similarities in their structure and content [EIA 2002a]. 如果您刚接触 CMMI,但已经有其他方面的过程改进经历,例如软 件 CMM 或系统工程能力模型(如:EIA731),您可以马上认识到 本模型与它们在结构和内容有许多相似点[EIA2002a]。 We recommend that you read Part One to understand how CMMI is different from other process improvement models. If you have experience with other models, you may want to select which sections to read first. Read Part Two with an eye for best practices you recognize from the models that you have already used. By identifying familiar material, you will gain an understanding of what is new, what has been carried over, and what is familiar from the models you already know. 我们推荐您阅读第一部分以便理解 CMMI 与其他过程改进模型之 间的不同。如果您有其他模型的过程改进经验,您也可以选择一些 章节先进行阅读。在第二部分请关注您已经识别出来的您很熟悉的 那些最佳实践。通过识别已经熟知的材料,您能了解到哪些东西是 新的,哪些已经做过了,以及模型中哪些是您已经非常熟悉的。 Next, review the glossary to understand how some terminology can differ from that used in the process improvement models you know. Many concepts are repeated, but they may be called something different. 下一步,复查词汇表以了解一些术语与您熟悉的过程改进模型有什 么不同。很多概念是重复的,但叫法可能不同。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com xi CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Readers Familiar with CMMI 熟悉 CMMI 的读 者 If you have reviewed or used a CMMI model before, you will quickly recognize the CMMI concepts discussed and the best practices presented. As always, the improvements that the CMMI Product Team made to CMMI for the V1.3 release were driven by user input. Change requests were carefully considered, analyzed, and implemented. 如果您已经使用或曾经使用过 CMMI 模型,您会立即识别出 CMMI 的概念以及已有的最佳实践。和之前一样,CMMI 产品团队对 CMMI V1.3 的改进来源于用户的输入。而相关的变更请求已经经过了仔 细的讨论、分析和改进。 Some significant improvements you can expect in CMMI-DEV, V1.3 include the following: 在 CMMI-DEV1.3 一些重大的改进值得您期待,包括:  High maturity process areas are significantly improved to reflect industry best practices, including a new specific goal and several new specific practices in the process area that was renamed from Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID) to Organizational Performance Management (OPM). 高成熟度过程域根据相关产业的最佳实践进行了重大的改进, 包括把组织更新与部署(OID)过程域重新定义为组织性能管 理(OPM)中的一个新的特定目标和几个新的特定实践。  Improvements were made to the model architecture that simplify the use of multiple models. 模型架构的一些改进使得在多种模型一起使用时更加简单。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com xii CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Informative material was improved, including revising the engineering practices to reflect industry best practice and adding guidance for organizations that use Agile methods. 信息资料也有所改进,包括更新工程实践以反映最佳实践,以 及对组织使用敏捷方法而增加的指南。  Glossary definitions and model terminology were improved to enhance the clarity, accuracy, and usability of the model. 词汇定义和模型缩略语也进行了改进,以增加模型的清晰性, 准确性和可用性。  Level 4 and 5 generic goals and practices were eliminated as well as capability levels 4 and 5 to appropriately focus high maturity on the achievement of business objectives, which is accomplished by applying capability level 1-3 to the high maturity process areas (Causal Analysis and Resolution, Quantitative Project Management, Organizational Performance Management, and Organizational Process Performance). 4 级和 5 级的通用目标和通用实践被删除了,同样,适用于高 成熟度 4 和 5 能力等级也删除了,以便将高成熟度映射为商业 目标的达成,而这些是由 1~3 级的能力应用到高成熟过程域时 所形成的(原因分析与解决、量化项目管理、组织性能管理和 组织过程性能)。 For a more complete and detailed list of improvements, see http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/tools/cmmiv1-3/. 要获得完整和详细的过程改进列表,请参考 http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/tools/cmmiv1-3/。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com xiii CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Additional Information and Reader Feedback 其他信息 和读者反馈 Many sources of information about CMMI are listed in Appendix A and are also published on the CMMI website http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/. 关于 CMMI 的信息来源请参考附录 A,同时在 CMMI 网站上也予以了发布,见 www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/。 Your suggestions for improving CMMI are welcome. For information on how to provide feedback, see the CMMI website at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/tools/cr/. If you have questions about CMMI, send email to cmmi-comments@sei.cmu.edu. 任何对 CMMI 的改进建议都是欢迎的。对于如何提供信息反馈,查看 CMMI 网址: www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/tools/cr. 如果您对 CMMI 有任何问题,请给我们发送邮件: cmmi-commments@sei.cum.edu。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com xiv CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Table of Contents 目录 CMMI® for Development, Version 1.3 i CMMI-DEV, V1.3 i Preface 前言 iv Purpose 目的 iv Acknowledgments 致谢 v Audience 读者 vi Organization of this Document 本文的组织结构 vi How to Use this Document 如何使用本文档 ix Additional Information and Reader Feedback 其他信息和读者反馈 xiv Table of Contents 目录 xv Part One: 1 About CMMI for Development 1 第一部分: 1 关于 CMMI for DEV 1 1 Introduction 简介 2 About Process Improvement 关于过程改进 3 About Capability Maturity Models 关于能力成熟度模型 5 Evolution of CMMI CMMI 的演变 7 CMMI Framework CMMI 框架 10 CMMI for Development 开发领域的 CMMI 10 2 Process Area Components 过程域的构成 12 Core Process Areas and CMMI Models 核心过程域和 CMMI 模型 12 Required, Expected, and Informative Components 必要的、期望的以及辅助的组件 13 Components Associated with Part Two 与第二部分相关联的组件 15 Supporting Informative Components 支持类辅助组件 24 Numbering Scheme 编码方案 26 Typographical Conventions 印刷和排版规则说明 28 3 Tying It All Together 总论 32 Understanding Levels 理解级别的概念 33 Structures of the Continuous and Staged Representations 连续式和阶段式表现形式的结构 34 Understanding Capability Levels 了解能力级别 38 Understanding Maturity Levels 了解成熟度级别 44 Process Areas 过程域 55 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com xv CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Equivalent Staging 对等的阶段式 Achieving High Maturity 达到高成熟度 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 4 Relationships Among Process Areas 过程域之间的关系 Process Management 过程管理 Project Management 项目管理 Engineering 工程 Recursion and Iteration of Engineering Processes 工程过程的循环和迭代 Support 支持 5 Using CMMI Models 使用 CMMI 模型 Adopting CMMI 使用 CMMI Your Process Improvement Program 你的过程改进规划 Selections that Influence Your Program 影响你规划的选择 CMMI Models 各种 CMMI 模型 Interpreting CMMI When Using Agile Approaches 使用敏捷方法时 CMMI 的理解 Using CMMI Appraisals 使用 CMMI 评估 Appraisal Requirements for CMMI CMMI 评估要求 SCAMPI Appraisal Method SCAMPI 评估方法 Appraisal Considerations 评估注意事项 CMMI Related Training 与 CMMI 相关的培训 Part Two: Generic Goals and Generic Practices, and the Process Areas 第二部分: 通用目标与通用实践及过程域 Generic Goals and Generic Practices 通用目标与通用实践 Overview 概述 Process Institutionalization 过程制度化 Generic Goals and Generic Practices 通用目标和通用实践 Process Areas that Support Generic Practices 支持通用实践的过程域 Causal Analysis and Resolution 原因分析与解决 Purpose 目的 Introductory Notes 简介 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 Configuration Management 配置管理 Purpose 目的 Introductory Notes 简介 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com xvi 62 68 70 71 77 85 90 92 98 98 100 101 103 105 107 108 109 110 112 114 114 114 114 115 115 115 122 259 271 271 271 274 275 293 293 293 299 300 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Decision Analysis and Resolution 决策分析与解决 319 Purpose 目的 319 Introductory Notes 简介 319 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 323 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 324 Integrated Project Management 集成项目管理 338 Purpose 目的 338 Introductory Notes 简介 338 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 341 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 342 Measurement and Analysis 度量与分析 382 Purpose 目的 382 Introductory Notes 简介 382 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 384 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 386 Organizational Process Definition 组织过程定义 421 Purpose 目的 421 Introductory Notes 简介 421 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 423 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 424 Organizational Process Focus 组织过程焦点 449 Purpose 目的 449 Introductory Notes 简介 449 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 451 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 452 Organizational Performance Management 组织性能管理 483 Purpose 目的 483 Introductory Notes 简介 483 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 487 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 488 Organizational Process Performance 组织过程性能 527 Purpose 目的 527 Introductory Notes 简介 527 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 531 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 532 Organizational Training 组织培训 556 Purpose 目的 556 Introductory Notes 简介 556 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 559 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 560 Product Integration 产品集成 579 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com xvii CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Purpose 目的 579 Introductory Notes 简介 579 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 582 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 583 Project Monitoring and Control 项目监督与控制 611 Purpose 目的 611 Introductory Notes 简介 611 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 612 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 613 Project Planning 项目策划 632 Purpose 目的 632 Introductory Notes 简介 632 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 635 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 636 Process and Product Quality Assurance 过程与产品质量保证 679 Purpose 目的 679 Introductory Notes 简介 679 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 685 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 685 Quantitative Project Management 量化项目管理 693 Purpose 目的 693 Introductory Notes 简介 693 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 698 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 700 Requirements Development 需求开发 739 Purpose 目的 739 Introductory Notes 简介 739 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 745 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 747 Requirements Management 需求管理 776 Purpose 目的 776 Introductory Notes 简介 776 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 779 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 780 Risk Management 风险管理 791 Purpose 目的 791 Introductory Notes 简介 791 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 794 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 795 Supplier Agreement Management 供应商协议管理 825 Purpose 目的 825 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com xviii CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Introductory Notes 简介 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 Technical Solution 技术解决 Purpose 目的 Introductory Notes 简介 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 Validation 确认 Purpose 目的 Introductory Notes 简介 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 Verification 验证 Purpose 目的 Introductory Notes 简介 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Part Three: The Appendices 第三部分: 附录 Appendix A: References 附录 A:参考文献 Appendix B: Acronyms 附录 B:缩略语 Appendix C: CMMI Version 1.3 Project Participants 附录 C:CMMI V1.3 项目参与者 Appendix D: Glossary 附录 D:词汇表 825 829 830 850 850 850 854 856 897 897 897 900 901 915 915 915 919 920 940 940 940 940 941 955 960 977 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com xix CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Part One: About CMMI for Development 第一部分: 关于 CMMI for DEV 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 1 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 1 Introduction 简介 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Now more than ever, companies want to deliver products and services better, faster, and cheaper. At the same time, in the high-technology environment of the twenty-first century, nearly all organizations have found themselves building increasingly complex products and services. It is unusual today for a single organization to develop all the components that compose a complex product or service. More commonly, some components are built in-house and some are acquired; then all the components are integrated into the final product or service. Organizations must be able to manage and control this complex development and maintenance process. 现在,越来越多的企业想要使交付的产品和服务更好、更迅速、更廉价。然而,在二十一 世纪技术高速发展的环境中,几乎所有的企业都发现他们的产品和服务变得越来越复杂了。 如今对于一个企业而言,不会单独开发产品或服务的所有复杂组件。比较常见的是,企业 自主开发一部分组件而另一部分通过采购获得,然后再将所有的组件组合成最终的产品或 服务。组织必须能够管理和控制这些复杂的开发和维护过程。 The problems these organizations address today involve enterprise-wide solutions that require an integrated approach. Effective management of organizational assets is critical to business success. In essence, these organizations are product and service developers that need a way to manage their development activities as part of achieving their business objectives. 现今,这些组织需要一个整合的方法用以解决涉及到企业整体环境的问题。组织资产的有 效管理是企业成功的关键。本质上,这些组织都是产品和服务的开发者,他们需要一种方 法来管理他们开发活动,以便实现他们商业目标。 In the current marketplace, maturity models, standards, methodologies, and guidelines exist that can help an organization improve the way it does business. However, most available improvement approaches focus on a specific part of the business and do not take a systemic approach to the problems that most organizations are facing. By focusing on improving one area of a business, these models have unfortunately perpetuated the stovepipes and barriers that exist in organizations. 在目前的市场上,成熟度模型,标准,方法论和指南可以帮助组织改进他们的经营方式。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 2 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 但是,大多数可用的改进方法只关注生产经营的某个特定部分,没有针对大多数组织现今 所面对的问题采取系统的方法。正是由于它们只关注于经营的某一个领域,这些模型使得 组织永远存在高烟囱(难以沟通)和障碍。 CMMI® for Development (CMMI-DEV) provides an opportunity to avoid or eliminate these stovepipes and barriers. CMMI for Development consists of best practices that address development activities applied to products and services. It addresses practices that cover the product’s lifecycle from conception through delivery and maintenance. The emphasis is on the work necessary to build and maintain the total product. CMMI® for Development (CMMI-DEV)提供了一个避免或消除这些高烟囱和障碍的机会。 CMMI for Development 包含了解决产品和服务开发活动中出现问题的最佳实践方法。它 包含了可以解决涵盖从构思到交付和维护的整个产品生命周期的实践。强调根据工作的需 要建立与维护整体工作产品。 CMMI-DEV contains 22 process areas. Of those process areas, 16 are core process areas, 1 is a shared process area, and 5 are development specific process areas.4 CMMI-DEV 包含了 22 个过程域。这些过程域中,有 16 个核心过程域,1 个共享过程域和 5 个特定的开发过程域。 All CMMI-DEV model practices focus on the activities of the developer organization. Five process areas focus on practices specific to development: addressing requirements development, technical solution, product integration, verification, and validation. CMMI-DEV 模型的所有实践都关注开发团队的活动。5 个过程域关注开发活动的特定实践: 解决需求开发,技术解决,产品集成,验证和确认。 About Process Improvement 关于过程改进 In its research to help organizations to develop and maintain quality products and services, the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) has found several dimensions that an organization can focus on to improve its business. Figure 1.1 illustrates the three critical dimensions that organizations typically focus on: people, procedures and methods, and 4 A core process area is a process area that is common to all CMMI models. A shared process area is shared by at least two CMMI models, but not all of them.一个核心过程域是适用于所有 CMMI 模型的过程域。一个共享过程域是至少两个,但 不是所有的 CMMI 模型所共享。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 3 页 共 1064 页--- tools and equipment. CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 在帮助组织开发和维护产品质量及服务的研究中,SEI 发现组织可以重点关注几个改进经 营活动的维度。图 1.1 对组织一般会重点关注的三个关键维度进行了说明:人员,过程和 方法,以及工具与设备。 Procedures and methods defining the relationship of tasks B A D C People with skills, training, and motivation PROCESS Tools and equipment Figure 1.1: The Three Critical Dimensions 三个关键维度 What holds everything together? It is the processes used in your organization. Processes allow you to align the way you do business. They allow you to address scalability and provide a way to incorporate knowledge of how to do things better. Processes allow you to leverage your resources and to examine business trends. 但是,是什么将它们结合在一起的呢?答案是你组织中所使用的用于安排你经营方式的流 程。这些流程允许你扩大处理范围,并提供了如何让事情做得更好的一个知识集成的方法。 这些流程允许你利用你的资源来检查经营趋势。 This is not to say that people and technology are not important. We are living in a world where technology is changing at an incredible speed. Similarly, people typically work for many companies throughout their careers. We live in a dynamic world. A focus on process provides the infrastructure and stability necessary to deal with an ever-changing world and to maximize the productivity of people and the use of technology to be competitive. 这并不是说人员和技术不重要。我们现今生活的世界技术正在以不可思议的速度发生着改 变。同样,每个人在他们的职业生涯中也会在多家公司工作。我们生活在一个动态的世界 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 4 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 中。对流程的关注可以在处理每次变革时提供基础和必要的稳定性,从而使生产力最大化, 并且让使用的技术更具有竞争力。 Manufacturing has long recognized the importance of process effectiveness and efficiency. Today, many organizations in manufacturing and service industries recognize the importance of quality processes. Process helps an organization’s workforce to meet business objectives by helping them to work smarter, not harder, and with improved consistency. Effective processes also provide a vehicle for introducing and using new technology in a way that best meets the business objectives of the organization. 制造业在很早之前就认识到流程的效果与效率的重要性。今天,许多制造型组织和服务机 构认识到过程质量的重要性。流程通过帮助组织成员更敏捷而非费力的工作,以及改进的 一致性,它可以帮助组织成员实现商业目标。有效的流程也可以提供相关介绍和使用新的 技术,从而以最佳的方法实现组织的商业目标。 About Capability Maturity Models 关于能力成熟度模型 A Capability Maturity Model® (CMM®), including CMMI, is a simplified representation of the world. CMMs contain the essential elements of effective processes. These elements are based on the concepts developed by Crosby, Deming, Juran, and Humphrey. 能力成熟度模型® (CMM®),包括 CMMI,是对现实世界的简单表示。CMMs 包含有效过程 的基本组件。这些元素组件的基础来源于 Crosby,Deming, Juran and Humphrey 的理 念。 In the 1930s, Walter Shewhart began work in process improvement with his principles of statistical quality control [Shewhart 1931]. These principles were refined by W. Edwards Deming [Deming 1986], Phillip Crosby [Crosby 1979], and Joseph Juran [Juran 1988]. Watts Humphrey, Ron Radice, and others extended these principles further and began applying them to software in their work at IBM (International Business Machines) and the SEI [Humphrey 1989]. Humphrey’s book, Managing the Software Process, provides a description of the basic principles and concepts on which many of the Capability Maturity Models® (CMMs®) are based. 在 20 世纪 30 年代,Walter Shewhart 开始使用统计质量控制理论来进行过程改进 [Shewhart 1931]。这些理论被 W. Edwards Deming [Deming 1986],Phillip Crosby [Crosby 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 5 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 1979],和 Joseph Juran [Juran 1988],Watts Humphrey,Ron Radice 和其他人重新定 义,并开始在他们所在的 IBM (国际商业机器公司)和 SEI [Humphrey 1989]组织内应用 于软件开发工作中。Humphrey 的书《管理软件过程》提供了许多建立能力成熟度模型 (CMMs®)基础的基本理论与概念的描述。 The SEI has taken the process management premise, “the quality of a system or product is highly influenced by the quality of the process used to develop and maintain it,” and defined CMMs that embody this premise. The belief in this premise is seen worldwide in quality movements, as evidenced by the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) body of standards. SEI 认为过程管理的前提是“一个系统或产品的质量会受到发展与维护它的过程质量的高 度影响”,所以用 CMMs 来对这个前提进行定义。这个前提的理念在全世界的质量活动中 都可见,国际标准组织/国际电子技术委员会(ISO/IEC)的标准就是证据。 CMMs focus on improving processes in an organization. They contain the essential elements of effective processes for one or more disciplines and describe an evolutionary improvement path from ad hoc, immature processes to disciplined, mature processes with improved quality and effectiveness. CMMs 专注于改进组织过程。它们包含了一个或多个专业领域有效过程的基本组件,并且 提供了由混乱且不成熟的过程向专业且提升质量和效果的成熟过程转换的改进途径。 Like other CMMs, CMMI models provide guidance to use when developing processes. CMMI models are not processes or process descriptions. The actual processes used in an organization depend on many factors, including application domains and organization structure and size. In particular, the process areas of a CMMI model typically do not map one to one with the processes used in your organization. 像其他的 CMMs 一样,CMMI 模型提供了何时进行过程改进的使用指南。CMMI 模型不是 流程或流程说明。在一个组织中执行的实际的流程依赖于许多因素,包括应用领域和组织 结构和规模。实际上,一个 CMMI 模型的过程域通常不会对你组织中使用的一个个过程进 行规划。 The SEI created the first CMM designed for software organizations and published it in a book, The Capability Maturity Model: Guidelines for Improving the Software Process [SEI 1995]. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 6 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 SEI 首先针对软件组织设计能力成熟度模型,出版了一本书《能力成熟度模型:软件过程 的提升指南》[SEI 1995]。 Today, CMMI is an application of the principles introduced almost a century ago to this never-ending cycle of process improvement. The value of this process improvement approach has been confirmed over time. Organizations have experienced increased productivity and quality, improved cycle time, and more accurate and predictable schedules and budgets [Gibson 2006]. 今天,CMMI 是几乎一个世纪之前提出原理的应用,并且不断的持续过程改进。这个过程 改进方法的价值已经通过了时间的考验。组织已具备了提升生产力和质量,改进循环周期 和更准确的进度估算和预算的经验[Gibson 2006]。 Evolution of CMMI CMMI 的演变 The CMM Integration® project was formed to sort out the problem of using multiple CMMs. The combination of selected models into a single improvement framework was intended for use by organizations in their pursuit of enterprise-wide process improvement. CMM 集成建立的目的是为了整合使用多种 CMMs 出现的问题。将选定的模型合并到一个 单一的改进框架中,其目的是将其提供给寻求企业全面改进的组织使用。 Developing a set of integrated models involved more than simply combining existing model materials. Using processes that promote consensus, the CMMI Product Team built a framework that accommodates multiple constellations. 开发一系列集成模型涉及到将已有的模型材料进行合并。为了使用已达成共识的过程, CMMI 产品团队建立了一个包含多个领域的框架。 The first model to be developed was the CMMI for Development model (then simply called “CMMI”). Figure 1.2 illustrates the models that led to CMMI Version 1.3. 第一个开发的模型是 CMMI 开发模型(简称为“CMMI”)。图 1.2 对 CMMI V1.3 版的模型 进行了说明。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 7 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 History of CMMs CMM for Software V1.1 (1993) INCOSE SECAM (1996) Systems Engineering CMM V1.1 (1995) Software CMM V2, draft C (1997) Software Acquisition CMM V1.03 (2002) EIA 731 SECM (1998) Integrated Product Development CMM (1997) CMMI for Acquisition V1.2 (2007) Vv1.02 (2000) Vv1.1 ((22000022)) CMMI for Development V1.2 (2006) CMMI for Services V1.2 (2009) CMMI for Acquisition CMMI for Development CMMI for Services V1.3 (2010) V1.3 (2010) V1.3 (2010) Figure 1.2: The History of CMMs5 CMMs5 的历史 Initially, CMMI was one model that combined three source models: the Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM) v2.0 draft C, the Systems Engineering Capability Model (SECM) [EIA 2002a], and the Integrated Product Development Capability Maturity Model (IPD-CMM) v0.98. 最初,CMMI 包含了三个模型:软件能力成熟度模型(SW-CMM)2.0 版草案 C,系统工 程能力模型(SECM) [EIA 2002a],和集成产品开发能力成熟度模型 0.98 版(IPD-CMM)。 These three source models were selected because of their successful adoption or promising approach to improving processes in an organization. 5 EIA 731 SECM is the Electronic Industries Alliance standard 731, or the Systems Engineering Capability Model. INCOSE SECAM is International Council on Systems Engineering Systems Engineering Capability Assessment Model [EIA 2002a]. EIA 731 SECM 是电子协会联盟标准 731,或系统工程能力模型。INCOSE SECAM 是系统工程国际协会的系统 工程能力评估模型[EIA 2002a]。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 8 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 选择这三个模型的原因是因为它们在组织中被广泛采用或对过程改进有帮助。 The first CMMI model (V1.02) was designed for use by development organizations in their pursuit of enterprise-wide process improvement. It was released in 2000. Two years later version 1.1 was released and four years after that, version 1.2 was released. 第一个 CMMI 模型(V1.02)是为开发组织在企业范围过程改进中使用而设计的。它发布 于 2000 年。两年以后 1.1 版发布,四年以后,1.2 版本发布。 By the time that version 1.2 was released, two other CMMI models were being planned. Because of this planned expansion, the name of the first CMMI model had to change to become CMMI for Development and the concept of constellations was created. 当 1.2 版本发布以后,其他两个 CMMI 模型也开始规划。由于这个规划的扩大,第一个 CMMI 模型的名称变为 CMMI for Development,并且对领域的概念进行了说明。 The CMMI for Acquisition model was released in 2007. Since it built on the CMMI for Development Version 1.2 model, it also was named Version 1.2. Two years later the CMMI for Services model was released. It built on the other two models and also was named Version 1.2. 针对采购的 CMMI 模型在 2007 年发布。由于它是在 CMMI for Development 1.2 版本模型 基础上建立的,所以它也是 1.2 版。两年以后,针对服务的 CMMI 模型发布,它是在其他 两个模型的基础上建立的,也是 1.2 版。 In 2008 plans were drawn to begin developing Version 1.3, which would ensure consistency among all three models and improve high maturity material in all of the models. Version 1.3 of CMMI for Acquisition [Gallagher 2011, SEI 2010b], CMMI for Development [Chrissis 2011], and CMMI for Services [Forrester 2011, SEI 2010a] were released in November 2010. 2008 年开始规划 1.3 版本,这个版本保证所有的三个模型的一致性并在所有模型中提供了 高成熟度材料。CMMI for Acquisition [Gallagher 2011, SEI 2010b]1.3 版,CMMI for Development [Chrissis 2011],和 CMMI for Services [Forrester 2011, SEI 2010a]在 2010 年 11 月发布。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 9 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 CMMI Framework CMMI 框架 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 The CMMI Framework provides the structure needed to produce CMMI models, training, and appraisal components. To allow the use of multiple models within the CMMI Framework, model components are classified as either common to all CMMI models or applicable to a specific model. The common material is called the “CMMI Model Foundation” or “CMF.” CMMI 框架提供了建立 CMMI 模型,培训和评估组件的结构。在 CMMI 框架中允许使用多 个模型,模型组件按照适用于 CMMI 所有模型或只适用于一个指定模型进行分类。共同的 材料被称为“CMMI 模型基础”或“CMF”。 The components of the CMF are part of every model generated from the CMMI Framework. Those components are combined with material applicable to an area of interest (e.g., acquisition, development, services) to produce a model. CMF 组件是在 CMMI 框架中生成每个模型的一部分。这些模型由生成一个模型的所感兴 趣的材料组合而成的(例如,采购,开发,服务)。 A “constellation” is defined as a collection of CMMI components that are used to construct models, training materials, and appraisal related documents for an area of interest (e.g., acquisition, development, services). The Development constellation’s model is called “CMMI for Development” or “CMMI-DEV.” 一个“领域”的定义是 CMMI 组件的一个集合,它为一个感兴趣的领域提供构建模型,培 训材料,和评估相关的文档。开发领域的模型被称为“CMMI for Development” 或 “CMMI-DEV”。 CMMI for Development 开发领域的 CMMI CMMI for Development is a reference model that covers activities for developing both products and services. Organizations from many industries, including aerospace, banking, computer hardware, software, defense, automobile manufacturing, and telecommunications, use CMMI for Development. CMMI for Development 是一个涵盖了产品和服务的开发活动的参考模型。许多生产型组织 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 10 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 包括航空,银行,电脑硬件,软件,国防,汽车制造业和电信产业,都使用 CMMI for Development。 CMMI for Development contains practices that cover project management, process management, systems engineering, hardware engineering, software engineering, and other supporting processes used in development and maintenance. CMMI for Development 包含了用于开发和维护的项目管理,过程管理,系统工程,硬件工 程,软件工程和其他支持过程的实践。 Use professional judgment and common sense to interpret the model for your organization. That is, although the process areas described in this model depict behaviors considered best practices for most users, process areas and practices should be interpreted using an in-depth knowledge of CMMI-DEV, your organizational constraints, and your business environment。 使用专业判断和常识来为你的组织集成模型。也就是说,尽管过程域向模型描述者描述的 最佳实践可以被大多数人所用,但过程域和实践还是使用 CMMI-DEV 的知识来解释你组 织的约束性和商业环境。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 11 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2 Process Area Components 过程域的构成 This chapter describes the components found in each process area and in the generic goals and generic practices. Understanding these components is critical to using the information in Part Two effectively. If you are unfamiliar with Part Two, you may want to skim the Generic Goals and Generic Practices section and a couple of process area sections to get a general feel for the content and layout before reading this chapter. 本章节描述每个过程域以及通用目标和通用实践组件。理解这些 组件的意思,对使用第二部分的信息是非常重要的。如果你并不 熟悉第二部分,那么在阅读本章节前,你也许需要简要阅读一下 通用目标和通用实践部分以及几个过程域的章节,从而对内容和 版面设计安排有一定的了解。 Core Process Areas and CMMI Models 核心过程域和 CMMI 模型 All CMMI models are produced from the CMMI Framework. This framework contains all of the goals and practices that are used to produce CMMI models that belong to CMMI constellations. 所有 CMMI 模型都是从 CMMI 框架中引申而来。这个框架包括所 有的目标和实践,它们经常被用于制定从属于 CMMI 系列的 CMMI 模型。 All CMMI models contain 16 core process areas. These process areas cover basic concepts that are fundamental to process improvement in any area of interest (i.e., acquisition, development, services). Some of the material in the core process areas is the same in all constellations. Other material may be adjusted to address a specific area of interest. 所有的 CMMI 模型包含 16 个核心过程域。这些过程域的基础概 念覆盖了所有过程改进相关的所有基本原则(例如:采购、开发、 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 12 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 服务)。其中核心过程域中一些材料在所有的系列中都是相同的。 其它的材料可能根据特定的要求进行调整。 Consequently, the material in the core process areas may not be exactly the same. 因此,核心过程域中的材料也许并不完全一致。 Required, Expected, and Informative Components 必要 的、期望的以及辅助的组件 Model components are grouped into three categories—required, expected, and informative—that reflect how to interpret them. 模型的组件按照类型被分为三类——必要的、期望的、以及辅助 的——按照分组可以反映出该如何去解释它们。 Required Components 必要的组件 Required components are CMMI components that are essential to achieving process improvement in a given process area. This achievement must be visibly implemented in an organization’s processes. The required components in CMMI are the specific and generic goals. Goal satisfaction is used in appraisals as the basis for deciding whether a process area has been satisfied. 必要组件是 CMMI 组件在给定的过程域中成功进行过程改进的基 础。这个成果必须被可视化地体现在组织级过程中。在 CMMI 中, 特定目标和通用目标是必要的模型组件。评价目标满足程度的基 础就是某个过程域是否实现或满足需求。 Expected Components 期望的组件 Expected components are CMMI components that describe the activities that are important in achieving a required CMMI component. Expected components guide those who implement improvements or perform appraisals. The expected components 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 13 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 in CMMI are the specific and generic practices. 期望组件是达成一个必要 CMMI 组件很重要的活动。期望组件是 用于指导实施改进或进行评估的。CMMI 的期望组件中包含特定 实践和通用实践。 Before goals can be considered to be satisfied, either their practices as described, or acceptable alternatives to them, must be present in the planned and implemented processes of the organization. 在目标被认定已满足前,无论是描述的实践或者可行的替代方案 都必须被证实在组织中已经被规划并且在组织的实施过程中被执 行。 Informative Components 辅助的组件 Informative components are CMMI components that help model users understand CMMI required and expected components. These components can be example boxes, detailed explanations, or other helpful information. Subpractices, notes, references, goal titles, practice titles, sources, example work products, and generic practice elaborations are informative model components. CMMI 的辅助组件是帮助模型使用者理解 CMMI 必要组件和期望 组件的信息。这些组件有可能是样例包、详细的解释说明或者是 其它有用的辅助信息。子实践、记录、参考信息、目标列表、实 践列表、源代码、工作产品样例、通用实践的详细说明等都是模 型组件的辅助组件来源。 The informative material plays an important role in understanding the model. It is often impossible to adequately describe the behavior required or expected of an organization using only a single goal or practice statement. The model’s informative material provides information necessary to achieve the correct understanding of goals and practices and thus cannot be ignored. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 14 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 辅助组件在帮助理解模型的过程中扮演着非常重要的角色。使用 单独的一个目标或者实践去充分的描述一个组织所使用的必要组 件或预期行为基本上是不可能做到的。模型的辅助材料提供的信 息有助于对目标和实践达成正确的理解所以不能够被忽略。 Components Associated with Part Two 与第二部分相关 联的组件 The model components associated with Part Two are summarized in Figure 2.1 to illustrate their relationships. 第二部分中模型的组件关系在图 2.1 中进行了说明。 Process Area SSppeecciiffiiccGGooaallss Purpose Statement Introductory Notes Related Process Areas Generic Goals Specific Practices Generic Practices ETxyapmicpalleWWoorkrk PPrroodduuccttss Subpractices Subpractices GeSEnuleabrbpicorarPactrtiiaoccnetssice KEY: Required Expected InIfnofromramtiavetive Figure 2.1: CMMI Model Components 图 2.1:CMMI 模型组件 The following sections provide detailed descriptions of CMMI model components. 下面的章节将提供关于 CMMI 模型的组件详细说明。 Process Areas 过程域 A process area is a cluster of related practices in an area that, when implemented collectively, satisfies a set of goals considered important for making improvement in that area. (See the definition of “process area” in the glossary.) 一个过程域就是一个域内相关实践的集合,它们被共同执行并满 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 15 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 足一系列被视为该域重要改进的目标。(参考词汇表中对“过程域” 的定义。) The 22 process areas are presented in alphabetical order by acronym: 以下为按照首字母缩写方式排列的 22 个过程域:  Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) 原因分析与解决  Configuration Management (CM) 配置管理  Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) 决策分析与解决  Integrated Project Management (IPM) 集成项目管理  Measurement and Analysis (MA) 度量与分析  Organizational Process Definition (OPD) 组织过程定义  Organizational Process Focus (OPF) 组织过程焦点  Organizational Performance Management (OPM) 组织性能管理  Organizational Process Performance (OPP) 组织过程性能  Organizational Training (OT) 组织培训  Product Integration (PI) 产品集成  Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) 项目监督与控制  Project Planning (PP) 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 16 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 项目策划 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) 过程与产品质量保证  Quantitative Project Management (QPM) 量化项目管理  Requirements Development (RD) 需求开发  Requirements Management (REQM) 需求管理  Risk Management (RSKM) 风险管理  Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) 供应商协议管理  Technical Solution (TS) 技术解决  Validation (VAL) 确认  Verification (VER) 验证 Purpose Statements 目的 A purpose statement describes the purpose of the process area and is an informative component. 目的部分对该过程域的主要目的进行了描述,是辅助组件。 For example, the purpose statement of the Organizational Process Definition process area is “The purpose of Organizational Process Definition (OPD) is to establish and maintain a usable set of organizational process assets, work environment standards, and rules and guidelines for teams.” 例如,组织过程定义(OPD)过程域的目的是建立并维护一套可 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 17 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 用的组织过程标准、工作环境标准、规则或团队指导方针。 Introductory Notes 前言 The introductory notes section of the process area describes the major concepts covered in the process area and is an informative component. 过程域的前言部分对过程域主要概念进行了描述,是辅助组件。 An example from the introductory notes of the Project Monitoring and Control process area is “When actual status deviates significantly from expected values, corrective actions are taken as appropriate.” 前言中一个项目监督与控制过程域的例子是这样介绍的:当实际 情况明显偏离预期价值,需按照实际情况采取适当的纠正措施。 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 The Related Process Areas section lists references to related process areas and reflects the high-level relationships among the process areas. The Related Process Areas section is an informative component. 相关过程域列出了存在关联关系的相关过程域,以及映射到高等 级过程域之间的关系。相关过程域是辅助组件。 An example of a reference found in the Related Process Areas section of the Project Planning process area is “Refer to the Risk Management process area for more information about identifying and analyzing risks and mitigating risks.” 关于项目策划过程域建立参考相关过程域的例子:关于识别和分 析风险,并缓解风险的更多信息请参考风险管理过程域。 Specific Goals 特定目标 A specific goal describes the unique characteristics that must be present to satisfy the process area. A specific goal is a required 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 18 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 model component and is used in appraisals to help determine whether a process area is satisfied. (See the definition of “specific goal” in the glossary.) 特定目标是用于描述必须被完全满足的独一无二的特性。特定目 标是必要的模型组件,并且在评估过程中用于判断某个过程域是 否满足要求。(参考词汇表中对“特定目标”的定义。) For example, a specific goal from the Configuration Management process area is “Integrity of baselines is established and maintained.” 例如,配置管理过程域的特定目标的定义是建立并维护基线的完 整性。 Only the statement of the specific goal is a required model component. The title of a specific goal (preceded by the goal number) and notes associated with the goal are considered informative model components. 只有特定目标的说明是必要的模型组件。特定目标的标题(有目 标编码引导)和该目标相关的注释被认为是辅助模型组件。 Generic Goals 通用目标 Generic goals are called “generic” because the same goal statement applies to multiple process areas. A generic goal describes the characteristics that must be present to institutionalize processes that implement a process area. A generic goal is a required model component and is used in appraisals to determine whether a process area is satisfied. (See the Generic Goals and Generic Practices section in Part Two for a more detailed description of generic goals. See the definition of “generic goal” in the glossary.) 通用目标之所以被叫为“通用的”,是因为相同的目标可用于多个 过程域。通用目标描述了在所实施的过程域中必须进行制度化的 过程特性。通用目标是必要组件,在评估的过程中用于判定该过 程域是否满足要求。(关于通用目标和通用实践的详细描述可以进 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 19 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 一步参考第二部分中关于通用目标的详细说明。参考词汇表中对 “通用目标”的定义。) An example of a generic goal is “The process is institutionalized as a defined process.” 一个关于通用目标的典型例子是:制度化已经定义的流程。 Only the statement of the generic goal is a required model component. The title of a generic goal (preceded by the goal number) and notes associated with the goal are considered informative model components. 在通用目标下,只有通用目标的说明是必要的模型组件。通用目 标的标题(前面有目标编码)以及任何和目标相关的说明都被认 为是辅助的模型组件。 Specific Goal and Practice Summaries 特定 目标和实践方法摘要 The specific goal and practice summary provides a high-level summary of the specific goals and specific practices. The specific goal and practice summary is an informative component. 特定目标和实践摘要为特定目标和特定实践提供了一个高等级的 摘要。特定目标和实践摘要是辅助组件。 Specific Practices 特定实践 A specific practice is the description of an activity that is considered important in achieving the associated specific goal. The specific practices describe the activities that are expected to result in achievement of the specific goals of a process area. A specific practice is an expected model component. (See the definition of “specific practice” in the glossary.) 特定实践是对实现特定目标相关的重要活动的描述说明。特定实 践对实现一个过程域的特定目标的期待结果进行了描述。一个特 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 20 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 定实践就是一个期待的模型组件。(参考词汇表中对“特定实践” 的定义。) For example, a specific practice from the Project Monitoring and Control process area is “Monitor commitments against those identified in the project plan.” 举例来说,项目监督与控制过程域中的一个特定实践是:按照项 目策划中所定义进行监督管理。 Only the statement of the specific practice is an expected model component. The title of a specific practice (preceded by the practice number) and notes associated with the specific practice are considered informative model components. 只有特定实践下的说明是期望模型组件。特定实践的标题(前面 有实践编码)和特定实践相关的注释是辅助模型组件。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 The example work products section lists sample outputs from a specific practice. An example work product is an informative model component. (See the definition of “example work product” in the glossary.) 工作产品样例章节的列表样例是从特定实践中输出得来的。一个 工作产品样例就是一个辅助模型组件。(参考词汇表中对“工作产 品样例”的定义。) For instance, an example work product for the specific practice “Monitor Project Planning Parameters” in the Project Monitoring and Control process area is “Records of significant deviations.” 举例来说,项目监督与控制过程域中特定实践的工作产品是:按 照项目策划监督参数出现重大偏差后的记录信息。 Subpractices 子实践 A subpractice is a detailed description that provides guidance for interpreting and implementing a specific or generic practice. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 21 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Subpractices can be worded as if prescriptive, but they are actually an informative component meant only to provide ideas that may be useful for process improvement. (See the definition of “subpractice” in the glossary.) 子实践为阐述和执行特定实践和通用实践提供详细的说明。子实 践可以是规范的文字描述,但它们实际上只是一个辅助的组件, 仅提供过程改进的思路。(参考词汇表中对“子实践”的定义。) For example, a subpractice for the specific practice “Take Corrective Action” in the Project Monitoring and Control process area is “Determine and document the appropriate actions needed to address identified issues.” 例如,项目监督与控制过程域的特定实践中的子实践“实施改进 措施”的执行方法就是针对识别出来的问题做出决定并且制定改 进方案。 Generic Practices 通用实践 Generic practices are called “generic” because the same practice applies to multiple process areas. The generic practices associated with a generic goal describe the activities that are considered important in achieving the generic goal and contribute to the institutionalization of the processes associated with a process area. A generic practice is an expected model component. (See the definition of “generic practice” in the glossary.) 通用实践之所以被叫做“通用的”是因为相同的实践被应用在多 个过程域。一个通用目标的通用实践对实现通用目标所需要的重 要活动和过程域相关的规范流程进行了介绍。通用实践是期望模 型组件。(参考词汇表中对“通用实践”的定义。) For example, a generic practice for the generic goal “The process is institutionalized as a managed process” is “Provide adequate resources for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process.” 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 22 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 例如,通用目标中的一个通用实践:将过程作为可管理的制度化 过程。解释为:为执行过程、开发工作产品和提供过程服务,提 供足够的资源。 Only the statement of the generic practice is an expected model component. The title of a generic practice (preceded by the practice number) and notes associated with the practice are considered informative model components. 只有特定目标下的说明是期望模型组件。通用实践的标题(有实 践编码引导)和该实践相关联的注释,是辅助模型组件。 Generic Practice Elaborations 通用实践阐释 Generic practice elaborations appear after generic practices to provide guidance on how the generic practices can be applied uniquely to process areas. A generic practice elaboration is an informative model component. (See the definition of “generic practice elaboration” in the glossary.) 通用实践后面的通用实践阐释为如何将通用实践应用到各个过程 域中提供了指南。通用实践详细说明是一个辅助的模型组件。(参 考词汇表中对“通用实践详细说明”的定义。) For example, a generic practice elaboration after the generic practice “Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the process” for the Project Planning process area is “This policy establishes organizational expectations for estimating the planning parameters, making internal and external commitments, and developing the plan for managing the project.” 例如,项目策划过程域中的通用实践后的通用实践阐释“建立并 维护组织级的规划与执行标准”解释为:该策略的建立表达了组 织对估算的参数,内部承诺与外部承诺,以及如何制定一个用于 项目管理的计划的期望。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 23 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Additions 附录 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Additions are clearly marked model components that contain information of interest to particular users. An addition can be informative material, a specific practice, a specific goal, or an entire process area that extends the scope of a model or emphasizes a particular aspect of its use. There are no additions in the CMMI-DEV model. 附录为特定的用户提供了清晰的标签。一个附录可以提供特定实 践、特定目标、或一个完整的广泛的模型范围或强调特殊方面的 应用过程域的辅助信息。在 CMMI-DEV 中没有附录。 Supporting Informative Components 支持类辅助组件 In many places in the model, further information is needed to describe a concept. This informative material is provided in the form of the following components: 模型中的很多处都需要对概念有更详尽的描述,这种有用的辅助 材料包括以下的组件:  Notes 注释  Examples 样例  References 参考资料 Notes 注释 A note is text that can accompany nearly any other model component. It may provide detail, background, or rationale. A note is an informative model component. 注释是一段紧密附带在任何一个模型组件后的文字说明。它提供 了细节说明、背景说明、或是一些原因说明。注释是辅助组件。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 24 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 For example, a note that accompanies the specific practice “Implement Action Proposals” in the Causal Analysis and Resolution process area is “Only changes that prove to be of value should be considered for broad implementation.” 例如,在原因分析与解决过程域中的特定实践“实施行动建议” 就有这样的说明:只有被证实是有价值的变更,才应该被考虑广 泛执行。 Examples 样例 An example is a component comprising text and often a list of items, usually in a box, that can accompany nearly any other component and provides one or more examples to clarify a concept or described activity. An example is an informative model component. 样例是包含文字说明和项目清单的组件,经常用线框加以区分, 样例经常紧密的附带在其它任何过程组件中,它提供多个样例对 概念或描述行动进行解释。样例是一种辅助的模型组件。 The following is an example that accompanies the subpractice “Document noncompliance issues when they cannot be resolved in the project” under the specific practice “Communicate and Ensure the Resolution of Noncompliance Issues” in the Process and Product Quality Assurance process area. 下面是一个在过程与产品质量保证过程域中子实践“当项目中的 问题没有被解决的时候需要记录不符合项”的样例,在特定实践 下有这样的说明:与员工以及管理者沟通,并确保不符合项被解 决。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 25 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of ways to resolve noncompliance in the project include the following: 在项目中解决一个不符合项的样例如下:  Fixing the noncompliance 修正不符合项  Changing the process descriptions, standards, or procedures that were violated 对违反的过程描述,标准或者流程进行变更  Obtaining a waiver to cover the noncompliance 为不符合项取得豁免权 References 参考资料 A reference is a pointer to additional or more detailed information in related process areas and can accompany nearly any other model component. A reference is an informative model component. (See the definition of “reference” in the glossary.) 参考资料是指在相关过程域中附加的或更加详细的资料,参考资 料会紧随其他任何模型组件。参考资料是一种辅助模型组件。(参 考词汇表中对“参考资料”的定义。) For example, a reference that accompanies the specific practice “Compose the Defined Process” in the Quantitative Project Management process area is “Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets.” 例如,在量化项目管理过程中的特定实践“编写已定义的过程” 的参考资料有:建立涉及到组织过程定义过程域的更多信息组织 过程资产库。 Numbering Scheme 编码方案 Specific and generic goals are numbered sequentially. Each 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 26 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 specific goal begins with the prefix “SG” (e.g., SG 1). Each generic goal begins with the prefix “GG” (e.g., GG 2). 特定目标和通用目标以连续编号方式编号。每个特定目标的编号 以“SG”开头(例如:SG1)。每个通用目标的编号以“GG”开 头(例如:GG2)。 Specific and generic practices are also numbered sequentially. Each specific practice begins with the prefix “SP,” followed by a number in the form “x.y” (e.g., SP 1.1). The x is the same number as the goal to which the specific practice maps. The y is the sequence number of the specific practice under the specific goal. 特定实践和通用实践也以连续编号方式编号。每个特定实践的编 号以“SP”开头,其后跟随有数字 x.y(例如:SP1.1)。x 代表 特定目标的统一编号;y 代表特定目标下特定实践的编号顺序。 An example of specific practice numbering is in the Project Planning process area. The first specific practice is numbered SP 1.1 and the second is SP 1.2. 以项目策划过程域的特定实践编号方法为例。第一个特定实践的 编号是 SP1.2,则第二个就是 SP1.2。 Each generic practice begins with the prefix “GP,” followed by a number in the form “x.y” (e.g., GP 1.1). 每个通用实践的编码是以 GP 开始的,其后跟随有 x.y。(例如: GP1.1) The x corresponds to the number of the generic goal. The y is the sequence number of the generic practice under the generic goal. For example, the first generic practice associated with GG 2 is numbered GP 2.1 and the second is GP 2.2. 其中 x 对应通用目标编号,y 代表通用目标下通用实践的顺序编 号。例如:GG 2 下第一个通用实践的编号是 GP 2.1,那么第二 个就是 GP 2.2。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 27 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Typographical Conventions 印刷和排版规则说明 The typographical conventions used in this model were designed to enable you to easily identify and select model components by presenting them in formats that allow you to find them quickly on the page. 印刷和排版规则说明被设计用于本模型中是协助你更容易的识别 和选择模型组件,并且使得你可以更快的找到它们所在的页。 Figures 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4 are sample pages from process areas in Part Two; they show the different process area components, labeled so that you can identify them. Notice that components differ typographically so that you can easily identify each one. 图 2.2,2.3 和 2.4 是第二部分文档中过程域的样例页,它们展示 了不同过程域的组件,这样你可以通过标注识别出它们。注意组 件在印刷和排版上的差异,这样方便的识别出每一部分的信息。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 28 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Figure 2.2: Sample Page from Decision Analysis and Resolution 决策分析与解决样例页 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 29 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Specific Goal Specific Practice Example Work Product Example Box Reference Subpractice Figure 2.3: Sample Page from Causal Analysis and Resolution 原因分析与解决样例页 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 30 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Generic Practice Generic Goal Generic Practice Elaboration Figure 2.4: Sample Page from the Generic Goals and Generic Practices 通用目标和通用实践的样例页 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 31 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 3 Tying It All Together 总论 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Now that you have been introduced to the components of CMMI models, you need to understand how they fit together to meet your process improvement needs. This chapter introduces the concept of levels and shows how the process areas are organized and used. 现在已经向你介绍了 CMMI 模型的组件,就需要了解它们如何共 同配合来满足你的过程改进需要。本章介绍级别的概念并展示这 些过程域是如何组织及使用的。 CMMI-DEV does not specify that a project or organization must follow a particular process flow or that a certain number of products be developed per day or specific performance targets be achieved. The model does specify that a project or organization should have processes that address development related practices. To determine whether these processes are in place, a project or organization maps its processes to the process areas in this model. CMMI-DEV 没有指明项目或组织必须遵循一个特定过程流或者 每天要开发一定数量的产品或者要获得明确的性能目标。这个模 型只是指出了项目或组织应当具备一些解决开发相关实践的过 程。要确定这些过程是否已经具备,项目或组织可以将其过程映 射到这个模型的过程域中。 The mapping of processes to process areas enables the organization to track its progress against the CMMI-DEV model as it updates or creates processes. Do not expect that every CMMI-DEV process area will map one to one with your organization’s or project’s processes. 过程到过程域的映射使组织能够在更新或创建流程时对照 CMMI-DEV 来跟踪它的进展。不要期望每个 CMMI-DEV 过程域 与你的组织或项目的过程一一映射。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 32 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Understanding Levels 理解级别的概念 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Levels are used in CMMI-DEV to describe an evolutionary path recommended for an organization that wants to improve the processes it uses to develop products or services. Levels can also be the outcome of the rating activity in appraisals. 6 Appraisals can apply to entire organizations or to smaller groups such as a group of projects or a division. 在 CMMI-DEV 中使用的级别为一个要改进其用于开发产品或服 务的过程的组织描述了一种推荐的演变路径。级别也可以是评估 中评级活动的产出结果 6。评估可以应用于整个组织或者诸如一 个项目群或一个部门这样较小的群组。 CMMI supports two improvement paths using levels. One path enables organizations to incrementally improve processes corresponding to an individual process area (or group of process areas) selected by the organization. The other path enables organizations to improve a set of related processes by incrementally addressing successive sets of process areas. CMMI 支持两种使用级别的改进路径。一种路径使组织能够渐增 地改进由组织选定的、与一个单独过程域(或一组过程域)相关 的过程。另一种路径使组织能够通过渐增地解决连续的过程域集 来改进相关的过程集合。 These two improvement paths are associated with the two types of levels: capability levels and maturity levels. These levels correspond to two approaches to process improvement called “representations.” The two representations are called “continuous” and “staged.” Using the continuous representation enables you to achieve “capability levels.” Using the staged representation enables you to achieve “maturity levels.” 这两种改进路径都与两种级别类型相关:能力级别和成熟度级别。 6 For more information about appraisals, refer to Appraisal Requirements for CMMI and the Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement Method Definition Document [SEI 2011a, SEI 2011b]. 要了解有关评估的更多信息, 请参考 CMMI 评估需求和针对过程改进方法定义文档的标准 CMMI 评估方法。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 33 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 这两种级别对应于两种所谓“表现形式”的过程改进方式。这种 表现形式分别称为“连续式”和“阶段式”。使用连续式的表现形 式能够获得“能力级别”。使用阶段式的表现形式能够获得“成熟 度级别”。 To reach a particular level, an organization must satisfy all of the goals of the process area or set of process areas that are targeted for improvement, regardless of whether it is a capability or a maturity level. 要达到一个特定级别,无论它是能力级别还是成熟度级别,组织 都必须满足作为改进目标的过程域或过程域集合的所有目标。 Both representations provide ways to improve your processes to achieve business objectives, and both provide the same essential content and use the same model components. 这两种表现形式提供了实现商业目标的过程改进方式,并且两者 都提供了相同的实质内容,使用相同的模型组件。 Structures of the Continuous and Staged Representations 连续式和阶段式表现形式的结构 Figure 3.1 illustrates the structures of the continuous and staged representations. The differences between the structures are subtle but significant. The staged representation uses maturity levels to characterize the overall state of the organization’s processes relative to the model as a whole, whereas the continuous representation uses capability levels to characterize the state of the organization’s processes relative to an individual process area. 图 3.1 说明了连续式和阶段式表现形式的结构。这些结构间的差 别很微小但却有着十分重要的意义。阶段式表现形式使用成熟度 级别从整体上描述与模型相比的组织过程的总体状况,而连续式 表现形式使用的能力级别针对一个单独的过程域来描述组织过程 的状况。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 34 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Continuous Representation Process Areas Specific Goals Generic Goals Capability Levels Specific Practices Generic Practices Staged Representation Process Areas Maturity Levels Specific Goals Generic Goals Specific Practices Generic Practices Figure 3.1: Structure of the Continuous and Staged Representations 图 3.1:连续式和阶段式表现形式的结构 What may strike you as you compare these two representations is their similarity. Both have many of the same components (e.g., process areas, specific goals, specific practices), and these components have the same hierarchy and configuration. 当你比较这两种表现形式时令你感到吃惊的是它们的相似度。两 者具有很多相同的组件(例如,过程域,特定目标,特定实践), 并且这些组件具有相同的层级和结构。 What is not readily apparent from the high-level view in Figure 3.1 is that the continuous representation focuses on process area capability as measured by capability levels and the staged representation focuses on overall maturity as measured by 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 35 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 maturity levels. This dimension (the capability/maturity dimension) of CMMI is used for benchmarking and appraisal activities, as well as guiding an organization’s improvement efforts. 图 3.1 中高级别视图中不甚明显的内容是连续式表现形式着重于 能力级别所度量的过程域能力,而阶段式表现形式着重于成熟度 级别所度量的整体成熟度。这种 CMMI 的维度(能力/成熟度维度) 用于评测和评估活动,以及指导组织的改进工作。 Capability levels apply to an organization’s process improvement achievement in individual process areas. These levels are a means for incrementally improving the processes corresponding to a given process area. The four capability levels are numbered 0 through 3. 能力级别是应用于单个过程域中的组织过程改进的成果。这些级 别对应于一个给定的过程域进行渐增式过程改进的方式。四个能 力级别依次编号为 0 到 3。 Maturity levels apply to an organization’s process improvement achievement across multiple process areas. These levels are a means of improving the processes corresponding to a given set of process areas (i.e., maturity level). The five maturity levels are numbered 1 through 5. 成熟度级别应用于跨多个过程域的组织过程改进的成果。这些级 别都是对应于一组给定的过程域集合进行过程改进的方式(例如, 成熟度级别)。五个成熟度级别依次编号为 1 到 5。 Table 3.1 compares the four capability levels to the five maturity levels. Notice that the names of two of the levels are the same in both representations (i.e., Managed and Defined). The differences are that there is no maturity level 0; there are no capability levels 4 and 5; and at level 1, the names used for capability level 1 and maturity level 1 are different. 表 3.1 将四个能力级别与五个成熟度级别进行了对照。注意其中 两个级别名称在两种表现形式中完全相同(即,已管理级和已定 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 36 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 义级)。不同之处是没有成熟度级别 0 级;没有能力 4 级和 5 级; 同时在 1 级,能力 1 级和成熟度 1 级所使用的名称并不相同。 Table 3.1 Comparison of Capability and Maturity Levels 表 3.1 能力和成熟度级别对照 Level 级别 Continuous Representation Staged Representation Capability Levels Maturity Levels 连续表现形式 阶段式表现形式 能力级别 成熟度级别 Level 0 0级 Incomplete 不完整级 Level 1 1级 Performed 已执行级 Initial 初始级 Level 2 2级 Managed 已管理级 Managed 已管理级 Level 3 3级 Defined 已定义级 Defined 已定义级 Level 4 4级 Quantitatively Managed 量化管理级 Level 5 5级 Optimizing 优化级 The continuous representation is concerned with selecting both a particular process area to improve and the desired capability level for that process area. In this context, whether a process is performed or incomplete is important. Therefore, the name “Incomplete” is given to the continuous representation starting point. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 37 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 连续式表现形式关注两方面,即要改进的特定过程域和该过程域 的期望能力级别。在这种背景下,一个过程是否已执行或未完成 是非常重要的。因此,“不完整级”的名称是连续式表现形式的起 点。 The staged representation is concerned with selecting multiple process areas to improve within a maturity level; whether individual processes are performed or incomplete is not the primary focus. Therefore, the name “Initial” is given to the staged representation starting point. 阶段式表现形式关注于在一个成熟度级别内选择多个要改进的过 程域;单个过程域是否已执行或未完成并不是重点。因此,“初始 级”的是阶段式表现形式的起点。 Both capability levels and maturity levels provide a way to improve the processes of an organization and measure how well organizations can and do improve their processes. However, the associated approach to process improvement is different. 能力级别和成熟度级别都提供了一种改进组织过程并度量组织过 程改进到何种程度的方式。然而,相关联的过程改进方式并不相 同。 Understanding Capability Levels 了解能力级别 To support those who use the continuous representation, all CMMI models reflect capability levels in their design and content. 为了支持那些使用连续式表现形式的组织,所有 CMMI 模型在其 设计及内容中都反映了能力级别。 The four capability levels, each a layer in the foundation for ongoing process improvement, are designated by the numbers 0 through 3: 四个能力级别,规定在进行中的过程改进基础中的每一层都从 0 到 3: 0. Incomplete 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 38 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 不完整级 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 1. Performed 已执行级 2. Managed 已管理级 3. Defined 已定义级 A capability level for a process area is achieved when all of the generic goals are satisfied up to that level. The fact that capability levels 2 and 3 use the same terms as generic goals 2 and 3 is intentional because each of these generic goals and practices reflects the meaning of the capability levels of the goals and practices. (See the Generic Goals and Generic Practices section in Part Two for more information about generic goals and practices.) A short description of each capability level follows. 当一个过程域的所有通用目标都满足一个能力级别时则满足该过 程域的能力级别。能力 2 级和 3 级都使用与通用目标 2 和 3 相同 的术语是因为每一个通用目标和实践都反映了该目标和实践的能 力级别含义。(参考第二部分中“通用目标和通用实践”章节了解 有关通用目标和实践的更多信息。)下面是每个能力级别的简要说 明。 Capability Level 0: Incomplete 能力 0 级:不 完整级 An incomplete process is a process that either is not performed or is partially performed. One or more of the specific goals of the process area are not satisfied and no generic goals exist for this level since there is no reason to institutionalize a partially performed process. 一个不完整的流程要么没有执行要么是部分执行。没有满足过程 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 39 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 域的一个或多个特定目标,没有该级别的通用目标,因为没有理 由将一个部分执行的过程制度化。 Capability Level 1: Performed 能力 1 级:已 执行级 A capability level 1 process is characterized as a performed process. A performed process is a process that accomplishes the needed work to produce work products; the specific goals of the process area are satisfied. 一个能力为 1 级的过程被描述为一个已执行过程。一个已执行过 程是一个完成所需工作产生工作产品;满足过程域特定目标的过 程。 Although capability level 1 results in important improvements, those improvements can be lost over time if they are not institutionalized. The application of institutionalization (the CMMI generic practices at capability levels 2 and 3) helps to ensure that improvements are maintained. 虽然能力 1 级会产生重要的改进,但是如果没有将其制度化就会 随着时间而失去这些改进。制度化的应用(能力 2 级和 3 级的 CMMI 通用实践)有助于保持改进状态。 Capability Level 2: Managed 能力 2 级:已管 理级 A capability level 2 process is characterized as a managed process. A managed process is a performed process that is planned and executed in accordance with policy; employs skilled people having adequate resources to produce controlled outputs; involves relevant stakeholders; is monitored, controlled, and reviewed; and is evaluated for adherence to its process description. 一个能力为 2 级的过程被描述为一个已管理过程。一个已管理过 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 40 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 程是一个依据方针进行策划和执行;雇佣有技能的人员拥有充足 的资源来生产受控输出;它包括相关参与人员;进行监督、控制 和评审;并且经评价符合其过程描述的已执行过程。 The process discipline reflected by capability level 2 helps to ensure that existing practices are retained during times of stress. 能力 2 级反映的过程有助于确保已实施期间保持现有的实践。 Capability Level 3: Defined 能力 3 级:已定义 级 A capability level 3 process is characterized as a defined process. A defined process is a managed process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes according to the organization’s tailoring guidelines; has a maintained process description; and contributes process related experiences to the organizational process assets. 一个能力为 3 级的过程被描述为一个已定义过程。一个已定义过 程是一个依据组织裁剪指南对组织标准过程集进行裁剪;具有已 维护的过程描述;并向组织过程资产库贡献与过程有关经验的已 管理过程。 A critical distinction between capability levels 2 and 3 is the scope of standards, process descriptions, and procedures. At capability level 2, the standards, process descriptions, and procedures can be quite different in each specific instance of the process (e.g., on a particular project). At capability level 3, the standards, process descriptions, and procedures for a project are tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes to suit a particular project or organizational unit and therefore are more consistent, except for the differences allowed by the tailoring guidelines. 能力 2 级和 3 级之间的关键区别是标准,过程描述和规程的范围。 在能力 2 级过程的每个特定实例中(例如一个特定项目),标准, 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 41 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 过程描述和规程可能差别极大。在能力 3 级,一个项目的标准, 过程描述和规程都是从组织的标准过程集中裁剪以适合特定的项 目或组织单元,因此除了裁剪指南允许的差别之外其他是一致的。 Another critical distinction is that at capability level 3 processes are typically described more rigorously than at capability level 2. A defined process clearly states the purpose, inputs, entry criteria, activities, roles, measures, verification steps, outputs, and exit criteria. At capability level 3, processes are managed more proactively using an understanding of the interrelationships of the process activities and detailed measures of the process and its work products. 另一个重要区别是能力 3 级的过程描述通常比能力 2 级更严格。 一个已定义过程明确指明了目的,输入,入口准则,活动,角色, 度量,确认步骤,输出和出口准则。在能力 3 级,是更主动的对 过程活动与过程及其工作产品的详细度量之间相互关系的理解地 管理过程。 Advancing Through Capability Levels 通过能力级别提高 The capability levels of a process area are achieved through the application of generic practices or suitable alternatives to the processes associated with that process area. 通过应用通用实践或适合与一个过程域相关过程的其他方式来达 到该过程域的能力级别。 Reaching capability level 1 for a process area is equivalent to saying that the processes associated with that process area are performed processes. 一个过程域达到能力 1 级等同于与该过程域相关的过程都是已执 行过程。 Reaching capability level 2 for a process area is equivalent to saying that there is a policy that indicates you will perform the process. There is a plan for performing it, resources are provided, responsibilities are assigned, training to perform it is provided, selected work products related to performing the 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 42 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 process are controlled, and so on. In other words, a capability level 2 process can be planned and monitored just like any project or support activity. 一个过程域达到能力 2 级等同于表明你有一个执行该过程的方 针。具有执行该过程的计划,提供了资源,分配了职责,提供了 执行该过程所需的培训,以及为执行已受控的过程域选择了相关 的工作产品等。换言之,就像任何项目或支持活动那样,可以策 划和监控一个能力 2 级的过程。 Reaching capability level 3 for a process area is equivalent to saying that an organizational standard process exists associated with that process area, which can be tailored to the needs of the project. The processes in the organization are now more consistently defined and applied because they are based on organizational standard processes. 一个过程域达到能力 3 级等同于具备与该过程域相关的组织级标 准过程,可以根据项目需要进行裁剪。因为它们都是基于组织级 标准过程,所以可以更为一致地定义和应用组织中的过程。 After an organization has reached capability level 3 in the process areas it has selected for improvement, it can continue its improvement journey by addressing high maturity process areas (Organizational Process Performance, Quantitative Project Management, Causal Analysis and Resolution, and Organizational Performance Management). 一个组织选择要改进的过程域达到能力 3 级之后,通过针对高成 熟度过程域(组织过程性能,量化项目管理,原因分析与解决以 及组织性能管理),它可以继续其改进之旅。 The high maturity process areas focus on improving the performance of those processes already implemented. The high maturity process areas describe the use of statistical and other quantitative techniques to improve organizational and project processes to better achieve business objectives. 高成熟度过程域关注改进那些已实施的过程性能。高成熟度过程 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 43 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 域描述使用统计和其他量化技术来改进组织和项目过程,从而更 好地实现商业目标。 When continuing its improvement journey in this way, an organization can derive the most benefit by first selecting the OPP and QPM process areas, and bringing those process areas to capability levels 1, 2, and 3. In doing so, projects and organizations align the selection and analyses of processes more closely with their business objectives. 当一个组织继续按照这种方式改进时,它可以首先选择 OPP 和 QPM 过程域并使这些过程域达到能力 1 级,2 级和 3 级来获得最 大效益。在执行中,项目和组织会更紧密地将过程的选择和分析 与它们的商业目标结合起来。 After the organization attains capability level 3 in the OPP and QPM process areas, the organization can continue its improvement path by selecting the CAR and OPM process areas. In doing so, the organization analyzes the business performance using statistical and other quantitative techniques to determine performance shortfalls, and identifies and deploys process and technology improvements that contribute to meeting quality and process performance objectives. Projects and the organization use causal analysis to identify and resolve issues affecting performance and promote the dissemination of best practices. 当组织在 OPP 和 QPM 过程域获得能力 3 级之后,组织可以选择 CAR 和 OPM 过程域继续其改进之旅。在执行中,组织使用统计 和其他量化技术分析商业绩效来确定绩效的不足,并识别和部署 有助于满足质量和过程性能目标的过程和技术改进。项目和组织 使用原因分析来识别和解决影响绩效的问题,并推动最佳实践的 推广。 Understanding Maturity Levels 了解成熟度级别 To support those who use the staged representation, all CMMI models reflect maturity levels in their design and content. A 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 44 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 maturity level consists of related specific and generic practices for a predefined set of process areas that improve the organization’s overall performance. 为了支持使用阶段式表现形式,所有的 CMMI 模型都在其设计和 内容中反映成熟度级别。一个成熟度级别由一组预先定义的,用 以改进组织整体性能的过程域的相关特定实践和通用实践组成。 The maturity level of an organization provides a way to characterize its performance. Experience has shown that organizations do their best when they focus their process improvement efforts on a manageable number of process areas at a time and that those areas require increasing sophistication as the organization improves. 组织的成熟度级别提供了一种描述其性能的方法。经验表明当组 织针对一组可管理的过程域进行过程改进时就会尽力做到最好, 并且随着组织的改进,那些过程域需要日益细化。 A maturity level is a defined evolutionary plateau for organizational process improvement. Each maturity level matures an important subset of the organization’s processes, preparing it to move to the next maturity level. The maturity levels are measured by the achievement of the specific and generic goals associated with each predefined set of process areas. 成熟度级别定义为一个针对组织过程改进的的演化形式。每个成 熟度级别充分考虑了组织过程的一个重要子集,推动其达到下一 个成熟度级别。通过完成每个预定义的过程域集相关的特定和通 用目标来度量成熟度级别。 The five maturity levels, each a layer in the foundation for ongoing process improvement, are designated by the numbers 1 through 5: 五个成熟度级别,规定在进行中的过程改进基础中的每一层都从 1 到 5: 1. Initial 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 45 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 初始级 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Managed 已管理级 3. Defined 已定义级 4. Quantitatively Managed 量化管理级 5. Optimizing 优化级 Remember that maturity levels 2 and 3 use the same terms as capability levels 2 and 3. This consistency of terminology was intentional because the concepts of maturity levels and capability levels are complementary. Maturity levels are used to characterize organizational improvement relative to a set of process areas, and capability levels characterize organizational improvement relative to an individual process area. 记住在成熟度 2 级和 3 级与能力 2 级和 3 级使用相同的术语。这 种术语的一致性是因为成熟度级别和能力级别的概念是互补的。 成熟度级别用于描述与一组过程域集有关的组织改进,而能力级 别描述与一个单独过程域有关的组织改进。 Maturity Level 1: Initial 成熟度 1 级:初始级 At maturity level 1, processes are usually ad hoc and chaotic. The organization usually does not provide a stable environment to support processes. Success in these organizations depends on the competence and heroics of the people in the organization and not on the use of proven processes. In spite of this chaos, maturity level 1 organizations often produce products and services that work, but they frequently exceed the budget and schedule documented in their plans. 在成熟度 1 级,过程通常都是随意和混乱的。组织往往没有提供 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 46 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 一个稳定的环境来支持过程。在这些组织中的成功都依赖于组织 内个人的能力和英雄主义而不是使用已验证的过程。虽然存在这 种混乱,但是成熟度 1 级的组织仍能产生可使用的产品和服务, 但是会频繁超出其改进计划的预算和进度。 Maturity level 1 organizations are characterized by a tendency to overcommit, abandon their processes in a time of crisis, and be unable to repeat their successes. 成熟度 1 级的组织的趋势描述为过度承诺,一次危机就会抛弃其 过程,并且不能重复成功。 Maturity Level 2: Managed 成熟度 2 级:已管 理级 At maturity level 2, the projects have ensured that processes are planned and executed in accordance with policy; the projects employ skilled people who have adequate resources to produce controlled outputs; involve relevant stakeholders; are monitored, controlled, and reviewed; and are evaluated for adherence to their process descriptions. The process discipline reflected by maturity level 2 helps to ensure that existing practices are retained during times of stress. When these practices are in place, projects are performed and managed according to their documented plans. 在成熟度 2 级,确保了项目按照方针策划和执行过程;项目雇佣 有技能的人员并且具备充足资源来产生受控的输出;包括相关参 与人员;进行监督、控制和评审;并且评价其与过程说明的符合 度。成熟度 2 级反映的过程原则有助于确保在实施期间保持现有 的实践。当这些实践执行时,项目就会按照它们的标准计划进行 执行和管理。 Also at maturity level 2, the status of the work products are visible to management at defined points (e.g., at major milestones, at the completion of major tasks). Commitments are established among relevant stakeholders and are revised as 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 47 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 needed. Work products are appropriately controlled. The work products and services satisfy their specified process descriptions, standards, and procedures. 在成熟度 2 级,工作产品的状态在已定义的点上对管理者都是可 见的(例如,在重要任务完成时的主要里程碑)。在相关参与人员 之间建立承诺并根据需要进行修订。适当地控制工作产品。工作 产品和服务满足其指定的过程说明,标准和规程。 Maturity Level 3: Defined 成熟度 3 级:已定义 级 At maturity level 3, processes are well characterized and understood, and are described in standards, procedures, tools, and methods. The organization’s set of standard processes, which is the basis for maturity level 3, is established and improved over time. These standard processes are used to establish consistency across the organization. Projects establish their defined processes by tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes according to tailoring guidelines. (See the definition of “organization’s set of standard processes” in the glossary.) 在成熟度 3 级,对过程已经有很好的描述和了解了,并在标准, 规程,工具和方法中进行说明。建立并随时改进组织的标准过程 集是成熟度 3 级的基础。这些标准过程用于建立企业内的一致性。 项目通过按照裁剪指南对组织标准化过程集进行裁剪来建立其已 定义的过程。(参考词汇表中“组织标准过程集”的定义。) A critical distinction between maturity levels 2 and 3 is the scope of standards, process descriptions, and procedures. At maturity level 2, the standards, process descriptions, and procedures can be quite different in each specific instance of the process (e.g., on a particular project). At maturity level 3, the standards, process descriptions, and procedures for a project are tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes to suit a particular project or organizational unit and therefore are more 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 48 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 consistent except for the differences allowed by the tailoring guidelines. 成熟度 2 级和 3 级之间的重要区别是标准,过程说明和规程的范 围。在成熟度 2 级,过程的每个特定实例(例如,一个特定项目) 中的标准,过程说明和规程可能差别很大。在成熟度 3 级,一个 项目的标准,过程说明和规程都是从组织的标准过程集裁剪而来 以适合特定项目或组织单元,因此除了裁剪指南允许的差别之外 更为一致。 Another critical distinction is that at maturity level 3, processes are typically described more rigorously than at maturity level 2. A defined process clearly states the purpose, inputs, entry criteria, activities, roles, measures, verification steps, outputs, and exit criteria. At maturity level 3, processes are managed more proactively using an understanding of the interrelationships of process activities and detailed measures of the process, its work products, and its services. 另一个重要区别是成熟度 3 级的过程通常比成熟度 2 级的描述更 严格。一个已定义过程明确指明了目的,输入,入口准则,活动, 角色,度量,确认步骤,输出和出口准则。在成熟度 3 级,使用 对过程活动与过程及其工作产品和服务的详细度量之间相互关系 的理解来更主动地管理过程。 At maturity level 3, the organization further improves its processes that are related to the maturity level 2 process areas. Generic practices associated with generic goal 3 that were not addressed at maturity level 2 are applied to achieve maturity level 3. 在成熟度 3 级中,组织是针对成熟度 2 级过程域相关的过程进行 进一步改进。实现在成熟度 2 级没有解决的、与通用目标 3 相关 的通用实践以达到成熟度 3 级。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 49 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Maturity Level 4: Quantitatively Managed 成 熟度 4 级:量化管理级 At maturity level 4, the organization and projects establish quantitative objectives for quality and process performance and use them as criteria in managing projects. Quantitative objectives are based on the needs of the customer, end users, organization, and process implementers. Quality and process performance is understood in statistical terms and is managed throughout the life of projects. 在成熟度 4 级,组织和项目建立质量和过程性能的量化目标并在 管理的项目中使用其作为准则。量化目标都基于客户,终端用户, 组织和过程实施者的需要。利用统计术语来了解质量和过程性能 并在项目过程中对其进行管理。 For selected subprocesses, specific measures of process performance are collected and statistically analyzed. When selecting subprocesses for analyses, it is critical to understand the relationships between different subprocesses and their impact on achieving the objectives for quality and process performance. Such an approach helps to ensure that subprocess monitoring using statistical and other quantitative techniques is applied to where it has the most overall value to the business. Process performance baselines and models can be used to help set quality and process performance objectives that help achieve business objectives. 针对选择的子过程,收集过程性能的特定度量数据并进行统计分 析。当选择要分析的子过程时,重要的是了解不同子过程之间的 关系以及它们对达到质量和过程性能目标的影响。这样的方式有 助于确保使用统计和其他量化技术进行的子过程监控可以应用到 对业务产生最大整体价值的地方。过程性能基线和模型可以用于 帮助设定质量和过程性能目标以达到商业目标。 A critical distinction between maturity levels 3 and 4 is the predictability of process performance. At maturity level 4, the 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 50 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 performance of projects and selected subprocesses is controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques, and predictions are based, in part, on a statistical analysis of fine-grained process data. 成熟度 3 级和 4 级之间的一个重要区别是过程性能的可预见性。 在成熟度 4 级,使用统计和其他量化技术来控制项目和已选择的 子过程的性能,并且预测都是部分地基于对过程数据的统计的细 致分析。 Maturity Level 5: Optimizing 成熟度 5 级:优 化级 At maturity level 5, an organization continually improves its processes based on a quantitative understanding of its business objectives and performance needs. The organization uses a quantitative approach to understand the variation inherent in the process and the causes of process outcomes. 在成熟度 5 级,一个组织基于对其商业目标和绩效需要的量化理 解继续改进其过程。组织使用一种量化方式来了解过程的固有偏 差和导致过程结果的原因。 Maturity level 5 focuses on continually improving process performance through incremental and innovative process and technological improvements. The organization’s quality and process performance objectives are established, continually revised to reflect changing business objectives and organizational performance, and used as criteria in managing process improvement. The effects of deployed process improvements are measured using statistical and other quantitative techniques and compared to quality and process performance objectives. The project’s defined processes, the organization’s set of standard processes, and supporting technology are targets of measurable improvement activities. 成熟度 5 级关注于通过渐增和创新过程和技术改进来持续改进过 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 51 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 程性能。组织的质量和过程性能目标已经建立,并持续修订以反 映不断变化的商业目标和组织性能,并作为管理过程改进的准则。 使用统计和其他量化技术对已部署的过程改进效果进行度量,并 与质量和过程性能目标比较。项目已定义过程,组织标准过程集 以及支持技术都是可度量的改进活动的目标。 A critical distinction between maturity levels 4 and 5 is the focus on managing and improving organizational performance. At maturity level 4, the organization and projects focus on understanding and controlling performance at the subprocess level and using the results to manage projects. At maturity level 5, the organization is concerned with overall organizational performance using data collected from multiple projects. Analysis of the data identifies shortfalls or gaps in performance. These gaps are used to drive organizational process improvement that generates measureable improvement in performance. 成熟度 4 级和 5 级之间的一个重要差别是关注管理和改进组织性 能。在成熟度 4 级,组织和项目着重于子过程级别理解和控制组 织性能并使用结果来管理项目。在成熟度 5 级,组织使用从多个 项目收集的数据来关注整体的组织性能。使用数据分析结果来识 别性能中的不足或差距。这些差距可用于推动组织过程改进,生 成可度量的性能改进。 Advancing Through Maturity Levels 通过成 熟度级别提高 Organizations can achieve progressive improvements in their maturity by achieving control first at the project level and continuing to the most advanced level—organization-wide performance management and continuous process improvement—using both qualitative and quantitative data to make decisions. 组织可以通过首先达到项目级的控制表再继续实现最高级别—— 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 52 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 组织范围的性能管理和持续过程改进来实现逐步改进——使用定 性和定量数据进行决策。 Since improved organizational maturity is associated with improvement in the range of expected results that can be achieved by an organization, maturity is one way of predicting general outcomes of the organization’s next project. For instance, at maturity level 2, the organization has been elevated from ad hoc to disciplined by establishing sound project management. As the organization achieves generic and specific goals for the set of process areas in a maturity level, it increases its organizational maturity and reaps the benefits of process improvement. Because each maturity level forms a necessary foundation for the next level, trying to skip maturity levels is usually counterproductive. 因为已改进的组织成熟度与一个组织可以达到的预期结果范围中 的改进相关,所以成熟度是一种预知组织下一个项目大致结果的 方法。例如,在成熟度 2 级,通过建立健全的项目管理使组织从 随意状态提高到有序状态。随着组织达到一个成熟度级别中一组 过程域的通用和特定目标,它会提供其组织成熟度并重新评估过 程改进的效用。因为每个成熟度级别是形成下一个级别的必要基 础,所以试图跳过成熟度级别的做法通常无法达到预期效果。 At the same time, recognize that process improvement efforts should focus on the needs of the organization in the context of its business environment and that process areas at higher maturity levels can address the current and future needs of an organization or project. 同时,要认识到过程改进效果应当集中于组织在其业务环境中的 需要以及可以解决一个组织或项目的当前及未来需要的更高成熟 度级别的过程域。 For example, organizations seeking to move from maturity level 1 to maturity level 2 are frequently encouraged to establish a process group, which is addressed by the Organizational Process Focus process area at maturity level 3. Although a 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 53 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 process group is not a necessary characteristic of a maturity level 2 organization, it can be a useful part of the organization’s approach to achieving maturity level 2. 例如,要不断鼓励那些努力从成熟度 1 级推进到成熟度 2 级的组 织去建立一个过程组,这是在成熟度 3 级的组织过程关注过程域 所关注的。虽然过程组并不是成熟度 2 级组织的一个必要特征, 但是它可以成为组织达到成熟度 2 级的一个有益之处。 This situation is sometimes characterized as establishing a maturity level 1 process group to bootstrap the maturity level 1 organization to maturity level 2. Maturity level 1 process improvement activities may depend primarily on the insight and competence of the process group until an infrastructure to support more disciplined and widespread improvement is in place. 有时这种情况描述为建立一个成熟度 1 级过程组,从成熟度 1 级 自主实现成熟度 2 级组织。成熟度 1 级过程改进活动可能主要依 赖于过程组的洞察力和能力,直到建立一个基础架构来支持更规 范和广泛的改进。 Organizations can institute process improvements anytime they choose, even before they are prepared to advance to the maturity level at which the specific practice is recommended. In such situations, however, organizations should understand that the success of these improvements is at risk because the foundation for their successful institutionalization has not been completed. Processes without the proper foundation can fail at the point they are needed most—under stress. 组织可以在任何需要的时候开始过程改进,甚至在他们准备提高 到推荐的特定实践所在的成熟度级别之前都可以。然而,在这种 情况下,组织应当了解想要成功进行这些改进的存在风险,因为 它们成功制度化的基础还没有完成。没有正确基础的过程可能迫 于压力在它们最需要的时候出现失败。 A defined process that is characteristic of a maturity level 3 organization can be placed at great risk if maturity level 2 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 54 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 management practices are deficient. For example, management may commit to a poorly planned schedule or fail to control changes to baselined requirements. Similarly, many organizations prematurely collect the detailed data characteristic of maturity level 4 only to find the data uninterpretable because of inconsistencies in processes and measurement definitions. 如果成熟度 2 级的管理实践有缺陷,在推行一个具有成熟度 3 级 组织的特征的已定义过程时就要冒很大风险。例如,管理者可能 承诺一个策划糟糕的进度表或无法控制已基线化的需求变更。与 此类似,因为过程和度量定义的不一致,很多组织过早收集成熟 度 4 级特征的详细数据却发现无法解释这些数据。 Another example of using processes associated with higher maturity level process areas is in the building of products. Certainly, we would expect maturity level 1 organizations to perform requirements analysis, design, product integration, and verification. However, these activities are not described until maturity level 3, where they are defined as coherent, well-integrated engineering processes. The maturity level 3 engineering process complements a maturing project management capability put in place so that the engineering improvements are not lost by an ad hoc management process. 另一个使用与较高成熟度级别过程域相关的过程例子是在产品构 建过程中。显然,我们会期望成熟度级别为 1 的组织执行需求分 析,设计,产品集成和确认。然而,直到成熟度级别 3 时才描述 了这些活动,这里将它们定义为密切相关、良好集成的工程过程。 成熟度级别 3 的工程过程补充了一个成熟项目管理的能力,这样 随意性的管理过程就不会缺失工程改进。 Process Areas 过程域 Process areas are viewed differently in the two representations. Figure 3.2 compares views of how process areas are used in the continuous representation and the staged representation. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 55 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 过程域在两种表述中的视角是不同的。图 3.2 是过程域在连续式 与阶段式表述中如何使用的观点对比。 连续式 目标摘要 过程域 1 过程域 2 过程域 3 过程域 4 过程域 N Se lec te d Pro cess Area s CL1 CL2 CL3 能力等级目标 阶段式 选择成熟度等级 成熟度 5 级 成熟度 4 级 成熟度 3 级 成熟度 2 级 供应商协议管理 需求管理 过程与产品质量保证 项目计划 项目监控 度量与分析 配置管理 = 达到成熟度第 3 级过程改进所选择的一组过程域 图 3.2: 连续式阶段式表述的过程域 The continuous representation enables the organization to choose the focus of its process improvement efforts by choosing those process areas, or sets of interrelated process areas, that 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 56 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 best benefit the organization and its business objectives. Although there are some limits on what an organization can choose because of the dependencies among process areas, the organization has considerable freedom in its selection. 连续式表述法使组织能够在过程域中选择一组聚焦组织改进和为 组织经营目标带来最大利益的过程域。虽然过程域有相互依赖性, 使得组织在选择上有些限制,但是组织仍然有很大的自由选择空 间。 To support those who use the continuous representation, process areas are organized into four categories: Process Management, Project Management, Engineering, and Support. These categories emphasize some of the key relationships that exist among the process areas. 为支持使用连续式表述的组织,过程域组织分为以下 4 种类型: 过程管理,项目管理,工程管理和支持过程。这些类型强调过程 域间存在的关系。 Sometimes an informal grouping of process areas is mentioned: high maturity process areas. The four high maturity process areas are: Organizational Process Performance, Quantitative Project Management, Organizational Performance Management, and Causal Analysis and Resolution. These process areas focus on improving the performance of implemented processes that most closely relate to the organization’s business objectives. 有时候也会提到一组正式的过程域,如高成熟度过程域。这四个 高成熟度过程域分别是:组织过程性能,量化项目管理,组织性 能管理和原因分析与解决。这些过程域关于改进执行与组织商业 目标接近的过程性能。 Once you select process areas, you must also select how much you would like to mature processes associated with those process areas (i.e., select the appropriate capability level). Capability levels and generic goals and practices support the improvement of processes associated with individual process 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 57 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 areas. For example, an organization may wish to reach capability level 2 in one process area and capability level 3 in another. As the organization reaches a capability level, it sets its sights on the next capability level for one of these same process areas or decides to widen its view and address a larger number of process areas. Once it reaches capability level 3 in most of the process areas, the organization can shift its attention to the high maturity process areas and can track the capability of each through capability level 3. 当你选择过程域时,你也必须选择在这些过程域中过程需要达到 的成熟度(例如:选择合适的能力等级)。能力度等级与通用目标 及实践支持个别过程域相关的过程改进。比如,一个组织可能希 望将某个过程域提高到能力度 2 级,以及在另一个过程域达到能 力度 3 级。当一个组织达到一个能力度等级后,它将这些相同的 过程域中的一个设为下一个能力等级的目标,或是决定扩大视野 并解决更多的过程域。当组织大部分过程域达到能力级别 3 时, 组织可以改变关注焦点到更高的成熟度的过程域并持续跟踪每个 过程的能力达到能力度 3 级。 The selection of a combination of process areas and capability levels is typically described in a “target profile.” A target profile defines all of the process areas to be addressed and the targeted capability level for each. This profile governs which goals and practices the organization will address in its process improvement efforts. 一般以“目标摘要”来说明选择的过程域和能力等级。目标摘要 定义了所有必须要解决的过程域及每一个目标能力等级,这个摘 要会影响有哪一些目标与实践,组织将在过程改进中解决。 Most organizations, at minimum, target capability level 1 for the process areas they select, which requires that all of these process areas’ specific goals be achieved. However, organizations that target capability levels higher than 1 concentrate on the institutionalization of selected processes in the organization by implementing generic goals and practices. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 58 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 大多数组织在至少会将能力度 1 级当作目标,它要求过程域的所 有特定目标都达成。但是,将高于能力度 1 级当作目标的组织通 过执行通用目标与实践,来关注组织内已选择过程的制度化进程。 The staged representation provides a path of improvement from maturity level 1 to maturity level 5 that involves achieving the goals of the process areas at each maturity level. To support those who use the staged representation, process areas are grouped by maturity level, indicating which process areas to implement to achieve each maturity level. 阶段式表述提供了由成熟度 1 级到 5 级预先定义的改进路径,包 括达成每一个成熟度等级过程域的目标。为了支持阶段式表述, 过程域按成熟度等级组合,以表明达到每个成熟度等级需要实现 哪些过程域。 For example, at maturity level 2, there is a set of process areas that an organization would use to guide its process improvement until it could achieve all the goals of all these process areas. Once maturity level 2 is achieved, the organization focuses its efforts on maturity level 3 process areas, and so on. The generic goals that apply to each process area are also predetermined. Generic goal 2 applies to maturity level 2 and generic goal 3 applies to maturity levels 3 through 5. 例如,成熟度 2 等级中,有一组过程域是组织要用来指引过程改 进的,直到达到所有过程域的目标。一旦达到成熟度 2 级,组织 会专注于成熟度 3 级的过程域,以此类推。每个过程域的通用目 标是预先定义的。通用目标 2 应用在成熟度 2 级,而通用目标 3 应用于成熟度 3 到 5 级。 Table 3.2 provides a list of CMMI-DEV process areas and their associated categories and maturity levels. 表 3.2 提供了一个 CMMI-DEV 的清单,包括所有过程域与其相关 的类别及成熟度等级。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 59 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Table 3.2 Process Areas, Categories, and Maturity Levels 表 3.2 过程域,类别,和成熟度等级 Process Area 过程域 Category 类别 Maturity Level 成熟度等级 Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) Support 5 原因分析与解决 支持过程 Configuration Management (CM) Support 2 配置管理 支持过程 Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) Support 3 决策分析与解决 支持过程 Integrated Project Management (IPM) Project 3 集成项目管理 Management 项目管理 Measurement and Analysis (MA) Support 2 度量与分析 支持过程 Organizational Process Definition (OPD) Process 3 组织过程定义 Management 过程管理 Organizational Process Focus (OPF) Process 3 组织过程焦点 Management 过程管理 Organizational Performance Management Process 5 (OPM) Management 组织性能管理 过程管理 Organizational Process Performance (OPP) Process 4 组织过程性能 Management 过程管理 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 60 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Organizational Training (OT) 组织培训 Process 3 Management 过程管理 Product Integration (PI) 产品集成 Engineering 3 工程管理 Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) Project 2 项目监督与控制 Management 项目管理 Project Planning (PP) 项目策划 Project 2 Management 项目管理 Process and Product Quality Assurance Support 2 (PPQA) 支持过程 过程与产品质量保证 Quantitative Project Management (QPM) Project 4 量化项目管理 Management 项目管理 Requirements Development (RD) 需求开发 Engineering 3 工程管理 Requirements Management (REQM) Project 2 需求管理 Management 项目管理 Risk Management (RSKM) 风险管理 Project 3 Management 项目管理 Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) Project 2 供应商协议管理 Management 项目管理 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 61 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Technical Solution (TS) 技术解决 Engineering 3 工程管理 Validation (VAL) 确认 Engineering 3 工程管理 Verification (VER) 验证 Engineering 3 工程管理 Equivalent Staging 对等的阶段式 Equivalent staging is a way to compare results from using the continuous representation to results from using the staged representation. In essence, if you measure improvement relative to selected process areas using capability levels in the continuous representation, how do you translate that work into maturity levels? Is this translation possible? 对等的阶段式是比较使用连续式表述与阶段式表述结果的方式。 在本质上,如果你在连续式表述中使用能力度等级度量所选择过 程域的相关改进,你如何将它与成熟度等级做比较呢?这有可能 吗? Up to this point, we have not discussed process appraisals in much detail. The SCAMPISM method7 is used to appraise organizations using CMMI, and one result of an appraisal is a rating [SEI 2011a, Ahern 2005]. If the continuous representation is used for an appraisal, the rating is a “capability level profile.” If the staged representation is used for an appraisal, the rating is a “maturity level rating” (e.g., maturity level 3). 到目前为止,我们没有讨论详细的过程评估方法。SCAMPISM method7 用来评估使用 CMMI 的组织,其中一项评估结果是评估 等级[SEI 2011a, Ahern 2005]。如果评估使用连续式表述,评级 就是能力度等级。如果评估使用阶段式表述,评级就是成熟度等 7 The Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) method is described in Chapter 5.过程改进 标准 CMMI 评估方法(SCAMPI)在第五章中有描述。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 62 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 级(例如:成熟度等级 3)。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 A capability level profile is a list of process areas and the corresponding capability level achieved for each. This profile enables an organization to track its capability level by process area. The profile is called an “achievement profile” when it represents the organization’s actual progress for each process area. Alternatively, the profile is called a “target profile” when it represents the organization’s planned process improvement objectives. 能力度等级摘要是过程域清单,以反映每一个过程域达到的能力 度等级。这个摘要使组织能够追踪其过程域的能力等级。当它呈 现组织每一个过程域的实际进展时,这个摘要是一个实现摘要。 或者,当它呈现组织的规划过程改进目标时,这个摘要就是一个 目标摘要。 Figure 3.3 illustrates a combined target and achievement profile. The gray portion of each bar represents what has been achieved. The unshaded portion represents what remains to be accomplished to meet the target profile. 图 3.3 对目标摘要与实现摘要进行了说明。每一个长方条灰色的 地带呈现已经实现的目标。未覆盖的部分表示实现目标摘要未完 成的部分。 需求管理 项目计划 项目监督与控制 供应商协议管理 度量与分析 过程与产品质量保证 配置管理 图 3.3 实现摘要与目标摘要的例子 能力等级 1 能力等级 2 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 63 页 共 1064 页--- 能力等级 3 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 An achievement profile, when compared with a target profile, enables an organization to plan and track its progress for each selected process area. Maintaining capability level profiles is advisable when using the continuous representation. 实现摘要与目标摘要的比较,使组织能够规划与追溯每一个所选 择过程域的进展。当使用连续式表述时,维护能力度等级摘要是 十分有意义的。 Target staging is a sequence of target profiles that describes the path of process improvement to be followed by the organization. When building target profiles, the organization should pay attention to the dependencies between generic practices and process areas. If a generic practice depends on a process area, either to carry out the generic practice or to provide a prerequisite work product, the generic practice can be much less effective when the process area is not implemented.8 阶段化目标是一个循序的目标摘要,以说明组织遵循的过程改进 路径。当建立目标摘要时,组织应关注通用实践与过程域的依赖 关系。如果通用实践依赖某个过程域,当该过程域未实行时,无 论执行通用实践或是提供必要产品,通用实践可能会没有效果 8。 Although the reasons to use the continuous representation are many, ratings consisting of capability level profiles are limited in their ability to provide organizations with a way to generally compare themselves with other organizations. Capability level profiles can be used if each organization selects the same process areas; however, maturity levels have been used to compare organizations for years and already provide predefined sets of process areas. 虽然有许多理由使用连续式表述,但是能力度等级摘要所提供的 评级能力对于提供组织一个共性的方式与其他组织进行比较是有 限的。如果每个组织选择相同的过程域,能力度等级摘要可能会 8 See Table 6.2 in the Generic Goals and Generic Practices section of Part Two for more information about the dependencies between generic practices and process areas.查看第二部分通用目标和通用实践章节中的表 6.2 了解更 多通用实践和过程域之间的依赖关系。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 64 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 有用。可是,成熟度等级可以用于每年组织比较,并提供了一组 预先定义的过程域。 Because of this situation, equivalent staging was created. Equivalent staging enables an organization using the continuous representation to convert a capability level profile to the associated maturity level rating. 出于这种情形,建立了对等的阶段式。对等的阶段式组织能够使 用连续式表述评估,使能力度等级摘要转换成相关的成熟度等级 评估。 The most effective way to depict equivalent staging is to provide a sequence of target profiles, each of which is equivalent to a maturity level rating of the staged representation reflected in the process areas listed in the target profile. The result is a target staging that is equivalent to the maturity levels of the staged representation. 用来描述对等的阶段式最有效方式,是提供一个连续的目标摘要, 每一个都是对等阶段式表述中的成熟度等级评估。目标阶段的结 果是阶段式表述的对等成熟度等级。 Figure 3.4 shows a summary of the target profiles that must be achieved when using the continuous representation to be equivalent to maturity levels 2 through 5. Each shaded area in the capability level columns represents a target profile that is equivalent to a maturity level. 图 3.4 显示了使用连续式表述对等于成熟度等级 2 级到 5 级必须 达到的目标摘要一览。每一个能力度等级栏覆盖的区域呈现对等 于成熟度等级的目标摘要。 Figure 3.4: Target Profiles and Equivalent Staging 图 3.4:目标摘要与对等的阶段式 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 65 页 共 1064 页--- Name 名称 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Abbr. 缩写 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 ML CL1 CL2 CL3 Configuration Management 配置管理 Measurement and Analysis 度量与分析 CM 2 Target Profile 2 MA 2 目标摘要 2 Project Monitoring and Control 项目监督与控制 PMC 2 Project Planning 项目策划 PP 2 Process and Product Quality Assurance PPQA 2 过程与产品质量保证 Requirements Management 需求管理 REQM 2 Supplier Agreement Management 供应商协议管理 SAM 2 Decision Analysis and Resolution 决策分析与解决 DAR 3 Integrated Project Management 集成项目管理 Organizational Process Definition 组织过程定义 IPM OPD 3 Target Profile 3 目标摘要 3 3 Organizational Process Focus 组织过程焦点 OPF 3 Organizational Training 组织培训 OT 3 Product Integration 产品集成 PI 3 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 66 页 共 1064 页--- Name 名称 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Abbr. 缩写 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 ML CL1 CL2 CL3 Requirements Development 需求开发 RD 3 Risk Management 风险管理 RSKM 3 Technical Solution 技术解决 TS 3 Validation 确认 VAL 3 Verification 验证 VER 3 Organizational Process Performance 组织过程性能 Quantitative Project Management 量化项目管理 OPP QPM 4 Target Profile 4 目标摘要 4 4 Causal Analysis and Resolution 原因分析与解决 CAR Organizational Performance Management OPM 组织性能管理 5 Target Profile 5 目标摘要 5 5 The following rules summarize equivalent staging: 对等的阶段式规则概述如下:  To achieve maturity level 2, all process areas assigned to maturity level 2 must achieve capability level 2 or 3. 达到成熟度 2 级,所有成熟度 2 级指定的过程域,必须达到 能力度 2 级或 3 级。  To achieve maturity level 3, all process areas assigned to maturity levels 2 and 3 must achieve capability level 3. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 67 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 达到成熟度 3 级,所有成熟度 2 级或 3 级指定的过程域,必 须达到能力度 3 级。  To achieve maturity level 4, all process areas assigned to maturity levels 2, 3, and 4 must achieve capability level 3. 达到成熟度 4 级,所有成熟度 2,3,4 级指定的过程域,必 须达到能力度 3 级。  To achieve maturity level 5, all process areas must achieve capability level 3. 达到成熟度 5 级,所有过程域,必须达到能力度 3 级。 Achieving High Maturity 达到高成熟度 When using the staged representation, you attain high maturity when you achieve maturity level 4 or 5. Achieving maturity level 4 involves implementing all process areas for maturity levels 2, 3, and 4. Likewise, achieving maturity level 5 involves implementing all process areas for maturity levels 2, 3, 4, and 5. 用阶段式表述,当组织达到成熟度 4 级或 5 级时就达到了高成熟 度。达到成熟度 4 级需要执行成熟度 2,3,4 级的所有过程域。 同样地,达到成熟度 5 级需要执行成熟度 2,3,4 和 5 级的所有 过程域。 When using the continuous representation, you attain high maturity using the equivalent staging concept. High maturity that is equivalent to staged maturity level 4 using equivalent staging is attained when you achieve capability level 3 for all process areas except for Organizational Performance Management (OPM) and Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR). High maturity that is equivalent to staged maturity level 5 using equivalent staging is attained when you achieve capability level 3 for all process areas. 用连续式表述,组织要达到高成熟度需要引用对等阶段式的概念。 高成熟度需要组织执行所有过程域,除了组织性能管理和原因分 析与解决,达到能力等级 3 级后,实施对等阶段式即成熟度 4 级, 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 68 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 才能达到能力等级 4 级。高成熟度需要组织达到能力第级 3 级, 实施对等阶段式即成熟度第级 5 级,才能达到能力等级 5 级。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 69 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 4 Relationships Among Process Areas 过程域之间的 关系 In this chapter we describe the key relationships among process areas to help you see the organization’s view of process improvement and how process areas depend on the implementation of other process areas. 在本章中,我们会说明过程域之间的主要关系,以帮助你了解过 程改进的组织视角以及过程域是如何依赖于其他过程域的实施。 The relationships among multiple process areas, including the information and artifacts that flow from one process area to another—illustrated by the figures and descriptions in this chapter—help you to see a larger view of process implementation and improvement. 多个过程域之间的关联,包括从一个过程域到另外一个过程域的 信息和数据流——本章中通过各种图表和描述来进行说明——帮 助你从一个更广阔的视角去认识过程实施和改进。 Successful process improvement initiatives must be driven by the business objectives of the organization. For example, a common business objective is to reduce the time it takes to get a product to market. The process improvement objective derived from that might be to improve the project management processes to ensure on-time delivery; those improvements rely on best practices in the Project Planning and Project Monitoring and Control process areas. 成功的过程改进的初始行动必须通过组织的商业目标进行驱动。 例如,一个常见的商业目标是减少将产品推向市场所花费的时间。 由此产生的过程改进目标可能是改进项目管理过程以确保按时交 付;而这些改进依赖于项目策划和项目监督与控制过程域中的最 佳实践。 Although we group process areas in this chapter to simplify the discussion of their relationships, process areas often interact 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 70 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 and have an effect on one another regardless of their group, category, or level. For example, the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area (a Support process area at maturity level 3) contains specific practices that address the formal evaluation process used in the Technical Solution process area for selecting a technical solution from alternative solutions. 尽管我们在本章中将过程域分门别类以简化对其关系的讨论,但 是无论它们的分组、归类或级别如何不同,这些过程域之间仍会 相互作用而且对另一个过程域产生影响。例如,决策分析与解决 过程域(一个成熟度级别为 3 级的支持过程域)包含的特定实践 来阐明被用于技术解决(用于从备选方案中选择技术解决)过程 域中正式评估过程。 Being aware of the key relationships that exist among CMMI process areas will help you apply CMMI in a useful and productive way. Relationships among process areas are described in more detail in the references of each process area and specifically in the Related Process Areas section of each process area in Part Two. Refer to Chapter 2 for more information about references. 意识到 CMMI 过程域之间存在的主要关系会有助于你以一种有用 且富有成效的方式来应用 CMMI。在每个过程域的参考和第二部 分每个过程域的“相关过程域”章节中专门并且更详细地描述了 过程域之间的关系。参考第 2 章可以获取到更多参考信息。 Process Management 过程管理 Process Management process areas contain the cross-project activities related to defining, planning, deploying, implementing, monitoring, controlling, appraising, measuring, and improving processes. 过程管理类过程域涵盖跨项目的各种活动,包括定义,策划,部 署,实现,监督,控制,评估,度量和改进等过程。 The five Process Management process areas in CMMI-DEV are as follows: 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 71 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 下列为 CMMI-DEV 中 5 大过程管理类过程域:  Organizational Process Definition (OPD) 组织过程定义(OPD)  Organizational Process Focus (OPF) 组织过程焦点(OPF)  Organizational Performance Management (OPM) 组织性能管理(OPM)  Organizational Process Performance (OPP) 组织过程性能(OPP)  Organizational Training (OT) 组织培训(OT) Basic Process Management Process Areas 基本过程管理类过程域 The Basic Process Management process areas provide the organization with a capability to document and share best practices, organizational process assets, and learning across the organization. 基本过程管理类过程域为组织提供在整个组织内记录和共享最佳 实践、组织过程资产和学习的能力。 Figure 4.1 provides a bird’s-eye view of the interactions among the Basic Process Management process areas and with other process area categories. As illustrated in Figure 4.1, the Organizational Process Focus process area helps the organization to plan, implement, and deploy organizational process improvements based on an understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s processes and process assets. 图 4.1 提供了一个在基本过程管理过程域和其它过程域分类之间 交互关系的鸟瞰图。正如图 4.1 中所示,组织过程焦点过程域能 够帮助组织基于对当前组织过程和过程资产的强项和弱项的理解 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 72 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 进行策划,实施和部署组织过程改进。 anpdrooOcrbjegesacsntiinzveaetiesodsn’s Senior management Organization’s business objectives OPF Resources and coordination Training for projects and support groups in standard OT process and assets Standard process and other assets Training needs OPD Standard process, work, environment standards, and other assets Improvement information (e.g., lessons learned, data, and artifacts Project Management, Support, and Engineering process areas Process improvement proposals; participation in defining, assessing, and deploying processes OPD = Organizational Process Definition OPF = Organizational Process Focus OT = Organizational Training Figure 4.1: Basic Process Management Process Areas 图 4.1:基本过程管理类过程域 Candidate improvements to the organization’s processes are obtained through various sources. These activities include process improvement proposals, measurement of the processes, lessons learned in implementing the processes, and results of process appraisal and product evaluation activities. 组织过程的候选改进方案是通过多种来源获取到的。这些活动包 括过程改进提议,度量过程,实施过程中得到的教训以及过程评 估和产品评价活动的结果。 The Organizational Process Definition process area establishes and maintains the organization’s set of standard processes, 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 73 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 work environment standards, and other assets based on the process needs and objectives of the organization. These other assets include descriptions of lifecycle models, process tailoring guidelines, and process related documentation and data. 组织过程定义过程域建立并维护组织的标准过程集,工作环境标 准和其他基于组织过程需求和目标的资产。其他这些资产包括生 命周期模型,过程裁剪指南和过程相关文档及数据的描述。 Projects tailor the organization’s set of standard processes to create their defined processes. The other assets support tailoring as well as implementation of the defined processes. 项目裁剪组织标准过程集用以创建它们的定义过程。其他资产支 持裁剪以及实施已定义的过程。 Experiences and work products from performing these defined processes, including measurement data, process descriptions, process artifacts, and lessons learned, are incorporated as appropriate into the organization’s set of standard processes and other assets. 实施这些已定义过程的经验和工作产品,包括度量数据,过程描 述,过程数据和获得的教训都恰当地合并到组织的标准过程集和 其他资产中。 The Organizational Training process area identifies the strategic training needs of the organization as well as the tactical training needs that are common across projects and support groups. In particular, training is developed or obtained to develop the skills required to perform the organization’s set of standard processes. The main components of training include a managed training development program, documented plans, staff with appropriate knowledge, and mechanisms for measuring the effectiveness of the training program. 组织培训过程域识别组织战略培训需求以及那些跨项目和支持组 的具体的公共培训需求。特别是制定或获得这些培训来提升实施 组织标准过程集合所需的技能。培训的主要组成部分包括一个管 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 74 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 理中的培训开发程序,文档化的计划,拥有相应知识的成员,和 度量培训程序成效的机制。 Advanced Process Management Process Areas 高级过程管理类过程域 The Advanced Process Management process areas provide the organization with an improved capability to achieve its quantitative objectives for quality and process performance. 高级过程管理类过程域为组织提供一种改进的能力,即达到质量 和过程性能的量化目标。 Figure 4.2 provides a bird’s-eye view of the interactions among the Advanced Process Management process areas and with other process area categories. Each of the Advanced Process Management process areas depends on the ability to develop and deploy processes and supporting assets. The Basic Process Management process areas provide this ability. 图 4.2 提供了高级过程管理类过程域和其他过程域之间交互关系 的鸟瞰图。每一个高级过程管理类过程域都依赖于开发和部署过 程以及支持资产的能力。基本过程管理类过程域都提供了这种能 力。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 75 页 共 1064 页--- Organization CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Improvements OPM Codsatitmaanpfdrroobmveenpmeileofinttetsd Pcearfpoarmbilaitnyce Senior management Business objectives Quality and process objectives Quality and process measures, baselines, Performance objectives, and models Project Management, Support, and Engineering OPP process areas Performance capability data Cmomeamsounres Ability to develop and deploy standard process and other assets Basic Process Management process areas OPM = Organizational Performance Management OPP = Organizational Process Performance Figure 4.2: Advanced Process Management Process Areas 图 4.2:高级过程管理类过程域 As illustrated in Figure 4.2, the Organizational Process Performance process area derives quantitative objectives for quality and process performance from the organization’s business objectives. The organization provides projects and support groups with common measures, process performance baselines, and process performance models. 如图 4.2 中所示,组织过程性能过程域从组织的商业目标中获得 质量和过程性能的量化目标。组织为项目和支持组提供通用度量, 过程性能基线和过程性能模型。 These additional organizational assets support composing a defined process that can achieve the project’s quality and process performance objectives and support quantitative management. The organization analyzes the process performance data collected from these defined processes to develop a quantitative understanding of product quality, service 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 76 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 quality, and process performance of the organization’s set of standard processes. 这些附加的组织资产形成了一个能够达成项目质量和过程性能目 标并支持量化管理的已定义过程。组织分析从这些已定义过程收 集而来的过程性能数据用以开发一种产品质量,服务质量和组织 标准过程集过程性能的量化认识。 In Organizational Performance Management, process performance baselines and models are analyzed to understand the organization’s ability to meet its business objectives and to derive quality and process performance objectives. Based on this understanding, the organization proactively selects and deploys incremental and innovative improvements that measurably improve the organization’s performance. 在组织性能管理中,分析过程性能基线和模型来了解组织满足其 商业目标和实现质量和过程性能目标的能力。基于这种认识,组 织主动筛选和部署渐增和创新的改进,可预测地改进组织性能。 The selection of improvements to deploy is based on a quantitative understanding of the likely benefits and predicted costs of deploying candidate improvements. The organization can also adjust business objectives and quality and process performance objectives as appropriate. 选择要部署的改进是基于对部署备选的改进方案可能效益和可预 测成本的一种量化认识。组织也能适当地调整各种商业目标,质 量和过程性能目标。 Project Management 项目管理 Project Management process areas cover the project management activities related to planning, monitoring, and controlling the project. 项目管理过程域覆盖项目策划、监督和控制项目相关的项目管理 活动。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 77 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 The seven Project Management process areas in CMMI-DEV are as follows: CMMI-DEV 中的 7 个项目管理类过程如下所示:  Integrated Project Management (IPM) 集成项目管理(IPM)  Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) 项目监督与控制(PMC)  Project Planning (PP) 项目策划(PP)  Quantitative Project Management (QPM) 量化项目管理(QPM)  Requirements Management (REQM) 需求管理(REQM)  Risk Management (RSKM) 风险管理(RSKM)  Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) 供应商协议管理(SAM) Basic Project Management Process Areas 基本项目管理类过程域 The Basic Project Management process areas address the activities related to establishing and maintaining the project plan, establishing and maintaining commitments, monitoring progress against the plan, taking corrective action, and managing supplier agreements. 基本项目管理类过程域解决建立和维护项目计划,建立和维护承 诺,对照项目计划监控进度,采取纠正措施和管理供应商协议相 关的活动。 Figure 4.3 provides a bird’s-eye view of the interactions among the Basic Project Management process areas and with other process area categories. As illustrated in Figure 4.3, the Project 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 78 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Planning process area includes developing the project plan, involving relevant stakeholders, obtaining commitment to the plan, and maintaining the plan. 图 4.3 提供了基本项目管理类过程域与其它过程域分类之间交互 关系的鸟瞰图。如图 4.3 所示,项目策划过程域包括制定项目计 划,相关干系人参与,获得对计划的承诺并维护计划。 Corrective action PMC Status, issues, and results of process and product evaluations; measures and analyses Corrective action Replan Status, issues, and results of reviews and monitoring Plans SAM What to monitor Pprorroeddquuuccitrteacmnodemnptsonent REQM What to build PP What to do Commitments Product and product component requirements Engineering and Support process areas Measurement needs Supplier agreement Product component requirements, technical issues, completed product components, and acceptance reviews and tests Supplier PMC = Project Monitoring and Control PP = Project Planning REQM = Requirements Management SAM = Supplier Agreement Management Figure 4.3: Basic Project Management Process Areas 图 4.3:基本项目管理类过程域 Planning begins with requirements that define the product and project (“What to Build” in Figure 4.3). The project plan covers the various project management and development activities performed by the project. The project reviews other plans that 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 79 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 affect the project from various relevant stakeholders and establishes commitments with those stakeholders for their contributions to the project. For example, these plans cover configuration management, verification, and measurement and analysis. 策划活动从定义产品和项目(图 4.3 “建立什么”)需求开始。 项目策划涵盖项目执行的各种项目管理和开发活动。项目审核来 自各种相关方对项目产生影响的其它计划并与这些相关方就他们 对项目的贡献建立承诺。例如,这些计划涵盖了配置管理,验证 和度量与分析。 The Project Monitoring and Control process area contains practices for monitoring and controlling activities and taking corrective action. The project plan specifies the frequency of progress reviews and the measures used to monitor progress. Progress is determined primarily by comparing project status to the plan. When the actual status deviates significantly from the expected values, corrective actions are taken as appropriate. These actions can include replanning, which requires using Project Planning practices. 项目监督与控制过程域包含监督和控制活动以及采取纠正措施的 各种实践。项目策划详细说明了进度审查的频率和监督流程使用 的度量。项目策划主要通过比较项目状态和计划来确定进度。当 实际状态严重偏离预期值时,就要适当地采取纠正措施。这些措 施包括重新拟定计划,这需要使用项目策划的实践。 The Requirements Management process area maintains the requirements. It describes activities for obtaining and controlling requirement changes and ensuring that other relevant plans and data are kept current. It provides traceability of requirements from customer requirements to product requirements to product component requirements. 需求管理过程域是对需求进行维护。它描述获取和控制需求变更 以及确保其他相关计划和数据维持最新状态的活动。它提供从客 户需求到产品需求到产品组件需求的需求可追溯性。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 80 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Requirements Management ensures that changes to requirements are reflected in project plans, activities, and work products. This cycle of changes can affect the Engineering process areas; thus, requirements management is a dynamic and often recursive sequence of events. The Requirements Management process area is fundamental to a controlled and disciplined engineering process. 需求管理确保在项目计划,活动和工作产品中反映需求的变更。 这种变更周期可能影响工程了过程域;因此,需求管理是一种动 态的并且经常递归的事件序列。需求管理过程域是一个受控和规 范工程过程的基础。 The Supplier Agreement Management process area addresses the need of the project to acquire those portions of work that are produced by suppliers. Sources of products that can be used to satisfy project requirements are proactively identified. The supplier is selected, and a supplier agreement is established to manage the supplier. 供应商协议管理过程域针对项目要采购供应商生产的工作成果的 需要。可能用于满足项目需求的产品来源都是主动识别出来的。 一旦选择了供应商,就要建立供应商协议来管理供应商。 The supplier’s progress and performance are tracked as specified in the supplier agreement, and the supplier agreement is revised as appropriate. Acceptance reviews and tests are conducted on the supplier-produced product component. 按照供应商协议中指明的条款来跟踪供应商的进度和性能,适当 时要修订供应商协议。针对供应商提供的产品组件要进行验收评 审和测试。 Advanced Project Management Process Areas 高级项目管理类过程域 The Advanced Project Management process areas address activities such as establishing a defined process that is tailored 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 81 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 from the organization’s set of standard processes, establishing the project work environment from the organization’s work environment standards, coordinating and collaborating with relevant stakeholders, forming and sustaining teams for the conduct of projects, quantitatively managing the project, and managing risk. 高级项目管理类过程域解决这些活动,如建立一个从组织标准过 程集裁剪而来的已定义过程;依据组织工作环境标准建立项目工 作环境;与相关干系人进行协调和合作;为执行项目成立并维系 团队;量化管理项目以及管理风险。 Figure 4.4 provides a bird’s-eye view of the interactions among the Advanced Project Management process areas and with other process area categories. Each Advanced Project Management process area depends on the ability to plan, monitor, and control the project. The Basic Project Management process areas provide this ability. 图 4.4 提供了高级项目管理类过程域和其他过程域分类之间交互 关系的鸟瞰图。每个高级项目管理类过程域都依赖策划、监督和 控制项目的能力。基本项目管理类过程域都提供这种能力。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 82 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Statistical management data Quantitative objectives, subprocesses to statistically manage, project’s composed and defined process Organization’s standard processes, work environment standards, and supporting assets QPM IPM Risk exposure due to unstable processes RSKM Process Management process areas Product architecture for structuring teams Project’s defined process and work environment Coordination, commitments, and issues to resolve Teams for performing engineering and support processes Engineering and Support process areas Risk taxonomies and parameters, risk status, risk mitigation plans, and corrective action Basic Project Management process areas IPM= Integrated Project Management QPM = Quan titative Pro ject Management RSKM = Risk Management Figure 4.4: Advanced Project Management Process Areas 图 4.4 高级项目管理过程域 The Integrated Project Management process area establishes and maintains the project’s defined process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes (Organizational Process Definition). The project is managed using the project’s defined process. 集成项目管理过程域建立并维护由组织标准过程集(组织过程定 义)裁剪得到的项目定义过程。使用项目已定义的过程管理项目。 The project uses and contributes to the organizational process assets, the project’s work environment is established and maintained from the organization’s work environment standards, 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 83 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 and teams are established using the organization’s rules and guidelines. The project’s relevant stakeholders coordinate their efforts in a timely manner through the identification, negotiation, and tracking of critical dependencies and the resolution of coordination issues. 项目使用并为组织过程资产作出贡献,依据组织工作环境标准来 建立和维护项目工作环境,并且使用组织的规则和指南来建立团 队。项目相关方通过识别,协商并跟踪关键依赖关系以及解决协 调问题来及时调整他们的工作。 Although risk identification and monitoring are covered in the Project Planning and Project Monitoring and Control process areas, the Risk Management process area takes a continuing, forward-looking approach to managing risks with activities that include identification of risk parameters, risk assessments, and risk mitigation. 虽然在项目策划,项目监督与控制过程域涵盖了风险识别和监控, 但是风险管理过程域采用一种持续、提前预测的方法,通过风险 参数识别、风险评估和风险缓解活动来管理风险。 The Quantitative Project Management process area establishes objectives for quality and process performance, composes a defined process that can help achieve those objectives, and quantitatively manages the project. The project’s quality and process performance objectives are based on the objectives established by the organization and the customer. 量化项目管理过程域建立了质量和过程性能目标,形成一个能够 帮助实现这些目标的已定义过程,并且量化管理项目。项目质量 和过程性能目标都基于组织和客户所建立目标。 The project’s defined process is composed using statistical and other quantitative techniques. Such an analysis enables the project to predict whether it will achieve its quality and process performance objectives. 使用统计和其他量化技术构成项目定义过程。这样的分析可以保 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 84 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 证项目能预测是否会实现其质量和过程性能目标。 Based on the prediction, the project can adjust the defined process or can negotiate changes to quality and process performance objectives. As the project progresses, the performance of selected subprocesses is carefully monitored to help evaluate whether the project is on track to achieving its objectives. 基于预测,项目能够调整已定义过程或者对质量和过程性能目标 的变更进行协商。随着项目进展,仔细监控已选定的子过程性能 来帮助评估项目是否处于实现其目标的正轨。 Engineering 工程 Engineering process areas cover the development and maintenance activities that are shared across engineering disciplines. The Engineering process areas were written using general engineering terminology so that any technical discipline involved in the product development process (e.g., software engineering, mechanical engineering) can use them for process improvement. 工程类过程域包括了所有工程规范共享的开发和维护活动。工程 类过程域都使用通用的工程术语编写,以便产品开发过程(例如, 软件工程,机械工程)中涉及的任何技术规范都可以使用其进行 过程改进。 The Engineering process areas also integrate the processes associated with different engineering disciplines into a single product development process, supporting a product oriented process improvement strategy. Such a strategy targets essential business objectives rather than specific technical disciplines. This approach to processes effectively avoids the tendency toward an organizational “stovepipe” mentality. 工程类过程域也将不同的工程规范相关的过程集成为一个单独的 产品开发过程,以支持面向产品的过程改进策略。这样的策略针 对基本的商业目标而不是特定的技术规范。这种方法可以使过程 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 85 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 有效避免组织“烟囱”心理的倾向。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 The Engineering process areas apply to the development of any product or service in the development domain (e.g., software products, hardware products, services, processes). 工程类过程域应用于开发领域中任何产品或服务的开发(例如, 软件产品,硬件产品,服务,过程)。 The five Engineering process areas in CMMI-DEV are as follows: 在 CMMI-DEV 中,有以下五个工程类过程域:  Product Integration (PI) 产品集成(PI)  Requirements Development (RD) 需求开发(RD)  Technical Solution (TS) 技术解决(TS)  Validation (VAL) 确认(VAL)  Verification (VER) 验证(VEL) Figure 4.5 provides a bird’s-eye view of the interactions among the six Engineering process areas. 图 4.5 提供了六个工程类过程域之间相互关系的鸟瞰图。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 86 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Figure 4.5: Engineering Process Areas 图 4.5 工程类过程域 The Requirements Development process area identifies customer needs and translates these needs into product requirements. The set of product requirements is analyzed to produce a high-level conceptual solution. This set of requirements is then allocated to establish an initial set of product component requirements. 需求开发过程域识别客户要求并将这些要求转换成产品需求。分 析产品需求集以得到高级别概念的解决方案。然后分配这些需求 集从而建立一个初始的产品组件需求集。 Other requirements that help define the product are derived and allocated to product components. This set of product and product component requirements clearly describes the product’s performance, quality attributes, design features, verification requirements, etc., in terms the developer understands and uses. 其他需求可以帮助定义衍生的产品并分配到产品组件中。这种产 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 87 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 品集和产品组件需求依据开发者的理解和用法清晰地描述产品的 性能,质量属性,设计功能,验证需求等。 The Requirements Development process area supplies requirements to the Technical Solution process area, where the requirements are converted into the product architecture, product component designs, and product components (e.g., by coding, fabrication). Requirements are also supplied to the Product Integration process area, where product components are combined and interfaces are verified to ensure that they meet the interface requirements supplied by Requirements Development. 需求开发过程域为技术解决过程域提供了需求,在此这些需求被 转换成产品架构,产品组件设计和产品组件(例如,编码、构造)。 需求也提供给产品集成过程域,在此组合这些产品组件并进行接 口验证以确保它们符合需求开发所提供的接口需求。 The Technical Solution process area develops technical data packages for product components to be used by the Product Integration or Supplier Agreement Management process area. Alternative solutions are examined to select the optimum design based on established criteria. These criteria can be significantly different across products, depending on product type, operational environment, performance requirements, support requirements, and cost or delivery schedules. The task of selecting the final solution makes use of the specific practices in the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area. 技术解决过程域为产品集成或供应商协议管理过程域所使用的产 品组件制定技术数据包。基于已建立的准则来考察不同的解决方 案以选择最优的设计方案。这些准则根据产品类型、操作环境、 性能要求、支持需求和成本或交付进度的不同而千差万别。最终 方案的选择方式会利用决策分析与解决过程域的特定实践。 The Technical Solution process area relies on the specific practices in the Verification process area to perform design verification and peer reviews during design and prior to final 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 88 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 build. 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 技术解决过程域依赖于验证过程域的特定实践,在设计过程中和 最终构建之前来进行设计验证和同行评审。 The Verification process area ensures that selected work products meet the specified requirements. The Verification process area selects work products and verification methods that will be used to verify work products against specified requirements. Verification is generally an incremental process, starting with product component verification and usually concluding with verification of fully assembled products. 验证过程域确保所选择的工作产品符合指定的需求。验证过程域 选择工作产品和验证方法,用来验证工作产品是否符合指定的需 求。验证通常是一个渐进的过程,由验证产品组件开始,通常到 验证完整集成的产品结束。 Verification also addresses peer reviews. Peer reviews are a proven method for removing defects early and provide valuable insight into the work products and product components being developed and maintained. 验证也强调同行评审。同行评审是一种用于早期移除缺陷并对开 发和维护的工作产品和产品组件提供有价值的已验证方法。 The Validation process area incrementally validates products against the customer’s needs. Validation can be performed in the operational environment or in a simulated operational environment. Coordination with the customer on validation requirements is an important element of this process area. 确认过程域针对客户需求对产品进行渐进式确认。可以在操作环 境或一个模拟的操作环境中执行确认。针对确认需求与客户进行 协调是这个过程域的一个重要因素。 The scope of the Validation process area includes validation of products, product components, selected intermediate work products, and processes. These validated elements can often require reverification and revalidation. Issues discovered during 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 89 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 validation are usually resolved in the Requirements Development or Technical Solution process area. 确认过程域的范围包括确认产品、产品组件选择的中间工作产品 和过程。这些已确认要素可能经常需要再次验证和再次确认。确 认中发现的问题通常在需求开发或技术解决过程域中加以解决。 The Product Integration process area contains the specific practices associated with generating an integration strategy, integrating product components, and delivering the product to the customer. 产品集成过程域包含与产生集成策略、集成产品组件和交付产品 给客户相关的特定实践。 Product Integration uses the specific practices of both Verification and Validation in implementing the product integration process. Verification practices verify the interfaces and interface requirements of product components prior to product integration. Interface verification is an essential event in the integration process. During product integration in the operational environment, the specific practices of the Validation process area are used. 在执行产品集成过程中,产品集成使用验证和确认的特定实践。 在产品集成之前对产品组件的接口和接口需求进行验证实践。接 口验证是集成过程中的一个基本要素。在操作环境中进行产品集 成时,使用确认过程域的特定实践。 Recursion and Iteration of Engineering Processes 工 程过程的循环和迭代 Most process standards agree that there are two ways that processes can be applied. These two ways are called recursion and iteration. 大多数过程标准都认同两种过程应用方法。这两种方法称之为循 环和迭代。 Recursion occurs when a process is applied to successive 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 90 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 levels of system elements within a system structure. The outcomes of one application are used as inputs to the next level in the system structure. For example, the verification process is designed to apply to the entire assembled product, the major product components, and even components of components. How far into the product you apply the verification process depends entirely on the size and complexity of the end product. 当一个过程应用于一个系统结构内系统元素的后续级别时就会产 生循环。在系统结构中一个应用的输出用作下一个级别应用的输 入。例如,验证过程应用于整个集成的产品、主要产品组件甚至 组件的组件。验证过程应用于产品深度完全取决于终端产品的规 模和复杂度。 Iteration occurs when processes are repeated at the same system level. New information is created by the implementation of one process that feeds that information back into a related process. This new information typically raises questions that must be resolved before completing the processes. 在同一个系统级别重复执行过程时即产生迭代。执行一个过程会 产生新的信息,同时将该信息反馈给一个相关过程。这个新的信 息一般会产生一些问题,必须在过程完成之前解决这些问题。 For example, iteration will most likely occur between requirements development and technical solution. Reapplication of the processes can resolve the questions that are raised. Iteration can ensure quality prior to applying the next process. 例如,迭代最有可能出现在需求开发和技术解决之间。流程的重 复应用可以解决从中产生的问题。迭代可以确保应用于下一个过 程之前的质量。 Engineering processes (e.g., requirements development, verification) are implemented repeatedly on a product to ensure that these engineering processes have been adequately addressed before delivery to the customer. Further, engineering processes are applied to components of the product. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 91 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 工程过程(例如,需求开发、验证)会针对一个产品反复执行以 确保交付给客户之前充分解决了这些工程过程。而且,工程过程 都可以应用于产品组件。 For example, some questions that are raised by processes associated with the Verification and Validation process areas can be resolved by processes associated with the Requirements Development or Product Integration process area. Recursion and iteration of these processes enable the project to ensure quality in all components of the product before it is delivered to the customer. 例如,一些与验证和确认过程域相关的过程引起的问题可以在需 求开发或产品集成过程域相关的过程解决。这些过程域的循环和 迭代使项目能够确保产品交付给用户之前所有组件的质量。 The project management process areas can likewise be recursive because sometimes projects are nested within projects. 因为有时项目和项目之间相互嵌套,所以项目管理类过程域同样 可以循环进行。 Support 支持 Support process areas cover the activities that support product development and maintenance. The Support process areas address processes that are used in the context of performing other processes. In general, the Support process areas address processes that are targeted toward the project and can address processes that apply more generally to the organization. 支持类过程域包含支持产品开发和维护的活动。支持类过程域是 处理那些执行其他过程中所使用的过程。一般而言,支持类过程 域针对面向项目的过程,并且可以出来更通用于组织的过程。 For example, Process and Product Quality Assurance can be used with all the process areas to provide an objective evaluation of the processes and work products described in all the process areas. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 92 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 例如,过程与产品质量保证可以与所有过程域一起使用,对所有 过程域提供过程和工作产品的客观评价。 The five Support process areas in CMMI-DEV are as follows: CMMI-DEV 中有五个支持过程域,具体如下:  Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) 原因分析与解决(CAR)  Configuration Management (CM) 配置管理(CM)  Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) 决策分析与解决(DAR)  Measurement and Analysis (MA) 度量与分析(MA)  Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) 过程与产品质量保证(PPQA) Basic Support Process Areas 基本支持类过 程域 The Basic Support process areas address fundamental support functions that are used by all process areas. Although all Support process areas rely on the other process areas for input, the Basic Support process areas provide support functions that also help implement several generic practices. 基本支持里过程域处理所有过程域要用到的基本支持功能。虽然 所有支持过程域都依赖其他过程域作为输入,但基本支持类过程 域提供的支持功能也有助于实施多个通用实践。 Figure 4.6 provides a bird’s-eye view of the interactions among the Basic Support process areas and with all other process areas. 图 4.6 提供了基本支持类过程域之间,以及与其他过程域之间交 互关系的鸟瞰图。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 93 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Measurements and analyses MA Information needs All process areas Configuration items and change requests Controlled configuration items, baselines, and audit reports Quality and noncompliance issues Processes and work products, standards, and procedures PPQA CM CM = Configuration Management MA = Measurement and Analysis PPQA = Process and Product Quality Assurance Figure 4.6: Basic Support Process Areas 图 4.6:基本支持类过程域 The Measurement and Analysis process area supports all process areas by providing specific practices that guide projects and organizations in aligning measurement needs and objectives with a measurement approach that is used to support management information needs. The results can be used in making informed decisions and taking appropriate corrective actions. 度量与分析过程域支持所有的过程域,它提供的特定实践指导项 目与组织使用一种用于支持管理者信息需要的度量方式满足度量 要求和目标。度量结果可以用于进行广泛的决策,并采取适当的 纠正措施。 The Process and Product Quality Assurance process area supports all process areas by providing specific practices for objectively evaluating performed processes, work products, and services against the applicable process descriptions, standards, and procedures, and ensuring that any issues arising from these 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 94 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 reviews are addressed. 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 过程与产品质量保证过程域支持所有的过程域,它提供的特定实 践依据可应用的过程说明、标准和规程来客观评价已执行过程、 工作产品和服务,并确保这些评审中发现的问题都得到解决。 Process and Product Quality Assurance supports the delivery of high quality products and services by providing the project staff and all levels of management with appropriate visibility into, and feedback on, the processes and associated work products throughout the life of the project. 过程与产品质量保证过程域为项目人员和各级管理者提供了整个 项目生命周期内流程和相关工作产品的可视性以及反馈,以保证 可以交付高质量的产品和服务。 The Configuration Management process area supports all process areas by establishing and maintaining the integrity of work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits. The work products placed under configuration management include the products that are delivered to the customer, designated internal work products, acquired products, tools, and other items that are used in creating and describing these work products. 配置管理过程域通过使用配置标识、配置控制、配置状态记录和 配置审计来建立和维护工作产品的完整性以支持所有的过程域。 纳入配置管理的工作产品包括交付给客户的产品、指定的内部工 作产品、采购产品、工具,以及用来产生和说明这些工作产品的 其他配置项。 Examples of work products that can be placed under configuration management include plans, process descriptions, requirements, design data, drawings, product specifications, code, compilers, product data files, and product technical publications. 纳入配置管理的工作产品样例包括计划、过程描述、需求、设计 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 95 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 数据、图表、产品规格书、代码、编译器、产品数据文件和产品 技术文档。 Advanced Support Process Areas 高级支持 类过程域 The Advanced Support process areas provide the projects and organization with an improved support capability. Each of these process areas relies on specific inputs or practices from other process areas. 高级支持类过程域为项目和组织提供一种改进的支持能力。每个 过程域依赖于其他过程域的特定输入或实践。 Figure 4.7 provides a bird’s-eye view of the interactions among the Advanced Support process areas and with all other process areas. 图 4.7 提供了高级支持类过程域和其他过程域之间交互关系的鸟 瞰图。 CAR Process improvement proposals Defects, other problems, and successes All process areas Selected issues Formal evaluations CAR = Causal Analysis and Resolution DAR = Decision Analysis and Resolution Figure 4.7: Advanced Support Process Areas 图 4.7:高级支持类过程域 DAR 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 96 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Using the Causal Analysis and Resolution process area, project members identify causes of selected outcomes and take action to prevent negative outcomes from occurring in the future or to leverage positive outcomes. While the project’s defined processes are the initial targets for root cause analysis and action plans, effective process changes can result in process improvement proposals submitted to the organization’s set of standard processes. 利用原因分析与解决过程域,项目成员可以识别已选择结果的原 因并采取行动预防将来出现这些错误结果从而获得积极的结果。 虽然项目的已定义过程是原因分析和行动计划的主要目标,但有 效的过程变革可以产生过程改进建议并提交到组织标准过程集。 The Decision Analysis and Resolution process area supports all the process areas by determining which issues should be subjected to a formal evaluation process and then applying a formal evaluation process to them. 决策分析与解决过程域通过决定哪些问题需要进行正式评估过 程,然后对这些问题采用一个正式评估过程的方式来支持所有的 过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 97 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 5 Using CMMI Models 使用 CMMI 模型 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 The complexity of products today demands an integrated view of how organizations do business. 当今产品的复杂性要求企业经营事业时使用综合的视角。 CMMI can reduce the cost of process improvement across enterprises that depend on multiple functions or groups to achieve their objectives. 企业利用多个部门和群组来实现他们的目标,而 CMMI 可以降低 企业在这方面的过程改进成本。 To achieve this integrated view, the CMMI Framework includes common terminology, common model components, common appraisal methods, and common training materials. 为了达到全局的视角,CMMI 架构包含常见术语、常见模式组件、 常用的评估方法与通用的培训工具。 This chapter describes how organizations can use the CMMI Product Suite not only to improve their quality, reduce their costs, and optimize their schedules, but also to gauge how well their process improvement program is working. 本章不仅介绍了组织如何使用 CMMI 产品系列改进质量、降低成 本及优化进度,还可以用来判断它们的过程改进项目的工作满意 程度。 Adopting CMMI 使用 CMMI Research has shown that the most powerful initial step to process improvement is to build organizational support through strong senior management sponsorship. 研究表明对于过程改进起步最有影响的,是获得高层管理者的赞 助建立组织支持。 To gain the sponsorship of senior management, it is often beneficial to expose them to the performance results 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 98 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 experienced by others who have used CMMI to improve their processes [Gibson 2006]. 要获得高层管理者的赞助,需要让管理者发觉别人使用 CMMI 进 行过程改进对性能结果的帮助作用[Gibson 2006]。 For more information about CMMI performance results, see the SEI website at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/research/results/. 关于 CMMI 性能结果的进一步信息,请参考 SEI 网站: http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/research/results/。 The senior manager, once committed as the process improvement sponsor, must be actively involved in the CMMI-based process improvement effort. Activities performed by the senior management sponsor include but are not limited to the following: 高层管理者一旦承诺成为过程改进的赞助者,就必须主动参与以 能力成熟度集合模式为基础的过程改进工作。高层管理者需要执 行的活动(但是没有限制)包含如下: 1 Influence the organization to adopt CMMI 采用 CMMI 对组织的影响 2 Choose the best people to manage the process improvement effort 选择最佳的人员来管理过程改进工作 3 Monitor the process improvement effort personally 亲自监控过程改进工作 4 Be a visible advocate and spokesperson for the process improvement effort 成为过程改进工作显而易见的提倡者与发言人 5 Ensure that adequate resources are available to enable the process improvement effort to be successful 确保提供足够的资源使得过程改进的努力能够成功 Given sufficient senior management sponsorship, the next step is establishing a strong, technically competent process group 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 99 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 that represents relevant stakeholders to guide process improvement efforts [Ahern 2008, Dymond 2005]. 在得到充分的高层管理者赞助后,下一个步骤是建立一个强大的、 技术上能胜任的过程组,此过程组代表相关的干系人来指导过程 改进工作。 For an organization with a mission to develop software-intensive systems, the process group might include those who represent different disciplines across the organization and other selected members based on the business needs driving improvement. 对于发展软件密集型系统为任务的组织,过程组可能包含跨组织 的不同领域的工程师的代表,以及其它根据经营需求被选择来推 动改进的成员。 For example, a systems administrator may focus on information technology support, whereas a marketing representative may focus on integrating customers’ needs. Both members could make powerful contributions to the process group. 举例来说,系统管理员可能会专注于信息科技的支持,而销售代 表可能专注于整合客户的需要。这两种成员都会对过程组有很大 的贡献。 Once your organization decides to adopt CMMI, planning can begin with an improvement approach such as the IDEALSM (Initiating, Diagnosing, Establishing, Acting, and Learning) model [McFeeley 1996]. For more information about the IDEAL model, see the SEI website at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/library/abstracts/reports/96hb001.cfm. 一旦你的组织决定采用 CMMI,可以由一个改进方法开始规划, 例如 IDEALSM (初始、诊断、建立、行动与学习)模式。有关于 IDEAL 模式的进一步信息,请参考 SEI 网站: http://www.sei.cmu.edu/library/abstracts/reports/96hb001.cfm. Your Process Improvement Program 你的过程改进规划 Use the CMMI Product Suite to help establish your 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 100 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 organization’s process improvement program. Using the product suite for this purpose can be a relatively informal process that involves understanding and applying CMMI best practices to your organization. Or, it can be a formal process that involves extensive training, creation of a process improvement infrastructure, appraisals, and more. 使用 CMMI 产品系列协助建立你的组织过程改进计划。针对这个 目的使用 CMMI 产品系列可以是相对非正式的流程,包括对你的 组织了解与应用 CMMI 最佳实践。或者,它可以是一个需要广泛 训练、创建过程改进基础结构、评估等多方面的正式流程。 Selections that Influence Your Program 影响你规划的 选择 You must make three selections to apply CMMI to your organization for process improvement: 应用 CMMI 到你组织的过程改进,你必须做出三个选择: 1. Select a part of the organization. 选择组织一个部分 2. Select a model. 选择模型 3. Select a representation. 选择表述形式 Selecting the projects to be involved in your process improvement program is critical. If you select a group that is too large, it may be too much for the initial improvement effort. The selection should also consider organizational, product, and work homogeneity (i.e., whether the group’s members all are experts in the same discipline, whether they all work on the same product or business line, and so on). 选择要纳入你过程改进计划中的项目是关键。如果你选择的群组过 大,可能会使初始改进时所需的工作量太多。选择也应该要考虑组 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 101 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 织、产品、工作构造。(例如,尽管他们都是软件工程师,但是他 们是否都是在相同产品或是经营线工作等等)。 Selecting an appropriate model is also essential to a successful process improvement program. The CMMI-DEV model focuses on activities for developing quality products and services. The CMMI-ACQ model focuses on activities for initiating and managing the acquisition of products and services. The CMMI-SVC model focuses on activities for providing quality services to the customer and end users. 对于改进的领域,选择一个适合模式是非常必要的。CMMI-DEV 模型关注于质量产品和服务方面的开发活动。CMMI-ACQ 模型关 注于启动和管理产品与服务采购活动。CMMI-SVC 模型关注在于 为客户和最终使用者提供质量服务方面的活动。 When selecting a model, appropriate consideration should be given to the primary focus of the organization and projects, as well as to the processes necessary to satisfy business objectives. The lifecycle processes (e.g., conception, design, manufacture, deployment, operations, maintenance, disposal) on which an organization concentrates should also be considered when selecting an appropriate model. 何时选择何种模型取决与企业及其产品,最好针对目标选择合适 的过程。选择一个合适的模型时应该关注(例如,概念、设计、 生产、部署、运维、维护、处置)过程的生命周期。 Select the representation (capability or maturity levels) that fits your concept of process improvement. Regardless of which you choose, you can select nearly any process area or group of process areas to guide improvement, although dependencies among process areas should be considered when making such a selection. 选择一个模型来满足你过程改进的思想(能力等级或者成熟度等 级)。无论怎样选择,你都可以选择任何过程域或过程域组来指导 改进,尽管在选择时,需要考虑过程域之间的相互依赖关系。 As process improvement plans and activities progress, other 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 102 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 important selections must be made, including whether to use an appraisal, which appraisal method should be used, which projects should be appraised, how training for staff should be secured, and which staff members should be trained. 在过程改进计划与执行过程中,其它重要的选择也必须决定,包 含是否该使用评估,用哪种评估方法,哪个项目需要评估,如何 保证员工的培训活动,以及应培训哪些员工。 CMMI Models 各种 CMMI 模型 CMMI models describe best practices that organizations have found to be productive and useful to achieving their business objectives. Regardless of your organization, you must use professional judgment when interpreting CMMI best practices for your situation, needs, and business objectives. CMMI 模型对组织已经实施的最佳实践和这些实践对他们商业目 标实现的作用进行了描述。无论你的组织模型是怎样的,当你使 用 CMMI 最佳实践对你的具体需求和商业目标进行解释时,你都 必须进行专业判断。 This use of judgment is reinforced when you see words such as “adequate,” “appropriate,” or “as needed” in a goal or practice. These words are used for activities that may not be equally relevant in all situations. Interpret these goals and practices in ways that work for your organization. 当你在一个目标或实践中看到这些词语例如“充分的”、“有效的” 或“必须的”时你必须进行判断。这些词语可能无法适用所有的 情况。使用这种方法为你的组织诠释这些目标和实践。 Although process areas depict the characteristics of an organization committed to process improvement, you must interpret the process areas using an in-depth knowledge of CMMI, your organization, the business environment, and the specific circumstances involved. 虽然过程域对组织进行过程改进的特性进行了描述,但是你必须 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 103 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 使用 CMMI 深层知识、你的组织、你的商业环境和特殊的实施环 境来解释过程域。 As you begin using a CMMI model to improve your organization’s processes, map your real world processes to CMMI process areas. This mapping enables you to initially judge and later track your organization’s level of conformance to the CMMI model you are using and to identify opportunities for improvement. 当你开始使用 CMMI 模型改进你的组织流程时,将你实际的流程 与 CMMI 过程域相对比。这种对比可以帮助你做初始判断,并在 以后追踪你的组织是否符合你所使用的 CMMI 模型等级,以及界 定改进的机会。 To interpret practices, it is important to consider the overall context in which these practices are used and to determine how well the practices satisfy the goals of a process area in that context. CMMI models do not prescribe nor imply processes that are right for any organization or project. Instead, CMMI describes minimal criteria necessary to plan and implement processes selected by the organization for improvement based on business objectives. 要对实践进行解释,重要的是要考虑使用哪些实践,以及决定这 些实践方法如何更好的满足过程域目标。CMMI 模型并没有明确 规定或暗示某些特定流程适合任何组织或项目。相反地,CMMI 对于规划与执行组织商业目标所选择要改进的流程,说明了最基 本的必要准则。 CMMI practices purposely use nonspecific phrases such as “relevant stakeholders,” “as appropriate,” and “as necessary” to accommodate the needs of different organizations and projects. The specific needs of a project can also differ at various points in its life. CMMI 实践的目的是使用非特定的词组,例如“相关人员”、“适 当的”、“需要的”来满足不同组织和项目的需要。项目的特定需 要也可能会在生命周期中的不同时间点上有所差异。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 104 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Interpreting CMMI When Using Agile Approaches 使用敏 捷方法时 CMMI 的理解 CMMI practices are designed to provide value across a range of different situations and thus are stated in general terms. Because CMMI does not endorse any particular approach to development, little information that is approach-specific is provided. Therefore, those who don’t have prior experience implementing CMMI in situations similar to the one they are now in may find interpretation non-intuitive. 设计 CMMI 实践是为了在不同情况和一定范围内提供价值,因此 用一般术语来陈述。由于 CMMI 不认同任何一个特殊的开发方法, 所以也很少有特殊的方法予以提供。也就是说,在相同情况下之 前没有实施过 CMMI 的人是无法获得直观感受的。 To help those who use Agile methods to interpret CMMI practices in their environments, notes have been added to selected process areas. These notes are added, usually in the introductory notes, to the following process areas in CMMI-DEV: CM, PI, PMC, PP, PPQA, RD, REQM, RSKM, TS, and VER. 为了帮助那些使用敏捷方法的人在他们的环境中理解 CMMI 实 践,在一些选择的过程域增加了说明。这些说明通常是介绍性的 说明,增加在 CMMI-DEV 下面的过程域中:CM,PI,PMC,PP, PPQA,RD,REQM,RSKM,TS 和 VER。 All of the notes begin with the words, “In Agile environments” and are in example boxes to help you to easily recognize them and remind you that these notes are examples of how to interpret practices and therefore are neither necessary nor sufficient for implementing the process area. 所有说明的开头都写着“在敏捷环境中”,而且都有案例可寻,这 样可以帮助你更容易的识别它们,也提醒你这些提示是解释实践 的例子,因此没有必要也不需要完整的执行这些过程域。 Multiple Agile approaches exist. The phrases “Agile 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 105 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 environment” and “Agile method” are shorthand for any development or management approach that adheres to the Manifesto for Agile Development [Beck 2001]. 敏捷方法存在多样性。对于任何附属于《敏捷发展宣言》的开发 和管理方法而言,“敏捷环境”和“敏捷方法”都是迅速的。 Such approaches are characterized by the following: 这些方法特点如下:  Direct involvement of the customer in product development 在产品开发过程中,客户的直接参与  Use of multiple development iterations to learn about and evolve the product 使用各种方法学习并开发产品  Customer willingness to share in the responsibility for decisions and risk 客户有权自行决定并分担风险 Many development and management approaches can share one or more of these characteristics and yet not be called “Agile.” For example, some teams are arguably “Agile” even though the term Agile is not used. Even if you are not using an Agile approach, you might still find value in these notes. 许多开发和管理方法可以拥有其中一个或更多的特点,然而它们 不能成为“敏捷”。比如,尽管许多团队没有使用敏捷,可它们还 是对“敏捷”的方法争论不休。即使没有使用敏捷方法,还是可 以在说明中发现其价值的。 Be cautious when using these notes. Your ultimate interpretation of the process area should fit the specifics of your situation, including your organization’s business, project, work group, or team objectives, while fully meeting a CMMI process area’s goals and practices. As mentioned earlier, the notes should be taken as examples and are neither necessary nor sufficient to 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 106 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 implementing the process area. 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 使用这些说明时要注意。最终理解的过程域应当适合特定的情况, 包括组织的业务、项目、工作组和团队目标,从而充分满足 CMMI 过程域的目标和实践。如上所述,这些说明能作为样例,同时没 有必要也不需要完整的执行这些过程域。 Some general background and motivation for the guidance given on Agile development approaches are found in the SEI technical note CMMI or Agile: Why Not Embrace Both! [Glazer 2008]. 敏捷开发方法给出的一般性背景和动机指导,可以在 SEI 技术说 明《WHT NOT EMBRACE BOTH》的 CMMI 或敏捷中找到 [Glazer 2008]。 Using CMMI Appraisals 使用 CMMI 评估 Many organizations find value in measuring their progress by conducting an appraisal and earning a maturity level rating or a capability level achievement profile. These types of appraisals are typically conducted for one or more of the following reasons: 很多组织通 过评估 来对它 们的流程 进行度 量从而发 现它们 的价 值,然后获得成熟度等级评定或是能力等级实现证书。这些评估 执行的原因通常是下列一到多个理由:  To determine how well the organization’s processes compare to CMMI best practices and identify areas where improvement can be made 决定组织流程对应到CMMI最佳实践的程度,以及界定要 进行改进的领域  To inform external customers and suppliers about how well the organization’s processes compare to CMMI best practices 向外部客户与供货商报告组织流程对应到CMMI最佳实践 的程度 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 107 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  To meet the contractual requirements of one or more customers 符合一个或多个客户在合约上的需求 Appraisals of organizations using a CMMI model must conform to the requirements defined in the Appraisal Requirements for CMMI (ARC) [SEI 2011b] document. Appraisals focus on identifying improvement opportunities and comparing the organization’s processes to CMMI best practices. 使用 CMMI 模型评估的组织必须遵守 CMMI 评估需求文件[SEI 2011b]。评估关注于识别改进的机会和组织过程与 CMMI 最佳实 践的对比。 Appraisal teams use a CMMI model and ARC-conformant appraisal method to guide their evaluation of the organization and their reporting of conclusions. The appraisal results are used (e.g., by a process group) to plan improvements for the organization. 评估小组使用 CMMI 模型和 SEI 发布的评估需求(ARC)来指导 他们评估和结论报告。评估结果用于(如,过程改进组)制定组 织改进的计划。 Appraisal Requirements for CMMI CMMI 评估要求 The Appraisal Requirements for CMMI (ARC) document describes the requirements for several types of appraisals. A full benchmarking appraisal is defined as a Class A appraisal method. Less formal methods are defined as Class B or Class C methods. The ARC document was designed to help improve consistency across appraisal methods and to help appraisal method developers, sponsors, and users understand the tradeoffs associated with various methods. SEI 发布的 CMMI 评估要求文件(ARC)描述了几种不同类型的 评估要求。完整的基准评估被定义为 A 类评估方法。非正式的被 定义为 B 类或 C 类评估方法。SEI 发布的 CMMI 评估需求文件 (ARC)的目的是提高评估方法的一致性,并帮助评估机构、相 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 108 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 关企业或单位及用户了解和权衡相关的评估方法。 Depending on the purpose of the appraisal and the nature of the circumstances, one class may be preferred over the others. Sometimes self assessments, initial appraisals, quick-look or mini appraisals, or external appraisals are appropriate; at other times a formal benchmarking appraisal is appropriate. 根据评估的目的和其特性,每一种评估类型都有其优点。有时自 我评估,初步评估,快速检查或迷你评估,或者外部评估就能够 满足其需求;有时则需要进行正式的基准评估。 A particular appraisal method is declared an ARC Class A, B, or C appraisal method based on the sets of ARC requirements that the method developer addressed when designing the method. More information about the ARC is available on the SEI website at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/tools/appraisals/. 当设计评估方法时,详细的评估方法在 SEI 发布的评估需求文件 (ARC)A 类,B 类或 C 类评估方法中有声明。 更多有关于 ARC 的信息请参考 SEI 网站 http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/tools/appraisals/。 SCAMPI Appraisal Method SCAMPI 评估方法 The SCAMPI A appraisal method is the generally accepted method used for conducting ARC Class A appraisals using CMMI models. The SCAMPI A Method Definition Document (MDD) defines rules for ensuring the consistency of SCAMPI A appraisal ratings [SEI 2011a]. For benchmarking against other organizations, appraisals must ensure consistent ratings. The achievement of a specific maturity level or the satisfaction of a process area must mean the same thing for different appraised organizations. SCAMPI A 评估方法是被广泛认可的用在 CMMI 模型中执行 A 类 评估的方法。SCAMPI A 方法定义文件(MDD)定义了确保评估 等级的一致性的规则[SEI 2011a]。为了给其他组织作为基准,评 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 109 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 估必须确保等级的一致性。达到某一特定的成熟度等级或满足某 一过程域必须是要适用于不同评估机构的相同事物或情况。 The SCAMPI family of appraisals includes Class A, B, and C appraisal methods. The SCAMPI A appraisal method is the officially recognized and most rigorous method. It is the only method that can result in benchmark quality ratings. SCAMPI B and C appraisal methods provide organizations with improvement information that is less formal than the results of a SCAMPI A appraisal, but nonetheless helps the organization to identify improvement opportunities. More information about SCAMPI methods is available on the SEI website at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/tools/appraisals/. SCAMPI 评估方法包含 A,B,C 三类评估方法。其中,A 类评 估方法是得到官方认证的最严格的方法。也是唯一能够得到基准 质量等级的评估方法。B 类和 C 类评估方法相比 A 类评估方法没 有那么正式,尽管如此,但也能够给企业提供改进信息,帮助企 业识别改进的机会。 更多有关于 SCAMPI 评估方法信息请参考 SEI 网站 http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/tools/appraisals/。 Appraisal Considerations 评估注意事项 Choices that affect a CMMI-based appraisal include the following: 影响 CMMI 基准评估选择的有以下几点:  CMMI model CMMI 模型  Appraisal scope, including the organizational unit to be appraised, the CMMI process areas to be investigated, and the maturity level or capability levels to be appraised 评估范围,包括被评估的组织单元,被评估的 CMMI 过程 域,以及被评估的成熟度等级或能力水平 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 110 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3  Appraisal method 评估方法 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Appraisal team leader and team members 评估组组长和评估小组成员  Appraisal participants selected from the appraisal entities to be interviewed 选择评估参与者作为评估被访谈对象  Appraisal outputs (e.g., ratings, instantiation-specific findings) 评估输出(如,等级的评定,特定实例等证据)  Appraisal constraints (e.g., time spent on site) 评估约束(如,评估现场时间分配) The SCAMPI MDD allows the selection of predefined options for use in an appraisal. These appraisal options are designed to help organizations align CMMI with their business needs and objectives. SCAMPI MDD 允许在评估中选择预先定义的评估选项。目的是 帮助组织调整 CMMI 模型来满足的业务需求和商业目标。 CMMI appraisal plans and results should always include a description of the appraisal options, model scope, and organizational scope selected. This documentation confirms whether an appraisal meets the requirements for benchmarking. CMMI 评估计划和结果应该包括评估方法选择,模型范围和已选 定的组织范围的描述。这个文档作为是否符合评估要求的基准。 For organizations that wish to appraise multiple functions or groups, the integrated approach of CMMI enables some economy of scale in model and appraisal training. One appraisal method can provide separate or combined results for multiple functions. 由于组织希望评估多个职能部门或团队,CMMI 模型中还集合了 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 111 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 一些规模效益和评估培训。任意一种评估方法都能够为多个职能 部门提供单一或一组评估结果。 The following appraisal principles for CMMI are the same as those principles used in appraisals for other process improvement models: 以下是与 CMMI 模型评估原则一样且适用于其他过程改进模型的 原则:  Senior management sponsorship9 高级管理者发起 9  A focus on the organization’s business objectives 以组织的商业目标为焦点  Confidentiality for interviewees 被访谈者的保密性  Use of a documented appraisal method 运用已备案的评估方法  Use of a process reference model (e.g., a CMMI model) 使用过程参考模型(如,CMMI 模型)  A collaborative team approach 团队的协作  A focus on actions for process improvement 以过程改进行动为重点 CMMI Related Training 与 CMMI 相关的培训 Whether your organization is new to process improvement or is already familiar with process improvement models, training is a key element in the ability of organizations to adopt CMMI. An initial set of courses is provided by the SEI and its Partner Network, but your organization may wish to supplement these 9 Experience has shown that the most critical factor influencing successful process improvement and appraisals is senior management sponsorship.经验显示影响成功的过程改进和评估的关键因素是高层管理者的赞助。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 112 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 courses with its own instruction. This approach allows your organization to focus on areas that provide the greatest business value. 无论你的组织是刚接触过程改进模型还是已经非常熟悉,培训是 组织采用 CMMI 的关键组件。SEI 和其合作伙伴设置并提供了一 些基础课程,但是组织可能希望根据自身的意愿增设课程来指导 自己。培训可以促使组织关注提供最大商业价值的某一领域。 The SEI and its Partner Network offer the introductory course, Introduction to CMMI for Development. The SEI also offers advanced training to those who plan to become more deeply involved in CMMI adoption or appraisal—for example, those who will guide improvement as part of a process group, those who will lead SCAMPI appraisals, and those who will teach the Introduction to CMMI for Development course. Current information about CMMI related training is available on the SEI website at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/training/. SEI 和其合作伙伴提供 CMMI-DEV 基础入门课程。同时 SEI 也提 供更深入的有关 CMMI 评估的高级培训——如指导过程改进组如 何工作,SCAMPI 评估方法以及 CMMI-DEV 介绍等。 关于 CMMI 培训相关的最新信息请参考 SEI 网站 http://www.sei.cmu.edu/training/。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 113 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Part Two: Generic Goals and Generic Practices, and the Process Areas 第二部分: 通用目标与通用实践及过程域 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 114 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 GENERIC GOALS AND GENERIC PRACTICES 通用目标与通用实践 Overview 概述 This section describes in detail all the generic goals and generic practices of CMMI—model components that directly address process institutionalization. As you address each process area, refer to this section for the details of all generic practices. 本章详细描述了 CMMI 所有的通用目标及通用实践—直接说明过 程制度化的模型组件。当运用单个过程域时,所有通用实践的详 细内容可参考本章。 Generic practice elaborations appear after generic practices to provide guidance on how the generic practice can be applied uniquely to process areas. 通用实践的详细说明在通用实践后面,为这些通用实践如何独特 的应用于过程域提供指导。 Process Institutionalization 过程制度化 Institutionalization is an important concept in process improvement. When mentioned in the generic goal and generic practice descriptions, institutionalization implies that the process is ingrained in the way the work is performed and there is commitment and consistency to performing (i.e., executing) the process. 制度化是过程改进中很重要的概念。在通用目标及通用实践的叙 述中,制度化表示过程已根深蒂固的在工作中执行,并且执行(即 实施)过程与承诺相一致。 An institutionalized process is more likely to be retained during times of stress. When the requirements and objectives for the process change, however, the implementation of the process may also need to change to ensure that it remains effective. The 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 115 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 generic practices describe activities that address these aspects of institutionalization. 制度化的过程更可能在时间压力下维持。然而,当需求及目标因 过程而改变时,过程的执行也需改变以确保其仍然有效。通用实 践正是描述这些制度化方面的活动。 The degree of institutionalization is embodied in the generic goals and expressed in the names of the processes associated with each goal as indicated in Table 6.1. 制度化的等级包含于通用目标中,并以每个目标相关的过程名称 来表述,如表 6.1 所示。 Table 6.1 Generic Goals and Process Names 表 6.1 通用目标与过程名称 Generic Goal Progression of Processes 通用目标 过程发展 GG 1 GG 2 GG 3 Performed process 已执行过程 Managed process 已管理过程 Defined process 已定义过程 The progression of process institutionalization is characterized in the following descriptions of each process. 在接下来的每个过程叙述中,将描述过程制度化的发展。 Performed Process 已执行过程 A performed process is a process that accomplishes the work necessary to satisfy the specific goals of a process area. 已执行过程是一种为满足过程域的特定目标必须完成的工作的过 程。 Managed Process 已管理过程 A managed process is a performed process that is planned and executed in accordance with policy; employs skilled people 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 116 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 having adequate resources to produce controlled outputs; involves relevant stakeholders; is monitored, controlled, and reviewed; and is evaluated for adherence to its process description. 已管理过程是一种已执行过程,它是依据策略被策划及执行;任 用拥有充足资源的技术人员生产可控制的产出;涉及相关干系人; 被监督、控制和评审;并根据过程描述进行评估。 The process can be instantiated by a project, group, or organizational function. Management of the process is concerned with institutionalization and the achievement of other specific objectives established for the process, such as cost, schedule, and quality objectives. The control provided by a managed process helps to ensure that the established process is retained during times of stress. 过程能够通过一个项目、团体或者组织职能被实例化。过程的管 理和制度化与其他为过程建立的特定目标的达成有关,如费用、 进度和质量目标。通过已管理过程帮助已建立的过程在时间压力 下进行维持提供控制。 The requirements and objectives for the process are established by the organization. The status of the work products and services are visible to management at defined points (e.g., at major milestones, on completion of major tasks). Commitments are established among those who perform the work and the relevant stakeholders and are revised as necessary. Work products are reviewed with relevant stakeholders and are controlled. The work products and services satisfy their specified requirements. 组织建立过程的需求和目标。在定义的时间点(例如:在重要里 程碑、重要任务的完成时)管理层都可以了解工作产品和服务的 状态。在执行工作的人与相关干系人之间建立承诺,并在必要时 进行修订。工作产品经过相关干系人评审且是受控的。工作产品 和服务满足特定需求。 A critical distinction between a performed process and a 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 117 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 managed process is the extent to which the process is managed. A managed process is planned (the plan can be part of a more encompassing plan) and the execution of the process is managed against the plan. Corrective actions are taken when the actual results and execution deviate significantly from the plan. A managed process achieves the objectives of the plan and is institutionalized for consistent execution. 已执行过程和已管理过程的主要区别在于过程被管理的程度。已 管理过程是有计划的(计划可能是整合性计划的一部分)并依照 计划来管理过程的实施。当实际结果和执行与计划明显偏离时, 采取纠正措施。已管理过程达成计划的目标,并以制度化实现实 施的一致性。 Defined Process 已定义过程 A defined process is a managed process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes according to the organization’s tailoring guidelines; has a maintained process description; and contributes process related experiences to the organizational process assets. 已定义过程是一个已管理过程按照组织裁剪指南对组织标准过程 进行裁剪而产生;有对已维护的过程描述,并贡献过程相关经验 到组织过程资产中。 Organizational process assets are artifacts that relate to describing, implementing, and improving processes. These artifacts are assets because they are developed or acquired to meet the business objectives of the organization and they represent investments by the organization that are expected to provide current and future business value. 组织过程资产是指过程描述、实施和改进相关的成果。这些成果 之所以称为资产是因为它们是为满足组织业务目标开发或者获得 的,它们也代表组织的投入,并预期这些投入能提供当前和将来 的商业价值。 The organization’s set of standard processes, which are the 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 118 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 basis of the defined process, are established and improved over time. Standard processes describe the fundamental process elements that are expected in the defined processes. Standard processes also describe the relationships (e.g., the ordering, the interfaces) among these process elements. The organization-level infrastructure to support current and future use of the organization’s set of standard processes is established and improved over time. (See the definition of “standard process” in the glossary.) 建立并持续改进已定义过程的基础—组织标准过程集。标准过程 描述了已定义过程期望的基本过程元素。标准过程同时描述这些 过程元素间的关系(例如,顺序,接口)。组织层面的基础架构在 现在和将来支持已制定并持续改进的组织标准过程集的使用。(参 考词汇表中“标准过程”的定义。) A project’s defined process provides a basis for planning, performing, and improving the project’s tasks and activities. A project can have more than one defined process (e.g., one for developing the product and another for testing the product). 一个项目的已定义过程提供计划、实施及改进项目工作和活动的 基础。一个项目可以有多个已定义过程(例如,一个用于开发产 品,一个用于测试产品)。 A defined process clearly states the following: 已定义过程的详细描述如下:  Purpose 目的  Inputs 输入  Entry criteria 入口准则  Activities 活动  Roles 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 119 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 角色  Measures 度量  Verification steps 验证步骤  Outputs 输出  Exit criteria 出口准则 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 A critical distinction between a managed process and a defined process is the scope of application of the process descriptions, standards, and procedures. For a managed process, the process descriptions, standards, and procedures are applicable to a particular project, group, or organizational function. As a result, the managed processes of two projects in one organization can be different. 已管理过程和已定义过程的主要区别在于过程描述、标准及流程 的应用范围。在已管理过程中,过程描述、标准和流程应用于特 定项目、团队和组织职能。一个组织的两个项目的已管理过程可 能不同。 Another critical distinction is that a defined process is described in more detail and is performed more rigorously than a managed process. This distinction means that improvement information is easier to understand, analyze, and use. Finally, management of the defined process is based on the additional insight provided by an understanding of the interrelationships of the process activities and detailed measures of the process, its work products, and its services. 另一个主要区别是已定义过程比已管理过程描述更详尽,执行更 严谨。这意味着改进信息更容易理解、分析和使用。最后,通过 理解过程活动和过程、工作产品和服务的详细度量之间的关系提 供更多的信息来管理已定义过程。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 120 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Relationships Among Processes 过程之间的关系 The generic goals evolve so that each goal provides a foundation for the next. Therefore, the following conclusions can be made: 通用目标逐步发展,每一个目标为下一个目标提供基础。因此, 可以得出以下结论:  A managed process is a performed process. 已管理过程是已执行过程  A defined process is a managed process. 已定义过程是已管理过程 Thus, applied sequentially and in order, the generic goals describe a process that is increasingly institutionalized from a performed process to a defined process. 因此,按顺序有序应用,通用目标描述从已执行过程到已定义过 程是一种渐增式制度化的过程。 Achieving GG 1 for a process area is equivalent to saying you achieve the specific goals of the process area. 达到过程域的 GG1 就等于达到该过程域的特定目标。 Achieving GG 2 for a process area is equivalent to saying you manage the execution of processes associated with the process area. There is a policy that indicates you will perform the process. There is a plan for performing it. There are resources provided, responsibilities assigned, training on how to perform it, selected work products from performing the process are controlled, and so on. In other words, the process is planned and monitored just like any project or support activity. 达到过程域的 GG2 就相当于可管理相关过程域的过程实施。有 策略及计划地执行过程,提供资源,分配职责,培训如何执行过 程,从控制已执行过程中选定的工作产品,等等。换句话说,过 程被计划和监控,就像任何项目或支持活动一样。 Achieving GG 3 for a process area is equivalent to saying that 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 121 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 an organizational standard process exists that can be tailored to result in the process you will use. Tailoring might result in making no changes to the standard process. In other words, the process used and the standard process can be identical. Using the standard process “as is” is tailoring because the choice is made that no modification is required. 达到过程域的 GG3 就等于组织标准过程存在,且可裁剪为即将 使用的过程。裁剪可能对标准过程没有任何改变。换句话说,使 用的过程和标准过程可能是一样的。使用未作改变的标准过程也 是裁剪,因为已决定不需要任何修改。 Each process area describes multiple activities, some of which are repeatedly performed. You may need to tailor the way one of these activities is performed to account for new capabilities or circumstances. For example, you may have a standard for developing or obtaining organizational training that does not consider web-based training. When preparing to develop or obtain a web-based course, you may need to tailor the standard process to account for the particular challenges and benefits of web-based training. 每个过程域描述成多个活动,有的是重复执行的。你可能需要裁 剪其中一个已执行的活动,来说明新的功能或环境。比如,你可 能有一个开发或者获取组织培训的标准,但是没有考虑网络在线 培训。当准备开发或者获得网络在线课程时,你可能需要定义标 准过程,已说明特定的挑战和网络在线培训的收益。 Generic Goals and Generic Practices 通用目标和通用实践 This section describes all of the generic goals and generic practices, as well as their associated subpractices, notes, examples, and references. The generic goals are organized in numerical order, GG 1 through GG 3. The generic practices are also organized in numerical order under the generic goal they support. 本章描述所有的通用目标及通用实践,以及相关的子实践、注释、 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 122 页 共 1064 页--- GG 1 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 样例和参考资料。通用目标用数字序列组织,从 GG1 到 GG3。 通用实践在它们所支持的特定目标下面也是按照数字序列进行组 织。 Achieve Specific Goals 实现特定目标 The specific goals of the process area are supported by the process by transforming identifiable input work products into identifiable output work products. 通过将可识别的输入工作产品转换为输出工作产品的过程来支持过程域 的特定目标。 GP 1.1 Perform Specific Practices 实施特定实践 Perform the specific practices of the process area to develop work products and provide services to achieve the specific goals of the process area. 实施过程域的特定实践,以开发工作产品和提供服务,实现过 程域的特定目标。 The purpose of this generic practice is to produce the work products and deliver the services that are expected by performing (i.e., executing) the process. These practices can be done informally without following a documented process description or plan. The rigor with which these practices are performed depends on the individuals managing and performing the work and can vary considerably. 此通用实践的目的是产出执行(即实施)本过程期望的工作产品 和提供服务。这些实践可以以非正式且未遵循书面的过程描述或 计划的方式来执行。这些实践执行的严谨度取决于管理和执行工 作的个人,且可能差别相当大。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 123 页 共 1064 页--- GG 2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Institutionalize a Managed Process 制度化已管理过程 The process is institutionalized as a managed process. 过程制度化为已管理过程。 GP 2.1 Establish an Organizational Policy 建立组织政策 Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the process. 建立和维护组织政策,以计划并执行过程。 The purpose of this generic practice is to define the organizational expectations for the process and make these expectations visible to those members of the organization who are affected. In general, senior management is responsible for establishing and communicating guiding principles, direction, and expectations for the organization. 此通用实践的目的是定义组织对过程的期望,并且使组织的干系 人都能了解这些期望。一般来说,高级管理者担负着建立和沟通 组织指导原则、方向和期望的职责。 Not all direction from senior management will bear the label “policy.” The existence of appropriate organizational direction is the expectation of this generic practice, regardless of what it is called or how it is imparted. 并不是所有来自高级管理者的指示都称为“政策”。不论如何称呼 或如何实施,只要是存在于组织中的指示,都是对通用实践的期 望。 CAR Elaboration 原因分析与解决详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for identifying and systematically addressing causal analysis of selected outcomes. 本政策建立的组织期望是界定和系统说明已选择成果的原因分 析。 CM Elaboration 配置管理详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 124 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 establishing and maintaining baselines, tracking and controlling changes to work products (under configuration management), and establishing and maintaining integrity of the baselines. 本政策建立的组织期望是建立和维护基线,跟踪和控制工作产品 的变更(在配置管理下),并建立和维护基线的完整性。 DAR Elaboration 决策分析与解决详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for selectively analyzing possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. The policy should also provide guidance on which decisions require a formal evaluation process. 本政策建立的组织期望是依照已建立的准则,使用正式评估过程 评估已识别的方案,选择性分析可能的决策以进行决策。本政策 也提供哪些决策需要正式评估过程的指南。 IPM Elaboration 集成项目管理详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for establishing and maintaining the project’s defined process from project startup through the life of the project, using the project’s defined process in managing the project, and coordinating and collaborating with relevant stakeholders. 本政策建立的组织期望是建立和维护从项目已定义过程从启动到 结束的整个项目生命周期,使用组织已定义过程管理项目,并与 相关干系人协调和合作。 MA Elaboration 度量与分析详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for aligning measurement objectives and activities with identified information needs and project, organizational, or business objectives and for providing measurement results. 本政策建立的组织期望是调整项目,组织或商业目标的信息需求 与度量目标和活动相一致,并提供度量结果。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 125 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPD Elaboration 组织过程定义详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 This policy establishes organizational expectations for establishing and maintaining a set of standard processes for use by the organization, making organizational process assets available across the organization, and establishing rules and guidelines for teams. 本政策建立的组织期望是建立和维护组织使用的标准过程集,使 组织过程资产在组织中可用,并为团队建立规则和指南。 OPF Elaboration 组织过程焦点详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for determining process improvement opportunities for the processes being used and for planning, implementing, and deploying process improvements across the organization. 本政策建立的组织期望是确定已使用过程的过程改进机会,并在 组织中计划、执行与开展过程改进。 OPM Elaboration 组织性能管理详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for analyzing the organization’s business performance using statistical and other quantitative techniques to determine performance shortfalls, and identifying and deploying process and technology improvements that contribute to meeting quality and process performance objectives. 本政策建立的组织期望是使用统计和其他量化技术分析组织的业 务性能,以确定性能短板,并识别和开展有利于质量和过程性能 目标的过程和技术改进工作。 OPP Elaboration 组织过程性能详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for establishing and maintaining process performance baselines and process performance models for the organization’s set of standard processes. 本政策建立的组织期望是建立和维护组织标准过程性能基线和过 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 126 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 程性能模型。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 OT Elaboration 组织培训详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for identifying the strategic training needs of the organization and providing that training. 本政策建立的组织期望是识别组织战略培训需求并提供培训。 PI Elaboration 产品集成详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for developing product integration strategies, procedures, and an environment; ensuring interface compatibility among product components; assembling the product components; and delivering the product and product components. 本政策建立的组织期望是开发产品集成策略、程序和环境,保证 产品组件间的接口兼容性,集成产品组件,并交付产品和产品组 件。 PMC Elaboration 项目监督与控制详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for monitoring project progress and performance against the project plan and managing corrective action to closure when actual or results deviate significantly from the plan. 本政策建立的组织期望是依据项目计划监控项目过程和性能,当 现实或结果明显偏离计划时管理纠正措施直到关闭。 PP Elaboration 项目策划详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for estimating the planning parameters, making internal and external commitments, and developing the plan for managing the project. 本政策建立的组织期望是估计计划参数,确定内部和外部承诺, 并开发管理项目的计划。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 127 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 PPQA Elaboration 过程与产品质量保证详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for objectively evaluating whether processes and associated work products adhere to applicable process descriptions, standards, and procedures; and ensuring that noncompliance is addressed. 本政策建立的组织期望是客观评价过程和相关工作产品是否遵循 适用的过程描述、标准和流程,并确保没有不符合问题。 This policy also establishes organizational expectations for process and product quality assurance being in place for all projects. Process and product quality assurance must possess sufficient independence from project management to provide objectivity in identifying and reporting noncompliance issues. 本政策建立的组织期望是对所有项目进行过程和质量保证。过程 和质量保证必须从项目管理独立出来,以便能客观指出并报告不 符合问题。 QPM Elaboration 量化项目管理详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for using statistical and other quantitative techniques and historical data when: establishing quality and process performance objectives, composing the project’s defined process, selecting subprocess attributes critical to understanding process performance, monitoring subprocess and project performance, and performing root cause analysis to address process performance deficiencies. In particular, this policy establishes organizational expectations for use of process performance measures, baselines, and models. 本政策建立的组织期望是在以下场合使用统计和其他量化技术: 建立质量和过程性能目标、组建项目已定义过程、选择对理解过 程性能关键的子过程属性、监控子过程和项目性能,并实施根本 原因分析已说明过程性能缺陷。特别的是,本政策建立使用过程 性能的度量、基线和模型的期望。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 128 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 RD Elaboration 需求开发详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 This policy establishes organizational expectations for collecting stakeholder needs, formulating product and product component requirements, and analyzing and validating those requirements. 本政策建立的组织期望是收集干系人需求,明确地陈述产品和产 品组件需求,并分析和确认这些需求。 REQM Elaboration 需求管理详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for managing requirements and identifying inconsistencies between the requirements and the project plans and work products. 本政策建立的组织期望是管理需求并识别需求与项目策划和工作 产品之间的不一致。 RSKM Elaboration 风险管理详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for defining a risk management strategy and identifying, analyzing, and mitigating risks. 本政策建立的组织期望是定义风险管理策略,并识别、分析和缓 解风险。 SAM Elaboration 供应商协议管理详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for establishing, maintaining, and satisfying supplier agreements. 本政策建立的组织期望是建立、维护和满足供应商协议。 TS Elaboration 技术解决详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for addressing the iterative cycle in which product or product component solutions are selected, designs are developed, and designs are implemented. 本政策建立的组织期望是反复处理以下工作:选择产品和产品组 件解决方案、开发设计及实现设计。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 129 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 VAL Elaboration 确认详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 This policy establishes organizational expectations for selecting products and product components for validation; for selecting validation methods; and for establishing and maintaining validation procedures, criteria, and environments that ensure the products and product components satisfy end user needs in their intended operating environment. 本政策建立的组织期望是选择确定的产品和产品组件;选择确认 方法;建立和维护确认规程、标准和环境,以保证产品和产品组 件满足终端用户在他们准备的操作环境下的需求。 VER Elaboration 验证详细说明 This policy establishes organizational expectations for establishing and maintaining verification methods, procedures, criteria, and the verification environment, as well as for performing peer reviews and verifying selected work products. 本政策建立的组织期望是建立和维护验证方法、规程、准则和验 证环境,也执行同行审查并验证已选择的工作产品。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 130 页 共 1064 页--- GP 2.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Plan the Process 策划过程 Establish and maintain the plan for performing the process. 建立和维护执行过程的计划。 The purpose of this generic practice is to determine what is needed to perform the process and to achieve the established objectives, to prepare a plan for performing the process, to prepare a process description, and to get agreement on the plan from relevant stakeholders. 此通用实践的目的在于确定执行过程和达成相关干系人的目标所 需要的资源,准备过程执行的计划,准备过程描述,并取得相关 干系人对计划的承诺。 The practical implications of applying a generic practice vary for each process area. 每个过程域对通用实践的应用都可能不同。 For example, the planning described by this generic practice as applied to the Project Monitoring and Control process area can be carried out in full by the processes associated with the Project Planning process area. However, this generic practice, when applied to the Project Planning process area, sets an expectation that the project planning process itself be planned. 例如,当应用于项目监督控制过程域时,本通用实践所说的计划, 可能由项目策划过程域相关的过程来实现。但是,当应用于项目 策划过程域时,本通用实践会在项目策划过程域中设定计划期望。 Therefore, this generic practice can either reinforce expectations set elsewhere in CMMI or set new expectations that should be addressed. 因此,本通用实践会强调设定在 CMMI 的其他地方的期望,或设 定新的期望。 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about establishing and maintaining plans that define project activities. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 131 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 关于建立和维护定义项目活动计划的更多信息,请参考项目策划 过程域。 Establishing a plan includes documenting the plan and a process description. Maintaining the plan includes updating it to reflect corrective actions or changes in requirements or objectives. 建立计划包括将计划文档化及提供过程说明,维护计划包括更新 计划,以及反映纠正措施或需求和目标的变化。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 132 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 The plan for performing the process typically includes the following: 以下是典型执行过程的计划:  Process description 过程描述  Standards and requirements for the work products and services of the process 过程的工作产品和服务的标准及需求  Specific objectives for the execution of the process and its results (e.g., quality, time scale, cycle time, use of resources) 执行过程的特定目标和结果(例如,质量、时间进度、生命 周期以及使用的资源)  Dependencies among the activities, work products, and services of the process 过程的活动、工作产品和服务间的依赖关系  Resources (e.g., funding, people, tools) needed to perform the process 执行过程所需的资源(例如,资金、人、工具)  Assignment of responsibility and authority 责任和权力的分配  Training needed for performing and supporting the process 执行和支持过程所需的培训  Work products to be controlled and the level of control to be applied 受控的工作产品及实施控制的级别  Measurement requirements to provide insight into the execution of the process, its work products, and its services 度量需求,以提供过程的执行、工作产品及服务的可视化  Involvement of relevant stakeholders 涉及的相关干系人  Activities for monitoring and controlling the process 过程的监控活动  Objective evaluation activities of the process 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 133 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 过程的客观评估活动 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Management review activities for the process and the work products 过程和工作产品的管理评审活动 Subpractices 子实践 1. Define and document the plan for performing the process. 定义并记录执行过程的计划。 This plan can be a stand-alone document, embedded in a more comprehensive document, or distributed among multiple documents. In the case of the plan being distributed among multiple documents, ensure that a coherent picture of who does what is preserved. Documents can be hardcopy or softcopy. 此计划可能是一份独立的文件,可能包含在另一个综合性的 文件中,也可能分散在不同的文件中。如果计划分散在不同 的文件里,确保任务分工的一致性。文件可用文本或电子文 档方式保存。 2. Define and document the process description. 定义并记录过程描述。 The process description, which includes relevant standards and procedures, can be included as part of the plan for performing the process or can be included in the plan by reference. 过程描述包括相关的标准和规程,可视为执行过程计划的一 部分,或者当做计划的参考,包含在计划里。 3. Review the plan with relevant stakeholders and get their agreement. 与相关干系人评审计划并取得他们的同意。 This review of the plan includes reviewing that the planned process satisfies the applicable policies, plans, requirements, and standards to provide assurance to relevant stakeholders. 计划评审包含评审已计划的过程是否满足现行的政策、计 划、需求及标准,以便向相关干系人提供保证。 4. Revise the plan as necessary. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 134 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 必要时修订计划。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 CAR Elaboration 原因分析与解决详细说明 This plan for performing the causal analysis and resolution process can be included in (or referenced by) the project plan, which is described in the Project Planning process area. This plan differs from the action proposals and associated action plans described in several specific practices in this process area. The plan called for in this generic practice would address the project’s overall causal analysis and resolution process (perhaps tailored from a standard process maintained by the organization). In contrast, the process action proposals and associated action items address the activities needed to address a specific root cause under study. 执行原因分析与解决过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述 的项目计划中(或被其参考)。本计划不同于本过程域特定实践所 描述的行动建议和相关的行动计划。本通用实践所说的计划,是 项目整体的原因分析与解决过程的说明(可能由组织维护的标准 过程裁剪得到)。而过程的行动建议和相关行动则强调移除特定根 本原因所需要的活动。 CM Elaboration 配置管理详细说明 This plan for performing the configuration management process can be included in (or referenced by) the project plan, which is described in the Project Planning process area. 执行配置管理过程计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述的项目计 划中(或被其参考)。 DAR Elaboration 决策分析与解决详细说明 This plan for performing the decision analysis and resolution process can be included in (or referenced by) the project plan, which is described in the Project Planning process area. 执行决策分析和决议过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述 的项目计划中(或被其参考)。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 135 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 IPM Elaboration 集成项目管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 This plan for the integrated project management process unites the planning for the project planning and monitor and control processes. The planning for performing the planning related practices in Integrated Project Management is addressed as part of planning the project planning process. This plan for performing the monitor-and-control related practices in Integrated Project Management can be included in (or referenced by) the project plan, which is described in the Project Planning process area. 集成项目管理过程的计划集合项目策划和项目监控过程的计划。 在集成管理中,描述实施计划的相关实践的计划,是策划项目计 划过程的一部分。在集成项目管理,实施监控相关实践的计划, 可包含在项目策划过程域描述的项目计划中(或被其参考)。 MA Elaboration 度量与分析详细说明 This plan for performing the measurement and analysis process can be included in (or referenced by) the project plan, w hich is described in the Project Planning process area. 执行度量分析过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述的项目 计划中(或被其参考)。 OPD Elaboration 组织过程定义详细说明 This plan for performing the organizational process definition process can be part of (or referenced by) the organization’s process improvement plan. 执行组织过程定义过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述的 项目计划中(或被其参考)。 OPF Elaboration 组织过程焦点详细说明 This plan for performing the organizational process focus process, which is often called “the process improvement plan,” differs from the process action plans described in specific practices in this process area. The plan called for in this generic practice addresses the comprehensive planning for all of the 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 136 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 specific practices in this process area, from establishing organizational process needs through incorporating process related experiences into organizational process assets. 执行组织过程焦点的计划,通常称为“过程改进计划”。与本过程 域特定实践描述的过程活动计划不同。在此通用实践的计划是此 过程域中所有实践的综合计划,从建立组织过程需求到将过程相 关经验纳入组织过程资产。 OPM Elaboration 组织性能管理详细说明 This plan for performing the organizational performance management process differs from the deployment plans described in a specific practice in this process area. The plan called for in this generic practice addresses the comprehensive planning for all of the specific practices in this process area, from maintaining business objectives to evaluating improvement effects. In contrast, the deployment plans called for in the specific practice would address the planning needed for the deployment of selected improvements. 实施组织性能管理过程的计划与调度本过程域特定实践描述的计 划不同。在此,通用实践的计划是此过程域中所有实践的综合计 划,从维护业务目标到评估改进过程。然而,特定实践的部署计 划则强调部署已选择改进过程所需的计划。 OPP Elaboration 组织过程性能详细说明 This plan for performing the organizational process performance process can be included in (or referenced by) the organization’s process improvement plan, which is described in the Organizational Process Focus process area. Or it may be documented in a separate plan that describes only the plan for the organizational process performance process. 实施组织过程性能过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述的 项目计划中(或被其参考),或记录于另一个单独的仅描述执行组 织过程性能的过程的计划中。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 137 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OT Elaboration 组织培训详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 This plan for performing the organizational training process differs from the tactical plan for organizational training described in a specific practice in this process area. The plan called for in this generic practice addresses the comprehensive planning for all of the specific practices in this process area, from establishing strategic training needs through assessing the effectiveness of organizational training. In contrast, the organizational training tactical plan called for in the specific practice of this process area addresses the periodic planning for the delivery of training offerings. 实施组织培训过程的计划与本过程域中特定实践所述的组织培训 战略计划是不同的。在本通用实践所说的计划应说明本过程域所 有特定实践的综合计划,由建立战略性培训需求到组织级培训性 能评估。相反的,本特定实践所谓的组织培训实施计划则应叙述 培训实施的周期性策划。 PI Elaboration 产品集成详细说明 This plan for performing the product integration process addresses the comprehensive planning for all of the specific practices in this process area, from the preparation for product integration all the way through to the delivery of the final product. 实施产品集成过程的计划说明本过程域所有特定实践的综合性计 划,从准备集成到交付产品。 This plan for performing the product integration process can be part of (or referenced by) the project plan as described in the Project Planning process area. 本实施产品集成的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述的项目计 划中(或被其参考)。 PMC Elaboration 项目监督与控制详细说明 This plan for performing the project monitoring and control process can be part of (or referenced by) the project plan, as described in the Project Planning process area. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 138 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 实施项目监控过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述的项目 计划中(或被其参考)。 PP Elaboration 项目策划详细说明 Refer to Table 6.2 in Generic Goals and Generic Practices for more information about the relationship between generic practice 2.2 and the Project Planning process area. 关于通用实践 2.2 与项目策划过程域关系更多的信息,请参考通 用目标和通用实践表 6.2。 PPQA Elaboration 过程与产品质量保证详细说明 This plan for performing the process and product quality assurance process can be included in (or referenced by) the project plan, which is described in the Project Planning process area. 实施过程与产品质量保证过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域 描述的项目计划中(或被其参考)。 QPM Elaboration 量化项目管理详细说明 This plan for performing the quantitative project management process can be included in (or referenced by) the project plan, which is described in the Project Planning process area. 实施量化项目管理过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述的 项目计划中(或被其参考)。 RD Elaboration 需求开发详细说明 This plan for performing the requirements development process can be part of (or referenced by) the project plan as described in the Project Planning process area. 实施需求开发过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述的项目 计划中(或被其参考)。 REQM Elaboration 需求管理详细说明 This plan for performing the requirements management process can be part of (or referenced by) the project plan as described in 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 139 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 the Project Planning process area. 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 实施需求管理过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述的项目 计划中(或被其参考)。 RSKM Elaboration 风险管理详细说明 This plan for performing the risk management process can be included in (or referenced by) the project plan, which is described in the Project Planning process area. The plan called for in this generic practice addresses the comprehensive planning for all of the specific practices in this process area. In particular, this plan provides the overall approach for risk mitigation, but is distinct from mitigation plans (including contingency plans) for specific risks. In contrast, the risk mitigation plans called for in the specific practices of this process area addresses more focused items such as the levels that trigger risk handling activities. 实施风险管理过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述的项目 计划中(或被其参考)。此通用实践计划描述该过程域所有特定实 践的综合性计划。尤其是,本计划提供缓解风险的全部的方法, 与特定风险的缓解计划不同(包括应急计划)。相反的,本过程域 特定实践的风险缓解计划描述更关注触发风险处理活动级别之类 的条目。 SAM Elaboration 供应商协议管理详细说明 Portions of this plan for performing the supplier agreement management process can be part of (or referenced by) the project plan as described in the Project Planning process area. Often, however, some portions of the plan reside outside of the project with a group such as contract management. 本计划执行供应商协议管理的部分可包含在项目策划过程域描述 的项目计划中(或被其参考)。但是,通常计划的一些部分属于项 目之外的组织,比如合同管理。 TS Elaboration 技术解决详细说明 This plan for performing the technical solution process can be 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 140 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 part of (or referenced by) the project plan as described in the Project Planning process area. 执行技术解决过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述的项目 计划中(或被其参考)。 VAL Elaboration 确认详细说明 This plan for performing the validation process can be included in (or referenced by) the project plan, which is described in the Project Planning process area. 执行确认过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述的项目计划 中(或被其参考)。 VER Elaboration 验证详细说明 This plan for performing the verification process can be included in (or referenced by) the project plan, which is described in the Project Planning process area. 执行验证过程的计划,可包含在项目策划过程域描述的项目计划 中(或被其参考)。 GP 2.3 Provide Resources 提供资源 Provide adequate resources for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process. 提供充足的资源,以执行过程,开发工作产品和提供过程的服 务。 The purpose of this generic practice is to ensure that the resources necessary to perform the process as defined by the plan are available when they are needed. Resources include adequate funding, appropriate physical facilities, skilled people, and appropriate tools. 此通用实践的目的在于确保需要时能获得执行计划中定义的过程 所需的资源。资源保护充分的资金,合适的硬件措施,有技能的 人员及适当的工具。 The interpretation of the term “adequate” depends on many 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 141 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 factors and can change over time. Inadequate resources may be addressed by increasing resources or by removing requirements, constraints, and commitments. “充分”一词的诠释依赖于很多因素,而且随时可能改变。不充 分的资源可以靠增加资源或者减少需求、限制及承诺来解决。 CAR Elaboration 原因分析与解决详细说明 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Database management systems 数据库管理系统  Process modeling tools 过程模型工具  Statistical analysis packages 统计分析包 CM Elaboration 配置管理详细说明 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Configuration management tools 配置管理工具  Data management tools 数据库管理工具  Archiving and reproduction tools 归档和复制工具  Database management systems 数据库管理系统 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 142 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 DAR Elaboration 决策分析与解决详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Simulators and modeling tools 模拟器和建模工具  Prototyping tools 原型设计工具  Tools for conducting surveys 管理调查工具 IPM Elaboration 集成项目管理详细说明 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Problem tracking and trouble reporting package 问题跟踪和报告包  Groupware 组件  Video conferencing 视频会议  Integrated decision database 集成决议数据库  Integrated product support environments 集成产品支持环境 MA Elaboration 度量与分析详细说明 Staff with appropriate expertise provide support for measurement and analysis activities. A measurement group with such a role may exist. 适当专业知识为度量与分析活动提供支持。度量组中可能存在这 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 143 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 个角色。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Statistical packages 统计包  Packages that support data collection over networks 支持数据在网络上集成包 OPD Elaboration 组织过程定义详细说明 A process group typically manages organizational process definition activities. This group typically is staffed by a core of professionals whose primary responsibility is coordinating organizational process improvement. 过程组通常管理组织过程定义活动,且通常由专业人员组成,主 要职责是协调组织过程改进。 This group is supported by process owners and people with expertise in various disciplines such as the following: 过程组由过程的负责人,以及在各种专业领域有经验的人员做支 持,举例如下:  Project management 项目管理  The appropriate engineering disciplines 适当的工程领域  Configuration management 配置管理  Quality assurance 质量保证 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 144 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Database management systems 数据库管理系统  Process modeling tools 过程模型工具  Web page builders and browsers 网页制作与浏览器 OPF Elaboration 组织过程焦点详细说明 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Database management systems 数据库管理系统  Process improvement tools 过程改进工具  Web page builders and browsers 网页制作与浏览器  Groupware 组件  Quality improvement tools (e.g., cause-and-effect diagrams, affinity diagrams, Pareto charts) 质量改进工具(例如,因果图、亲和图、帕累托图) 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 145 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPM Elaboration 组织性能管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Simulation packages 模拟器软件包  Prototyping tools 原型工具  Statistical packages 统计包  Dynamic systems modeling 动态系统模型  Subscriptions to online technology databases and publications 订阅在线技术数据库和刊物  Process modeling tools 过程模型工具 OPP Elaboration 组织过程性能详细说明 Special expertise in statistical and other quantitative techniques may be needed to establish process performance baselines for the organization’s set of standard processes. 为维护组织标准过程的组织性能基线可能需要统计学或其他量化 技术的特殊专业知识。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 146 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Database management systems 数据库管理系统  System dynamics models 系统动态模型  Process modeling tools 过程模型工具  Statistical analysis packages 统计分析软件包  Problem tracking packages 问题跟踪软件包 OT Elaboration 组织培训详细说明 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Subject matter experts 主题专家  Curriculum designers 过程设计人员  Instructional designers 设计人员说明  Instructors 说明  Training administrators 培训管理人员 Special facilities may be required for training. When necessary, the facilities required for the activities in the Organizational Training process area are developed or purchased. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 147 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 培训可能需要特殊的设备,在有需要时,组织培训过程域所需的 设备应进行开发或购买。 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Instruments for analyzing training needs 培训需求分析工具  Workstations to be used for training 用于培训的工作站  Instructional design tools 设计工具说明  Packages for developing presentation materials 开发新课材料软件包 PI Elaboration 产品集成详细说明 Product component interface coordination can be accomplished with an Interface Control Working Group consisting of people who represent external and internal interfaces. Such groups can be used to elicit needs for interface requirements development. 产品组件协调可以通过代表内外部接口的人组成的接口控制工作 组完成。这个组织可以用来为接口需求开发引出需求。 Special facilities may be required for assembling and delivering the product. When necessary, the facilities required for the activities in the Product Integration process area are developed or purchased. 组合与交付产品可能需要特殊设备,在必要时,要采购或者开发 产品集成过程域中活动所需的设备。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 148 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Prototyping tools 原型工具  Analysis tools 分析工具  Simulation tools 模拟工具  Interface management tools 接口管理工具  Assembly tools (e.g., compilers, make files, joining tools, jigs, fixtures) 整合工具(例如,编译器、制作文件、链接工具、夹具、固 定设备) PMC Elaboration 项目监督与控制详细说明 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Cost tracking systems 费用跟踪系统  Effort reporting systems 性能报告系统  Action item tracking systems 活动条目跟踪系统  Project management and scheduling programs 项目管理和进度制定程序 PP Elaboration 项目策划详细说明 Special expertise, equipment, and facilities in project planning may be required. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 149 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 项目策划时,可能需要特殊专业能力设备、设施。 Special expertise in project planning can include the following: 以下是项目策划时所需的特殊专业能力:  Experienced estimators 有经验的估算人员  Schedulers 进度制定人员  Technical experts in applicable areas (e.g., product domain, technolo 特定领域专家(例如,产品领域和技术) Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Spreadsheet programs 电子表格程序  Estimating models 估计模型  Project planning and scheduling packages 项目策划和进度安排软件包 PPQA Elaboration 过程与产品质量保证详细说明 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Evaluation tools 评估工具  Noncompliance tracking tools 不符合项跟踪工具 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 150 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 QPM Elaboration 量化项目管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Special expertise in statistics and its use in analyzing process performance may be needed to define the analytic techniques used in quantitative management. Special expertise in statistics can also be needed for analyzing and interpreting the measures resulting from statistical analyses; however, teams need sufficient expertise to support a basic understanding of their process performance as they perform their daily work. 可能需要统计方面的特殊专业知识和用于过程性能分析,以定义 量化管理使用的分析技术。需要统计方面的特殊专业知识也可能 用于分析和解释统计分析的度量结果;但是,团队在执行日常工 作时,需要充分的专业知识,以支持对他们过程性能的基本理解。 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Statistical analysis packages 统计分析软件包  Statistical process and quality control packages 统计过程和质量控制软件包  Scripts and tools that assist teams in analyzing their own process performance with minimal need for additional expert assistance 帮助团队以最少的其他专家帮助需求分析过程性能的脚本和 工具 RD Elaboration 需求开发详细说明 Special expertise in the application domain, methods for eliciting stakeholder needs, and methods and tools for specifying and analyzing customer, product, and product component requirements may be required. 可能需要应用领域的专业知识,引导干系人需求的方法,以及说 明和分析客户、产品和产品组件需求的方法和工具。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 151 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Requirements specification tools 需求规格工具  Simulators and modeling tools 模拟器和建模工具  Prototyping tools 原型工具  Scenario definition and management tools 场景定义和管理工具  Requirements tracking tools 需求跟踪工具 REQM Elaboration 需求管理详细说明 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Requirements tracking tools 需求跟踪工具  Traceability tools 追溯工具 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 152 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 RSKM Elaboration 风险管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Risk management databases 风险管理数据库  Risk mitigation tools 风险缓解工具  Prototyping tools 原型工具  Modeling and simulation tools 建模和模拟工具 SAM Elaboration 供应商协议管理详细说明 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Preferred supplier lists 设置供应商优先级清单  Requirements tracking tools 需求跟踪工具  Project management and scheduling programs 项目管理和进度安排工具 TS Elaboration 技术解决详细说明 Special facilities may be required for developing, designing, and implementing solutions to requirements. When necessary, the facilities required for the activities in the Technical Solution process area are developed or purchased. 可能需要特殊的设备,以开发、设计和实现需求的解决方案。当 需要时,技术解决过程域的活动需要的设备,可能自己开发或者 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 153 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 购买。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Design specification tools 设计规格工具  Simulators and modeling tools 模拟器和模型工具  Prototyping tools 原型工具  Scenario definition and management tools 场景定义和管理工具  Requirements tracking tools 需求跟踪工具  Interactive documentation tools 交互文档工具 VAL Elaboration 确认详细说明 Special facilities may be required for validating the product or product components. When necessary, the facilities required for validation are developed or purchased. 可能需要特殊的设备,以确认产品和产品组件。当需要时,用于 确认的设备可能之开发或者购买。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 154 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Test management tools 测试管理工具  Test case generators 测试用例生成器  Test coverage analyzers 测试覆盖率分析器  Simulators 模拟器  Load, stress, and performance testing tools 负荷、压力和性能测试工具 VER Elaboration 验证详细说明 Special facilities may be required for verifying selected work products. When necessary, the facilities required for the activities in the Verification process area are developed or purchased. 可能需要特殊的设备,用于验证已选择的工作产品。当需要时, 验证过程域的活动需要的设备可以直接开发或者购买。 Certain verification methods can require special tools, equipment, facilities, and training (e.g., peer reviews can require meeting rooms and trained moderators; certain verification tests can require special test equipment and people skilled in the use of the equipment). 一些验证方法可能需要特殊的工具、设备、设施和培训(例如, 同行审查可能需要会议室和经过培训的主持人;一些验证测试可 能需要特殊的测试设备和使用设备的有技能的人)。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 155 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of resources provided include the following: 提供的资源举例如下:  Test management tools 测试管理工具  Test case generators 测试用例生成器  Test coverage analyzers 测试覆盖率分析器  Simulators 模拟器 GP 2.4 Assign Responsibility 分配责任 Assign responsibility and authority for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process. 分配责任与授权,以执行过程,开发工作产品级提供过程的服 务。 The purpose of this generic practice is to ensure that there is accountability for performing the process and achieving the specified results throughout the life of the process. The people assigned must have the appropriate authority to perform the assigned responsibilities. 此通用实践的目的,在于整个执行过程和达成指定结果的过程中, 都有人负责任,被指派责任的人一定要取得适当的授权,以执行 分配的责任。 Responsibility can be assigned using detailed job descriptions or in living documents, such as the plan for performing the process. Dynamic assignment of responsibility is another legitimate way to implement this generic practice, as long as the assignment and acceptance of responsibility are ensured throughout the life of the process. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 156 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 可以用详细的工作说明或文件来指派责任,如执行过程的计划。 在过程的生命周期内,只要责任的指派和接受都能获得保证,动 态的责任指派也是执行本通用实践的一种合理方法。 Subpractices 子实践 1. Assign overall responsibility and authority for performing the process. 指派整体性的责任与授权,以执行过程。 2. Assign responsibility and authority for performing the specific tasks of the process. 指派责任及授权以执行过程的特定工作。 3. Confirm that the people assigned to the responsibilities and authorities understand and accept them. 确定被指派责任与授权的人,都能了解和接受他们。 OPF Elaboration 组织过程焦点详细说明 Two groups are typically established and assigned responsibility for process improvement: (1) a management steering committee for process improvement to provide senior management sponsorship, and (2) a process group to facilitate and manage the process improvement activities. 为过程改进建立两个典型的团队并分配责任:(1)一个管理指导 委员会,为过程改进提供高级管理层支持;(2)一个过程团队, 方便管理过程改进活动。 PPQA Elaboration 过程与产品质量保证详细说明 Responsibility is assigned to those who can perform process and product quality assurance evaluations with sufficient independence and objectivity to guard against subjectivity or bias. 为执行过程与产品质量保证评估的人分配资源,执行充分独立和 客观,以监控主观性和偏差。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 157 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 TS Elaboration 技术解决详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Appointing a lead or chief architect that oversees the technical solution and has authority over design decisions helps to maintain consistency in product design and evolution. 任命一个领导或主任的架构师审查技术解决并对设计方案拥有权 威,以帮助维护产品设计和变化的一致性。 GP 2.5 Train People 培训人员 Train the people performing or supporting the process as needed. 根据需要对过程执行和支持人员进行培训。 The purpose of this generic practice is to ensure that people have the necessary skills and expertise to perform or support the process. 该通用实践的目的是确保人员具备必要的技能和专业知识以支持项 目管理过程。 Appropriate training is provided to those who will be performing the work. Overview training is provided to orient people who interact with those who perform the work. 向工作的直接执行者提供适当的培训。向那些与直接执行者相互影 响的干系人提供总体培训。 Examples of methods for providing training include self study; self-directed training; self-paced, programmed instruction; formalized on-the-job training; mentoring; and formal and classroom training. 培训方式包括自学、自我定向培训、自我引导、流程教学、在职 培训、顾问指导、正式课堂培训等方式。 Training supports the successful execution of the process by establishing a common understanding of the process and by imparting the skills and knowledge needed to perform the process. 可以通过建立对过程的共识以及在执行过程中需要的技巧和专业知 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 158 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 识为过程成功执行提供培训支持。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Refer to the Organizational Training process area for more information about developing skills and knowledge of people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently. 关于进一步使得相关人员能获得技能、知识内容以使他们能更高效 的投入各自角色的更多信息,请参考组织培训过程域。 CAR Elaboration 原因分析与解决详细说明 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Quality management methods (e.g., root cause analysis) 质量管理方法 (例如,根本原因分析) CM Elaboration 配置管理详细说明 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Roles, responsibilities, and authority of the configuration management staff 成员配置管理中的角色,职责  Configuration management standards, procedures, and methods 配置管理标准、流程及方法  Configuration library system 配置库系统 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 159 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 DAR Elaboration 决策分析与解决详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Formal decision analysis 正式的决策分析  Methods for evaluating alternative solutions against criteria 根据标准评估备选方案的方法 IPM Elaboration 集成的项目管理详细说明 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes to meet the needs of the project 裁剪组织标准过程集以满足项目需求  Managing the project based on the project’s defined process 基于项目已定义过程管理项目  Using the organization’s measurement repository 使用组织度量知识库  Using the organizational process assets 使用组织过程资产  Integrated management 集成管理  Intergroup coordination 团队间协调  Group problem solving 团队问题解决 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 160 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 MA Elaboration 度量分析详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Statistical techniques 统计技术  Data collection, analysis, and reporting processes 数据采集、分析及报告过程  Development of goal related measurements (e.g., Goal Question Metric) 与度量相关的目标开发(例如,目标问题矩阵) OPD Elaboration 组织过程定义详细说明 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  CMMI and other process and process improvement reference models CMMI 与其他过程及过程改进参考模型  Planning, managing, and monitoring processes 计划、管理及监控过程  Process modeling and definition 过程模型与定义  Developing a tailorable standard process 开发可裁剪的标准过程  Developing work environment standards 开发工作环境标准  Ergonomics 人类工程学 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 161 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPF Elaboration 组织过程焦点详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  CMMI and other process improvement reference models CMMI 与其它过程及过程改进参考模型  Planning and managing process improvement 计划及管理过程改进  Tools, methods, and analysis techniques 工具、方法及分析技术  Process modeling 过程模型  Facilitation techniques 简化技术  Change management 变更管理 OPM Elaboration 组织性能管理详细说明 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Cost benefit analysis 投入产出分析  Planning, designing, and conducting pilots 计划、设计并进行试点  Technology transition 技术转化  Change management 变更管理 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 162 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPP Elaboration 组织过程性能详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Process and process improvement modeling 过程及过程改进模型化  Statistical and other quantitative methods (e.g., estimating models, Pareto analysis, control charts) 统计及其它量化方法(例如,预测模型,帕累托分析,控制 图) OT Elaboration 组织培训详细说明 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Knowledge and skills needs analysis 知识和技能需求分析  Instructional design 教程设计  Instructional techniques (e.g., train the trainer) 教学技术(例如,对培训人员的培训)  Refresher training on subject matter 根据主题对培训进行更新 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 163 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 PI Elaboration 产品集成详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Application domain 应用领域  Product integration procedures and criteria 产品集成流程及准则  Organization’s facilities for integration and assembly 用于集成与整合的组织设施  Assembly methods 整合方法  Packaging standard 标准软件包 PMC Elaboration 项目监督与控制详细说明 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Monitoring and control of projects 项目监督与控制  Risk management 风险管理  Data management 数据管理 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 164 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 PP Elaboration 项目策划详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Estimating 估算  Budgeting 预算  Negotiating 协商  Identifying and analyzing risks 风险识别及分析  Managing data 数据管理  Planning 规划  Scheduling 进度表 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 165 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 PPQA Elaboration 过程与产品质量保证详细说明 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Application domain 应用领域  Customer relations 客户关系  Process descriptions, standards, procedures, and methods for the project 项目过程说明、标准、流程及方法  Quality assurance objectives, process descriptions, standards, procedures, methods, and tools 质量保证目标、过程说明、标准、流程、方法以及工具 QPM Elaboration 量化项目管理详细说明 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Basic quantitative (including statistical) analyses that help in analyzing process performance, using historical data, and identifying when corrective action is warranted 当纠正措施无法避免时,利用历史数据进行基础量化(包括 统计)分析,以协助分析过程执行情况  Process modeling and analysis 过程模型和分析  Process measurement data selection, definition, and collection 过程度量数据选择、定义及收集 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 166 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 RD Elaboration 需求开发详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Application domain 应用领域  Requirements definition and analysis 需求定义与分析  Requirements elicitation 需求引导  Requirements specification and modeling 需求规格及模型  Requirements tracking 需求跟踪 REQM Elaboration 需求管理详细说明 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Application domain 应用领域  Requirements definition, analysis, review, and management 需求定义、分析、审核及管理  Requirements management tools 需求管理工具  Configuration management 配置管理  Negotiation and conflict resolution 协商及冲突解决 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 167 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 RSKM Elaboration 风险管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Risk management concepts and activities (e.g., risk identification, evaluation, monitoring, mitigation) 风险管理概念及活动(例如,风险识别,评估,监控以及缓 解)  Measure selection for risk mitigation 为缓解风险选择度量 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 168 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 SAM Elaboration 供应商协议管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Regulations and business practices related to negotiating and working with suppliers 与供应商一起就相关的规定及商业实践进行协商与工作  Acquisition planning and preparation 采购计划及准备  Commercial off-the-shelf products acquisition 现成商业品采购  Supplier evaluation and selection 供应商评估与选择  Negotiation and conflict resolution 协商及冲突解决  Supplier management 供应商管理  Testing and transition of acquired products 对采购产品的测试及转换  Receiving, storing, using, and maintaining acquired products 对采购产品的接收、存储、使用及维护 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 169 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 TS Elaboration 技术解决详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Application domain of the product and product components 产品及产品组件的应用领域  Design methods 设计方法  Architecture methods 架构方法  Interface design 接口设计  Unit testing techniques 单元测试技术  Standards (e.g., product, safety, human factors, environmental) 标准(例如,产品、安全、人为因素、环境) VAL Elaboration 确认详细说明 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Application domain 应用领域  Validation principles, standards, and methods 确认原则、标准及方法  Intended-use environment 计划使用的环境 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 170 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 VER Elaboration 验证详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of training topics include the following: 培训内容举例如下:  Application or service domain 应用或服务领域  Verification principles, standards, and methods (e.g., analysis, demonstration, inspection, test) 验证原则、标准及方法(例如,分析,演示,检查,测试)  Verification tools and facilities 验证工具及设备  Peer review preparation and procedures 同行评审准备及流程  Meeting facilitation 简化会议 GP 2.6 Control Work Products 配置管理 Place selected work products of the process under appropriate levels of control. 将已选择工作产品的过程纳入到合适的控制级别下。 The purpose of this generic practice is to establish and maintain the integrity of the selected work products of the process (or their descriptions) throughout their useful life. 该通用实践的目的在于在整个生命周期中建立和维护过程的已选择 工作产品(或其描述)的完整性。 The selected work products are specifically identified in the plan for performing the process, along with a specification of the appropriate level of control. 在过程计划执行中需识别指定工作产品,并将该工作产品被纳入适 当控制等级下。 Different levels of control are appropriate for different work 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 171 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 products and for different points in time. For some work products, it may be sufficient to maintain version control so that the version of the work product in use at a given time, past or present, is known and changes are incorporated in a controlled manner. Version control is usually under the sole control of the work product owner (which can be an individual, group, or team). 不同的工作产品及时间点所适用的控制等级不同。对于一些工作产 品,版本控制就已足够,不论过去还是现在,工作产品在某段时间 的版本都很清楚,并且变更均在控制内。版本控制通常由工作产品 的拥有者(可以是个人、小组或团队)单独控制。 Sometimes, it can be critical that work products be placed under formal or baseline configuration management. This type of control includes defining and establishing baselines at predetermined points. These baselines are formally reviewed and approved, and serve as the basis for further development of the designated work products. 有时将工作产品置于正式的或基线的配置管理下是至关重要。这类 控制方式包括在事先已确定的时间点定义及建立基线。这些基线会 被正式评审和批准,并作为工作产品进一步设计、开发的基础。 Refer to the Configuration Management process area for more information about establishing and maintaining the integrity of work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits. 关于使用配置定义、配置控制、配置状态统计及配置审计建立、维 护工作产品完整性的更多信息,请参考配置管理过程域。 Additional levels of control between version control and formal configuration management are possible. An identified work product can be under various levels of control at different points in time. 在版本控制与正式配置管理之间可能有其它的配置管理等级。在不 同的时间,不同的工作产品可能会纳入不同的控制级别下。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 172 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 CAR Elaboration 原因分析与解决详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Action proposals 活动方案  Action plans 活动计划  Causal analysis and resolution records 原因分析与解决记录 CM Elaboration 配置管理详细说明 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Access lists 提取清单  Change status reports 变更状态报告  Change request database 变更申请数据库  CCB meeting minutes 变更控制委员会(CCB)会议备忘录  Archived baselines 已归档的基线 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 173 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 DAR Elaboration 决策分析与解决详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Guidelines for when to apply a formal evaluation process 何时引入正式评估过程的指南  Evaluation reports containing recommended solutions 包含建议解决方案的评估报告 IPM Elaboration 集成项目管理详细说明 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  The project’s defined process 项目已定义过程  Project plans 项目策划  Other plans that affect the project 影响项目的其它计划  Integrated plans 集成计划  Actual process and product measurements collected from the project 项目中收集到的实际过程与产品的度量  Project’s shared vision 项目的共同愿景  Team structure 团队结构  Team charters 团队章程 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 174 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 MA Elaboration 度量分析详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Measurement objectives 度量目标  Specifications of base and derived measures 指定的基础及衍生度量  Data collection and storage procedures 数据收集及存储流程  Base and derived measurement data sets 基础及衍生度量数据集  Analysis results and draft reports 分析结果及报告草案  Data analysis tools 数据分析工具 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 175 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPD Elaboration 组织过程定义详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Organization’s set of standard processes 组织标准过程集  Descriptions of lifecycle models 生命周期模型描述  Tailoring guidelines for the organization’s set of standard processes 组织标准过程集裁剪指南  Definitions of the common set of product and process measures 通用产品及过程度量的定义  Organization’s measurement data 组织度量数据  Rules and guidelines for structuring and forming teams 组建正式团队规则及指南 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 176 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPF Elaboration 组织过程焦点详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Process improvement proposals 过程改进建议  Organization’s approved process action plans 组织已核准的过程活动计划  Training materials used for deploying organizational process assets 部署组织过程资产的培训教材  Guidelines for deploying the organization’s set of standard processes on new projects 在新项目中开展组织标准过程的指南  Plans for the organization’s process appraisals 组织过程评估计划 OPM Elaboration 组织性能管理详细说明 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Documented lessons learned from improvement validation 经改进确认的已记录的经验  Deployment plans 实施计划  Revised improvement measures, objectives, priorities 经修订的改进度量、目标及优先级  Updated process documentation and training material 经过更新的过程文档及培训材料 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 177 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPP Elaboration 组织过程性能详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Organization’s quality and process performance objectives 组织质量与过程执行目标  Definitions of the selected measures of process performance 所选定的过程性能度量定义  Baseline data on the organization’s process performance 组织过程性能的基线数据  Process performance models 过程性能模型 OT Elaboration 组织培训详细说明 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Organizational training tactical plan 组织培训战略计划  Training records 培训记录  Training materials and supporting artifacts 培训材料及支持成果  Instructor evaluation forms 指导评估表格 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 178 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 PI Elaboration 产品集成详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Acceptance documents for the received product components 接收产品组件的可接受文档  Evaluated assembled product and product components 经评估的集成产品及产品组件  Product integration strategy 产品集成策略  Product integration procedures and criteria 产品集成流程及准则  Updated interface description or agreement 已更新的接口说明或协议 PMC Elaboration 项目监督与控制详细说明 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Project schedules with status 项目进度状态  Project measurement data and analysis 项目度量数据及分析  Earned value reports 挣值报告 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 179 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 PP Elaboration 项目策划详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Work breakdown structure 工作分解结构(WBS)  Project plan 项目策划  Data management plan 数据管理计划  Stakeholder involvement plan 干系人参与计划 PPQA Elaboration 过程与产品质量保证详细说明 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Noncompliance reports 不符合项报告  Evaluation logs and reports 评估日志及报告 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 180 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 QPM Elaboration 量化项目管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Subprocesses to be included in the project’s defined process 纳入项目已定义过程的子过程  Operational definitions of the measures, their collection points in the subprocesses, and how the integrity of the measures will be determined 度量的操作定义、度量过程在子过程的收集点以及如何判断 度量的完整性  Collected measurements 已收集的度量 RD Elaboration 需求开发详细说明 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Customer functional and quality attribute requirements 客户功能及质量属性需求  Definition of required functionality and quality attributes 功能及质量属性需求定义  Product and product component requirements 产品及产品组件需求  Interface requirements 接口需求 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 181 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 REQM Elaboration 需求管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Requirements 需求  Requirements traceability matrix 需求跟踪矩阵 RSKM Elaboration 风险管理详细说明 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Risk management strategy 风险管理策略  Identified risk items 已识别的风险项  Risk mitigation plans 风险缓解计划 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 182 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 SAM Elaboration 供应商协议管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Statements of work 工作说明书  Supplier agreements 供应商协议  Memoranda of agreement 协议备忘录  Subcontracts 子协议  Preferred supplier lists 优先选择的供应商名册 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 183 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 TS Elaboration 技术解决详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Product, product component, and interface designs 产品、产品组件及接口设计  Technical data packages 技术数据包  Interface design documents 接口设计文档  Criteria for design and product component reuse 设计与产品组件复用准则  Implemented designs (e.g., software code, fabricated product components) 已实现的设计(例如,软件代码,已装配的产品组件)  User, installation, operation, and maintenance documentation 使用者、安装、操作及维护文档 VAL Elaboration 确认详细说明 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Lists of products and product components selected for validation 需确认的产品及产品组件清单  Validation methods, procedures, and criteria 确认方法、流程及准则  Validation reports 确认报告 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 184 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 VER Elaboration 验证详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products placed under control include the following: 置于控制下的工作产品举例如下:  Verification procedures and criteria 验证流程及准则  Peer review training material 同行评审培训材料  Peer review data 同行评审数据  Verification reports 验证报告 GP 2.7 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders 识别并纳入相关干 系人 Identify and involve the relevant stakeholders of the process as planned. 依照计划在计划中识别并纳入相关干系人。 The purpose of this generic practice is to establish and maintain the expected involvement of relevant stakeholders during the execution of the process. 该通用实践的目的在于在过程的建立与维护执行过程中相关干系人 的期望。 Involve relevant stakeholders as described in an appropriate plan for stakeholder involvement. Involve stakeholders appropriately in activities such as the following: 按照干系人参与计划所描述适当的纳入相关干系人。适当的纳入干 系人以参加以下活动:  Planning 规划  Decisions 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 185 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 决策 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Commitments 承诺  Communications 沟通  Coordination 协调  Reviews 评审  Appraisals 评估  Requirements definitions 需求定义  Resolution of problems and issues 问题及问题的解决办法 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about planning stakeholder involvement. 关于项目干系人纳入计划的更多信息,请参考项目策划过程域。 The objective of planning stakeholder involvement is to ensure that interactions necessary to the process are accomplished, while not allowing excessive numbers of affected groups and individuals to impede process execution. 规划干系人参与的目的是确保完成干系人与过程间必要的互动,同 时不会使过多的小组或个人阻碍过程执行。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 186 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of stakeholders that might serve as relevant stakeholders for specific tasks, depending on context, include individuals, teams, management, customers, suppliers, end users, operations and support staff, other projects, and government regulators. 为特定任务服务的相关干系人例子包括个人,团队,管理人员,客 户,供应商,最终用户,业务和支持人员,其他项目,以及政府监 管机构。 Subpractices 子实践 1. Identify stakeholders relevant to this process and their appropriate involvement. 识别与过程相关的干系人及其适当的参与方式。 Relevant stakeholders are identified among the suppliers of inputs to, the users of outputs from, and the performers of the activities in the process. Once the relevant stakeholders are identified, the appropriate level of their involvement in process activities is planned. 由输入的提供者、输出的使用者以及过程活动的执行者中识别 相关干系人。相关干系人一旦被识别,他们在过程活动中的参 与程度计划也会相继被制定。 2. Share these identifications with project planners or other planners as appropriate. 与项目策划人或者其他适当计划人分享干系人的识别方式。 3. Involve relevant stakeholders as planned. 按照计划纳入相关干系人。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 187 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 CAR Elaboration 原因分析与解决详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Conducting causal analysis 行为原因分析  Assessing action proposals 评价行动建议 CM Elaboration 配置管理详细说明 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Establishing baselines 建立基线  Reviewing configuration management system reports and resolving issues 评审配置管理系统报告并解决问题  Assessing the impact of changes for configuration items 评价配置项变更的影响  Performing configuration audits 执行配置审计  Reviewing results of configuration management audits 评审配置管理审计的结果 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 188 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 DAR Elaboration 决策分析与解决详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Establishing guidelines for which issues are subject to a formal evaluation process 为那些受到正式评估过程影响的问题建立指南  Defining the issue to be addressed 定义需要解决的问题  Establishing evaluation criteria 建立评估准则  Identifying and evaluating alternatives 识别并评估备选方案  Selecting evaluation methods 选择评估方法  Selecting solutions 选择解决方案 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 189 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 IPM Elaboration 集成项目管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Resolving issues about the tailoring of organizational process assets 解决组织过程资产裁剪的问题  Resolving issues among the project plan and other plans that affect the project 解决项目策划与影响其项目策划之间的问题  Reviewing project progress and performance to align with current and projected needs, objectives, and requirements 评审项目过程及性能,以调整目前及期望的需要、目标及需 求  Creating the project’s shared vision 建立项目共同愿景  Defining the team structure for the project 定义项目团队结构  Populating teams 组建团队 MA Elaboration 度量分析详细说明 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Establishing measurement objectives and procedures 建立度量目标及流程  Assessing measurement data 评价度量数据  Providing meaningful feedback to those who are responsible for providing the raw data on which the analysis and results depend 负责对原始数据提供分析和结果的人员提供有效的反馈 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 190 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPD Elaboration 组织过程定义详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Reviewing the organization’s set of standard processes 评审组织标准过程集  Reviewing the organization’s lifecycle models 评审组织生命周期模型  Resolving issues related to the tailoring guidelines 解决与裁剪指南相关的问题  Assessing definitions of the common set of process and product measures 评价通用过程集和产品度量的定义  Reviewing work environment standards 评审工作环境标准  Establishing and maintaining empowerment mechanisms 建立和维护权力机制  Establishing and maintaining organizational rules and guidelines for structuring and forming teams 为组建团队建立和维护组织准则和指南 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 191 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPF Elaboration 组织过程焦点详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Coordinating and collaborating on process improvement activities with process owners, those who are or will be performing the process, and support organizations (e.g., training staff, quality assurance representatives) 关于过程改进活动与过程负责人协调合作,过程负责人即目 前或未来执行过程与支持组织的人(例如,培训人员,质量保证 代表)  Establishing the organizational process needs and objectives 建立组织过程需要与目标  Appraising the organization’s processes 评估组织过程  Implementing process action plans 执行过程活动计划  Coordinating and collaborating on the execution of pilots to test selected improvements 对为测试所选择改进的试点执行过程进行协调合作  Deploying organizational process assets and changes to organizational process assets 部署组织过程资产以及组织过程资产变更  Communicating the plans, status, activities, and results related to planning, implementing, and deploying process improvements 沟通关于规划、执行及改进活动部署活动的计划、状态、活 动以及相关结果 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 192 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPM Elaboration 组织性能管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Reviewing improvement proposals that could contribute to meeting business objectives 评审为满足商业目标的改进提议  Providing feedback to the organization on the readiness, status, and results of the improvement deployment activities 向组织提供改进部署活动的就绪情况、状态以及结果的反馈 The feedback typically involves the following: 典型反馈主要包括以下内容:  Informing the people who submit improvement proposals about the disposition of their proposals 向提供改进建议的人员告知建议的处理情况  Regularly communicating the results of comparing business performance against the business objectives 定期对商业目标与商业执行情况进行比较,并沟通结果  Regularly informing relevant stakeholders about the plans and status for selecting and deploying improvements 定期向相关干系人告知所选择改进部署活动的计划和状态  Preparing and distributing a summary of improvement selection and deployment activities 准备并发布所选改进部署活动的摘要 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 193 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPP Elaboration 组织过程性能详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Establishing the organization’s quality and process performance objectives and their priorities 建立组织质量及过程性能目标以及它们之间的优先顺序  Reviewing and resolving issues on the organization’s process performance baselines 评审并解决有关组织过程性能基线的问题  Reviewing and resolving issues on the organization’s process performance models 评审并解决有关组织过程性能模型的问题 OT Elaboration 组织培训详细说明 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Establishing a collaborative environment for discussion of training needs and training effectiveness to ensure that the organization’s training needs are met 建立一个可供讨论培训需求及培训效果的协作环境,以保证 满足组织培训需要  Identifying training needs 识别培训需要  Reviewing the organizational training tactical plan 评审组织培训战略计划  Assessing training effectiveness 评估培训效果 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 194 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 PI Elaboration 产品集成详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Establishing the product integration strategy 建立产品集成策略  Reviewing interface descriptions for completeness 评审接口说明的完整性  Establishing the product integration procedures and criteria 建立产品集成流程及准则  Assembling and delivering the product and product components 整合并交付产品与产品组件  Communicating the results after evaluation 在评估结束后对评估结果进行交流  Communicating new, effective product integration processes to give affected people the opportunity to improve their process performance 沟通新的、有效的产品集成过程,使得受其影响的人员有机 会改进他们的过程性能 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 195 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 PMC Elaboration 项目监督与控制详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Assessing the project against the plan 按照计划对项目进行评价  Reviewing commitments and resolving issues 评审承诺及解决的问题  Reviewing project risks 评审项目风险  Reviewing data management activities 评审数据管理活动  Reviewing project progress 评审项目进度  Managing corrective actions to closure 管理纠正措施直到关闭 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 196 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 PP Elaboration 项目策划详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Establishing estimates 建立估算  Reviewing and resolving issues on the completeness and correctness of the project risks 评审并解决有关项目风险完整性与正确性方面的问题  Reviewing data management plans 评审数据管理计划  Establishing project plans 建立项目计划  Reviewing project plans and resolving issues on work and resource issues 评审项目计划并解决工作及资源问题 PPQA Elaboration 过程与产品质量保证详细说明 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Establishing criteria for the objective evaluations of processes and work products 建立过程及工作产品的客观评价准则  Evaluating processes and work products 评估过程与工作产品  Resolving noncompliance issues 解决不符合的问题  Tracking noncompliance issues to closure 跟踪不符合问题直到问题关闭 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 197 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 QPM Elaboration 量化项目管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Establishing project objectives 建立项目目标  Resolving issues among the project’s quality and process performance objectives 解决项目质量和过程性能目标的问题  Selecting analytic techniques to be used 选择可供使用的分析技术  Evaluating the process performance of selected subprocesses 评估所选定子过程的性能  Identifying and managing the risks in achieving the project’s quality and process performance objectives 识别并管理在达成项目质量及过程性能目标过程中的风险  Identifying what corrective action should be taken 识别需要采取的纠正措施 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 198 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 RD Elaboration 需求开发详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Reviewing the adequacy of requirements in meeting needs, expectations, constraints, and interfaces 评审需求的充足性,以满足需要、期望、限制及接口要求  Establishing operational concepts and operational, sustainment, and development scenarios 建立操作概念以及可操作的、持久的、可发展的场景  Assessing the adequacy of requirements 评价需求充足性  Prioritizing customer requirements 对客户需求进行优先级排序  Establishing product and product component functional and quality attribute requirements 建立产品及产品组件功能及质量属性需求  Assessing product cost, schedule, and risk 评价产品成本、进度及风险 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 199 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 REQM Elaboration 需求管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Resolving issues on the understanding of requirements 解决关于需求理解的问题  Assessing the impact of requirements changes 评价需求变更的影响  Communicating bidirectional traceability 沟通双向追溯性  Identifying inconsistencies among requirements, project plans, and work products 识别需求、项目策划、工作产品间的差异 RSKM Elaboration 风险管理详细说明 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Establishing a collaborative environment for free and open discussion of risk 建立可自由及开放讨论风险的协作环境  Reviewing the risk management strategy and risk mitigation plans 评审风险管理策略及风险缓解计划  Participating in risk identification, analysis, and mitigation activities 参与风险识别、分析及缓解活动  Communicating and reporting risk management status 沟通及报告风险管理状态 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 200 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 SAM Elaboration 供应商协议管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Establishing criteria for evaluation of potential suppliers 建立潜在供应商评估准则  Reviewing potential suppliers 评审潜在供应商  Establishing supplier agreements 建立供应商协议  Resolving issues with suppliers 与供应商解决问题  Reviewing supplier performance 评审供应商性能 TS Elaboration 技术解决详细说明 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Developing alternative solutions and selection criteria 开发备选方案及选择准则  Obtaining approval on external interface specifications and design descriptions 获取被批准的外部接口规格及设计说明  Developing the technical data package 开发技术数据资料  Assessing the make, buy, or reuse alternatives for product components 评价产品组件自研、采购或复用的备选方案  Implementing the design 实现设计 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 201 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 VAL Elaboration 确认详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Selecting the products and product components to be validated 选择需要确认的产品及产品组件  Establishing the validation methods, procedures, and criteria 建立确认方法、过程及准则  Reviewing results of product and product component validation and resolving issues 评审产品及产品组件确认结果并解决问题  Resolving issues with the customers or end users 与客户或最终用户一起解决问题 Issues with the customers or end users are resolved particularly when there are significant deviations from their baseline needs. Examples of resolutions include the following: 当客户或最终用户的问题与基线需求发生巨大偏离时需要予以特 别解决,解决方案举例如下:  Waivers on the contract or agreement (what, when, and for which products) 合同或协议的豁免权(什么,何时和哪些产品)  Additional in-depth studies, trials, tests, or evaluations 额外的深入研究、试验、测试或评估  Possible changes in the contracts or agreements 可能的合同或协议变更 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 202 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 VER Elaboration 验证详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following: 干系人参与活动举例如下:  Selecting work products and methods for verification 选择需要验证的工作产品及方法  Establishing verification procedures and criteria 建立验证流程及准则  Conducting peer reviews 进行同行评审  Assessing verification results and identifying corrective action 评价验证结果并识别纠正措施 GP 2.8 Monitor and Control the Process 监控过程 Monitor and control the process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action. 按照过程的执行计划对其进行监控,并采取适当的纠正措施 The purpose of this generic practice is to perform the direct day-to-day monitoring and controlling of the process. Appropriate visibility into the process is maintained so that appropriate corrective action can be taken when necessary. Monitoring and controlling the process can involve measuring appropriate attributes of the process or work products produced by the process. 该通用实践的目的在于执行直接的日常过程监控。该过程包括适当 的可见性,以便在必要时采取适当的纠正措施。过程监督与控制可 包括对过程或过程产生的工作产品适当参数的度量工作。 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about developing and sustaining a measurement capability used to support management information needs. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 203 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 关于支持管理信息要求的开发、维持度量能力的更多信息,请参考 度量分析过程域。 Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about providing an understanding of the project’s progress so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the project’s performance deviates significantly from the plan. 关于项目进度的理解,并在项目进度与计划发生重大偏离时所需采 取的适当纠正措施的更多信息,请参考项目监督与控制过程域。 Subpractices 子实践 1. Evaluate actual progress and performance against the plan for performing the process. 根据过程执行计划评估实际进度与性能。 The evaluations are of the process, its work products, and its services. 评估其过程、工作产品及服务。 2. Review accomplishments and results of the process against the plan for performing the process. 根据过程的执行计划评审过程的执行情况与结果。 3. Review activities, status, and results of the process with the immediate level of management responsible for the process and identify issues. 评审当前级别的管理过程的活动、状态及结果,这些管理活 动是过程和问题识别的依据。 These reviews are intended to provide the immediate level of management with appropriate visibility into the process based on the day-to-day monitoring and controlling of the process, and are supplemented by periodic and event-driven reviews with higher level management as described in GP 2.10. 这些评审目的是基于日常监控过程向当前级别的管理过程提 供过程的适当视角,并且可被 GP2.10 所描述的更高级别的管 理活动评审所补充,这种补充活动是周期性的、事件驱动的。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 204 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 4. Identify and evaluate the effects of significant deviations from the plan for performing the process. 识别并评估与过程执行计划有显著偏差的影响。 5. Identify problems in the plan for performing the process and in the execution of the process. 识别过程执行计划及执行过程中的问题。 6. Take corrective action when requirements and objectives are not being satisfied, when issues are identified, or when progress differs significantly from the plan for performing the process. 当需求与目标不符、问题被识别或者当进度与过程执行计划 有明显偏差时执行纠正措施。 Inherent risks should be considered before any corrective action is taken. 在纠正措施执行前需要考虑其固有风险。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 205 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Corrective action can include the following: 纠正措施可能包括以下内容:  Taking remedial action to repair defective work products or services 采取补救措施去弥补存在缺陷的工作产品或服务  Changing the plan for performing the process 改变过程执行计划  Adjusting resources, including people, tools, and other resources 调整资源,包括人员、工具以及其它资源  Negotiating changes to the established commitments 对已承诺事项的变更进行沟通  Securing change to the requirements and objectives that must be satisfied 确保需求变更及目标变更相符合  Terminating the effort 终止工作 7. Track corrective action to closure. 追踪纠正措施直到关闭。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 206 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 CAR Elaboration 原因分析与解决详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Number of outcomes analyzed 已分析的结果次数  Change in quality or process performance per instance of the causal analysis and resolution process 原因分析与解决过程中每种情况的质量或过程执行情况的变 更  Schedule of activities for implementing a selected action proposal 已选定活动的执行进度 CM Elaboration 配置管理详细说明 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Number of changes to configuration items 配置项变更次数  Number of configuration audits conducted 配置审计执行次数  Schedule of CCB or audit activities 变更控制委员会(CCB)或审计活动进度 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 207 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 DAR Elaboration 决策分析与解决详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Cost-to-benefit ratio of using formal evaluation processes 使用正式评估过程的成本-效益比  Schedule for the execution of a trade study 贸易研究执行进度表 IPM Elaboration 集成的项目管理详细说明 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Number of changes to the project’s defined process 项目已定义过程的变更次数  Schedule and effort to tailor the organization’s set of standard processes 裁剪组织标准过程的进度及工作  Interface coordination issue trends (i.e., number identified and number closed) 接口协调问题趋势(例如,已识别和已关闭次数)  Schedule for project tailoring activities 项目裁剪活动的进度  Project's shared vision usage and effectiveness 项目共同愿景的使用性与有效性  Team structure usage and effectiveness 团队架构的使用及有效性  Team charters usage and effectiveness 团队章程的使用性及有效性 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 208 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 MA Elaboration 度量分析详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Percentage of projects using progress and performance measures 使用进度及性能度量的项目所占比率  Percentage of measurement objectives addressed 度量目标达成比率  Schedule for collection and review of measurement data 度量资料收集与评审进度 OPD Elaboration 组织过程定义详细说明 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Percentage of projects using the process architectures and process elements of the organization’s set of standard processes 使用组织标准过程架构和过程元素项目的所占比率  Defect density of each process element of the organization’s set of standard processes 组织标准过程中每一个过程元素的缺陷密度  Schedule for development of a process or process change 过程开发或过程变更进度 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 209 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPF Elaboration 组织过程焦点详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Number of process improvement proposals submitted, accepted, or implemented 提交、接受或执行改进建议的次数  CMMI maturity level or capability level earned CMMI 成熟度等级或能力等级挣值  Schedule for deployment of an organizational process asset 组织过程资产部署进度  Percentage of projects using the current organization’s set of standard processes (or tailored version of the current set) 使用现有组织标准过程资产(或现有的裁剪版本)项目的所 占比率  Issue trends associated with implementing the organization’s set of standard processes (i.e., number of issues identified, number closed) 与执行组织标准过程相关的问题(例如,已识别问题次数, 关闭次数)  Progress toward achievement of process needs and objectives 过程需要及目标达成的进展情况 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 210 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPM Elaboration 组织性能管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Change in quality and process performance related to business objectives 与商业目标相关的质量及过程性能变更  Schedule for implementing and validating an improvement 完成及确认改进活动的进度  Schedule for activities to deploy a selected improvement 部署所选改进活动的进度 OPP Elaboration 组织过程性能详细说明 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Trends in the organization’s process performance with respect to changes in work products and task attributes (e.g., size growth, effort, schedule, quality) 关于工作产品及任务属性变更对组织性能过程影响的趋势 (例如,规模成长率、工作量、进度及质量)  Schedule for collecting and reviewing measures to be used for establishing a process performance baseline 被用于建立过程性能基线的度量收集与评审进度 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 211 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OT Elaboration 组织培训详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Number of training courses delivered (e.g., planned versus actual) 已兑现的培训课程次数(例如,计划的及实际的次数)  Post-training evaluation ratings 培训后评估分值  Training program quality survey ratings 培训质量调查评价比率  Schedule for delivery of training 培训交付的进度  Schedule for development of a course 课程开发的进度 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 212 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 PI Elaboration 产品集成详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Product component integration profile (e.g., product component assemblies planned and performed, number of exceptions found) 产品组件集成描述(例如,已计划并实施的产品组件集成, 发现例外的次数)  Integration evaluation problem report trends (e.g., number written and number closed) 集成评估问题报告的趋势(例如,问题次数及关闭次数)  Integration evaluation problem report aging (i.e., how long each problem report has been open) 集成评估问题报告的时间(例如,每一个问题报告解决的持 续时间)  Schedule for conduct of specific integration activities 执行特定集成活动的进度 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 213 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 PMC Elaboration 项目监督与控制详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Number of open and closed corrective actions 未关闭以及已关闭纠正措施的次数  Schedule with status for monthly financial data collection, analysis, and reporting 每月财务数据收集、分析及报告的状态进度  Number and types of reviews performed 执行评审的次数及类型  Review schedule (planned versus actual and slipped target dates) 评审进度(规划与实际及落后目标日期的对比)  Schedule for collection and analysis of monitoring data 收集并分析监控资料的进度 PP Elaboration 项目策划详细说明 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Number of revisions to the plan 计划修订次数  Cost, schedule, and effort variance per plan revision 每次计划修订的成本、进度和工作量差异  Schedule for development and maintenance of program plans 开发及维护流程计划的进度 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 214 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 PPQA Elaboration 过程与产品质量保证详细说明 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Variance of objective process evaluations planned and performed 计划与执行客观过程评估的差异  Variance of objective work product evaluations planned and performed 计划与执行客观工作产品评估的差异  Schedule for objective evaluations 客观评估的进度 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 215 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 QPM Elaboration 量化项目管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Profile of subprocess attributes whose process performance provide insight about the risk to, or are key contributors to, achieving project objectives (e.g., number selected for monitoring through statistical techniques, number currently being monitored, number whose process performance is stable) 子过程属性描述,这些过程的执行有助于对项目目标达成过 程中的风险或关键贡献者进行观察(例如,利用统计技术进行监 控的次数,目前所执行的监控次数,过程执行稳定的次数)  Number of special causes of variation identified 已识别的偏离原因的次数  Schedule of data collection, analysis, and reporting activities in a measurement and analysis cycle as it relates to quantitative management activities 当度量、分析活动与量化管理活动相关时,数据收集、分析 及报告活动的进度 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 216 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 RD Elaboration 需求开发详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Cost, schedule, and effort expended for rework 返工的成本、进度及花费的工作量  Defect density of requirements specifications 需求规格的缺陷密度  Schedule for activities to develop a set of requirements 需求开发活动进度 REQM Elaboration 需求管理详细说明 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Requirements volatility (percentage of requirements changed) 需求的波动性(已变更需求所占的百分比)  Schedule for coordination of requirements 需求的协调进度  Schedule for analysis of a proposed requirements change 提出需求变更的分析进度 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 217 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 RSKM Elaboration 风险管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Number of risks identified, managed, tracked, and controlled 已识别、管理、跟踪及控制的风险次数  Risk exposure and changes to the risk exposure for each assessed risk, and as a summary percentage of management reserve 每一个已评估的风险曝光及变更,以及作为管理储备的汇总 百分比  Change activity for risk mitigation plans (e.g., processes, schedule, funding) 风险缓解计划的变更活动(例如,过程、进度、资金)  Occurrence of unanticipated risks 非预期风险发生次数  Risk categorization volatility 风险类别的波动性  Comparison of estimated versus actual risk mitigation effort and impact 对风险缓解工作及影响的估计值与实际值的比较  Schedule for risk analysis activities 风险分析活动进度  Schedule of actions for a specific mitigation 特定缓解风险活动的进度 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 218 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 SAM Elaboration 供应商协议管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Number of changes made to the requirements for the supplier 供应商需求变更的次数  Cost and schedule variance in accordance with the supplier agreement 供应商达成的协议在成本与进度之间的差异  Schedule for selecting a supplier and establishing an agreement 选择供应商及建立协议的进度表 TS Elaboration 技术解决详细说明 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Cost, schedule, and effort expended for rework 返工所带来的成本、进度及工作量  Percentage of requirements addressed in the product or product component design 产品及产品组件设计所涉及的需求比例  Size and complexity of the product, product components, interfaces, and documentation 产品、产品组件、接口及文档的规模及复杂性  Defect density of technical solutions work products 工作产品技术解决的缺陷密度  Schedule for design activities 设计活动进度表 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 219 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 VAL Elaboration 确认详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Number of validation activities completed (planned versus actual) 确认活动完成次数(计划与实际对比)  Validation problem report trends (e.g., number written, number closed) 确认问题的报告趋势(例如,问题数、关闭数)  Validation problem report aging (i.e., how long each problem report has been open) 确认问题的报告持续时间(即,每一个问题报告经过多久被 关闭)  Schedule for a specific validation activity 特定确认活动进度表 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 220 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 VER Elaboration 验证详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following: 用于监督与控制的度量及工作产品举例如下:  Verification profile (e.g., the number of verifications planned and performed, and the defects found; or defects categorized by verification method or type) 验证说明(例如,已计划及执行的验证次数,已发现缺陷数; 或按照验证方法或类型分类的缺陷数)  Number of defects detected by defect category 按照缺陷类别分类的缺陷数  Verification problem report trends (e.g., number written, number closed) 验证问题的报告趋势(例如,问题次数及关闭次数)  Verification problem report status (i.e., how long each problem report has been open) 验证问题的报告状态(即,每一个问题报告经过多久被关闭)  Schedule for a specific verification activity 特定验证活动进度表  Peer review effectiveness 同行评审效果 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 221 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 GP 2.9 Objectively Evaluate Adherence 客观评估符合度 Objectively evaluate adherence of the process and selected work products against the process description, standards, and procedures, and address noncompliance. 按照过程的说明、标准和流程,客观地评估过程符合度和选择 工作产品,并修正不符合项。 The purpose of this generic practice is to provide credible assurance that the process and selected work products are implemented as planned and adhere to the process description, standards, and procedures. (See the definition of “objectively evaluate” in the glossary.) 此通用实践的目的在于为过程和选择的工作产品按计划执行提供 可靠的保证,并遵循该过程的说明、标准和流程。(请参考词汇表 中“客观评估”的定义。) Refer to the Process and Product Quality Assurance process area for more information about objectively evaluating processes and work products. 关于客观地评价过程和工作产品的更多信息,请参考过程与产品 质量保证过程域。 People not directly responsible for managing or performing the activities of the process typically evaluate adherence. In many cases, adherence is evaluated by people in the organization, but external to the process or project, or by people external to the organization. As a result, credible assurance of adherence can be provided even during times when the process is under stress (e.g., when the effort is behind schedule, when the effort is over budget). 通常,不对过程管理或过程执行活动直接负责的人员评估符合度。 在大部分的情况下,符合度由组织中非本过程或项目的人员,或 非本组织的人员进行评估。因此,即使在过程面对压力(如,进度 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 222 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 滞后或超出预算)的情况下,也可提供符合度可靠的保证。 CAR Elaboration 原因分析与解决详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Determining causes of outcomes 确定结果的原因  Evaluating results of action plans 评估行动计划的结果 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Action proposals selected for implementation 选定实施行动的建议  Causal analysis and resolution records 原因分析与解决的记录 CM Elaboration 配置管理详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下  Establishing baselines 建立基线  Tracking and controlling changes 追踪并控制变更  Establishing and maintaining the integrity of baselines 建立并维护基线的完整性 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 223 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Archives of baselines 基线  Change request database 变更申请数据库 DAR Elaboration 决策分析与解决详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Evaluating alternatives using established criteria and methods 使用已建立的标准和方法,评估备选方案 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Guidelines for when to apply a formal evaluation process 何时应用正式评估过程的指南  Evaluation reports containing recommended solutions 包含推荐解决方案的评估报告 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 224 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 IPM Elaboration 集成项目管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Establishing, maintaining, and using the project’s defined process 建立、维护及使用项目已定义过程  Coordinating and collaborating with relevant stakeholders 与相关利益者的协调与合作  Using the project's shared vision 使用项目的共同愿景  Organizing teams 组织团队 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Project’s defined process 项目已定义过程  Project plans 项目计划  Other plans that affect the project 影响项目的其它计划  Work environment standards 工作环境标准  Shared vision statements 共同愿景说明  Team structure 团队结构  Team charters 团队章程 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 225 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 MA Elaboration 度量与分析详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Aligning measurement and analysis activities 度量与分析活动的一致性  Providing measurement results 提供度量结果 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Specifications of base and derived measures 基础度量和衍生度量制度  Data collection and storage procedures 数据收集和存储程序  Analysis results and draft reports 分析结果和报告草案 OPD Elaboration 组织过程定义详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Establishing organizational process assets 建立组织过程资产  Determining rules and guidelines for structuring and forming teams 确定团队结构和组队规则及指南 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 226 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Organization’s set of standard processes 组织标准过程集  Descriptions of lifecycle models 生命周期模型说明  Tailoring guidelines for the organization’s set of standard processes 组织标准过程集的裁剪指南  Organization’s measurement data 组织级度量数据  Empowerment rules and guidelines for people and teams 人员和团队的授权规则和指南  Organizational process documentation 组织过程文档 OPF Elaboration 组织过程焦点详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Determining process improvement opportunities 确定过程改进的机会  Planning and coordinating process improvement activities 规划并协调过程改进活动  Deploying the organization’s set of standard processes on projects at their startup 在项目启动时,部署组织标准过程集 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 227 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Process improvement plans 过程改进计划  Process action plans 过程行动计划  Process deployment plans 过程部署计划  Plans for the organization’s process appraisals 组织过程评估计划 OPM Elaboration 组织过程管理详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Analyzing process performance data to determine the organization’s ability to meet identified business objectives 分析过程的性能数据,以确定该组织的能力,满足识已别的 商业目标  Selecting improvements using quantitative analysis 使用定量分析选择改进项  Deploying improvements 部署改进措施  Measuring effectiveness of the deployed improvements using statistical and other quantitative techniques 使用统计和其他量化技术来度量部署改进措施的有效性 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 228 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Improvement proposals 改进建议  Deployment plans 部署计划  Revised improvement measures, objectives, priorities, and deployment plans 经修订的改进措施、目标、优先级和部署计划  Updated process documentation and training material 更新过程文档和培训材料 OPP Elaboration 组织过程性能详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Establishing process performance baselines and models 建立过程性能基线和模型 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Process performance baselines 过程性能基线  Organization’s quality and process performance objectives 组织质量与过程性能目标  Definitions of the selected measures of process performance 定义已选定的过程性能度量 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 229 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OT Elaboration 组织培训详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Identifying training needs and making training available 识别培训需求并进行培训  Providing necessary training 提供必要的培训 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Organizational training tactical plan 组织培训实施计划  Training materials and supporting artifacts 培训教材和支持工件  Instructor evaluation forms 培训师评估表 PI Elaboration 产品集成详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Establishing and maintaining a product integration strategy 建立并维护产品集成策略  Ensuring interface compatibility 确保接口兼容性  Assembling product components and delivering the product 组装产品组件和交付产品 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 230 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Product integration strategy 产品集成策略  Product integration procedures and criteria 产品集成流程和标准  Acceptance documents for the received product components 接收产品组件的验收文档  Assembled product and product components 已组装的产品与产品组件 PMC Elaboration 项目监督与控制详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Monitoring project progress and performance against the project plan 按照项目计划监督项目进展和性能  Managing corrective actions to closure 管理纠正措施直到关闭 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Records of project progress and performance 项目进展和性能记录  Project review results 项目审查结果 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 231 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 PP Elaboration 项目策划详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Establishing estimates 建立估计值  Developing the project plan 制定项目计划  Obtaining commitments to the project plan 取得对项目计划的承诺 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  WBS 工作分解结构  Project plan 项目计划  Data management plan 数据管理计划  Stakeholder involvement plan 干系人参与计划 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 232 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 PPQA Elaboration 过程与产品质量保证详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Objectively evaluating processes and work products 客观评估过程与工作产品  Tracking and communicating noncompliance issues 跟踪和沟通不符合项 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Noncompliance reports 不符合项报告  Evaluation logs and reports 评估记录和报告 QPM Elaboration 量化项目管理详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Managing the project using quality and process performance objectives 使用质量和过程性能目标管理项目  Managing selected subprocesses using statistical and other quantitative techniques 使用统计和其他量化技术管理已选择的子过程 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 233 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Compositions of the project’s defined process 项目的已定义过程的结构  Operational definitions of the measures 度量的操作定义  Process performance analyses reports 过程性能分析报告  Collected measurements 已收集的度量数据 RD Elaboration 需求开发详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Collecting stakeholder needs 收集干系人需要  Formulating product and product component functional and quality attribute requirements 制定产品和产品组件的功能和质量属性需求  Formulating architectural requirements that specify how product components are organized and designed to achieve particular end-to-end functional and quality attribute requirements 制定特定产品组件如何被组织和设计的架构需求,来实现特 定的终端到终端的功能和质量属性要求  Analyzing and validating product and product component requirements 分析并确认产品与产品组件需求 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 234 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Product requirements 产品需求  Product component requirements 产品组件需求  Interface requirements 接口需求  Definition of required functionality and quality attributes 所需的功能和质量属性的定义  Architecturally significant quality attribute requirements 重要的质量属性要求的结构 REQM Elaboration 需求管理详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Managing requirements 管理需求  Ensuring alignment among project plans, work products, and requirements 保障项目计划、工作产品及需求间的一致性 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Requirements 需求  Requirements traceability matrix 需求跟踪矩阵 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 235 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 RSKM Elaboration 风险管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Establishing and maintaining a risk management strategy 建立并维护风险管理策略  Identifying and analyzing risks 识别并分析风险  Mitigating risks 缓解风险 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Risk management strategy 风险管理策略  Risk mitigation plans 风险缓解计划 SAM Elaboration 供应商协议管理详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Establishing and maintaining supplier agreements 建立并维护供应商协议  Satisfying supplier agreements 满足供应商协议 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 236 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Plan for supplier agreement management 供应商协议管理计划  Supplier agreements 供应商协议 TS Elaboration 技术解决详细说明 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Selecting product component solutions 选择产品组件解决方案  Developing product and product component designs 开发产品和产品组件设计  Implementing product component designs 实现产品组件设计 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Technical data packages 技术数据包  Product, product component, and interface designs 产品、产品组件及接口设计  Implemented designs (e.g., software code, fabricated product components) 已实现的设计(如,软件代码、装配好的产品组件)  User, installation, operation, and maintenance documentation 用户、安装、操作和维护文档 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 237 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 VAL Elaboration 确认详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Selecting the products and product components to be validated 选择须确认的产品及产品组件  Establishing and maintaining validation methods, procedures, and criteria 建立并维护确认方法、工作流程和标准  Validating products or product components 确认产品或产品组件 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Validation methods 确认方法  Validation procedures 确认程序  Validation criteria 确认标准 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 238 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 VER Elaboration 验证详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities reviewed include the following: 审查的活动,举例如下:  Selecting work products for verification 选择需验证的工作产品  Establishing and maintaining verification procedures and criteria 建立并维护验证工作流程和标准  Performing peer reviews 执行同行评审  Verifying selected work products 验证所选定的工作产品 Examples of work products reviewed include the following: 审查的工作产品,举例如下:  Verification procedures and criteria 验证流程和标准  Peer review checklists 同行评审检查表  Verification reports 验证报告 GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management 与高层管理者一 起审查过程状态 Review the activities, status, and results of the process with higher level management and resolve issues. 与高层管理者一起审查过程的活动、状态及结果,并解决争议。 The purpose of this generic practice is to provide higher level management with the appropriate visibility into the process. 此通用实践的目的在于提供高层管理人员对过程的适当可视化。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 239 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Higher level management includes those levels of management in the organization above the immediate level of management responsible for the process. In particular, higher level management can include senior management. These reviews are for managers who provide the policy and overall guidance for the process and not for those who perform the direct day-to-day monitoring and controlling of the process. 高层管理者包括组织中负责过程的中层管理者之上的那些高层管 理者。特别注意的是,高层管理者包含资深管理层。这些审查由 为过程提供方针和指导的管理人员负责,而不是由执行日常过程 监督与控制的管理人员负责。 Different managers have different needs for information about the process. These reviews help ensure that informed decisions on the planning and performing of the process can be made. Therefore, these reviews are expected to be both periodic and event driven. 不同的管理人员对过程信息的需求会有所不同。上述的审查有助 于确保对过程策划和实施,做出有效决策。因此,这类审查希望 即有定期性的,也有事件驱动的。 OPF Elaboration 组织过程焦点详细说明 These reviews are typically in the form of a briefing presented to the management steering committee by the process group and the process action teams. 这些审查通常是由过程组及过程活动组以简报的形式,向管理委 员会报告。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 240 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of presentation topics include the following: 简报的主题,举例如下:  Status of improvements being developed by process action teams 过程活动组正在进行改进的状态  Results of pilots 试运行的结果  Results of deployments 部署的结果  Schedule status for achieving significant milestones (e.g., readiness for an appraisal, progress toward achieving a targeted organizational maturity level or capability level profile) 实现重要里程碑的进度状态(如,评估的准备情况,实现组 织目标成熟度等级或能力度等级分布的进度) OPM Elaboration 组织性能管理详细说明 These reviews are typically in the form of a briefing presented to higher level management by those responsible for performance improvement. 这些审查通常是由那些负责性能改进的成员以简报的形式,向更 高层次的管理者报告。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 241 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of presentation topics include the following: 简报的主题,举例如下:  Improvement areas identified from analysis of current performance compared to business objectives 与商业目标对比分析当前性能以识别需要改进的领域  Results of process improvement elicitation and analysis activities 过程改进启动和分析活动的结果  Results from validation activities (e.g., pilots) compared to expected benefits 与验证活动结果(如,试点)相比的预期效益  Performance data after deployment of improvements 改进后部署的性能数据  Deployment cost, schedule, and risk 部署成本、进度和风险  Risks of not achieving business objectives 无法实现的业务目标的风险 REQM Elaboration 需求管理详细说明 Proposed changes to commitments to be made external to the organization are reviewed with higher level management to ensure that all commitments can be accomplished. 建议对组织做出的外部承诺的变更,必须与高层管理者一起审查, 以确保所有的承诺可以完成。 RSKM Elaboration 风险管理详细说明 Reviews of the project risk status are held on a periodic and event driven basis, with appropriate levels of management, to provide visibility into the potential for project risk exposure and appropriate corrective action. 以定期和事件驱动为基础,与适当的管理层一起审查项目风险的 状态,以便深入洞察项目风险的可能性,并提供相应的纠正措施。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 242 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Typically, these reviews include a summary of the most critical risks, key risk parameters (such as likelihood and consequence of the risks), and the status of risk mitigation efforts. 通常,此类审查包括最严重风险和关键风险的参数(例如,风险 的可能性和结果),以及风险缓解工作的状态。 GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process 制度化已定义过程 The process is institutionalized as a defined process. 将过程作为已定义的过程制度化。 GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process 建立已定义过程 Establish and maintain the description of a defined process. 建立并维护已定义过程的说明。 The purpose of this generic practice is to establish and maintain a description of the process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes to address the needs of a specific instantiation. The organization should have standard processes that cover the process area, as well as have guidelines for tailoring these standard processes to meet the needs of a project or organizational function. With a defined process, variability in how the processes are performed across the organization is reduced and process assets, data, and learning can be effectively shared. 此通用实践的目的在于建立并维护为满足某种特定状况的需要, 对组织标准过程集裁剪的过程说明。组织应有一套涵盖过程域的 标准过程与裁剪指南,根据某项目或组织单位的需要裁剪该标准 过程。有了已定义过程,会减少组织执行过程的差异,而且更能 有效率地分享过程资产、资料及经验教训。 Refer to the Integrated Project Management process area for more information about establishing the project’s defined process. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 243 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 关于建立项目的已定义过程的更多信息,请参考集成项目管理过 程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing standard processes and establishing tailoring criteria and guidelines. 关于建立标准过程和建立裁剪标准与指南的更多信息,请参考组 织过程定义过程域。 The descriptions of the defined processes provide the basis for planning, performing, and managing the activities, work products, and services associated with the process. 已定义过程的描述为活动计划、执行及管理活动、工作产品,以 及过程相关的服务提供了基础。 Subpractices 子实践 1. Select from the organization’s set of standard processes those processes that cover the process area and best meet the needs of the project or organizational function. 从组织标准过程中,选择已包含过程域且最适合某项目或组 织功能的过程集。 2. Establish the defined process by tailoring the selected processes according to the organization’s tailoring guidelines. 根据组织的裁剪指南,通过对已选定的过程进行裁剪,建立 已定义过程。 3. Ensure that the organization’s process objectives are appropriately addressed in the defined process. 确保已定义过程,已适当的说明了组织的过程目标。 4. Document the defined process and the records of the tailoring. 已定义过程和裁剪的记录。 5. Revise the description of the defined process as necessary. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 244 页 共 1064 页--- GP 3.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 必要时修订已裁剪过程的说明。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Collect Process Related Experiences 收集过程相关经验 Collect process related experiences derived from planning and performing the process to support the future use and improvement of the organization’s processes and process assets. 收集由规划和执行过程所衍生的相关经验,以支持组织过程与 过程资产未来的使用与改进。 The purpose of this generic practice is to collect process related experiences, including information and artifacts derived from planning and performing the process. Examples of process related experiences include work products, measures, measurement results, lessons learned, and process improvement suggestions. The information and artifacts are collected so that they can be included in the organizational process assets and made available to those who are (or who will be) planning and performing the same or similar processes. The information and artifacts are stored in the organization’s measurement repository and the organization’s process asset library. 此通用实践的目的在于收集过程相关的经验,包括进行规划和执 行过程时的信息和成果。过程相关经验的样例包括工作产品、度 量、度量结果、经验教训和过程改进建议。这些信息和成果的收 集可以存放于组织过程资产集中,并可供正在(或即将)规划和 执行相同或相似过程的人员使用。相关信息和成果存放在于组织 度量库和组织过程资产库中。 Examples of relevant information include the effort expended for the various activities, defects injected or removed in a particular activity, and lessons learned. 相关信息包括各种活动所投入的工作量、某特殊活动所注入或移 除的缺陷数,以及经验教训等。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 245 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Refer to the Integrated Project Management process area for more information about contributing to organizational process assets. 关于对组织过程资产库贡献的更多信息,请参考集成项目管理过 程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets. 关于建立组织过程资产库的更多信息,请参考组织过程定义过程 域。 Subpractices 子实践 1. Store process and product measures in the organization’s measurement repository. 将过程和产品的度量资料存放到组织度量库中。 The process and product measures are primarily those measures that are defined in the common set of measures for the organization’s set of standard processes. 过程和产品的度量资料,主要是组织标准过程所定义的通用 度量。 2. Submit documentation for inclusion in the organization’s process asset library. 提交相关文件,以纳入组织过程资产库。 3. Document lessons learned from the process for inclusion in the organization’s process asset library. 记录过程的学习心得,以纳入组织过程的资产库。 4. Propose improvements to the organizational process assets. 提出组织过程资产的改进建议。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 246 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 CAR Elaboration 原因与分析解决方案详细说明 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Action proposals 行动建议方案  Number of action plans that are open and for how long 仍在进行的行动建议个数及其所需时间  Action plan status reports 行动计划状态报告 CM Elaboration 配置管理详细说明 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Trends in the status of configuration items 配置项的状态趋势  Configuration audit results 配置检查结果  Change request aging reports 变更申请时间报告 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 247 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 DAR Elaboration 决策与分析解决方案 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Number of alternatives considered 已考虑的备选方案的数量  Evaluation results 评估结果  Recommended solutions to address significant issues 重要议题的建议解决方案 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 248 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 IPM Elaboration 集成项目管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Project’s defined process 项目已定义过程  Number of tailoring options exercised by the project to create its defined process 项目创建已定义过程所使用的裁剪选项的数量  Interface coordination issue trends (i.e., number identified, number closed) 问题协调变化的趋势(如,已界定与已结案数量)  Number of times the process asset library is accessed for assets related to project planning by project members 项目成员从过程资产库中获取项目计划相关资产的次数  Records of expenses related to holding face-to-face meetings versus holding meetings using collaborative equipment such as teleconferencing and videoconferencing 使用如视频和音频设备召开面对面协调会议的相关费用的记 录  Project shared vision 项目共同愿景  Team charters 团队章程 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 249 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 MA Elaboration 度量与分析详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Data currency status 数据当前状态  Results of data integrity tests 数据集成测试结果  Data analysis reports 数据分析报告 OPD Elaboration 组织过程定义详细说明 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Submission of lessons learned to the organization's process asset library 纳入组织过程资产库的经验教训总结  Submission of measurement data to the organization's measurement repository 纳入组织度量储存库的度量资料  Status of the change requests submitted to modify the organization's standard process 提交变更建议修改的组织标准过程的状态  Record of non-standard tailoring requests 无标准裁剪需求的记录 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 250 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPF Elaboration 组织过程焦点详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Criteria used to prioritize candidate process improvements 过程改进备选方案的的优先顺序准则  Appraisal findings that address strengths and weaknesses of the organization's processes 说明组织过程优缺点的评估发现  Status of improvement activities against the schedule 按照进度改进的活动的状态  Records of tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes and implementing them on identified projects 组织标准过程裁剪并将其在已识别的项目中执行的记录 OPM Elaboration 组织性能管理详细说明 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Lessons learned captured from analysis of process performance data compared to business objectives 对比商业目标对过程性能数据分析的经验总结  Documented measures of the costs and benefits resulting from implementing and deploying improvements 实施和部署改进的成本和利益的度量文档  Report of a comparison of similar development processes to identify the potential for improving efficiency 相似改进过程对比报告已识别潜在的改进效率 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 251 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 OPP Elaboration 组织过程性能详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Process performance baselines 过程性能基线  Percentage of measurement data that is rejected because of inconsistencies with the process performance measurement definition 由于与过程性能度量不一致,所剔除的度量资料的百分比 OT Elaboration 组织培训详细说明 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Results of training effectiveness surveys 培训效果调查结果  Training program performance assessment results 培训计划性能评估结果  Course evaluations 课程评估  Training requirements from an advisory group 顾问团队的培训需求 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 252 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 PI Elaboration 产品集成详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Records of the receipt of product components, exception reports, confirmation of configuration status, and results of readiness checking 产品组件、异常报告、配置状态确认、以及准备检查结果的 获取记录  Percentage of total development effort spent in product integration (actual to date plus estimate to complete) 产品集成中全部开发工作量(实际完成加上预估完成)的百 分比  Defects found in the product and test environment during product integration 产品集成过程中,在产品及测试环境所发现的缺陷  Problem reports resulting from product integration 产品集成所产生的问题报告 PMC Elaboration 项目监督与控制详细说明 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Records of significant deviations 重大偏差记录  Criteria for what constitutes a deviation 引起偏差的关键  Corrective action results 纠正措施的结果 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 253 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 PP Elaboration 项目策划详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Project data library structure 项目资料库结构  Project attribute estimates 项目属性估计  Risk impacts and probability of occurrence 风险发生和发生作用的概率 PPQA Elaboration 过程与产品质量保证详细说明 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Evaluation logs 评估记录  Quality trends 质量趋势  Noncompliance reports 不符合项报告  Status reports of corrective actions 改进措施的状况报告  Cost of quality reports for the project 项目质量报告的成本 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 254 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 QPM Elaboration 量化项目管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Records of quantitative management data from the project, including results from the periodic review of the process performance of the subprocesses selected for management against established interim objectives of the project 项目量化管理数据的记录,包含根据已建立的项目过渡性目 标,定期审查已选择管理的子过程的过程性能的结果  Suggested improvements to process performance models 过程性能模型改进建议 RD Elaboration 需求开发详细说明 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  List of the requirements for a product that are found to be ambiguous 模糊的产品需求清单  Number of requirements introduced at each phase of the project lifecycle 项目生命周期各阶段的已说明的需求数量  Lessons learned from the requirements allocation process 需求配置过程的经验分享 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 255 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 REQM Elaboration 需求管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Requirements traceability matrix 需求跟踪矩阵  Number of unfunded requirements changes after baselining 基准设定后,未提供费用的需求变更数量  Lessons learned in resolving ambiguous requirements 解决模糊需求的经验分享 RSKM Elaboration 风险管理详细说明 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Risk parameters 风险参数  Risk categories 风险类别  Risk status reports 风险状态报告 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 256 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 SAM Elaboration 供应商协议管理详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Results of supplier reviews 供应商审查的结果  Trade studies used to select suppliers 用于选择供应商的贸易研究  Revision history of supplier agreements 供应商协议的历史版本  Supplier performance reports 供应商性能报告 TS Elaboration 技术解决详细说明 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Results of the make, buy, or reuse analysis 制造、购买或者重用分析的结果  Design defect density 设计缺陷密度  Results of applying new methods and tools 应用新方法及工具的结果 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 257 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 VAL Elaboration 确认详细说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Product component prototype 产品组件原型  Percentage of time the validation environment is available 确认环境可用的时间百分比  Number of product defects found through validation per development phase 每个开发阶段中,通过确认所发现的产品缺陷数量  Validation analysis report 确认分析报告 VER Elaboration 验证详细说明 Examples of process related experiences include the following: 过程相关经验的样例包括:  Peer review records that include conduct time and average preparation time 同行审查记录,包括执行时间及平均准备时间  Number of product defects found through verification per development phase 每个开发阶段中,通过验证所发现的产品缺陷数量  Verification and analysis report 验证及分析报告 Applying Generic Practices 应用通用实践 Generic practices are components that can be applied to all process areas. Think of generic practices as reminders. They serve the purpose of reminding you to do things right and are 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 258 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 expected model components. 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 通用实践是可以应用于所有过程域的组件。考虑通用实践的目的 在于提醒你做对的事情以及期望的模型组件。 For example, consider the generic practice, “Establish and maintain the plan for performing the process” (GP 2.2). When applied to the Project Planning process area, this generic practice reminds you to plan the activities involved in creating the plan for the project. When applied to the Organizational Training process area, this same generic practice reminds you to plan the activities involved in developing the skills and knowledge of people in the organization. 例如,考虑通用实践“为过程执行建立和维护计划”(GP2.2)。 当应用于项目策划过程域时,该通用实践提醒你为项目创建计划 时对你的活动进行计划。当应用于组织培训过程域时,同样的通 用实践提醒你为在组织中人员技术和知识的发展进行规划。 Process Areas that Support Generic Practices 支持通用实践的过程域 While generic goals and generic practices are the model components that directly address the institutionalization of a process across the organization, many process areas likewise address institutionalization by supporting the implementation of the generic practices. Knowing these relationships will help you effectively implement the generic practices. 通用目标及通用实践是模型组件,它们用以直接陈述跨组织的制 度化过程,很多过程域同样通过支持通用实践的实施活动将其制 度化。了解这些关系,将有助于有效率的执行通用实践。 Such process areas contain one or more specific practices that when implemented can also fully implement a generic practice or generate a work product that is used in the implementation of a generic practice. 这些过程域包含一个或多个特定实践,实施时,也可能完全执行 一个特定实践,或者是在一个通用实践实施中生成一个工作产品。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 259 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 An example is the Configuration Management process area and GP 2.6, “Place selected work products of the process under appropriate levels of control.” To implement the generic practice for one or more process areas, you might choose to implement the Configuration Management process area, all or in part, to implement the generic practice. 配置管理过程域 GP2.6 的一个例子是,“在适当控制层级中,选 择指定的工作产品”。为执行一个或多个过程域的通用实践,你可 能选择全部或部分的执行配置管理过程域,以执行通用实践。 Another example is the Organizational Process Definition process area and GP 3.1, “Establish and maintain the description of a defined process.” To implement this generic practice for one or more process areas, you should first implement the Organizational Process Definition process area, all or in part, to establish the organizational process assets that are needed to implement the generic practice. 另一个是组织过程定义过程域 GP3.1“建立及维护已定义过程说 明”的例子。为执行一个或多个过程域的通用实践,你可以全部 或部分地执行组织过程定义过程域,以建立用以执行通用实践的 组织过程资产。 Table 6.2 describes (1) the process areas that support the implementation of generic practices and (2) the recursive relationships between generic practices and their closely related process areas. Both types of relationships are important to remember during process improvement to take advantage of the natural synergies that exist between the generic practices and their related process areas. 表 6.2 描述了(1)支持通用实践的过程域,(2)通用实践及其紧 密相关过程域间的递归关系。两者关系很重要,因此,在使用存 在于通用实践和它相关过程域之间的自然的合作方式的这两种关 系的种类要牢记。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 260 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Table 6.2 Generic Practice and Process Area Relationships 表 6.2 通用实践及过程域关系 Generic Practice 通用实践 Roles of Process Areas in How the Generic Practice Recursively Implementation of the Generic Practice Applies to its Related Process Area(s)10 实施通用实践的过程域的角色 如何将通用实践递归应用于相关过程域 10 GP 2.2 Plan the Process 过程策划 Project Planning: The project GP 2.2 applied to the project planning planning process can implement GP process can be characterized as “plan 2.2 in full for all project related process the plan” and covers planning project areas (except for Project Planning planning activities. itself). GP2.2 应用于项目策划过程是“规划计划” 项目策划:在所有与过程域相关的项目 的特点,并包含策划项目的活动计划。 中(除项目计划本身外),项目策划过 程可以完全执行 GP2.2。 GP 2.3 Provide Resources 提供资源 GP 2.4 Assign Responsibility 职责分配 Project Planning: The part of the project planning process that implements Project Planning SP 2.4, “Plan the Project’s Resources,” supports the implementation of GP 2.3 and GP 2.4 for all project related process areas (except perhaps initially for Project Planning itself) by identifying needed processes, roles, and responsibilities to ensure the proper staffing, facilities, equipment, and other assets needed by the project are secured. 项目策划:部分的项目策划过程,执行 10 When the relationship between a generic practice and a process area is less direct, the risk of confusion is reduced; therefore, we do not describe all recursive relationships in the table (e.g., for generic practices 2.3, 2.4, and 2.10).当一个 通用时间和一个过程域之间的关系是弱相关时,风险的复杂性是降低的;因此,在表格中我们没有对所有递归关 系进行描述(如,通用实践 2.3,2.4 和 2.10)。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 261 页 共 1064 页--- Generic Practice 通用实践 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Roles of Process Areas in How the Generic Practice Recursively Implementation of the Generic Practice Applies to its Related Process Area(s)10 实施通用实践的过程域的角色 如何将通用实践递归应用于相关过程域 10 了 SP2.4“策划项目所需的资源”,通 过识别所需的过程、角色及责任,以确 保项目所需的适当人员、设施、设备, 以及其他项目所需要的资产是安全的, 对所有与项目相关的过程域(除最初的 项目策划本身外),支持 GP2.3 及 GP2.4 的执行。 GP 2.5 Train People 培训人员 Organizational Training: The GP 2.5 applied to the organizational organizational training process training process covers training for supports the implementation of GP 2.5 performing the organizational training as applied to all process areas by activities, which addresses the skills making the training that addresses required to manage, create, and strategic or organization-wide training accomplish the training. needs available to those who will perform or support the process. GP2.5 应用于组织培训过程,包括执行组 织培训活动的培训,其解决了管理、创造 组织培训:组织培训过程支持 GP2.5 的 及完成培训所需要的技巧。 执行,通过给将执行或过程支持的人员 制定培训策略或组织全面的培训需求, 以应用到所有过程域。 Project Planning: The part of the project planning process that implements Project Planning SP 2.5, “Plan Needed Knowledge and Skills,” and the organizational training process, supports the implementation of GP 2.5 in full for all project related process areas. 项目策划:项目规划过程执行项目规划 SP2.5“执行项目所需要的知识及技巧计 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 262 页 共 1064 页--- Generic Practice 通用实践 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Roles of Process Areas in How the Generic Practice Recursively Implementation of the Generic Practice Applies to its Related Process Area(s)10 实施通用实践的过程域的角色 如何将通用实践递归应用于相关过程域 10 划”,以及组织培训过程,对于所有项 目相关的过程域,支持 SP2.5 的完整执 行。 GP 2.6 Control Work Products 控制工作产品 Configuration Management: The GP 2.6 applied to the configuration configuration management process can management process covers change implement GP 2.6 in full for all project and version control for the work products related process areas as well as some produced by configuration management of the organizational process areas. activities. 配置管理:对于所有项目相关的过程域, GP2.6 应用于配置管理过程,包含了配置 以及部分组织过程域,配置管理过程可 管理产生之工作产品的变更及版本控制。 完整执行 GP2.6。 GP 2.7 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders 识别相关干系 人并使他们参 与其中 Project Planning: The part of the GP 2.7 applied to the project planning project planning process that process covers the involvement of implements Project Planning SP 2.6, relevant stakeholders in project planning “Plan Stakeholder Involvement,” can activities. implement the stakeholder identification part (first two subpractices) of GP 2.7 in full for all project related process areas. 项目策划:项目策划过程中,有关执行 项目策划 SP2.6“干系人参与计划”, 对于所有项目相关的过程域,同样可完 整执行 GP2.7(前二个子实践)。 Project Monitoring and Control: The part of the project monitoring and control process that implements Project Monitoring and Control SP 1.5, “Monitor Stakeholder Involvement,” can aid in GP2.7 应用于项目策划过程,包含了项目 策划活动中,相关干系人的参与。 GP 2.7 applied to the project monitoring and control process covers the involvement of relevant stakeholders in project monitoring and control activities. GP2.7 应用于项目监督与控制过程,包含 相关干系人在项目监督与控制活动的参 与。 GP 2.7 applied to the integrated project management process covers the involvement of relevant stakeholders in integrated project management 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 263 页 共 1064 页--- Generic Practice 通用实践 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Roles of Process Areas in How the Generic Practice Recursively Implementation of the Generic Practice Applies to its Related Process Area(s)10 实施通用实践的过程域的角色 如何将通用实践递归应用于相关过程域 10 implementing the third subpractice of activities. GP 2.7 for all project related process areas. GP2.7 应用于集成项目管理过程,包含了 相关干系人在集成项目管理活动的参与。 项目监督与控制:项目监督与控制过程 中,有关执行项目监督与控制 SP1.5“监 督干系人参与”,对于所有项目相关的 过程域,有助于执行 GP2.7 第三个子实 践。 Integrated Project Management: The part of the integrated project management process that implements Integrated Project Management SP 2.1, “Manage Stakeholder Involvement,” can aid in implementing the third subpractice of GP 2.7 for all project related process areas. 集成项目管理:集成项目管理过程中, 有关执行集成项目管理 SP2.1“管理关 键人员参与”,对于所有项目相关的过 程域,有助于执行 GP2.7 第三个子实践。 GP 2.8 Monitor and Control the Process 过程监督与控 制 Project Monitoring and Control: The project monitoring and control process can implement GP 2.8 in full for all project related process areas. GP 2.8 applied to the project monitoring and control process covers the monitoring and controlling of the project’s monitor and control activities. 项目监督与控制:对于所有项目相关的 过程域,项目监督与控制过程可完整执 行 GP2.8。 GP2.8 应用于项目监督与控制过程,包含 监督与控制项目的监督与控制活动。 Measurement and Analysis: For all 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 264 页 共 1064 页--- Generic Practice 通用实践 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Roles of Process Areas in How the Generic Practice Recursively Implementation of the Generic Practice Applies to its Related Process Area(s)10 实施通用实践的过程域的角色 如何将通用实践递归应用于相关过程域 10 processes, not just project related processes, the Measurement and Analysis process area provides general guidance about measuring, analyzing, and recording information that can be used in establishing measures for monitoring performance of the process. 度量与分析:对所有过程,而不只是项 目相关过程来说,度量与分析过程域提 供有关度量、分析与记录信息的一般指 南,可用于建立度量,以监督过程的实 际绩效。 GP 2.9 Objectively Evaluate Adherence 遵循客观评估 Process and Product Quality GP 2.9 applied to the process and Assurance: The process and product product quality assurance process quality assurance process can covers the objective evaluation of quality implement GP 2.9 in full for all process assurance activities and selected work areas (except perhaps for Process and products. Product Quality Assurance itself). GP2.9 应用于过程与产品质量保证过程, 过程与产品质量保证:对于所有过程域 包含质量保证活动的目标评估。 (除了过程与产品质量保证本身),过 程与产品质量保证过程可完整执行 GP2.9。 GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management 与更高管理层 Project Monitoring and Control: The part of the project monitoring and control process that implements Project Monitoring and Control SP 1.6, “Conduct Progress Reviews,” and SP 1.7, “Conduct Milestone Reviews,” 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 265 页 共 1064 页--- Generic Practice 通用实践 审查状态 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Roles of Process Areas in How the Generic Practice Recursively Implementation of the Generic Practice Applies to its Related Process Area(s)10 实施通用实践的过程域的角色 如何将通用实践递归应用于相关过程域 10 supports the implementation of GP 2.10 for all project related process areas, perhaps in full, depending on higher level management involvement in these reviews. 项目监督与控制:在项目管理过程中, 有关执行项目监督与控制 SP1.6“进行 里程碑审查”,对于所有项目相关过程 域,支持 GP2.10 的执行,其完整度视 这些审查的较高管理层而定。 GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process 建立已定义过 程 Integrated Project Management: The GP 3.1 applied to the integrated project part of the integrated project management process covers management process that implements establishing defined processes for Integrated Project Management SP 1.1, integrated project management “Establish the Project’s Defined activities. Process,” can implement GP 3.1 in full for all project related process areas. GP3.1 应用于集成项目管理过程,包含为 了集成项目管理活动,而建立已定义过程。 集成项目管理:在集成项目管理过程中, 有关执行集成项目管理 SP1.1“从项目 成立到整个项目周期,建立及维护项目 已定义过程”,对于所有项目相关的过 程域,可完整执行 GP3.1。 Organizational Process Definition: For all processes, not just project related processes, the organizational process definition process establishes the organizational process assets needed to implement GP 3.1. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 266 页 共 1064 页--- Generic Practice 通用实践 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Roles of Process Areas in How the Generic Practice Recursively Implementation of the Generic Practice Applies to its Related Process Area(s)10 实施通用实践的过程域的角色 如何将通用实践递归应用于相关过程域 10 组织过程定义:对所有过程,而不只是 项目相关过程来说,组织过程定义过程 建立执行 GP3.1 所需的组织过程资产。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 267 页 共 1064 页--- Generic Practice 通用实践 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Roles of Process Areas in How the Generic Practice Recursively Implementation of the Generic Practice Applies to its Related Process Area(s)10 实施通用实践的过程域的角色 如何将通用实践递归应用于相关过程域 10 GP 3.2 Collect Process Related Experiences 收集过程相关 经验 Integrated Project Management: The GP 3.2 applied to the integrated project part of the integrated project management process covers collecting management process that implements process related experiences derived Integrated Project Management SP 1.7, from planning and performing integrated “Contribute to Organizational Process project management activities. Assets,” can implement GP 3.2 in part or in full for all project related process areas. GP3.2 应用于集成项目管理过程,包含收 集从策划及执行集成项目管理活动中,所 取得的过程相关经验。 集成项目管理:在集成项目管理过程中, 有关执行项目管理 SP1.6“提供组织过 程资产”,对于所有项目相关的过程域, 可完整执行 GP3.2。 Organizational Process Focus: The part of the organizational process focus process that implements Organizational Process Focus SP 3.4, “Incorporate Experiences into Organizational Process Assets,” can implement GP 3.2 in part or in full for all process areas. 组织过程焦点:在组织过程焦点过程中, 有关执行组织过程焦点 SP3.4“将经验 整合到组织过程资产中”,对于所有过 程域,可部分或完整执行 GP3.2。 Organizational Process Definition: For all processes, the organizational process definition process establishes the organizational process assets needed to implement GP 3.2. 【翻译支持】思步科技组(织w过ww程.s定tep义oo.:co对m)所:有实过实在程在,的组咨织询级、过培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87程35定276义0 组织客过服程邮资箱:产s所erv需ice的@过ste程po执o.c行om 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 268 页 共 1064 页--GP3.2。 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Given the dependencies that generic practices have on these process areas, and given the more holistic view that many of these process areas provide, these process areas are often implemented early, in whole or in part, before or concurrent with implementing the associated generic practices. 由于通用实践与过程域的依赖性,这些过程域通常较早执行,完 整或部分执行,提早或同时与相关的通用实践一起执行,以使得 很多过程域所呈现更多完整的观点。 There are also a few situations where the result of applying a generic practice to a particular process area would seem to make a whole process area redundant, but, in fact, it does not. It can be natural to think that applying GP 3.1, “Establish a Defined Process,” to the Project Planning and Project Monitoring and Control process areas gives the same effect as the first specific goal of Integrated Project Management, “Use the Project’s Defined Process.” 应用通用实践到特定的过程域中,似乎是多余的,但事实上并非 如此。可以很自然的想到,使用 GP3.1“建立已定义过程”,到 项目策划及项目监督与控制过程域,效果如同集成项目管理的第 一个特定目标“使用组织已定义过程”。 Although it is true that there is some overlap, the application of the generic practice to these two process areas provides defined processes covering project planning and project monitoring and control activities. These defined processes do not necessarily cover support activities (e.g., configuration management), other project management processes (e.g., integrated project management), or other processes. In contrast, the project’s defined process, provided by the Integrated Project Management process area, covers all appropriate processes. 通用实践应用于这两个过程域中有些部分是重叠的,提供的已定 义过程涵盖了项目策划及项目监控活动。已定义过程无需涵盖支 持活动(如,配置管理)、其他项目管理过程(如,供应商协议管 理),或其他过程。相反地,集成项目管理过程域的项目的已定义 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 269 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 过程,涵盖了所有适当的过程。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 270 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 CAUSAL ANALYSIS AND RESOLUTION 原因分析与解决 A Support Process Area at Maturity Level 5 成熟度 5 级的支持类过程域 Purpose 目的 The purpose of Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) is to identify causes of selected outcomes and take action to improve process performance. 原因分析与解决的目的是确定已选择结果的产生原因并采取行动 改进过程性能。 Introductory Notes 简介 Causal analysis and resolution improves quality and productivity by preventing the introduction of defects or problems and by identifying and appropriately incorporating the causes of superior process performance. 原因分析与解决通过预防缺陷或问题的引入并识别和适当纳入优 秀的过程性能的产生原因来改进质量和生产率。 The Causal Analysis and Resolution process area involves the following activities: 原因分析与解决过程域包括以下活动:  Identifying and analyzing causes of selected outcomes. The selected outcomes can represent defects and problems that can be prevented from happening in the future or successes that can be implemented in projects or the organization. 识别并分析已选择结果的原因。选择的结果能够代表缺陷 和问题,从而在将来项目或组织实现成功时避免发生这样 的缺陷和问题。  Taking actions to complete the following: 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 271 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 采取措施完成以下活动: 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 • Remove causes and prevent the recurrence of those types of defects and problems in the future 从根本上消除原因并杜绝将来同样类型的缺陷和问题 再次发生 • Proactively analyze data to identify potential problems and prevent them from occurring 尽早分析数据,识别潜在的问题并防止发生 • Incorporate the causes of successes into the process to improve future process performance 总结成功经验从而提高将来的进程性能 Reliance on detecting defects and problems after they have been introduced is not cost effective. It is more effective to prevent defects and problems ** by integrating Causal Analysis and Resolution activities into each phase of the project. 在引入缺陷和问题之后依赖于检测的做法不能实现有效的成本效 益。应该在各个项目阶段执行原因分析与解决活动才能更有效地 预防缺陷和问题。 Since similar outcomes may have been previously encountered in other projects or in earlier phases or tasks of the current project, Causal Analysis and Resolution activities are mechanisms for communicating lessons learned among projects. 由于在其他项目或本项目的较早阶段或其他任务中可能已经遇到 相似的结果,所以原因分析与解决活动都是项目间沟通经验的机 制。 Types of outcomes encountered are analyzed to identify** trends. Based on an understanding of the defined process and how it is implemented, root causes of these outcomes and future implications of them are determined. 对遇到的各种类型的结果进行分析来识别其趋势。基于对已定义 过程及如何加以实施的了解,就可以确定这些结果的根本原因及 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 272 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 将来可能的出现形式。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Since it is impractical to perform causal analysis on all outcomes, targets are selected by tradeoffs on estimated investments and estimated returns of quality, productivity, and cycle time. 因为对所有结果进行原因分析是不现实的,所以通过对预计投入 和预计质量回报进行权衡来选择目标。 Measurement and analysis processes should already be in place. Existing defined measures can be used, though in some instances new measurement definitions, redefinitions, or clarified definitions may be needed to analyze the effects of a process change. 当前已具备了度量与分析过程。尽管在一些实际情况中可能需要 新的度量定义、重新定义或者清晰的定义去分析过程变更的影响, 但是可以使用现有的度量定义。 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about aligning measurement and analysis activities and providing measurement results. 关于调整度量与分析活动并提供度量结果的更多信息,请参考度 量与分析过程域。 Causal Analysis and Resolution activities provide a mechanism for projects to evaluate their processes at the local level and look for improvements that can be implemented. 原因分析与解决活动给项目提供了一种局部评价其过程的机制并 寻找可能实施的改进。 When improvements are judged to be effective, the information is submitted to the organizational level for potential deployment in the organizational processes. 一旦判断这些改进有效,就可以将信息提交到组织级,可以部署 在组织级过程中。 The specific practices of this process area apply to a process that is selected for quantitative management. Use of the specific 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 273 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 practices of this process area can add value in other situations, but the results may not provide the same degree of impact to the organization’s quality and process performance objectives. 该过程域的特定实践适用于选定的量化管理过程。使用该过程域 的特定实践在其他情况下可以提升价值,但结果不会对组织质量 和过程性能目标产生同等程度的影响。 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about aligning measurement and analysis activities and providing measurement results. 关于调整度量与分析活动并提供度量结果的更多信息,请参考度 量与分析过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Performance Management process area for more information about selecting and implementing improvements for deployment. 关于选择并实施改进部署的更多信息,请参考组织性能管理过程 域。 Refer to the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about quantitatively managing the project to achieve the project’s established quality and process performance objectives. 关于量化管理项目从而达到项目已建立的质量和过程性能目标的 更多信息,请参考量化项目管理过程域。 Specific Goal and Practice Summary 特定目标和实践摘要 SG 1 Determine Causes of Selected Outcomes 决定选择结果的原因 SP 1.1 SP 1.2 Select Outcomes for Analysis 选择要分析的的结果 Analyze Causes 分析原因 SG 2 Address Causes of Selected Outcomes 确定选择结果的原因 SP 2.1 Implement Action Proposals 执行行动建议 SP 2.2 Evaluate the Effect of Implemented Actions 评价执行行动的效果 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 274 页 共 1064 页--- SP 2.3 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Record Causal Analysis Data 记录原因分析数据 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 SG 1 Determine Causes of Selected Outcomes 决定选择结果的原因 Root causes of selected outcomes are systematically determined. 系统地决定选择结果的根本原因。 A root cause is an initiating element in a causal chain which leads to an outcome of interest. 根本原因是指导致结果发生的原因链条中的那个初始因素。 SP 1.1 Select Outcomes for Analysis 选择要分析的结果 Select outcomes for analysis. 选择要分析的结果。 This activity could be triggered by an event (reactive) or could be planned periodically, such as at the beginning of a new phase or task (proactive). 通过一个事件(反应式)可以触发该活动或者定期策划该活动, 例如在一个新阶段或任务(早期)的开始。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Data to be used in the initial analysis 在初始分析中要使用的数据 2. Initial analysis results data 初始分析结果数据 3. Outcomes selected for further analysis 选择要进一步分析的结果 Subpractices 子实践 1. Gather relevant data. 收集相关数据 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 275 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of relevant data include the following: 下面是相关数据的例子:  Defects reported by customers or end users 客户或最终用户报告的缺陷  Defects found in peer reviews or testing 同行评审或测试发现的缺陷  Productivity measures that are higher than expected 高于预期的生产率度量数据  Project management problem reports requiring corrective action 需要采取纠正措施的项目管理问题报告  Process capability problems 过程能力问题  Earned value measurements by process (e.g., cost performance index) 按过程进行的挣值度量(例如,性价比)  Resource throughput, utilization, or response time measurements 资源吞吐量、利用及响应时间度量  Service fulfillment or service satisfaction problems 服务满足度或服务满意度问题 2. Determine which outcomes to analyze further. 决定要进一步分析哪些结果。 When determining which outcomes to analyze further, consider their source, impact, frequency of occurrence, similarity, the cost of analysis, the time and resources needed, safety considerations, etc. 当选定了要进一步分析的结果,就要考虑其来源、影响、发 生频率、相似度、分析成本、需要的时间和资源以及安全考 虑等。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 276 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of methods for selecting outcomes include the following: 用于选择结果的方法包括:  Pareto analysis 帕累托分析  Histograms 柱状图  Box and whisker plots for attributes 属性的箱式和条状块  Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) 失效模式和效果分析(FMEA)  Process capability analysis 过程能力分析 3. Formally define the scope of the analysis, including a clear definition of the improvement needed or expected, stakeholders affected, target affected, etc. 正式定义分析的范围,包括清晰地定义所需要或期望的改 进、受影响的相关方、受影响的目标等。 Refer to the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area for more information about analyzing possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. 关于通过已建立的准则来评价已识别的备选方案,使用正式 评估过程,分析可能决策的更多信息,请参考决策分析与解 决过程域。 SP 1.2 Analyze Causes 分析原因 Perform causal analysis of selected outcomes and propose actions to address them. 对选择的结果进行原因分析并建议解决措施。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 277 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 The purpose of this analysis is to define actions that will address selected outcomes by analyzing relevant outcome data and producing action proposals for implementation. 这个分析的目的是通过分析相关的结果数据并产生要实施的措施 建议来定义要解决选择结果的措施。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Root cause analysis results 根本原因分析结果 2. Action proposal 行动建议 Subpractices 子实践 1. Conduct causal analysis with those who are responsible for performing the task. 与执行任务的人共同实施原因分析。 Causal analysis is performed, typically in meetings, with those who understand the selected outcome under study. Those who have the best understanding of the selected outcome are typically those who are responsible for performing the task. The analysis is most effective when applied to real time data, as close as possible to the event which triggered the outcome. 通常与那些理解所研讨的已选择结果的人举行会议时进行 原因分析。最能理解所选择结果的人通常是那些负责执行该 任务的人。应用实时数据,尽可能接近产生结果的事件的分 析才是最有效的。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 278 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of when to perform causal analysis include the following: 执行原因分析包括以下几点:  When a stable subprocess does not meet its specified quality and process performance objectives, or when a subprocess needs to be stabilized 稳定的子流程达不到指定的质量和过程性能目标时,或 者子程序稳定运行时  During the task, if and when problems warrant a causal analysis meeting 执行任务时,一旦出现问题需要召开原因分析会议时  When a work product exhibits an unexpected deviation from its requirements 工作产品意外偏离其需求时  When more defects than anticipated escape from earlier phases to the current phase 当前阶段出现更多较早阶段遗漏的缺陷时  When process performance exceeds expectations 过程性能超出预期时  At the start of a new phase or task 一个新阶段和任务的开始 Refer to the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about performing root cause analysis. 关于执行根本原因分析的更多信息,请参考量化项目管理过 程域。 2. Analyze selected outcomes to determine their root causes 分析决定选择其结果的根本原因。 Analysis of process performance baselines and models can aid in the identification of potential root causes. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 279 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 分析过程性能基线和模型可以帮助识别潜在根本原因。 Depending on the type and number of outcomes, it can be beneficial to look at the outcomes in several ways to ensure all potential root causes are investigated. Consider looking at individual outcomes as well as grouping the outcomes. 根据结果的类型和数量,通过多种方式确保对潜在的根本原 因进行调查才是有价值的。要考虑调查每个结果以及结果组 合。 Examples of methods to determine root causes include the following: 决定根本原因的方法如下:  Cause-and-effect (fishbone) diagrams 因果关系(鱼骨)图  Check sheets 检查表 3. Combine selected outcomes into groups based on their root causes. 按照根本原因将选择的结果合并为不同的组。 In some cases, outcomes can be influenced by multiple root causes. 在一些案例中,结果可能受多种根本原因影响。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 280 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of cause groups or categories include the following: 原因组合或分类包括以下:  Inadequate training and skills 不充分的培训和技能  Breakdown of communication 通讯故障  Not accounting for all details of a task 未考虑任务的所有细节  Making mistakes in manual procedures (e.g., keyboard entry) 手动操作过程出现错误(例如:键盘输入)  Process deficiency 过程缺陷 Where appropriate, look for trends or symptoms in or across groupings. 适当的时候,在组合或跨组合中查找趋势或寻找方向和征 兆。 4. Create an action proposal that documents actions to be taken to prevent the future occurrence of similar outcomes or to incorporate best practices into processes. 提出行动建议,并记录要采取的措施,防止将来出现类似的 结果,并将最佳实践纳入过程中。 Process performance models can support cost benefit analysis of action proposals through prediction of impacts and return on investment. 通过预测影响和投资回报,过程性能模型可以提供对行动建 议的成本效益分析。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 281 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of proposed preventative actions include changes to the following: 建议的预防措施包括对以下进行修改:  The process in question 有疑问的过程  Training 培训  Tools 工具  Methods 方法  Work products 工作产品 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 282 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of incorporating best practices include the following: 可纳入的最佳实践例子包含以下:  Creating activity checklists, which reinforce training or communications related to common problems and techniques for preventing them 创建活动检查表,强化与预防常见问题和技术相关的培 训或沟通  Changing a process so that error-prone steps do not occur 改变过程避免出现错误倾向环节  Automating all or part of a process 过程全部或部分实现自动化  Reordering process activities 重新安排过程活动顺序  Adding process steps, such as task kickoff meetings to review common problems as well as actions to prevent them 增加过程步骤,比如启动会议,检查一般问题以及预防问 题的措施 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 283 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 An action proposal usually documents the following: 行动建议通常记录以下内容:  Originator of the action proposal 行动建议的原因  Description of the outcome to be addressed 待处理结果的描述  Description of the cause 原因描述  Cause category 原因分类  Phase identified 已识别的阶段  Description of the action 行动描述  Time, cost, and other resources required to implement the action proposal 实施行动建议所需的时间、成本和其他资源  Expected benefits from implementing the action proposal 实施行动建议的预期收益  Estimated cost of not fixing the problem 估计未解决问题的成本  Action proposal category 行动建议的分类 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 284 页 共 1064 页--- SG 2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Address Causes of Selected Outcomes 处理选择结果的原因 Root causes of selected outcomes are systematically addressed. 系统地处理选择结果的根本原因。 Projects operating according to a well-defined process systematically analyze where improvements are needed and implement process changes to address root causes of selected outcomes. 根据一个良好定义的过程运行的项目系统地分析需要改进的地方 并执行过程变更来解决已选择结果的根本原因。 SP 2.1 Implement Action Proposals 实施行动建议 Implement selected action proposals developed in causal analysis. 在原因分析中实施已选择的行动建议。 Action proposals describe tasks necessary to address root causes of analyzed outcomes to prevent or reduce the occurrence or recurrence of negative outcomes, or incorporate realized successes. Action plans are developed and implemented for selected action proposals. Only changes that prove to be of value should be considered for broad implementation. 行动建议描述了已进行根本原因分析的结果的必要任务,从而预 防或减少负面结果的发生或重现,或者纳入已界定的成功经验中。 只有那些已证明有价值的变更才应当考虑进行广泛的实施。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Action proposals selected for implementation 已选择的实施行动建议 2. Action plans 行动计划 Subpractices 子实践 1. Analyze action proposals and determine their priorities. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 285 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 分析行动建议并决定优先级。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Criteria for prioritizing action proposals include the following: 决定行动建议优先级的准则包括以下:  Implications of not addressing the outcome 未处理结果的后果  Cost to implement process improvements to address the outcome 实施过程改进来处理结果的成本  Expected impact on quality 对质量的预期影响 Process performance models can be used to help identify interactions among multiple action proposals. 可以使用过程性能模型来帮助识别多种行动建议间的相互 关系。 2. Select action proposals to be implemented. 选择要实施的行动建议。 Refer to the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area for more information about analyzing possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. 关于根据已建立的准则使用正式评估过程来评价已识别的 备选方案进行决策分析的更多信息,请参考决策分析与解决 过程域。 3. Create action plans for implementing the selected action proposals. 为实施已选择的行动建议制定行动计划。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 286 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of information provided in an action plan include the following: 行动计划中提供的信息包括以下:  Person responsible for implementation 负责实施的人员  Detailed description of the improvement 对改进的详细描述  Description of the affected areas 对影响领域的描述  People who are to be kept informed of status 应确保通报的人员  Schedule 进度  Cost expended 花费的成本  Next date that status will be reviewed 下一次审查的状态数据  Rationale for key decisions 关键决策的基本原理  Description of implementation actions 实现行动的描述 4. Implement action plans. 实施行动计划。 To implement action plans, the following tasks should be performed: 要实施行动计划,应当执行以下任务:  Make assignments. 任务分配  Coordinate the people doing the work. 协调执行工作的人员 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 287 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3  Review the results. 检查结果  Track action items to closure. 跟踪任务项直至关闭 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Experiments may be conducted for particularly complex changes 针对特别复杂的变更可能进行试点。 Examples of experiments include the following: 试点的例子包括以下:  Using a temporarily modified process 使用临时修改的过程  Using a new tool 使用新工具 Actions may be assigned to members of the causal analysis team, members of the project team, or other members of the organization. 行动任务可能分配给原因分析组成员、项目组成员或其他组 织成员。 5. Look for similar causes that may exist in other processes and work products and take action as appropriate. 寻找其他过程和工作产品可能存在的相似原因并在适当时采 取措施。 SP 2.2 Evaluate the Effect of Implemented Actions 评估已实施行动的 的影响 Evaluate the effect of implemented actions on process performance. 评价已实施行动对过程性能的影响。 Refer to the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about selecting measures and analytic techniques. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 288 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 关于选择度量与分析技术的更多信息,请参考量化项目管理过程 域。 Once the changed process is deployed across the project, the effect of changes is evaluated to verify that the process change has improved process performance. 一旦将变更的过程进行跨项目部署,就要评估变更的影响来验证 过程变更提高了过程性能。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Analysis of process performance and change in process performance 过程性能分析及过程性能中的变化 Subpractices 子实践 1. Measure and analyze the change in process performance of the project’s affected processes or subprocesses. 度量与分析项目受影响的过程或子进程的过程性能变化。 This subpractice determines whether the selected change has positively influenced process performance and by how much. 该子实践决定选择的变更是否对过程性能有正面影响以及 影响程度。 An example of a change in the process performance of the project’s defined design process would be a change in the predicted ability of the design to meet the quality and process performance objectives. 项目已定义的设计过程的过程性能的改变可以是为满足质 量和过程性能目标的预测能力的改变。 Another example would be a change in the defect density of the design documentation, as statistically measured through peer reviews before and after the improvement has been made. On a statistical process control chart, this change in process performance would be represented by an improvement in the mean, a reduction in variation, or both. 另一个例子是在改进前后通过同行评审进行量化统计时,设 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 289 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 计文档的缺陷密度发生了改变。在统计过程控制图中,通过 一种方式的改进、偏差的减少或者两者共同来表示过程性能 的变化。 Statistical and other quantitative techniques (e.g., hypothesis testing) can be used to compare the before and after baselines to assess the statistical significance of the change. 可以使用统计和其他量化技术(例如,假设检验)比较前后 基线来评估变化的统计意义。 2. Determine the impact of the change on achieving the project’s quality and process performance objectives. 决定变更对达到项目质量和过程性能目标的影响。 This subpractice determines whether the selected change has positively influenced the ability of the project to meet its quality and process performance objectives by understanding how changes in the process performance data have affected the objectives. Process performance models can aid in the evaluation through prediction of impacts and return on investment. 该子实践通过了解过程性能数据的变化如何影响目标来确 定选择的变更是否对项目满足其质量和过程性能目标的能 力产生正面影响。过程性能模型可以帮助评估预测的影响和 投资回报。 3. Determine and document appropriate actions if the process or subprocess improvements did not result in expected project benefits. 如果过程和子过程改进没有带来预期的项目收益,就要确定 并记住适当的措施。 SP 2.3 Record Causal Analysis Data 记录原因分析数据 Record causal analysis and resolution data for use across projects and the organization. 为跨项目和组织内使用记录原因分析与解决数据。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 290 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Causal analysis and resolution records 原因分析与解决记录 Organizational improvement proposals 组织级的改进建议 Subpractices 子实践 1. Record causal analysis data and make the data available so that other projects can make appropriate process changes and achieve similar results. 记录原因分析数据并且能够利用该数据,使其他项目可以 进行合适的过程变更并达到类似的结果。 Record the following: 记录以下信息:  Data on outcomes that were analyzed 已分析的结果数据  Rationale for decisions 决策的基本原理  Action proposals from causal analysis meetings 原因分析会议产生的行动建议  Action plans resulting from action proposals 行动建议引出的行动计划  Cost of analysis and resolution activities 分析和决定行动的成本  Measures of changes to the process performance of the defined process resulting from resolutions 解决方案对已定义过程的过程性能带来的变更度量 Submit process improvement proposals for the organization when the implemented actions are effective for the project as appropriate. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 291 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 当实施的行动对项目有效时,向组织提交过程改进建议。 When improvements are judged to be effective, the information can be submitted to the organizational level for potential inclusion in the organizational processes. 当判断这些改进有效时,可以将信息提交到组织级,可能纳 入组织过程。 Refer to the Organizational Performance Management process area for more information about selecting improvements. 关于选择改进的更多信息,请参考组织性能管理过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 292 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT 配置管理 A Support Process Area at Maturity Level 2 成熟度 2 级的支持类过程域 Purpose 目的 The purpose of Configuration Management (CM) is to establish and maintain the integrity of work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits. 配置管理(CM)的目的是通过使用配置识别、配置控制、配置 状态记录及配置审计,来建立和维护工作产品的完整性。 Introductory Notes 简介 The Configuration Management process area involves the following activities: 配置管理过程域包括以下活动:  Identifying the configuration of selected work products that compose baselines at given points in time 识别在特定时间组成基线的所选定工作产品的配置项  Controlling changes to configuration items 控制配置项的变更  Building or providing specifications to build work products from the configuration management system 建立或提供规格以用于在配置管理系统中构建工作产品  Maintaining the integrity of baselines 维护基线的完整性  Providing accurate status and current configuration data to developers, end users, and customers 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 293 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 提供正确的状态和最新的配置数据给开发人员、最终用户和 客户 The work products placed under configuration management include the products that are delivered to the customer, designated internal work products, acquired products, tools, and other items used in creating and describing these work products. (See the definition of “configuration management” in the glossary.) 置于配置管理下的工作产品,包括交付给客户的产品、指定的内 部工作产品、采购的产品、工具和其他用来创造和描述这些工作 产品的内容。(请参考词汇表中“配置管理”的定义。) 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 294 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products that can be placed under configuration management include the following: 可能置于配置管理下的工作产品,举例如下:  Hardware and equipment 硬件和设备  Drawings 图表  Product specifications 产品规格  Tool configurations 工具配置  Code and libraries 代码和库  Compilers 编译器  Test tools and test scripts 测试工具和测试脚本  Installation logs 安装日志  Product data files 产品数据文件  Product technical publications 产品技术文件  Plans 计划  User stories 用户故事  Iteration backlogs 迭代日志  Process descriptions 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 295 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 过程描述 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Requirements 需求  Architecture documentation and design data 架构文档和设计资料  Product line plans, processes, and core assets 产品线计划,过程,和核心资产 Acquired products may need to be placed under configuration management by both the supplier and the project. Provisions for conducting configuration management should be established in supplier agreements. Methods to ensure that data are complete and consistent should be established and maintained. 供应商和项目组获得的产品都需要置于配置管理中。供应商协议 中应建立执行配置管理的规定。应建立并维护确保资料完整性和 一致性的方法。 Refer to the Supplier Agreement Management process area for more information about establishing supplier agreements. 关于建立及维护供应商协议的更多信息,请参考供应商协议管理 过程域。 Configuration management of work products can be performed at several levels of granularity. Configuration items can be decomposed into configuration components and configuration units. Only the term “configuration item” is used in this process area. Therefore, in these practices, “configuration item” may be interpreted as “configuration component” or “configuration unit” as appropriate. (See the definition of “configuration item” in the glossary.) 工作产品的配置管理可以在几个不同层次的粒度上执行。配置项 可以分为配置组件和配置单元。本过程域中只使用“配置项”这 个术语。因此,在这些实践中,在适当时间,配置项可理解为“配 置组件”或“配置单元”。(请参考词汇表中“配置项”的定义。) 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 296 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Baselines provide a stable basis for the continuing evolution of configuration items. 基线为配置项持续演进提供稳定的基础。 An example of a baseline is an approved description of a product that includes internally consistent versions of requirements, requirement traceability matrices, design, discipline-specific items, and end-user documentation. 例如,被批准的产品说明是一个基线,它是由需求、需求跟踪矩 阵、设计、特定专业项目及最终用户文档构成的内部一致的版本。 Baselines are added to the configuration management system as they are developed. Changes to baselines and the release of work products built from the configuration management system are systematically controlled and monitored via the configuration control, change management, and configuration auditing functions of configuration management. 当基线开发完成,就会纳入配置管理系统。基线的变更与配置管 理系统所构建的工作产品的发布,由配置管理的配置控制、变更 管理和配置审计等功能进行系统的管理和监督。 This process area applies not only to configuration management on projects but also to configuration management of organizational work products such as standards, procedures, reuse libraries, and other shared supporting assets. 本过程域不仅适用于项目的配置管理,也适用于组织工作产品(如 标准、规程、重用库和其他共享的支持资产)的配置管理。 Configuration management is focused on the rigorous control of the managerial and technical aspects of work products, including the delivered product or service. 配置管理着重于已交付的系统和服务系统的工作产品在管理层面 和技术层面的严格管理。 This process area covers the practices for performing the configuration management function and is applicable to all work 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 297 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 products that are placed under configuration management. 配置管理过程域即涵盖执行配置管理功能的实践,也适用于已纳 入配置管理的所有工作产品。 For product lines, configuration management involves additional considerations due to the sharing of core assets across the products in the product line and across multiple versions of core assets and products. (See the definition of “product line” in the glossary.) 对于产品线,由于要实现产品线中各产品间以及多个版本的核心 资产和产品之间的核心资产共享,因此配置管理还要考虑涉及额 外事项。(请参考词汇表中“产品线”的定义。) 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 298 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 In Agile environments, configuration management (CM) is important because of the need to support frequent change, frequent builds (typically daily), multiple baselines, and multiple CM supported workspaces (e.g., for individuals, teams, and even for pair-programming). Agile teams may get bogged down if the organization doesn’t: 1) automate CM (e.g., build scripts, status accounting, integrity checking) and 2) implement CM as a single set of standard services. At its start, an Agile team should identify the individual who will be responsible to ensure CM is implemented correctly. At the start of each iteration, CM support needs are re-confirmed. CM is carefully integrated into the rhythms of each team with a focus on minimizing team distraction to get the job done. (See ―Interpreting CMMI When Using Agile Approaches‖ in Part I.) 在敏捷环境中,配置管理如此重要是因为要适应频繁的变更,频 繁的构建(特别是每日的),多重基线,和多重配置管理支持的 工作区(例如,对个人的,团队的,和甚至是结对的)。如果组 织没有做到以下几点,敏捷团队很容易陷入困境:1)自动化配置 管理(例如,构建脚本,状态统计,完整性检查)和 2)执行配 置管理作为一个单独的标准服务配置。当项目开始时,敏捷项目 团队应该确定负责确保配置管理正确实施的责任人。在每个迭代 的开始,配置管理支持需求要重新确认。配置管理是谨慎地将每 个团队的节奏成为一体,使最小化团队关注于做完自己的事情。 (参考第一部分中的“使用敏捷方法理解 CMMI”。) Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about monitoring the project against the plan and managing corrective action to closure. 关于根据项目策划监督项目并管理纠正行为直到项目结束的更多 信息,请参考项目监督与控制的过程域。 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about developing a project plan. 关于开发项目策划的更多信息,请参考项目策划过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 299 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Specific Goal and Practice Summary 特定目标及实践摘要 SG 1 Establish Baselines 建立基线 SP 1.1 Identify Configuration Items 识别配置项 SP 1.2 Establish a Configuration Management System 建立配置管理系统 SP 1.3 Create or Release Baselines 建立或发布基线 SG 2 Track and Control Changes 跟踪和控制变更 SP 2.1 Track Change Requests 跟踪变更请求 SP 2.2 Control Configuration Items 控制配置项 SG 3 Establish Integrity 建立完整性 SP 3.1 Establish Configuration Management Records 建立配置管理记录 SP 3.2 Perform Configuration Audits 执行配置审计 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 SG 1 Establish Baselines 建立基线 Baselines of identified work products are established. 建立由已识别的工作产品所组成的基线。 Specific practices to establish baselines are covered by this specific goal. The specific practices under the Track and Control Changes specific goal serve to maintain the baselines. The specific practices of the Establish Integrity specific goal document and audit the integrity of the baselines. 本特定目标涵盖用以建立基线的特定实践。跟踪并管理变更特定 目标所涵盖的特定实践用以维护基线,而建立完整性特定目标的 特定实践则用以文档化和审计基线的完整性。 SP 1.1 Identify Configuration Items 识别配置项 Identify configuration items, components, and related work products to be placed under configuration management. 识别将纳入配置管理的配置项,组件及相关的工作产品。 Configuration identification is the selection and specification of the following: 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 300 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 配置识别为下列的选择和说明: 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Products delivered to the customer 交付给客户的产品  Designated internal work products 已设计的内部工作产品  Acquired products 采购的产品  Tools and other capital assets of the project’s work environment 工具及项目工作环境的其它资本资产  Other items used in creating and describing these work products 其它用以产生或说明这些工作产品的产品 Configuration items can include hardware, equipment, and tangible assets as well as software and documentation. Documentation can include requirements specifications and interface documents. Other documents that serve to identify the configuration of the product or service, such as test results, may also be included. 配置项包括硬件、设备和包括软件和记录的有形资产。记录包括 需求说明书和接口文档。其他文档提供以识别产品构造和服务, 比如测试结果,也包括在其中。 A “configuration item” is an entity designated for configuration management, which may consist of multiple related work products that form a baseline. This logical grouping provides ease of identification and controlled access. The selection of work products for configuration management should be based on criteria established during planning. “配置项”是被指定要纳入配置管理的实体,它可能包含组成某 基线的数个相关工作产品。这种逻辑上的编组,提供较容易的识 别和存取控制。应根据策划时所定的准则,选取需纳入配置管理 的工作产品。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 301 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Identified configuration items 已识别的配置项 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Subpractices 子实践 1. Select configuration items and work products that compose them based on documented criteria. 根据记录的准则,选择配置项和组成配置项的工作产品。 Example criteria for selecting configuration items at the appropriate work product level include the following: 在适当的工作产品层次中,选择配置项的准则,举例如下:  Work products that can be used by two or more groups 用于两个组或者多个组的工作产品  Work products that are expected to change over time either because of errors or changes in requirements 会随着时间变更的工作产品,其变更原因可能是发生错误或 变更需求  Work products that are dependent on each other (i.e., a change in one mandates a change in the others) 数个相互依存的工作产品,当其中一个改变时,将会影响到 其它的工作产品  Work products critical to project success 对项目成功具有极高重要性的工作产品 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 302 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work products that may be part of a configuration item include the following: 可组成配置项的工作产品,举例如下:  Design 设计  Test plans and procedures 测试计划和步骤  Test results 测试结果  Interface descriptions 界面说明  Drawings 图标  Source code 源代码  User stories or story cards 用户故事或故事卡  The declared business case, logic, or value 公开的业务用例,逻辑或数值  Tools (e.g., compilers) 工具(比如说,编译工具)  Process descriptions 过程描述  Requirements 需求 2. Assign unique identifiers to configuration items. 为每个配置项指定唯一标识。 3. Specify the important characteristics of each configuration item. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 303 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 识别每个配置的重要特性。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Example characteristics of configuration items include author, document or file type, programming language for software code files, minimum marketable features, and the purpose the configuration item serves. 配置的重要特性包括作者、文档或文件格式、软件代码文件 所使用的程序语言、最小化市场特性、和配置项服务的目的。 4. Specify when each configuration item is placed under configuration management. 识别每个配置项纳入配置管理的时机。 Example criteria for determining when to place work products under configuration management include the following: 何时将工作产品纳入配置管理的决定准则,举例如下:  When the work product is ready for test 当工作产品准备测试的时候  Stage of the project lifecycle 项目生命周期各阶段  Degree of control desired on the work product 工作产品需要某种程度控制的时候  Cost and schedule limitations 成本和进度的限制  Stakeholder requirements 相关干系人的需求 5. Identify the owner responsible for each configuration item. 识别每个配置项的所有者的职责。 6. Specify relationships among configuration items. 识别配置项间的关系。 Incorporating the types of relationships (e.g., parent-child, dependency) 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 304 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 that exist among configuration items into the configuration management structure (e.g., configuration management database) assists in managing the effects and impacts of changes. 将配置项之间存在的关系类型(例如,父子关系,依赖关系) 并入配置管理结构(例如,配置管理数据库)中,在管理效 果和变更影响上给予协助。 SP 1.2 Establish a Configuration Management System 建立配置管理 系统 Establish and maintain a configuration management and change management system for controlling work products. 建立和维护配置管理和变更系统,以便控制工作产品。 A configuration management system includes the storage media, procedures, and tools for accessing the system. A configuration management system can consist of multiple subsystems with different implementations that are appropriate for each configuration management environment. 配置管理系统包括存储媒介、程序和存取系统的工具。配置管理 系统由多个子系统组成,它们适合每个配置管理不同的执行环境。 A change management system includes the storage media, procedures, and tools for recording and accessing change requests. 变更管理系统包括存储媒介、程序、以及记录和存取变更请求的 工具。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Configuration management system with controlled work products 包含受控工作产品的配置管理系统 2. Configuration management system access control procedures 配置管理系统存取控制流程 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 305 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 3. Change request database 变更申请数据库 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Subpractices 子实践 1. Establish a mechanism to manage multiple levels of control. 建立多重管理层级的控制机制。 The level of control is typically selected based on project objectives, risk, and resources. Control levels can vary in relation to the project lifecycle, type of system under development, and specific project requirements. 根据项目目标、风险和资源,选择控制层次。控制层次可能 因项目生命周期、开发的系统类型和特定的项目需求而有所 不同。 Example levels of control include the following: 控制层次,举例如下:  Uncontrolled: Anyone can make changes. 不受控:任何人可以修改  Work-in-progress: Authors control changes. 开发受控:作者有权修改  Released: A designated authority authorizes and controls changes and relevant stakeholders are notified when changes are made. 发布受控:指定的授权人批准和控制变更,通知相关关系人 何时做了变更 Levels of control can range from informal control that simply tracks changes made when configuration items are being developed to formal configuration control using baselines that can only be changed as part of a formal configuration management process. 控制层次的范围可从简单跟踪开发中配置变更的非正式管 理,到正式配置管理过程的变更基线的正式配置管理。 2. Provide access control to ensure authorized access to the configuration management system. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 306 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 提供访问控制以确保访问配置管理系统的授权。 3. Store and retrieve configuration items in a configuration management system. 在配置管理系统中,存储和检索配置项。 4. Share and transfer configuration items between control levels in the configuration management system. 在配置管理系统中控制层级间共享和转移配置项。 5. Store and recover archived versions of configuration items. 在配置管理系统中存储和恢复存档的配置项版本。 6. Store, update, and retrieve configuration management records. 存储、更新和检索配置管理记录。 7. Create configuration management reports from the configuration management system. 从配置管理系统中建立配置管理报告。 8. Preserve the contents of the configuration management system. 保存配置管理系统中的内容。 Examples of preservation functions of the configuration management system include the following: 配置管理系统中的保护功能,举例如下:  Backup and restoration of configuration management files 备份和修复配置管理文件  Archive of configuration management files 配置管理文件存档  Recovery from configuration management errors 配置管理出错时进行恢复 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 307 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.3 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 9. Revise the configuration management structure as necessary. 在必要时,修订配置管理结构。 Create or Release Baselines 建立或发布基线 Create or release baselines for internal use and for delivery to the customer. 建立或发布基线供内部使用和交付给客户。 A baseline is represented by the assignment of an identifier to a configuration item or a collection of configuration items and associated entities at a distinct point in time. As a product or service evolves, multiple baselines can be used to control development and testing. (See the definition of “baseline” in the glossary.) 基线是由一个标识符分配到配置项目或一组配置项的集合,在一 个特定时间点关联的实体。在产品或服务演进中,多重基线被用 来控制开发和测试。(请参考词汇表“基线”的定义。) Hardware products as well as software and documentation should also be included in baselines for infrastructure related configurations (e.g., software, hardware) and in preparation for system tests that include interfacing hardware and software. 硬件产品同软件和记录一样也包含在关于构造基础架构基线中, (例如,软件、硬件)并作为硬件和软件交互的系统测试的准备。 One common set of baselines includes the system level requirements, system element level design requirements, and the product definition at the end of development/beginning of production. These baselines are typically referred to respectively as the “functional baseline,” “allocated baseline,” and “product baseline.” 一般的基线设置包括系统级需求、系统组级设计需求、和最终开 发和生产初期的产品定义。这些基线各自代表性地被提及作为“功 能基线”,“分配基线”和“产品基线”。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 308 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 A software baseline can be a set of requirements, design, source code files and the associated executable code, build files, and user documentation (associated entities) that have been assigned a unique identifier. 软件基线是一组需求、设计、源代码文件和联合执行的代码、构 建文件和用户文档(相关实体),它们都被分配唯一的标识。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Baselines 基线 2. Description of baselines 基线说明 Subpractices 子实践 1. Obtain authorization from the CCB before creating or releasing baselines of configuration items. 在创建和发布配置基线前,需获得配置管理委员会的授权。 2. Create or release baselines only from configuration items in the configuration management system. 只有配置管理系统中的配置项,才能建立或发布基线。 3. Document the set of configuration items that are contained in a baseline. 记录基线所包含的系列配置项。 4. Make the current set of baselines readily available. 当前一系列的基线随时可供使用。 SG 2 Track and Control Changes 跟踪和控制变更 Changes to the work products under configuration management are tracked and controlled. 跟踪和控制纳入配置管理下的工作产品的变更。 The specific practices under this specific goal serve to maintain baselines after they are established by specific practices under 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 309 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 the Establish Baselines specific goal. 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 本特定目标所涵盖的特定实践用来维护基线,这些基线是由“建 立基线”特定目标所涵盖的特定实践所建立的。 SP 2.1 Track Change Requests 跟踪变更请求 Track change requests for configuration items. 跟踪配置项的变更请求。 Change requests address not only new or changed requirements but also failures and defects in work products. 变更请求不只用于新的需求或需求变更,也可用于工作产品的故 障或缺陷。 Change requests are analyzed to determine the impact that the change will have on the work product, related work products, the budget, and the schedule. 分析变更请求,以确定此变更对工作产品、相关工作产品、预算 和进度的影响。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Change requests 变更请求 Subpractices 子实践 1. Initiate and record change requests in the change request database. 在变更请求数据库中,发起和记录变更请求。 2. Analyze the impact of changes and fixes proposed in change requests. 在变更请求中,分析变更影响和所需要修改的建议。 Changes are evaluated through activities that ensure that they are consistent with all technical and project requirements. 通过活动来评估变更,以确保变更与所有的技术和项目需求 一致。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 310 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Changes are evaluated for their impact beyond immediate project or contract requirements. Changes to an item used in multiple products can resolve an immediate issue while causing a problem in other applications. 评估变更所受的影响,也应考虑目前或合约之外的需求。如 果配置项被数个产品所使用,则该配置项的变更或许可以解 决目前的缺陷,但也可能造成其他应用上新的缺陷。 Changes are evaluated for their impact on release plans. 在发布计划上要评估变更带来的影响。 3. Categorize and prioritize change requests. 对变更请求分类并划分优先级。 Emergency requests are identified and referred to an emergency authority if appropriate. 识别紧急需求,并提交给处理紧急需求的权威人士。 Changes are allocated to future baselines. 将变更发布到将形成的基线中。 4. Review change requests to be addressed in the next baseline with relevant stakeholders and get their agreement. 相关干系人需评审影响临近基线的变更请求,并获得干系人 的认可。 Conduct the change request review with appropriate participants. Record the disposition of each change request and the rationale for the decision, including success criteria, a brief action plan if appropriate, and needs met or unmet by the change. Perform the actions required in the disposition and report results to relevant stakeholders. 与合适的人一起,执行变更请求的评审,并记录每一变更请 求的处理方法和决策理由,包含成功的准则,合适的简要行 动计划,及变更是否需要等。执行处理方法所提的行动,并 将结果告知相关的干系人。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 311 页 共 1064 页--- SP 2.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 5. Track the status of change requests to closure. 跟踪变更请求的状态直到关闭。 Change requests brought into the system should be handled in an efficient and timely manner. Once a change request has been processed, it is critical to close the request with the appropriate approved action as soon as it is practical. Actions left open result in larger than necessary status lists, which in turn result in added costs and confusion. 系统的变更请求,需用有效和实时的方式处理。一旦变更请 求被处理,只要其用于实际,就需要小心谨慎的使用正确且 被核准的方法关闭缺陷。遗留缺陷采用的行为,反过来会更 大程度的增加成本和混乱局面。 Control Configuration Items 控制配置项 Control changes to configuration items. 控制配置项的变更。 Control is maintained over the configuration of the work product baseline. This control includes tracking the configuration of each configuration item, approving a new configuration if necessary, and updating the baseline. 需要控制工作产品基线的配置,控制包含跟踪每一配置项的配置, 必要时批准新的配置,并更新基线。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Revision history of configuration items 配置项的修订历史记录 2. Archives of baselines 基线的存档 Subpractices 子实践 1. Control changes to configuration items throughout the life of the product or service. 在整个产品或服务的生命周期中,控制配置的变更。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 312 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Obtain appropriate authorization before changed configuration items are entered into the configuration management system. 变更后的配置项在放入配置管理系统之前,需要获得适当的 授权。 For example, authorization can come from the CCB, the project manager, product owner, or the customer. 例如,授权可来自变更控制委员会,项目经理,产品经理, 或客户。 3. Check in and check out configuration items in the configuration management system for incorporation of changes in a manner that maintains the correctness and integrity of configuration items. 同时受某些变更影响的配置项,在签入或签出配置管理系统 时,必须设法维护这些配置项的正确性和完整性。 Examples of check-in and check-out steps include the following: 签入和签出的步骤,举例如下:  Confirming that the revisions are authorized 确认这些修订已获得授权  Updating the configuration items 更新配置项  Archiving the replaced baseline and retrieving the new baseline 将旧基线归档保存,并检索新基线  Commenting on the changes made to the item 编写配置项的变更备注  Tying changes to related work products such as requirements, user stories, and tests 尝试变更相关的工作产品,比如需求,用户故事,和测试 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 313 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 4. Perform reviews to ensure that changes have not caused unintended effects on the baselines (e.g., ensure that changes have not compromised the safety or security of the system). 执行评审,以确保该变更没有对基线造成意料外的影响(例 如,确保变更没有影响系统的安全或机密)。 5. Record changes to configuration items and reasons for changes as appropriate. 适当记录配置的变更和变更的理由。 If a proposed change to the work product is accepted, a schedule is identified for incorporating the change into the work product and other affected areas. 如果接受对工作产品的变更建议,则须识别完成修改工作产 品及其他影响部分的进度。 Configuration control mechanisms can be tailored to categories of changes. For example, the approval considerations could be less stringent for component changes that do not affect other components. 配置管理机制可以定义成多种变更类别。例如,有些不影响 其它组件的组件变更,其核准过程可以较简化。 Changed configuration items are released after review and approval of configuration changes. Changes are not official until they are released. 已变更的配置,需经审查和核准后才能发行。若未经发行, 变更并不算正式生效。 SG 3 Establish Integrity 建立完整性 Integrity of baselines is established and maintained. 建立并维护基线的完整性。 The integrity of baselines, established by processes associated with the Establish Baselines specific goal, and maintained by processes associated with the Track and Control Changes specific goal, is addressed by the specific practices under this specific goal. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 314 页 共 1064 页--- SP 3.1 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 建立基线特定目标的过程是建立基线,跟踪并管理变更特定目标 的过程是维护基线,而本特定目标所涵盖的特定实践则用以记录 和稽核基线的完整性。 Establish Configuration Management Records 建立配置管理记 录 Establish and maintain records describing configuration items. 建立并维护描述配置项的记录。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Revision history of configuration items 配置项的历史修订记录 2. Change log 变更记录 3. Change request records 变更请求记录 4. Status of configuration items 配置项的状态 5. Differences between baselines 不同基线间的差异 Subpractices 子实践 1. Record configuration management actions in sufficient detail so the content and status of each configuration item is known and previous versions can be recovered. 详细的记录配置管理活动,使他人知道每个配置项的内容和 状态,并能复原配置项的历史版本。 2. Ensure that relevant stakeholders have access to and knowledge of the configuration status of configuration items. 确保相关干系人,能存取和了解配置项的配置状态。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 315 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for communicating configuration status include the following: 配置状态沟通的活动,举例如下:  Providing access permissions to authorized end users 提供存取权限给经授权的最终用户  Making baseline copies readily available to authorized end users 保存基线的备份,以供经授权的最终用户使用  Automatically alerting relevant stakeholders when items are checked in or out or changed, or of decisions made regarding change requests 当配置项签入或签出或变更时,或者决策变更请求时,主动 通知相关干系人 3. Specify the latest version of baselines. 标识基线的最新版本。 4. Identify the version of configuration items that constitute a particular baseline. 识别组成某基线的配置项的版本。 5. Describe differences between successive baselines. 描述前后版本基线间的差异。 6. Revise the status and history (i.e., changes, other actions) of each configuration item as necessary. 必要时,修订配置的状态和历史记录(指变更及其它行动)。 SP 3.2 Perform Configuration Audits 执行配置审计 Perform configuration audits to maintain the integrity of configuration baselines. 执行配置审计以维护配置基线的完整性。 Configuration audits confirm that the resulting baselines and documentation conform to a specified standard or requirement. Configuration item related records can exist in multiple 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 316 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 databases or configuration management systems. In such instances, configuration audits should extend to these other databases as appropriate to ensure accuracy, consistency, and completeness of configuration item information. (See the definition of “configuration audit” in the glossary.) 配置审计确认最终的基线和文件遵照了特定标准或需求。配置项 相关的记录存在多个数据库或者配置管理系统中。在这些例子中, 配置审计应该覆盖这些数据库为了确保配置项信息的准确性、一 致性、完整性。(请参考词汇表“配置审计”的定义。) Examples of audit types include the following: 审计类型,举例如下:  Functional configuration audits (FCAs): Audits conducted to verify that the development of a configuration item has been completed satisfactorily, that the item has achieved the functional and quality attribute characteristics specified in the functional or allocated baseline, and that its operational and support documents are complete and satisfactory. 功能配置审计(FCA)-审计验证配置项目的测试功能特征,达到 功能基线文件所指定的需求,而且操作及支持文件已完整及满足  Physical configuration audits (PCAs): Audits conducted to verify that a configuration item, as built, conforms to the technical documentation that defines and describes it. 物理配置审计(PCA)-审计验证配置遵照技术文件的定义  Configuration management audits: Audits conducted to confirm that configuration management records and configuration items are complete, consistent, and accurate. 配置管理审计-审计确认配置管理记录及配置完整性、一致性及 正确性 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Configuration audit results 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 317 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 配置审计结果 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Action items 活动项 Subpractices 子实践 1. Assess the integrity of baselines. 评审基线的完整性。 2. Confirm that configuration management records correctly identify configuration items. 确认配置管理记录已正确识别配置项。 3. Review the structure and integrity of items in the configuration management system. 审查配置管理系统中,配置的结构和一致性。 4. Confirm the completeness, correctness, and consistency of items in the configuration management system. 审查配置管理系统中,配置的结构和一致性。 Completeness, correctness, and consistency of the configuration management system’s content are based on requirements as stated in the plan and the disposition of approved change requests. 依据计划中所述的需求和已核准的变更请求的处理为基础, 来判断内容的完整性、正确性和一致性。 5. Confirm compliance with applicable configuration management standards and procedures. 确定符合适用的配置管理的标准和程序。 6. Track action items from the audit to closure. 跟踪审计的活动项直到关闭。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 318 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 DECISION ANALYSIS AND RESOLUTION 决策分析与解决 A Support Process Area at Maturity Level 3 成熟度为 3 级的支持类过程域 Purpose 目的 The purpose of Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. 决策分析与解决(DAR)的目的在于使用正式的评估流程,根据 已建立的准则评估各种已界定的备选方案,以分析可能的决策。 Introductory Notes 简介 The Decision Analysis and Resolution process area involves establishing guidelines to determine which issues should be subject to a formal evaluation process and applying formal evaluation processes to these issues. 决策分析与解决过程域包括建立指南,以决定什么问题需要正式 评估流程,然后引用正式评估流程来解决问题。 A formal evaluation process is a structured approach to evaluating alternative solutions against established criteria to determine a recommended solution. 正式评估流程是一种根据已建立的准则来评估备选方案以决定建 议解决方案的结构化方法。 A formal evaluation process involves the following actions: 正式评估流程包括以下活动:  Establishing the criteria for evaluating alternatives 建立评估备选方案的准则  Identifying alternative solutions 识别备选解决方案 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 319 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Selecting methods for evaluating alternatives 选择评估备选方案的方法  Evaluating alternative solutions using established criteria and methods 使用已建立的准则和方法评估备选解决方案  Selecting recommended solutions from alternatives based on evaluation criteria 根据评估准则从备选方案中选择建议方案 Rather than using the phrase “alternative solutions to address issues” each time, in this process area, one of two shorter phrases are used: “alternative solutions” or “alternatives.” 在本过程域中,每次要表示“解决问题的备选解决方案”时,会 使用“备选解决方案”或“备选方案”这两个更短的词组来代替。 A formal evaluation process reduces the subjective nature of a decision and provides a higher probability of selecting a solution that meets multiple demands of relevant stakeholders. 正式评估流程可以减少决策的主观性,并且更有可能选定能够满 足相关干系人多种需求的解决方案。 While the primary application of this process area is to technical concerns, formal evaluation processes can be applied to many nontechnical issues, particularly when a project is being planned. Issues that have multiple alternative solutions and evaluation criteria lend themselves to a formal evaluation process. 本过程域主要应用于技术问题,而正式的评估流程可以应用于更 多的非技术性问题,特别在策划项目时。针对具有多种备选解决 方案与评估准则的问题时可以使用正式评估流程。 Trade studies of equipment or software are typical examples of formal evaluation processes. 设备或软件的备选方案研究是正式评估流程的典型案例。 During planning, specific issues requiring a formal evaluation process are identified. Typical issues include selection among 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 320 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 architectural or design alternatives, use of reusable or commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, supplier selection, engineering support environments or associated tools, test environments, delivery alternatives, and logistics and production. A formal evaluation process can also be used to address a make-or-buy decision, the development of manufacturing processes, the selection of distribution locations, and other decisions. 在策划期间,要界定哪些特定问题需要使用正式评估流程。典型 的问题包括选择架构或设计方案,使用可重用的或现成的产品组 件(COTS),选择供应商,工程支持环境或支持工具,测试环境, 替代方案以及物流和生产。正式的评估流程也可以用于解决制造 或采购决策,制造流程的开发,分销地点的选择以及其他决策。 Guidelines are created for deciding when to use formal evaluation processes to address unplanned issues. Guidelines often suggest using formal evaluation processes when issues are associated with medium-to-high-impact risks or when issues affect the ability to achieve project objectives. 建立指南以决定何时使用正式评估流程来解决计划外的问题,当 问题涉及中高风险或问题或影响项目目标能力的达成时,指南通 常建议使用正式评估流程。 Defining an issue well helps to define the scope of alternatives to be considered. The right scope (i.e., not too broad, not too narrow) will aid in making an appropriate decision for resolving the defined issue. 对问题良好定义可以帮助确定要考虑的备选方案的范围。正确的 范围(即,不要太宽泛,也不要太狭隘)将有助于对已定义的问 题作出适当的决定。 Formal evaluation processes can vary in formality, type of criteria, and methods employed. Less formal decisions can be analyzed in a few hours, use few criteria (e.g., effectiveness, cost to implement), and result in a one- or two-page report. More formal decisions can require separate plans, months of effort, 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 321 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 meetings to develop and approve criteria, simulations, prototypes, piloting, and extensive documentation. 正式评估流程有不同的形式,准则类型及使用方法。较不正式的 决策可能花费几小时,只使用几条准则(例如,有效性,实施成 本)来进行分析就只产生一两页报告。较为正式的决策可能需要 单独的计划,花费几个月,召开研究与批准准则的会议,进行模 拟,建立原型,进行试点及产生大量的文档。 Both numeric and non-numeric criteria can be used in a formal evaluation process. Numeric criteria use weights to reflect the relative importance of criteria. Non-numeric criteria use a subjective ranking scale (e.g., high, medium, low). More formal decisions can require a full trade study. 正式评估流程可以使用量化或非量化的准则。量化准则使用权重 以反映准则的相关重要性。非量化准则使用一种主观的等级划分 (例如,高,中,低)。较正式的决策方案可能要求对备选方案进 行充分的研究。 A formal evaluation process identifies and evaluates alternative solutions. The eventual selection of a solution can involve iterative activities of identification and evaluation. Portions of identified alternatives can be combined, emerging technologies can change alternatives, and the business situation of suppliers can change during the evaluation period. 正式的评估流程对备选方案进行了界定和评估。选定最终方案的 过程,可能包括反复的界定与评估活动。在评估期间,已界定的 备选方案可能会进行组合,新出现的技术也可能改变备选方案, 而供应商的业务情况在评估期间也可能改变。 A recommended alternative is accompanied by documentation of selected methods, criteria, alternatives, and rationale for the recommendation. The documentation is distributed to relevant stakeholders; it provides a record of the formal evaluation process and rationale, which are useful to other projects that encounter a similar issue. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 322 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 建议的备选方案还包括选定的方法、准则、备选方案以及建议的 理由说明。此文档将分发给相关干系人,并提供正式评估流程的 记录及理由,它对其他遇到类似问题的项目是有帮助的。 While some of the decisions made throughout the life of the project involve the use of a formal evaluation process, others do not. As mentioned earlier, guidelines should be established to determine which issues should be subject to a formal evaluation process. 整个项目中,部分决策方案涉及使用正式评估流程,其他决策方 案则未使用。就像之前所提到的,建立指南以决定哪些问题需要 使用正式评估流程。 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Refer to the Integrated Project Management process area for more information about establishing the project’s defined process. 关于建立项目已定义过程的更多信息,请参考集成项目管理过程 域。 Refer to the Risk Management process area for more information about identifying and analyzing risks and mitigating risks. 关于界定和分析风险和降低风险的更多信息,请参考风险管理过 程域。 Specific Goal and Practice Summary 特定目标和实践摘要 SG 1 Evaluate Alternatives 评估备选方案 SP 1.1 Establish Guidelines for Decision Analysis 建立决策分析方案指南 SP 1.2 Establish Evaluation Criteria 建立评估准则 SP 1.3 Identify Alternative Solutions 识别备选解决方案 SP 1.4 Select Evaluation Methods 选择评估方法 SP 1.5 Evaluate Alternative Solutions 评估备选解决方案 SP 1.6 Select Solutions 选择解决方案 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 323 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 SG 1 Evaluate Alternatives 评估备选方案 Decisions are based on an evaluation of alternatives using established criteria. 使用已建立的准则,根据评估的备选方案进行决定。 Issues requiring a formal evaluation process can be identified at any time. The objective should be to identify issues as early as possible to maximize the time available to resolve them. 可以在任何时候识别出需要使用正式评估流程的问题。其目的是 要尽早地界定问题,使得有较充裕的时间来解决该问题。 SP 1.1 Establish Guidelines for Decision Analysis 建立决策分析方案 指南 Establish and maintain guidelines to determine which issues are subject to a formal evaluation process. 建立并维护指南,以决定哪些问题需要采用正式评估流程。 Not every decision is significant enough to require a formal evaluation process. The choice between the trivial and the truly important is unclear without explicit guidance. Whether a decision is significant or not is dependent on the project and circumstances and is determined by established guidelines. 不是每个决策都有必要需要采用正式评估流程。若没有明确的指 南,在重要与不重要之间选择会不清楚。一个决策重要与否,与 项目及环境相关,取决于已建立的指南。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 324 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Typical guidelines for determining when to require a formal evaluation process include the following: 何时决定需要使用正式评估流程的典型指南包括以下方面:  A decision is directly related to issues that are medium-to-high-impact risk. 当决策方案与中高度风险问题有直接关系时  A decision is related to changing work products under configuration management. 当决策方案与置于配置管理下的工作产品变更相关时  A decision would cause schedule delays over a certain percentage or amount of time. 当决策方案会导致进度延期超过某一比例或特定的时间时  A decision affects the ability of the project to achieve its objectives. 当决策方案影响项目达成其目标的能力时  The costs of the formal evaluation process are reasonable when compared to the decision’s impact. 当正式评估流程的成本与决策方案的影响相比较合理时  A legal obligation exists during a solicitation. 当招标中有法律合同时  When competing quality attribute requirements would result in significantly different alternative architectures. 当质量属性需求对比会导致不同的替代结构时 Refer to the Risk Management process area for more information about evaluating, categorizing, and prioritizing risks. 关于风险评估,分类和优先级排序的更多信息,请参考风险管理 过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 325 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of activities for which you may use a formal evaluation process include the following: 你可以使用正式评估过程的时机,举例如下:  Making decisions involving the procurement of material when 20 percent of the material parts constitute 80 percent of the total material costs 当 20%的材料零件耗用 80%材料成本时进行有关材料采购的 决策  Making design-implementation decisions when technical performance failure can cause a catastrophic failure (e.g., safety-of-flight item) 在设计实施决策上,当技术设计失败可能酿成巨大灾难时(例 如,飞行项目的安全)  Making decisions with the potential to significantly reduce design risk, engineering changes, cycle time, response time, and production costs (e.g., to use lithography models to assess form and fit capability before releasing engineering drawings and production builds) 在做各种可能重大降低设计风险,工程变动,周期时间,反 应时间及生产成本的决策时(例如,在发布工程规划与生产制造 前,使用印刷模型方法来评估其外型与符合能力) Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Guidelines for when to apply a formal evaluation process 何时引用正式评估流程的指南 Subpractices 子实践 1. Establish guidelines for when to use a formal evaluation process. 建立使用正式评估流程时使用的指南。 2. Incorporate the use of guidelines into the defined process as appropriate. 适当时,将指南的使用并入到已定义的流程中。 Refer to the Integrated Project Management process area for more information about establishing the project’s 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 326 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 defined process. 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 关于建立项目的已定义过程的更多信息,请参考集成项目管 理过程域。 Establish Evaluation Criteria 建立评估准则 Establish and maintain criteria for evaluating alternatives and the relative ranking of these criteria. 建立并维护用来评估备选方案的评估准则及其相对排序。 Evaluation criteria provide the basis for evaluating alternative solutions. Criteria are ranked so that the highest ranked criteria exert the most influence on the evaluation. 评估准则为评估备选解决方案提供了基础。将准则排序,以使得 排序最高的准则代表对评估有最大的影响。 This process area is referenced by many other process areas in the model, and many contexts in which a formal evaluation process can be used. Therefore, in some situations you may find that criteria have already been defined as part of another process. This specific practice does not suggest that a second development of criteria be conducted. 本过程域引用了模型中许多其他过程域,许多也在正式评估流程 的上下文中被使用到。因此,在某些情况下你会发现准则已经在 其他流程中进行了定义。本特定实践不建议再次建立相同的准则。 A well-defined statement of the issue to be addressed and the decision to be made focuses the analysis to be performed. Such a statement also aids in defining evaluation criteria that minimize the possibility that decisions will be second guessed or that the reason for making the decision will be forgotten. Decisions based on criteria that are explicitly defined and established remove barriers to stakeholder buy-in. 对问题的明确定义可以用于处理和做出决定,重点进行分析。这 种说法也有助于确定评估准则,最大限度的减少引起再次猜测或 遗忘做出决定的原因的可能性。基于准则的决定可以对相关干系 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 327 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 人进行明确界定并使其予以认可。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Documented evaluation criteria 评估准则文档化 2. Rankings of criteria importance 准则重要性排序 Subpractices 子实践 1. Define the criteria for evaluating alternative solutions. 定义评估备选方案的准则。 Criteria should be traceable to requirements, scenarios, business case assumptions, business objectives, or other documented sources. 准则应可追溯到需求,场景,商业个案假设,经营目标或其 他已记录的来源。 Types of criteria to consider include the following: 考量的准则包括如下:  Technology limitations 技术限制  Environmental impact 环境影响  Risks 风险  Business value 商业价值  Impact on priorities 优先级影响作用  Total ownership and lifecycle costs 所有权重和生命周期成本 2. Define the range and scale for ranking the evaluation criteria. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 328 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 定义评估准则的分级范围与等级。 Scales of relative importance for evaluation criteria can be established with non-numeric values or with formulas that relate the evaluation parameter to a numeric weight. 可运用非数字的值或将评估参数和权重数值结合的公式,建 立评估准则相对重要的等级。 3. Rank the criteria. 将准则排序。 The criteria are ranked according to the defined range and scale to reflect the needs, objectives, and priorities of the relevant stakeholders. 依据定义的范围与等级将准则进行排序,以反映需求,目标 及相关干系人的优先顺序。 4. Assess the criteria and their relative importance. 评估准则及其相对的重要性。 5. Evolve the evaluation criteria to improve their validity. 持续的改进评估准则以改善其有效性。 6. Document the rationale for the selection and rejection of evaluation criteria. 记录选择和拒绝评估准则的理由。 Documentation of selection criteria and rationale may be needed to justify solutions or for future reference and use. 记录选用的准则及理由,以证明解决方案的正当性,或作为 未来参考使用。 SP 1.3 Identify Alternative Solutions 界定备选解决方案 Identify alternative solutions to address issues. 界定解决问题的备选解决方案。 A wider range of alternatives can surface by soliciting as many stakeholders as practical for input. Input from stakeholders with diverse skills and backgrounds can help teams identify and 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 329 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 address assumptions, constraints, and biases. Brainstorming sessions can stimulate innovative alternatives through rapid interaction and feedback. 尽可能请干系人提出广泛的备选方案,由于干系人的技能和背景 皆不同,其建议有助于界定和解决各种假设,限制及偏见。头脑 风暴会议可以快速互动与反馈有创意的备选方案。 Sufficient candidate solutions may not be furnished for analysis. As the analysis proceeds, other alternatives should be added to the list of potential candidate solutions. The generation and consideration of multiple alternatives early in a decision analysis and resolution process increases the likelihood that an acceptable decision will be made and that consequences of the decision will be understood. 充分的备选方案可能不足以提供分析,当进行分析时,其他方案 应加到可能的备选解决方案清单中,在决策分析与解决流程初期, 考虑与产生多样的备选方案,可增加做出可接受决策的可能性, 并且理解该决策的结果。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Identified alternatives 识别备选方案 Subpractices 子实践 1. Perform a literature search. 执行文献搜索。 A literature search can uncover what others have done both inside and outside the organization. Such a search can provide a deeper understanding of the problem, alternatives to consider, barriers to implementation, existing trade studies, and lessons learned from similar decisions. 文献搜索可以发现组织内、外曾做过的事情,可提供对问题 考虑的备选方案,实施障碍,既有的替代方案研究以及类似 决策学习信息的更深入的了解。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 330 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Identify alternatives for consideration in addition to the alternatives that may be provided with the issue. 除了问题提供的备选方案之外,还要考虑备选方案的识别。 Evaluation criteria are an effective starting point for identifying alternatives. Evaluation criteria identify priorities of relevant stakeholders and the importance of technical, logistical, or other challenges. 评估准则是界定备选方案的有效起点。评估准则界定相关干 系人的优先顺序及技术、后勤或其他挑战的重要性。 Combining key attributes of existing alternatives can generate additional and sometimes stronger alternatives. 组合既有方案的关键属性可能产生额外的有时候是更具说 服力的方案。 Solicit alternatives from relevant stakeholders. Brainstorming sessions, interviews, and working groups can be used effectively to uncover alternatives. 引导相关干系人提出备选方案。可有效地使用头脑风暴,访 谈和工作小组的方式以发现备选方案。 3. Document proposed alternatives. 记录提议的备选方案。 SP 1.4 Select Evaluation Methods 选择评估方法 Select evaluation methods. 选择评估方法。 Methods for evaluating alternative solutions against established criteria can range from simulations to the use of probabilistic models and decision theory. These methods should be carefully selected. The level of detail of a method should be commensurate with cost, schedule, performance, and risk impacts. 根据已建立的准则,用以评估备选方案的方法,其范围从模拟到 使用机率和决策理论,这些方法必须小心选择。方法的详细程度 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 331 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 应与成本,进度,性能和风险相对应。 While many problems may require only one evaluation method, some problems may require multiple methods. For example, simulations may augment a trade study to determine which design alternative best meets a given criterion. 虽然许多问题只需要一种评估方法,但是有些问题可能需要多种 方法。例如,仿真可加强备选方案的研究,以决定哪个设计备选 方案最符合特定的准则。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1.Selected evaluation methods 选择评估方法 Subpractices 子实践 1. Select methods based on the purpose for analyzing a decision and on the availability of the information used to support the method. 分析决策的目的与可用以支持该方法的信息的可用性为基 础,来选择方法。 For example, the methods used for evaluating a solution when requirements are weakly defined may be different from the methods used when the requirements are well defined. 例如,在需求定义不明确的情况下,用来评估技术解决的方 法可能会与需求定义明确的情况有所不同。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 332 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Typical evaluation methods include the following: 典型的评估方法包括以下几种:  Testing 测试  Modeling and simulation 建模和模拟  Engineering studies 工程研究  Manufacturing studies 制造研究  Cost studies 成本研究  Business opportunity studies 商业机会研究  Surveys 调查  Extrapolations based on field experience and prototypes 依据经验与原型加以判断  End-user review and comment 最终用户审查与评论  Judgment provided by an expert or group of experts (e.g., Delphi method) 一个或一组专家的判断(例如,德菲尔方法) 2. Select evaluation methods based on their ability to focus on the issues at hand without being overly influenced by side issues. 依据关注于眼前问题而不受无关问题过度影响的能力,选择 评估方法。 Results of simulations can be skewed by random activities in the solution that are not directly related to the issues at hand. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 333 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.5 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 模拟结果会被解决方案中没有直接相关的问题的随机活动 所曲解。 3. Determine the measures needed to support the evaluation method. 决定支持评估方法所需要的度量。 Consider the impact on cost, schedule, performance, and risks. 考虑对成本,进度,性能及分析的影响。 Evaluate Alternative Solutions 评估备选解决方案 Evaluate alternative solutions using established criteria and methods. 使用已建立的准则和方法评估备选解决方案。 Evaluating alternative solutions involves analysis, discussion, and review. Iterative cycles of analysis are sometimes necessary. Supporting analyses, experimentation, prototyping, piloting, or simulations may be needed to substantiate scoring and conclusions. 评估备选方案包括分析,讨论和审查。反复的分析有时是有必要 的。评分和结论可能需要分析,试验,原型,试点或模拟的支持。 Often, the relative importance of criteria is imprecise and the total effect on a solution is not apparent until after the analysis is performed. In cases where the resulting scores differ by relatively small amounts, the best selection among alternative solutions may not be clear. Challenges to criteria and assumptions should be encouraged. 通常,准则相对重要性经常是不精确的,而解决方案的整体效果 往往在执行相关分析工作之后才会凸显出来。若各备选方案的评 分结果差距不大,则可能无法从备选解决方案中明确宣称哪个最 佳。应鼓励对准则及假设条件的挑战。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 • Evaluation results 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 334 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 评估结果 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Subpractices 子实践 1. Evaluate proposed alternative solutions using the established evaluation criteria and selected methods. 使用已建立的评估准则与选定的方法,评估提议的备选解决 方案。 2. Evaluate assumptions related to the evaluation criteria and the evidence that supports the assumptions. 评估各种评估准则的假设条件,以及支持该假设条件的各种 证据。 3. Evaluate whether uncertainty in the values for alternative solutions affects the evaluation and address these uncertainties as appropriate. 评估是否有价值观念的不确定性影响备选解决方案的评估, 并给予适当的解决。 For instance, if the score varies between two values, is the difference significant enough to make a difference in the final solution set? Does the variation in score represent a high-impact risk? To address these concerns, simulations may be run, further studies may be performed, or evaluation criteria may be modified, among other things. 例如,假如分数可在两个值中改变,该差异是否足以区分最 后方案?分数的变化是否代表高风险?为了克服这些疑虑, 可进行一些模拟,执行进一步的研究或修改评估准则。 4. Perform simulations, modeling, prototypes, and pilots as necessary to exercise the evaluation criteria, methods, and alternative solutions. 必要时,执行模拟,建模,原型及试点,来测试评估准则, 方法及备选解决方案。 Untested criteria, their relative importance, and supporting data or functions can cause the validity of solutions to be questioned. Criteria and their relative priorities and scales can be tested with trial runs 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 335 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 against a set of alternatives. These trial runs of a select set of criteria allow for the evaluation of the cumulative impact of criteria on a solution. If trials reveal problems, different criteria or alternatives might be considered to avoid biases. 未经过试验的准则,其相对的重要性以及支持资料或功能可 能会造成对解决方案实用性的质疑。准则及其相对的优先顺 序与规模大小,可试用于一些备选方案以进行测试。试用这 些评估准则,使准则得以在解决方案中进行渐进的影响性评 估。若试验显现问题,则应考虑不同的准则或备选方案,以 避免偏差。 5. Consider new alternative solutions, criteria, or methods if proposed alternatives do not test well; repeat evaluations until alternatives do test well. 若建议的备选解决方案无法通过测试时,考虑新的备选解决 方案、准则及方法。并重复评估活动,直到备选方案能通过 测试。 6. Document the results of the evaluation. 记录评估结果。 Document the rationale for the addition of new alternatives or methods and changes to criteria, as well as the results of interim evaluations. 记录增加新备选方案的方法、准则变动的理由以及中间评估 的结果。 SP 1.6 Select Solutions 选择解决方案 Select solutions from alternatives based on evaluation criteria. 根据评估准则,从备选方案中选择解决方案。 Selecting solutions involves weighing results from the evaluation of alternatives. Risks associated with the implementation of solutions should be assessed. 选择解决方案包含对于备选方案评估结果,赋予权重。必须评估 执行解决方案有关的风险。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 336 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 1. Recommended solutions to address significant issues 解决重大问题的建议解决方案 Subpractices 子实践 1. Assess the risks associated with implementing the recommended solution. 评估执行建议解决方案相关的风险。 Refer to the Risk Management process area for more information about identifying and analyzing risks and mitigating risks. 关于如何界定和分析风险和降低风险的更多信息,请参考风 险管理过程域。 Decisions must often be made with incomplete information. There can be substantial risk associated with the decision because of having incomplete information. 决策经常在信息不完备的情况下进行,因此信息不完备而制 定的决策可能有大量的风险。 When decisions must be made according to a specific schedule, time and resources may not be available for gathering complete information. Consequently, risky decisions made with incomplete information can require re-analysis later. Identified risks should be monitored. 当决策必须依照特定的进度,时间及资源进行时,可能无法 收集完备的信息。因此,日后可能需要重新分析在信息不完 备时所制定的有风险的决策。应监督已界定的风险。 2. Document and communicate to relevant stakeholders the results and rationale for the recommended solution. 记录建议解决方案的结果和理由。 It is important to record both why a solution is selected and why another solution was rejected. 记录选择某个解决方案与拒绝另一个解决方案的理由。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 337 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 INTEGRATED PROJECT MANAGEMENT 集成项目管理 A Project Management Process Area at Maturity Level 3 成熟度为 3 级的项目管理类过程域 Purpose 目的 The purpose of Integrated Project Management (IPM) is to establish and manage the project and the involvement of relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and defined process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes. 集成项目管理(IPM)的目的是根据组织的标准流程对已集成和 定义的流程进行裁剪,以建立和管理项目以及相关干系人的参与 活动。 Introductory Notes 简介 Integrated Project Management involves the following activities: 集成项目管理包含以下活动:  Establishing the project’s defined process at project startup by tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes 在项目开始时,通过裁剪组织的标准流程建立项目的已定义 过程  Managing the project using the project’s defined process 使用项目已定义的过程管理项目  Establishing the work environment for the project based on the organization’s work environment standards 在组织的工作环境标准的基础上,建立项目的工作环境  Establishing teams that are tasked to accomplish project objectives 建立团队以完成项目目标 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 338 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Using and contributing to organizational process assets 使用组织级过程资产,并贡献过程资产  Enabling relevant stakeholders’ concerns to be identified, considered, and, when appropriate, addressed during the project 确保相关干系人关注的内容在项目中得到界定,考虑和适时 的解决  Ensuring that relevant stakeholders (1) perform their tasks in a coordinated and timely manner; (2) address project requirements, plans, objectives, problems, and risks; (3) fulfill their commitments; and (4) identify, track, and resolve coordination issues 确保相关干系人(1)协调并及时的执行了他们的任务;(2) 解决项目需求,计划,目标,问题和风险;(3)实现他们的 承诺;及(4)界定,跟踪和解决了协调的问题。 The integrated and defined process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes is called the project’s defined process. (See the definition of “project” in the glossary.) 由组织的标准流程裁剪而来的集成的和定义的流程被称为项目已 定义流程。(参考词汇表中“项目”的定义。) Managing the project’s effort, cost, schedule, staffing, risks, and other factors is tied to the tasks of the project’s defined process. The implementation and management of the project’s defined process are typically described in the project plan. Certain activities may be covered in other plans that affect the project, such as the quality assurance plan, risk management strategy, and the configuration management plan. 项目的工作量,成本,进度,人员,风险和其他因素的管理与项 目已定义的流程息息相关。项目已定义流程的实施和管理在项目 策划中有专门的描述。而某些活动可能会包含在影响项目的其他 计划中,例如质量保证计划,风险管理策略和配置管理计划。 Since the defined process for each project is tailored from the 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 339 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 organization’s set of standard processes, variability among projects is typically reduced and projects can easily share process assets, data, and lessons learned. 因为每个项目已定义的流程是从组织的标准流程裁剪而来,项目 之间的差异性明显减少,而项目能更容易的分享流程的资产,资 料及学习心得。 This process area also addresses the coordination of all activities associated with the project such as the following: 此过程域与项目相关的活动规范举例如下:  Development activities (e.g., requirements development, design, verification) 开发活动(例如,需求开发,设计,验证)  Service activities (e.g., delivery, help desk, operations, customer contact) 服务活动(例如,交付,服务台,运营,客户联系)  Acquisition activities (e.g., solicitation, agreement monitoring, transition to operations) 采购活动(例如,招标,合同监控,向营运移交)  Support activities (e.g., configuration management, documentation, marketing, training) 支持活动(例如,配置管理,文件,市场,培训) The working interfaces and interactions among relevant stakeholders internal and external to the project are planned and managed to ensure the quality and integrity of the overall endeavor. Relevant stakeholders participate as appropriate in defining the project’s defined process and the project plan. 规划与管理项目内部和外部相关干系人之间的工作界面和接口, 以确保项目整体的质量和完整性。在定义项目过程定义和项目策 划时,相关干系人可以适当参与其中。 Reviews and exchanges are regularly conducted with relevant stakeholders to ensure that coordination issues receive 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 340 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 appropriate attention and everyone involved with the project is appropriately aware of status, plans, and activities. (See the definition of “relevant stakeholder” in the glossary.) In defining the project’s defined process, formal interfaces are created as necessary to ensure that appropriate coordination and collaboration occurs. 与相关干系人定期进行审查与交流,以确保问题能进行协调以及 参与项目的每个人能了解项目的状态,计划和活动。(参考词汇表 中“相关干系人”的定义)。在定义项目已定义过程时,需要建立 正式的界面并确保适当的协调与合作。 This process area applies in any organizational structure, including projects that are structured as line organizations, matrix organizations, or teams. The terminology should be appropriately interpreted for the organizational structure in place. 本过程域适用于任何组织架构,包括如线性组织的项目结构,矩 阵组织或团队。此术语某种情况下是对组织架构的解释。 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Refer to the Verification process area for more information about performing peer reviews. 关于同行审查的更多信息,请参考验证过程域。 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about aligning measurement and analysis activities and providing measurement results. 关于统一度量与分析活动以及提供度量结果的更多信息,请参考 度量与分析过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing and maintaining a usable set of organizational process assets, work environment standards, and rules and guidelines for teams. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 341 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 关于建立和维护一系列有用的组织过程资产,工作环境标准和团 队的准则和指南的更多信息,请参考组织级过程定义过程域。 Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about monitoring the project against the plan. 关于根据计划监督项目的更多信息,请参考项目监督与控制过程 域。 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about developing a project plan. 关于开发一个项目策划的更多信息,请参考项目策划过程域。 Specific Goal and Practice Summary 特定目标及实践摘要 SG 1 Use the Project’s Defined Process 使用项目已定义流程 SP 1.1 Establish the Project’s Defined Process 建立项目的已定义流程 SP 1.2 SP 1.3 Use Organizational Process Assets for Planning Project Activities 使用组织级过程资产来策划项目活动 Establish the Project’s Work Environment 建立项目的工作环境 SP 1.4 Integrate Plans 整合计划 SP 1.5 Manage the Project Using Integrated Plans 使用整合计划管理项目 SP 1.6 SP 1.7 Establish Teams 组建团队 Contribute to Organizational Process Assets 贡献组织过程资产 SG 2 Coordinate and Collaborate with Relevant Stakeholders 与相关干系人协调与合作 SP 2.1 Manage Stakeholder Involvement 管理相关干系人的参与活动 SP 2.2 Manage Dependencies 管理依存关系 SP 2.3 Resolve Coordination Issues 解决系统问题 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 SG 1 Use the Project’s Defined Process 使用项目已定义流程 The project is conducted using a defined process tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes. 从组织系列标准流程中装备已定义流程来执行项目。 The project’s defined process includes those processes from the organization’s set of standard processes that address all processes necessary to acquire, develop, maintain, or deliver 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 342 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.1 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 the product. 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 项目已定义流程包括组织系列标准流程,这些标准流程解决了产 品采购,开发,维护或交付的所有必要的流程。 The product related lifecycle processes, such as manufacturing and support processes, are developed concurrently with the product. 产品相关的生命周期流程,如制造与支持流程是与产品同步开发 的。 Establish the Project’s Defined Process 建立项目已定义流程 Establish and maintain the project’s defined process from project startup through the life of the project. 从项目启动到整个周期内,建立和维护项目的已定义流程。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets and establishing the organization’s measurement repository. 关于建立组织级流程资产和建立组织级度量库的更多信息,请参 考组织级过程定义过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Focus process area for more information about deploying organizational process assets and deploying standard processes. 关于调整过程资产和标准流程的更多信息,请参考组织级过程关 注过程域。 The project’s defined process consists of defined processes that form an integrated, coherent lifecycle for the project. 项目已定义流程由一个整合的,连贯的项目生命周期中已定义流 程组成。 The project’s defined process should satisfy the project’s contractual requirements, operational needs, opportunities, and constraints. It is designed to provide a best fit for project needs. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 343 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 项目已定义流程需要满足项目的合同需求,实施需求,机会和限 制。其设计能提供最能满足项目的需求。 A project’s defined process is based on the following factors: 一个项目已定义流程以以下要素为基础:  Stakeholder requirements 相关干系人需求  Commitments 承诺  Organizational process needs and objectives 组织级流程需求与目标  The organization’s set of standard processes and tailoring guidelines 组织的系列标准流程和裁剪指南  The operational environment 实施环境  The business environment 商业环境 Establishing the project’s defined process at project startup helps to ensure that project staff and relevant stakeholders implement a set of activities needed to efficiently establish an initial set of requirements and plans for the project. As the project progresses, the description of the project’s defined process is elaborated and revised to better meet project requirements and the organization’s process needs and objectives. Also, as the organization’s set of standard processes changes, the project’s defined process may need to be revised. 在项目启动时建立项目的已定义流程有助于确保项目成员和相关 干系人执行一整套有效建立项目初步需求和计划所需要的活动。 当项目进行时,项目已定义流程会进行更详细的描述与修订,使 其能更符合项目的需求和组织流程的需要和目标。同样,当组织 的标准流程改变时,项目已定义流程也需要进行修订。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 344 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. The project’s defined process 项目已定义流程 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Subpractices 子实践 1. Select a lifecycle model from the ones available in organizational process assets. 从组织级流程资产中选择一个适用的生命周期模型。 Examples of project characteristics that could affect the selection of lifecycle models include the following: 会影响生命周期模型选择的项目特性包括如下样例:  Size or complexity of the project 项目的规模或复杂性  Project strategy 项目策略  Experience and familiarity of staff with implementing the process 执行流程人员的经验和熟悉程度  Constraints such as cycle time and acceptable defect levels 例如周期时间和接受缺陷等级等的限制  Availability of customers to answer questions and provide feedback on increments 可使用的客户的问题回复并提供增量反馈  Clarity of requirements 需求的清晰度  Customer expectations 客户期望 2. Select standard processes from the organization’s set of standard processes that best fit the needs of the project. 从组织的标准流程中选择最适合项目需求的标准流程。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 345 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 3. Tailor the organization’s set of standard processes and other organizational process assets according to tailoring guidelines to produce the project’s defined process. 根据裁剪指南裁剪组织的标准流程和其他组织级流程资产, 产生项目的已定义流程。 Sometimes the available lifecycle models and standard processes are inadequate to meet project needs. In such circumstances, the project should seek approval to deviate from what is required by the organization. Waivers are provided for this purpose. 有时候,可用的生命周期模型和标准流程不足以满足项目需 求。在此情况下,项目需要征求偏离组织需求的核准。豁免 权是为了这样的目的而提供的。 Tailoring can include adapting the organization’s common measures and specifying additional measures to meet the information needs of the project. 裁剪可以包括适用于组织的通用度量和特定额外度量以满 足项目的信息需求。 4. Use other artifacts from the organization’s process asset library as appropriate. 适当的使用组织的流程资产库中的其他成果。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 346 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Other artifacts can include the following: 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 其他成功可能包括以下事项:  Lessons learned documents 学习心得文件  Templates 样板  Example documents 样例文件  Estimating models 估计模型 5. Document the project’s defined process. 记录项目的已定义流程。 The project’s defined process covers all of the activities for the project and its interfaces to relevant stakeholders. 项目的已定义流程涵盖项目所有的活动和与相关干系人间 的界面。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 347 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of project activities include the following: 项目活动样例包括如下:  Project planning 项目规划  Project monitoring 项目监控  Supplier management 供应商管理  Quality assurance 质量保证  Risk management 风险管理  Decision analysis and resolution 决策分析与解决  Requirements development 需求开发  Requirements management 需求管理  Configuration management 配置管理  Product development and support 产品开发和支持  Code review 代码审查  Solicitation 招标 6. Conduct peer reviews of the project’s defined process. 对项目已定义流程进行同行审查。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 348 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Refer to the Verification process area for more information about performing peer reviews. 关于执行同行审查的更多信息,请参考验证过程域。 7. Revise the project’s defined process as necessary. 必要时修订项目的已定义流程。 Use Organizational Process Assets for Planning Project Activities 使用组织级过程资产规划项目活动 Use organizational process assets and the measurement repository for estimating and planning project activities. 使用组织级过程资产和度量库估计和策划项目活动。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets. 关于建立组织级过程资产的更多信息,请参考组织级过程定义过 程域。 When available, use results of previous planning and execution activities as predictors of the relative scope and risk of the effort being estimated. 某种情况下,适当的使用之前的的规划结果和执行活动的结果 来预测相对的范围并估计执行的风险。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Project estimates 项目估计 2. Project plans 项目策划 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 349 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Subpractices 子实践 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 1. Use the tasks and work products of the project’s defined process as a basis for estimating and planning project activities. 使用项目已定义过程的任务和工作产品作为估计和规划项目 活动的基础。 An understanding of the relationships among tasks and work products of the project’s defined process, and of the roles to be performed by relevant stakeholders, is a basis for developing a realistic plan. 了解项目已定义过程的任务和工作产品之间的关系,以及相 关干系人所扮演的角色是开发实际计划的基础。 2. Use the organization’s measurement repository in estimating the project’s planning parameters. 使用组织的度量库来估计项目的规划参数。 This estimate typically includes the following: 估计通常包括以下内容:  Appropriate historical data from this project or similar projects 使用来自于本项目或类似项目的适当的历史资料  Similarities and differences between the current project and those projects whose historical data will be used 使用当前项目和其他项目之间历史资料的相似性和差异性  Validated historical data 确认历史资料  Reasoning, assumptions, and rationale used to select the historical data 选择历史资料的原因,假设和理由  Reasoning of a broad base of experienced project participants 广泛推广项目参与经验的理由 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 350 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of parameters that are considered for similarities and differences include the following: 需要考虑的相似和不同的参数包括:  Work product and task attributes 工作产品和任务属性  Application domain 应用领域  Experience of the people 人员经验  Design and development approaches 设计和开发方法  Operational environment 实施环境 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 351 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of data contained in the organization’s measurement repository include the following: 在组织的度量库中包含的资料包括:  Size of work products or other work product attributes 工作产品的规模或其他工作产品的属性  Effort 工作量  Cost 成本  Schedule 进度  Staffing 人员  Response time 反应时间  Service capacity 服务能力  Supplier performance 供应商性能  Defects 缺陷 SP 1.3 Establish the Project’s Work Environment 建立项目的工作环境 Establish and maintain the project’s work environment based on the organization’s work environment standards. 以组织的工作环境标准建立和维护项目的工作环境。 An appropriate work environment for a project comprises an infrastructure of facilities, tools, and equipment that people need to perform their jobs effectively in support of business and 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 352 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 project objectives. The work environment and its components are maintained at a level of work environment p erformance and reliability indicated by organizational work environment standards. As required, the project’s work environment or some of its components can be developed internally or acquired from external sources. 一个项目的适当工作环境包括基础建设,工具和人们有效执行其 工作的设备,以支持业务与项目目标。工作环境及其组件维持在 组织工作环境标准所指定的性能与可靠水平上。当需要时,项目 的工作环境或部分组件可以内部开发或从外部资源中进行采购。 The project’s work environment might encompass environments for product integration, verification, and validation or they might be separate environments. 项目的工作环境可能包含产品整合、验证与确认的环境或单独的 环境。 Refer to the Establish the Product Integration Environment specific practice in the Product Integration process area for more information about establishing and maintaining the product integration environment for the project. 关于建立和维护项目产品整合环境的更多信息,请参考产品集成 过程域中建立产品整合环境的特定实践。 Refer to the Establish the Validation Environment specific practice in the Validation process area for more information about establishing and maintaining the validation environment for the project. 关于建立和维护项目的确认环境的更多信息,请参考确认过程域 中建立确认环境特定实践。 Refer to the Establish the Verification Environment specific practice in the Verification process area for more information about establishing and maintaining the verification environment for the project. 关于建立和维护项目验证环境的更多信息,请参考验证过程域中 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 353 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 建立验证环境特定实践。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Refer to the Establish Work Environment Standards specific practice in the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about work environment standards. 关于工作环境标准的更多信息,请参考组织级过程定义过程域中 建立工作环境标准特定实践。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Equipment and tools for the project 项目的设备和工具 2. Installation, operation, and maintenance manuals for the project work environment 项目工作环境的安装,操作和维护手册 3. User surveys and results 使用调查和结果 4. Use, performance, and maintenance records 使用,性能和维护记录 5. Support services for the project’s work environment 项目工作环境的支持服务 Subpractices 子实践 1. Plan, design, and install a work environment for the project. 规划,设计和安装项目的工作环境。 The critical aspects of the project work environment are, like any other product, requirements driven. Functionality and quality attributes of the work environment are explored with the same rigor as is done for any other product development project. 如同其他产品一样,项目工作环境的关键是需求导向。以任 何其他产品开发相同的严格程度研究工作环境的功能性及 质量。 It may be necessary to make tradeoffs among quality attributes, costs, 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 354 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 and risks. The following are examples of each: 可能需要对质量属性,成本和风险进行取舍,分别举例如下:  Quality attribute considerations can include timely communication, safety, security, and maintainability. 质量属性包括及时沟通,安全性,保密性和可维护性  Costs can include capital outlays, training, a support structure; disassembly and disposal of existing environments; and the operation and maintenance of the environment. 成本包括资本费用,培训费用,支持架构费用,现有环境的 拆卸和处置费用,以及环境下实施和维护费用  Risks can include workflow and project disruptions. 风险包括工作流和项目瓦解 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 355 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of equipment and tools include the following: 设备和工具,举例如下:  Office software 办公软件  Decision support software 决策支持软件  Project management tools 项目管理工具  Test and evaluation equipment 测试和评估设备  Requirements management tools and design tools 需求管理工具和设计工具  Configuration management tools 配置管理工具  Evaluation tools 评估工具  Integration tools 集成工具  Automated test tools 自动测试工具 2. Provide ongoing maintenance and operational support for the project’s work environment. 对项目工作环境提供持续的维护及实施支援。 Maintenance and support of the work environment can be accomplished either with capabilities found inside the organization or hired from outside the organization. 工作环境的维护和支持可以通过组织内部能力或外部聘用 来实现。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 356 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of maintenance and support approaches include the following: 维护和支持方法举例如下:  Hiring people to perform maintenance and support 聘用人员来执行维护和支持活动  Training people to perform maintenance and support 培训人员来执行维护和支持活动  Contracting maintenance and support 协调维护和支持活动  Developing expert users for selected tools 开发专业使用者所选用的工具 3. Maintain the qualification of components of the project’s work environment. 维护项目工作环境构成组件的资质。 Components include software, databases, hardware, tools, test equipment, and appropriate documentation. Qualification of software includes appropriate certifications. Hardware and test equipment qualification includes calibration and adjustment records and traceability to calibration standards. 组件包括软件,数据库,硬件,工具,测试设备和适当的文 档。软件质量包括适当的鉴定。硬件和测试设备质量包括分 类和校准记录以及分类标准的可追溯性。 4. Periodically review how well the work environment is meeting project needs and supporting collaboration, and take action as appropriate. 定期审查工作环境符合项目需求及支持合作的程度,并适时 采取行动。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 357 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of actions that might be taken include the following: 可能采取的行动举例如下:  Adding new tools 增加新的工具  Acquiring additional networks, equipment, training, and support 采购额外的网络,设备,培训和支持 SP 1.4 Integrate Plans 整合计划 Integrate the project plan and other plans that affect the project to describe the project’s defined process. 整合项目策划,以及影响已定义过程描述的其他计划。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets and, in particular, establishing the organization’s measurement repository. 关于建立组织级流程资产,特别是建立组织的度量库的更多信息, 请参考组织级过程定义过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Focus process area for more information about establishing organizational process needs and determining process improvement opportunities. 关于建立组织级流程需求及决定流程改进机会的更多信息,请参 考组织级流程关注过程域。 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about developing a project plan. 关于开发一个项目策划的更多信息,请参考项目策划过程域。 This specific practice extends the specific practices for establishing and maintaining a project plan to address additional planning activities such as incorporating the project’s defined process, coordinating with relevant stakeholders, using organizational process assets, incorporating plans for peer 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 358 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 reviews, and establishing objective entry and exit criteria for tasks. 本特定实践方法延伸出为建立和维护项目策划的特定实践方法以 陈述额外的策划活动,如纳入项目的已定义流程,与相关干系人 的协调,使用组织级过程资产,纳入同行审查计划,以及奖励任 务的目标的准入及准出准则。 The development of the project plan should account for current and projected needs, objectives, and requirements of the organization, customer, suppliers, and end users as appropriate. 项目策划的开发需要适当说明当前的项目需要,目标和组织需求, 客户,供应商以及适当的最终用户。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Integrated plans 整合计划 Subpractices 子实践 1. Integrate other plans that affect the project with the project plan. 整合影响项目策划的其他计划。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 359 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Other plans that affect the project plan can include the following: 影响项目策划的其他计划包括:  Quality assurance plans 质量保证计划  Risk management strategy 风险管理策略  Verification and validation plans 验证和确认计划  Transition to operations and support plans 实施转化和支持计划  Configuration management plans 配置管理计划  Documentation plans 文档管理计划  Staff training plans 员工培训计划  Facilities and logistics plans 设施和后勤计划 2. Incorporate into the project plan the definitions of measures and measurement activities for managing the project. 项目策划中定义了用于管理项目的度量和度量活动。 Examples of measures that would be incorporated include the following: 被纳入计划度量包括:  Organization’s common set of measures 组织的通用度量  Additional project specific measures 其他的项目特定度量 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 360 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about developing and sustaining a measurement capability used to support management information needs. 关于开发和保持用于支持管理信息需求的度量能力的更多 信息,请参考度量与分析过程域。 3. Identify and analyze product and project interface risks. 界定并分析产品和项目接口风险。 Refer to the Risk Management process area for more information about identifying and analyzing risks. 关于界定和分析风险的更多信息,请参考风险管理过程域。 Examples of product and project interface risks include the following: 产品和项目接口风险包括:  Incomplete interface descriptions 不完整的接口描述  Unavailability of tools, suppliers, or test equipment 无法取得的工具,供应商或测试设备  Unavailability of COTS components 无法取得的现货成品组件  Inadequate or ineffective team interfaces 不适当的或无效的团队接口 4. Schedule tasks in a sequence that accounts for critical development and delivery factors and project risks. 考虑关键开发和交付因素和项目风险对工作任务按顺序进行 排列。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 361 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of factors considered in scheduling include the following: 进度安排时应该考虑的因素包括:  Size and complexity of tasks 任务规模和复杂性  Needs of the customer and end users 客户和最终用户的需求  Availability of critical resources 关键资源的可用性  Availability of key staff 关键员工的可用性  Integration and test issues 整合与测试问题 5. Incorporate plans for performing peer reviews on work products of the project’s defined process. 将工作产品执行同行审查的项目已定义流程纳入到计划中。 Refer to the Verification process area for more information about performing peer reviews. 关于执行同行审查的更多信息,请参考验证过程域。 6. Incorporate the training needed to perform the project’s defined process in the project’s training plans. 在项目的培训计划中,将培训需求纳入到项目的已定义流程 中。 This task typically includes negotiating with the organizational training group on the support they will provide. 这项任务通常包括与提供支持的组织的培训团队进行协商。 7. Establish objective entry and exit criteria to authorize the initiation and completion of tasks described in the work breakdown structure (WBS). 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 362 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 建立客观准入和准出准则,以授权工作分解结构图(WBS) 所描述的任务的启动与完成。 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about estimating the scope of the project. 关于估计项目范围的更多信息,请参考项目策划过程域。 8. Ensure that the project plan is appropriately compatible with the plans of relevant stakeholders. 确保项目策划与相关干系人的计划相兼容。 Typically the plan and changes to the plan will be reviewed for compatibility. 通常会审查计划和计划变更的兼容性。 9. Identify how conflicts will be resolved that arise among relevant stakeholders. 界定如何解决相关关键人员之间的冲突。 SP 1.5 Manage the Project Using Integrated Plans 使用整合计划管理 项目 Manage the project using the project plan, other plans that affect the project, and the project’s defined process. 使用项目策划,影响项目的其他计划和项目的已定义流程管理 项目。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets. 关于建立组织级过程资产的更多信息,请参考组织级过程定义过 程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Focus process area for more information about establishing organizational process needs, deploying organizational process assets, and deploying standard processes. 关于建立组织级过程需求,部署组织级过程资产和部署标准流程 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 363 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 的更多信息,请参考组织级过程关于过程域。 Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about providing an understanding of the project’s progress so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the project’s performance deviates significantly from the plan. 关于提供项目流程的理解以便当项目执行过程明显偏移计划时采 取纠正措施的更多信息,请参考项目监督与控制过程域。 Refer to the Risk Management process area for more information about identifying and analyzing risks and mitigating risks. 关于界定和分析风险以及缓解风险的更多信息,请参考风险管理 过程域。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Work products created by performing the project’s defined process 执行项目的已定义流程所生产工作产品 2. Collected measures (i.e., actuals) and status records or reports 收集度量(例如,实际的)和状态记录或报告 3. Revised requirements, plans, and commitments 已修订的需求,计划和承诺 4. Integrated plans 整合的计划 Subpractices 子实践 1. Implement the project’s defined process using the organization’s process asset library. 使用组织的过程资产库执行项目的已定义过程。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 364 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 This task typically includes the following activities: 这项任务主要包括以下活动:  Incorporating artifacts from the organization’s process asset library into the project as appropriate 从组织的过程资产库中将合适的成果纳入到项目中  Using lessons learned from the organization’s process asset library to manage the project 使用组织的过程资产库中的学习心得管理项目 2. Monitor and control the project’s activities and work products using the project’s defined process, project plan, and other plans that affect the project. 使用项目的已定义过程,项目策划和影响项目的其他计划来 监督和控制项目的活动和工作产品。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 365 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 This task typically includes the following activities: 这项活动主要包括以下内容:  Using the defined entry and exit criteria to authorize the initiation and determine the completion of tasks 使用已定义的准入和准出准则来启动任务并决定任务的完 成  Monitoring activities that could significantly affect actual values of the project’s planning parameters 监督活动可能会严重影响项目的计划参数的实际数值  Tracking project planning parameters using measurable thresholds that will trigger investigation and appropriate actions 使用度量阈值来跟踪项目策划参数,可以触发调查并采取适 当的活动  Monitoring product and project interface risks 监督产品和项目接口风险  Managing external and internal commitments based on plans for tasks and work products of the project’s defined process 以项目已定义过程的任务和工作产品计划为基础,管理外部 和内部的承诺 An understanding of the relationships among tasks and work products of the project’s defined process and of the roles to be performed by relevant stakeholders, along with well-defined control mechanisms (e.g., peer reviews), achieves better visibility into project performance and better control of the project. 理解项目已定义过程的任务和工作产品之间的关系,相关干 系人所扮演的角色,以及完整定义的控制机制(如,同行审 查),可以达成较好且明显的项目性能并更好的控制项目。 3. Obtain and analyze selected measurements to manage the project and support organization needs. 获得和分析所选择的度量资料,以管理项目和支持组织需求。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 366 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about obtaining measurement data and analyzing measurement data. 关于获得和分析度量数据的更多信息,请参考度量与分析过 程域。 4. Periodically review and align the project’s performance with current and anticipated needs, objectives, and requirements of the organization, customer, and end users as appropriate. 定期审查,并将项目性能根据当前和期望需求、目标与组织 的、客户的和最终用户的需求做适当调整。 This review includes alignment with organizational process needs and objectives. 这项审查活动包括将组织级过程需求和目标相一致。 Examples of actions that achieve alignment include the following: 达成一致的活动包括:  Changing the schedule with appropriate adjustments to other planning parameters and project risks 对其他计划参数和项目风险进行适当的调整以改变进度  Changing requirements or commitments in response to a change in market opportunities or customer and end-user needs 变更需求或承诺以反应市场机会或客户机最终用户需求的 变更  Terminating the project, iteration, or release 终止项目、迭代或发布活动 5. Address causes of selected issues that can affect project objectives. 给出选择影响项目目标的问题的原因 Issues that require corrective action are determined and analyzed as in 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 367 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 the Analyze Issues and Take Corrective Actions specific practices of the Project Monitoring and Control process area. As appropriate, the project may periodically review issues previously encountered on other projects or in earlier phases of the project, and conduct causal analysis of selected issues to determine how to prevent recurrence for issues which can significantly affect project objectives. Project process changes implemented as a result of causal analysis activities should be evaluated for effectiveness to ensure that the process change has prevented recurrence and improved performance. 在项目监督与控制过程域中分析问题和采取纠正措施的特 定实践中决定和分析了需要采取纠正措施的问题。在适当情 况下,项目可能会对之前影响其他项目或在项目早期阶段的 问题定期审查,并给出问题的原因分析以决定如何防止对项 目目标有明显影响的问题重复出现。已执行的项目过程变更 可作为原因分析活动的结果来评估有效性以保证过程变更 可以防止其重复发生并提高其性能。 SP 1.6 Establish Teams 组建团队 Establish and maintain teams. 组建和维护团队。 The project is managed using teams that reflect the organizational rules and guidelines for team structuring, formation, and operation. (See the definition of “team” in the glossary.) 使用反应团队架构、模式和执行方法的组织级准则和指南的团队 管理项目。(参考词汇表中“团队”的定义。) The project’s shared vision is established prior to establishing the team structure, which can be based on the WBS. For small organizations, the whole organization and relevant external stakeholders can be treated as a team. 项目的共同愿景是建立之前已经建立的团队架构,它可以是以 WBS 为基础的。对于小型组织,整个组织和相关外部利益者可视 为一个团队。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 368 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Refer to the Establish Rules and Guidelines for Teams specific practice in the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing and maintaining organizational rules and guidelines for the structure, formation, and operation of teams. 关于建立和维护团队架构,模式和执行方法的组织级准则和指南 的更多信息,请参考组织级过程定义过程域中为团队建立准则和 指南的特定实践。 One of the best ways to ensure coordination and collaboration with relevant stakeholders is to include them on the team. 最好的方法之一是确保团队中包含了与相关干系人的协调和合 作。 In a customer environment that requires coordination among multiple product or service development organizations, it is important to establish a team with representation from all parties that affect overall success. Such representation helps to ensure effective collaboration across these organizations, including the timely resolution of coordination issues. 在客户环境中,需要对多个产品或服务开发组织进行协调,重要 的是要建立能影响全面成功的具有代表性全方面的团队。其代表 性可以确保这些组织间的有效合作,包括协调的问题及时解决。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Documented shared vision 已记录的共同愿景 2. List of members assigned to each team 分配到每个团队的成员名单 3. Team charters 团队章程 4. Periodic team status reports 团队定期状态报告 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 369 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Subpractices 子实践 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 1. Establish and maintain the project’s shared vision. 建立和维护项目的共同愿景。 When creating a shared vision, it is critical to understand the interfaces between the project and stakeholders external to the project. The vision should be shared among relevant stakeholders to obtain their agreement and commitment. 建立共同愿景时,关键是理解项目和项目外部的利益者之间 的接口。愿景可以与相关干系人分享以获得他们的认同和承 诺。 2. Establish and maintain the team structure. 建立和维护团队架构。 The project WBS, cost, schedule, project risks, resources, interfaces, the project’s defined process, and organizational guidelines are evaluated to establish an appropriate team structure, including team responsibilities, authorities, and interrelationships. 项目的 WBS,成本,进度,项目风险,资源,接口,项目的 已定义过程和组织级指南都可以用于评估建立团队架构的 适当性,包括团队责任,授权和相互关系。 3. Establish and maintain each team. 组建和维持每个团队。 Establishing and maintaining teams encompasses choosing team leaders and team members and establishing team charters for each team. It also involves providing resources required to accomplish tasks assigned to the team. 组件和维护团队包括选择团队领导和团队成员并建立每个 团队的章程。它还包括提供完成团队分配的任务所需要的资 源。 4. Periodically evaluate the team structure and composition. 定期评估团队架构和组成。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 370 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Teams should be monitored to detect misalignment of work across different teams, mismanaged interfaces, and mismatches of tasks to team members. Take corrective action when team or project performance does not meet expectations. 团队监控应该在不同团队间工作的不一致性,接口的管理不 善和团队成员任务的不当分配。当团队或项目执行过程中无 法达到预期时需要采取纠正措施。 SP 1.7 Contribute to Organizational Process Assets 为组织级过程资 产做贡献 Contribute process related experiences to organizational process assets. 为组织级过程资产贡献过程相关的经验。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets, establishing the organization’s measurement repository, and establishing the organization’s process asset library. 关于建立组织级过程资产,建立组织的度量存储库和建立组织的 过程资产库的更多信息,请参考组织级过程定义过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Focus process area for more information about incorporating experiences into organizational process assets. 关于将经验纳入到组织级过程资产的更多信息,请参考组织级过 程关注过程域。 This specific practice addresses contributing information from processes in the project’s defined process to organizational process assets. 本特定实践说明项目的已定义过程中的信息纳入组织级过程资产 的方法。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Proposed improvements to organizational process assets 针对组织级过程资产进行改进 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 371 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Actual process and product measures collected from the project 从项目中收集实际过程和产品度量 3. Documentation (e.g., exemplary process descriptions, plans, training modules, checklists, lessons learned) 文档(如,案例过程描述,计划,培训模型,检查表及学习 心得) 4. Process artifacts associated with tailoring and implementing the organization’s set of standard processes on the project 在项目中裁剪和执行组织的标准过程相关的过程成果 Subpractices 子实践 1. Propose improvements to the organizational process assets. 针对组织级过程资产的改进。 2. Store process and product measures in the organization’s measurement repository. 在组织的度量存储库中保存过程与产品度量。 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about obtaining measurement data. 关于取得度量数据的更多信息,请参考度量与分析过程域。 Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about monitoring project planning parameters. 关于监督项目策划参数的更多信息,请参考项目监督与控制 过程域。 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about planning data management. 关于计划参数管理的更多信息,请参考项目策划过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 372 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 These process and product measures typically include the following: 这些过程和产品度量通常包括:  Planning data 计划资料  Replanning data 重新计划资料 Examples of data recorded by the project include the following: 项目记录的资料包括:  Task descriptions 任务描述  Assumptions 假设  Estimates 估计值  Revised estimates 修订的估计值  Definitions of recorded data and measures 记录的资料和度量的定义  Measures 度量  Context information that relates the measures to the activities performed and work products produced 执行活动和生产工作产品的相关度量的背景信息  Associated information needed to reconstruct the estimates, assess their reasonableness, and derive estimates for new work 重新估计,评价其合理性及新工作的衍生估计值说需要的相 关信息 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 373 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 3. Submit documentation for possible inclusion in the organization’s process asset library. 提交可能会纳入到组织过程资产库的文档。 Examples of documentation include the following: 文档包括:  Exemplary process descriptions 过程描述范例  Training modules 培训模型  Exemplary plans 计划范例  Checklists and templates 检查表和模板  Project repository shells 项目责任表  Tool configurations 工具配置 4. Document lessons learned from the project for inclusion in the organization’s process asset library. 记录项目的学习心得以纳入到组织的过程资产库中。 5. Provide process artifacts associated with tailoring and implementing the organization’s set of standard processes in support of the organization’s process monitoring activities. 为支持组织的过程监督活动,提供与裁剪和执行组织标准流 程相关的过程成果。 Refer to the Monitor the Implementation specific practice in the Organizational Process Focus process area for more information about the organization’s activities to understand 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 374 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 the extent of deployment of standard processes on new and existing projects. 关于在新的及现有项目中了解组织的活动的推广标准的更 多信息,请参考组织过程关注过程域中监督实施特定实践。 SG 2 Coordinate and Collaborate with Relevant Stakeholders 与相关干 系人协调与合作 Coordination and collaboration between the project and relevant stakeholders are conducted. 与相关干系人进行项目的协调与合作。 SP 2.1 Manage Stakeholder Involvement 管理相关干系人的参与活动 Manage the involvement of relevant stakeholders in the project. 管理相关干系人在项目中的参与程度。 Stakeholder involvement is managed according to the project’s integrated plan and defined process. 根据项目的整合及已定义的流程,管理相关干系人的参与。 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about planning stakeholder involvement and obtaining plan commitment. 关于界定相关干系人的参与程度以及奖励并维护承诺的更 多信 息,请参考项目策划过程域。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Agendas and schedules for collaborative activities 协调活动的日程与进度 2. Recommendations for resolving relevant stakeholder issues 解决相关干系人问题的建议 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 375 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 3. Documented issues (e.g., issues with stakeholder requirements, product and product component requirements, product architecture, product design) 记录问题(例如,相关干系人的需求,产品和产品组件需求, 产品架构,产品设计) Subpractices 子实践 1. Coordinate with relevant stakeholders who should participate in project activities. 与应参与项目活动的相关干系人协调。 The relevant stakeholders should already be identified in the project plan. 相关干系人应已在项目策划中进行了定义。 2. Ensure work products that are produced to satisfy commitments meet the requirements of the recipients. 确保产出的工作产品满足需求的承诺。 Refer to the Verification process area for more information about verifying selected work products. 关于验证已选择工作产品的更多信息,请参考验证过程域。 The work products produced to satisfy commitments can be services. 满足承诺的工作产品可以是服务。 This task typically includes the following: 这项任务工作通常包括下列内容:  Reviewing, demonstrating, or testing, as appropriate, each work product produced by relevant stakeholders 由相关干系人对每个已生产的工作产品进行适当的审查,演 示,或测试。  Reviewing, demonstrating, or testing, as appropriate, each work product produced by the project for other projects with representatives of the projects receiving the work product 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 376 页 共 1064 页--- SP 2.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 项目产出的每个工作产品需要由接收工作产品的其他项目 代表进行适当的审查,演示,或测试。  Resolving issues related to the acceptance of the work products 解决验收工作产品的相关问题。 3. Develop recommendations and coordinate actions to resolve misunderstandings and problems with requirements. 提出建议与协调的措施以解决需求的误解与出现的问题。 Manage Dependencies 管理相互依存关系 Participate with relevant stakeholders to identify, negotiate, and track critical dependencies. 与相关干系人共同定义、协商与跟踪重要的依赖关系。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Defects, issues, and action items resulting from reviews with relevant stakeholders 与相关干系人审查所产生的缺陷,问题和活动内容 2. Critical dependencies 关键依赖关系 3. Commitments to address critical dependencies 满足关键依赖关系的承诺 4. Status of critical dependencies 关键依赖关系的状态 Subpractices 子实践 1. Conduct reviews with relevant stakeholders. 与相关干系人一起进行审查。 2. Identify each critical dependency. 识别每个关键依赖关系。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 377 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 3. Establish need dates and plan dates for each critical dependency based on the project schedule. 以项目进度为基础,确定每个关键依存关系需要的天数与计 划天数。 4. Review and get agreement on commitments to address each critical dependency with those who are responsible for providing or receiving the work product. 对每个关键依存关系中,审查负责提交工作产品或接收工作 产品的人员承诺的履行情况并取得承诺。 5. Document critical dependencies and commitments. 记录关键依存关系与承诺。 Documentation of commitments typically includes the following: 承诺文件主要包括以下内容:  Describing the commitment 承诺的描述  Identifying who made the commitment 界定谁做出承诺  Identifying who is responsible for satisfying the commitment 界定谁负责满足承诺  Specifying when the commitment will be satisfied 明确说明何时能满足承诺  Specifying the criteria for determining if the commitment has been satisfied 明确说明判断承诺是否满足的准则 6. Track the critical dependencies and commitments and take corrective action as appropriate. 跟踪关键依赖关系和承诺,并采取适当的纠正措施。 Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about monitoring commitments. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 378 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 关于承诺的信息和监控的更多信息,请参考项目监督与控制 过程域。 Tracking critical dependencies typically includes the following: 跟踪关键依赖关系的主要活动包括:  Evaluating the effects of late and early completion for impacts on future activities and milestones 评估延迟和提早完成对未来活动和里程碑的影响  Resolving actual and potential problems with responsible parties whenever possible 尽可能与负责人员解决实际与潜在的问题  Escalating to the appropriate party the actual and potential problems not resolvable by the responsible individual or group 将负责人或团队未解决的实际与潜在的问题提升到适当的 层面处理 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 379 页 共 1064 页--- SP 2.3 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Resolve Coordination Issues 解决协调问题 Resolve issues with relevant stakeholders. 与相关干系人解决问题。 Examples of coordination issues include the following: 协调问题举例如下:  Product and product component requirements and design defects 产品和产品组件需求及设计缺陷  Late critical dependencies and commitments 迟来的关键依赖关系和承诺  Product level problems 产品层级的问题  Unavailability of critical resources or staff 无法取得的关键资源或人员 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Relevant stakeholder coordination issues 相关干系人协调的问题 2. Status of relevant stakeholder coordination issues 相关干系人协调问题的状态 Subpractices 子实践 1. Identify and document issues. 问题识别和文档化。 2. Communicate issues to relevant stakeholders. 与相关干系人对问题进行沟通。 3. Resolve issues with relevant stakeholders. 与相关干系人解决问题。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 380 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 4. Escalate to appropriate managers the issues not resolvable with relevant stakeholders. 将相关干系人无法解决的问题上报给适当的管理者。 5. Track issues to closure. 跟踪问题直到关闭。 6. Communicate with relevant stakeholders on the status and resolution of issues. 与相关干系人沟通问题的状态和解决情况。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 381 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS 度量与分析 A Support Process Area at Maturity Level 2 成熟度 2 级的支持类过程域 Purpose 目的 The purpose of Measurement and Analysis (MA) is to develop and sustain a measurement capability used to support management information needs. 度量与分析(MA)的目的是开发与维持度量能力,以用于支持管 理信息的需要。 Introductory Notes 简介 The Measurement and Analysis process area involves the following activities: 度量与分析过程域涉及到以下活动:  Specifying objectives of measurement and analysis so that they are aligned with identified information needs and project, organizational, or business objectives 确定度量与分析的目标,使其配合已界定的信息需求和项目, 组织或商业目标。  Specifying measures, analysis techniques, and mechanisms for data collection, data storage, reporting, and feedback 明确度量、分析技术和数据收集,数据存储,报告和反馈机 制  Implementing the analysis techniques and mechanisms for data collection, data reporting, and feedback 执行分析技术和数据收集,数据报告和反馈机制  Providing objective results that can be used in making informed decisions and taking appropriate corrective action 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 382 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 提供客观的结果以便做出有根据的决策,并采取适当的纠正 措施。 The integration of measurement and analysis activities into the processes of the project supports the following: 将度量与分析活动整合到项目流程中可支持以下的活动:  Objective planning and estimating 客观规划与评估  Tracking actual progress and performance against established plans and objectives 针对建立的计划和目标跟踪实际进程和性能  Identifying and resolving process related issues 界定和解决与过程相关的问题  Providing a basis for incorporating measurement into additional processes in the future 提供未来将度量纳入其他流程的基础 The staff required to implement a measurement capability may or may not be employed in a separate organization-wide program. Measurement capability may be integrated into individual projects or other organizational functions (e.g., quality assurance). 执行度量功能的员工不一定需要参与一个单独的组织层面的项 目。度量功能可以整合到个别项目或其他组织功能中(例如,质 量保证)。 The initial focus for measurement activities is at the project level. However, a measurement capability can prove useful for addressing organization- and enterprise-wide information needs. To support this capability, measurement activities should support information needs at multiple levels, including the business, organizational unit, and project to minimize re-work as the organization matures. 度量活动最初关注的是项目层面。然而,度量能力对于解决组织 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 383 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 和企业层面的信息需求是确定有价值的。要实现这个能力,度量 活动需要包括多层次的支持信息需求,包括商业层面,组织单位 层面和项目层面的,以减少组织达到成熟度时的重复工作。 Projects can store project specific data and results in a project specific repository, but when data are to be used widely or are to be analyzed in support of determining data trends or benchmarks, data may reside in the organization’s measurement repository. 项目可以选择在项目指定的配置库中保存项目特定的数据和资料 结果,但是当数据被广泛使用或用于支持分析决策数据趋势或基 线时,数据可存放在组织级度量库中。 Measurement and analysis of product components provided by suppliers is essential for effective management of the quality and costs of the project. It is possible, with careful management of supplier agreements, to provide insight into data that support supplier performance analysis. 针对供应商提供的产品组件进行度量与分析,对有效的管理项目 质量和成本是有必要的。对供应商协议进行细致的管理为支持供 应商性能提供了深入了解的数据信息。 Measurement objectives are derived from information needs that come from project, organizational, or business objectives. In this process area, when the term “objectives” is used without the “measurement” qualifier, it indicates either project, organizational, or business objectives. 度量目标来源于项目,组织或商业目标信息的需要。在这个过程 域中,“目标”一词并不专指“度量”目标,它也表示项目目标, 组织目标或商业目标。 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Refer to the Requirements Development process area for more information about eliciting, analyzing, and establishing customer, product, and product component requirements. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 384 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 关于引导,分析和建立客户、产品和产品组件需求的更多信息, 请参考需求开发过程域。 Refer to the Configuration Management process area for more information about establishing and maintaining the integrity of work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits. 关于使用配置识别来建立和维护集成工作产品,配置控制,配置 状态账户和配置审计的更多信息,请参考配置管理过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing the organization’s measurement repository. 关于建立组织级度量库的更多信息,请参考组织过程定义过程域。 Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about monitoring project planning parameters. 关于监督项目策划参数的更多信息,请参考项目监督与控制过程 域。 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about establishing estimates. 关于建立评估的更多信息,请参考项目策划过程域。 Refer to the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about quantitatively managing the project 关于项目量化管理的更多信息,请参考项目量化管理过程域。 Refer to the Requirements Management process area for more information about maintaining bidirectional traceability of requirements. 关于维护需求双向可追溯性的更多信息,请参考需求管理过程域。 Specific Goal and Practice Summary 特定目标和实践摘要 SG 1 Align Measurement and Analysis Activities 安排度量与分析活动 SP 1.1 Establish Measurement Objectives 建立度量目标 SP 1.2 Specify Measures 确定度量项 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 385 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.3 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Specify Data Collection and Storage Procedures 确定数据收集和存储流程 SP 1.4 Specify Analysis Procedures 确定分析流程 SG 2 Provide Measurement Results 提供度量结果 SP 2.1 Obtain Measurement Data 收集度量数据 SP 2.2 Analyze Measurement Data 分析度量数据 SP 2.3 Store Data and Results 保存数据和结果 SP 2.4 Communicate Results 结果交流 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 SG 1 Align Measurement and Analysis Activities 安排度量与分析活动 Measurement objectives and activities are aligned with identified information needs and objectives. 度量目标及活动要与已界定的信息需求和目标相吻合。 The specific practices under this specific goal can be addressed concurrently or in any order. 本特定目标下的特定实践可以同时执行或按照任意顺序执行。 When establishing measurement objectives, experts often think ahead about necessary criteria for specifying measures and analysis procedures. They also think concurrently about the constraints imposed by data collection and storage procedures. 建立度量目标时,专家通常需要先考虑明确度量与分析流程的标 准。同时他们也会考虑实施数据收集和存储流程的限制条件。 Often it is important to specify the essential analyses to be conducted before attending to details of measurement specification, data collection, or storage. 在详细处理度量格式,数据收集或存储之前,通常非常重要的一 步是确定进行分析的必要性。 SP 1.1 Establish Measurement Objectives 建立度量目标 Establish and maintain measurement objectives derived from identified information needs and objectives. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 386 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 建立和维护来源于已界定的信息需求和目标的度量目标。 Measurement objectives document the purposes for which measurement and analysis are done and specify the kinds of actions that can be taken based on results of data analyses. Measurement objectives can also identify the change in behavior desired as a result of implementing a measurement and analysis activity. 对度量目标进行文档化,其目的是记录哪些度量与分析已经被执 行并确定哪类基于数据分析结果的活动可以执行。度量目标也可 以在执行度量与分析结果的基础上来识别预期的行为变化。 Measurement objectives may be constrained by existing processes, available resources, or other measurement considerations. Judgments may need to be made about whether the value of the result is commensurate with resources devoted to doing the work. 度量目标可能受到现有的流程、可用的资源、或其他度量考量的 限制。需要判断投入度量工作的资源与度量结果的价值是否相当。 Modifications to identified information needs and objectives can, in turn, be indicated as a consequence of the process and results of measurement and analysis. 对已界定的信息需求和目标的修改,反过来,也可以表示为一个 度量与分析过程和结果。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 387 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Sources of information needs and objectives can include the following: 信息需求和目标资源,包括以下内容:  Project plans 项目策划  Project performance monitoring 项目性能监控  Interviews with managers and others who have information needs 对管理者和其他有信息需求的人员进行访谈  Established management objectives 建立管理目标  Strategic plans 策略计划  Business plans 商业计划  Formal requirements or contractual obligations 正式需求或合约义务  Recurring or other troublesome management or technical problems 重复发生的或其他棘手的管理或技术问题  Experiences of other projects or organizational entities 其他项目或组织级问题的经验  External industry benchmarks 外部的产业标准  Process improvement plans 过程改进计划 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 388 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Example measurement objectives include the following: 度量目标样例包括以下几点:  Provide insight into schedule fluctuations and progress 对计划变更和进度提供洞察力。  Provide insight into actual size compared to plan 观察实际规模和计划的对比情况  Identify unplanned growth 识别无计划的增长  Evaluate the effectiveness of defect detection throughout the product development lifecycle 在整个产品开发生命周期内评估缺陷检测的有效性  Determine the cost of correcting defects 确定修正缺陷的成本  Provide insight into actual costs compared to plan 对计划和比实际的成本提供洞察力  Evaluate supplier progress against the plan 根据计划评估供应商流程  Evaluate the effectiveness of mitigating information system vulnerabilities 评估减少信息系统的漏洞的有效性 Refer to the Requirements Development process area for more information about eliciting, analyzing, and establishing customer, product, and product component requirements. 关于引导,分析和建立客户、产品和产品组件需求的更多信息, 参考需求开发过程域。 Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about monitoring project planning parameters. 关于监督项目策划参数的更多信息,参考项目监督与控制过程域。 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about establishing estimates. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 389 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 关于建立评估的更多信息,参考项目策划过程域。 Refer to the Requirements Management process area for more information about maintaining bidirectional traceability of requirements. 关于维护需求双向可追溯性的更多信息,参考需求管理过程域。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Measurement objectives 度量目标 Subpractices 子实践 1. Document information needs and objectives. 记录信息需求和目标。 2. Prioritize information needs and objectives. 排定信息需求和目标的优先顺序。 It can be neither possible nor desirable to subject all initially identified information needs to measurement and analysis. Priorities may also need to be set within the limits of available resources. 并不是所有最初确定的信息需求都需要进行度量与分析。在 可用的资源条件限制下进行度量与分析,必须对信息需求进 行优先排序。 3. Document, review, and update measurement objectives. 记录,审查并更新度量目标。 Carefully consider the purposes and intended uses of measurement and analysis. 仔细考虑使用度量与分析的目的与预期的用途是非常重要 的。 The measurement objectives are documented, reviewed by management and other relevant stakeholders, and updated as necessary. Doing so enables traceability to subsequent measurement and analysis activities, and helps to ensure that analyses will properly 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 390 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 address identified information needs and objectives. 记录度量目标,并交给管理员人和其他相关的人员审查,必 要时进行更新。这样做是可以保证度量与分析活动可以追 溯,并帮助确保分析活动可以对信息需求和目标进行适当的 说明。 It is important that users of measurement and analysis results be involved in setting measurement objectives and deciding on plans of action. It may also be appropriate to involve those who provide the measurement data. 度量与分析结果的使用者参与设定度量目标与决定活动计 划是非常重要的。同时让提供度量数据的人员也参与进来也 是合适的。 4. Provide feedback for refining and clarifying information needs and objectives as necessary. 必要时提供反馈信息可以调整和明确信息需求和目标。 Identified information needs and objectives can be refined and clarified as a result of setting measurement objectives. Initial descriptions of information needs may be ambiguous. Conflicts can arise between existing needs and objectives. Precise targets on an already existing measure may be unrealistic. 设定信息需求和目标后可能需要调整和明确信息需求和目 标。信息需求的初始描述可能很模糊。已有的需求和目标之 间可能存在抵触情况。对一个已存在的度量要求精确的目标 可能是不现实的。 5. Maintain traceability of measurement objectives to identified information needs and objectives. 维护度量目标的可追溯性来确定信息需求和目标。 There should always be a good answer to the question, ―Why are we measuring this?‖ Of course, measurement objectives can also change to reflect evolving information needs and objectives. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 391 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 对于“为何要做这项度量?”这样的问题必须要有一个好的 答案。当然,度量目标也可以修改,以反映不断发展的信息 需求和目标。 Specify Measures 指定确定度量项 Specify measures to address measurement objectives. 制定度量以说明度量目标。 Measurement objectives are refined into precise, quantifiable measures. 将度量目标提炼到精确的,可量化的度量。 Measurement of project and organizational work can typically be traced to one or more measurement information categories. These categories include the following: schedule and progress, effort and cost, size and stability, and quality. 项目级和组织级工作的度量通常可以追溯到一个或多个类型的度 量信息。这些类型包括:计划和进度,工时和成本,规模和稳定 性,以及质量。 Measures can be either base or derived. Data for base measures are obtained by direct measurement. Data for derived measures come from other data, typically by combining two or more base measures. 度量包括基本度量或衍生度量。基本度量的数据来自于直接度量。 衍生度量的数据来自于其他数据,通常结合了两个或多个基本度 量。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 392 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of commonly used base measures include the following: 通常使用的基本度量包括如下:  Estimates and actual measures of work product size (e.g., number of pages) 对工作产品进行估计和实际度量(例如,文档页数)  Estimates and actual measures of effort and cost (e.g., number of person hours) 对工时和成本进行估计和实际度量(例如,每个人工作的小 时数)  Quality measures (e.g., number of defects by severity) 质量度量(例如,严重缺陷个数)  Information security measures (e.g., number of system vulnerabilities identified) 信息安全度量(例如,已识别的系统漏洞的个数)  Customer satisfaction survey scores 客户满意度调查分数 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 393 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of commonly used derived measures include the following: 通常使用的基础度量包括如下:  Earned value 挣值  Schedule performance index 进度性能指标  Defect density 缺陷密度  Peer review coverage 同行评审覆盖率  Test or verification coverage 测试或验证覆盖率  Reliability measures (e.g., mean time to failure) 可靠性度量(例如,平均失败次数)  Quality measures (e.g., number of defects by severity/total number of defects) 质量度量(例如,按照严重程度/总缺陷数区分的缺陷个数)  Information security measures (e.g., percentage of system vulnerabilities mitigated) 信息安全度量(例如,被忽略的系统漏洞的百分比)  Customer satisfaction trends 客户满意度趋势 Derived measures typically are expressed as ratios, composite indices, or other aggregate summary measures. They are often more quantitatively reliable and meaningfully interpretable than the base measures used to generate them. 衍生度量通常以比例,混合指数或其他度量集合来表示。衍生度 量由基本度量的整合而来,通常比基本度量更具数量可信度和说 明意义。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 394 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 There are direct relationships among information needs, measurement objectives, measurement categories, base measures, and derived measures. This direct relationship is depicted using some common examples in Table MA.1. 信息需求,度量目标,度量项分类,基础度量和衍生度量之间存 在直接相关关系。这种直接相关关系在表格 MA.1 中使用一些常 用的样例进行了解释。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 395 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Table MA.1: Example Measurement Relationships 表 MA.1:度量关系样例 Example Project, Information Measurement Objective Measurement Example Base Example Derived Organizational, or Business Objectives 项目级,组织级或 商业目标样例 Need 信息需求 度量目标 Information Categories 度量信息分类 Measures 基础度量样例 Measures 衍生度量样例 Shorten time to What is the Provide insight into schedule Schedule and Estimated and Milestone delivery estimated fluctuations and progress delivery time? Be first to market the 观察计划变动和进度 product 怎么样估计 缩短交货时间 交货时间? progress 计划和进度 actual start and performance end dates by task 里程碑性能 估计任务实际 的开始和结束 Percentage of 日期 project on time 第一个向市场推 广产品 项目按时完成的 百分比 Schedule estimation accuracy 计划估计的准确 性 Increase market How accurate Provide insight into actual size Size and effort Estimated and Productivity share by reducing costs of products and services are the size and cost estimates? and costs compared to plan 观察实际生产规模和成本与 计划的对比情况 生产规模和工时 actual effort and size 估计工时和成 生产率 通过降低产品和 如何准确的 本及实际工时 服务的成本来增 对生产规模 和成本 加市场占有率 和成本进行 估计? Effort and cost 工时和成本 Estimated and Cost performance actual cost 成本性能 估计成本和实 际成本 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 396 页 共 1064 页--- Example Project, Organizational, or Business Objectives 项目级,组织级或 商业目标样例 Information Need 信息需求 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Measurement Objective Measurement Example Base Example Derived 度量目标 Information Categories Measures Measures 基础度量样例 衍生度量样例 度量信息分类 Cost variance Deliver specified Has scope or Provide insight into actual size Size and stability functionality 指定交付功能 project size compared to plan, identify grown? unplanned growth 规模和稳定性 范 围 或 项 目 观察实际规模和计划的对比 规 模 是 否 增 情况,明确无计划的增长 加? Requirements count 需求数 成本误差 Requirements volatility 需求变更率 Size estimation accuracy 规模准确度估计 Function point Estimated vs. actual count function points 功能点个数 估计功能点个数 和实际功能点个 数 Lines of code Amount of new, count 代码行数 modified, and reused code 新增代码行数, 变更代码行数和 复用代码行数 Reduce defects in Where are Evaluate the effectiveness of Quality products delivered to defects being defect detection throughout the the customer by 10% inserted and product lifecycle 质量 without affecting cost 在向客户交付产 detected prior to delivery? 在整个产品生命周期过程中 估计缺陷监测的有效性 Number of Defect containment defects inserted by lifecycle phase and detected by lifecycle phase 生命周期内缺陷 的覆盖率 生命周期内出 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 397 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Example Project, Information Measurement Objective Measurement Example Base Example Derived Organizational, or Business Objectives 项目级,组织级或 商业目标样例 Need 信息需求 度量目标 Information Categories 度量信息分类 Measures 基础度量样例 Measures 衍生度量样例 品 时 通 过 10% 的 在 交 付 之 前 额外工作降低缺 哪些环节最 陷数 容易出现缺 陷以及哪些 环节可以监 测出缺陷? 现缺陷的个数 Defect density 和检测发现的 缺陷个数 缺陷密度 Product size 产品规模 What is the Determine the cost of correcting Cost Number of Rework costs cost of defects rework? 确定纠正缺陷的工作 哪些工作可 以重复使 用? 成本 defects inserted and detected by 重复工作的成本 lifecycle phase 生命周期内出 现确定性个数 和检测发现的 缺陷个数 Effort hours to correct defects 纠正缺陷花费 的工时 Labor rates 劳动比率 Reduce information What is the Evaluate the effectiveness of Information Number of Percentage of system magnitude of mitigating system vulnerabilities Assurance system system vulnerabilities 减少信息系统漏 open system vulnerabilities? 对信息系统忽略的漏洞进行 评估 信息安全保障 vulnerabilities vulnerabilities identified and mitigated number of 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 398 页 共 1064 页--- Example Project, Information Organizational, or Need Business Objectives 信息需求 项目级,组织级或 商业目标样例 洞 哪些信息漏 洞被忽略? CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Measurement Objective Measurement Example Base Example Derived 度量目标 Information Categories Measures Measures 基础度量样例 衍生度量样例 度量信息分类 system vulnerabilities mitigated 被忽略的系统漏 洞百分比 已确定的信息 漏洞个数和被 忽略的系统漏 洞个数 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Specifications of base and derived measures 特定的基础和衍生度量 Subpractices 子实践 1. Identify candidate measures based on documented measurement objectives. 根据记录的度量目标确认备选的度量项。 Measurement objectives are refined into measures. Identified candidate measures are categorized and specified by name and unit of measure. 度量目标可能会根据度量进行调整。根据度量的名称和单位 对备选度量项进行分类。 2. Maintain traceability of measures to measurement objectives. 对度量目标维护度量的可追溯性。 Interdependencies among candidate measures are identified to enable later data validation and candidate analyses in support of measurement objectives. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 399 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 备选度量项之间存在的相互依存关系可以支持度量目标后 面的数据确认和分析。 3. Identify existing measures that already address measurement objectives. 确定已存在的且可以说明度量目标的度量。 Specifications for measures may already exist, perhaps established for other purposes earlier or elsewhere in the organization. 度量标准可能已经存在,或许之前就已经因为其他目 的建 立,或者已经存在于组织的某处。 4. Specify operational definitions for measures. 指定度量的可操作定义。 Operational definitions are stated in precise and unambiguous terms. They address two important criteria: 以准确和明白的方式对操作定义进行描述。它有两个重要的 准则:  Communication: What has been measured, how was it measured, what are the units of measure, and what has been included or excluded? 沟通:度量什么?如何度量?度量的单位是什么?以及已经 包括或排除什么?  Repeatability: Can the measurement be repeated, given the same definition, to get the same results? 可重复性:在相同的定义下,度量是否可以重复执行,且获 得相同的结果? 5. Prioritize, review, and update measures. 将度量项进行排序,审查和更新。 Proposed specifications of measures are reviewed for their appropriateness with potential end users and other relevant stakeholders. Priorities are set or changed, and specifications of measures are updated as necessary. 请可能的最终使用者和其他相关人员对所建议的度量标准 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 400 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 的适当性进行审查。可以预先设定或改变度量项的顺序,必 要时对度量标准进行更新。 SP 1.3 Specify Data Collection and Storage Procedures 指定数据收集 和存储流程 Specify how measurement data are obtained and stored. 指定度量数据如何获得和保存。 Explicit specification of collection methods helps to ensure that the right data are collected properly. This specification can also help further clarify information needs and measurement objectives. 明确规范的收集方法可以保证适当的收集到准确的数据。这种规 范也可以帮助进一步的理清信息需求和度量目标。 Proper attention to storage and retrieval procedures helps to ensure that data are available and accessible for future use. 注意存储和取用程序可以确保数据将来的可用性和可存取性。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Data collection and storage procedures 数据收集和存储流程 2. Data collection tools 数据收集工具 Subpractices 子实践 1. Identify existing sources of data that are generated from current work products, processes, or transactions. 确定由当前工作产品,流程和交互产生的数据来源。 Existing sources of data may have been identified when specifying the measures. Appropriate collection mechanisms may exist whether or not pertinent data have already been collected. 在指定度量项时,可能已经确定了现有资源的来源。不论相 关数据是否已经被收集,适当的数据收集机制可能已经存在 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 401 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 了。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Identify measures for which data are needed but are not currently available. 确定当前没有但是需要进行度量的数据。 3. Specify how to collect and store the data for each required measure. 为每一个需要的度量项指定如何收集和保存数据的方法。 Explicit specifications are made of what, how, where, and when data will be collected and stored to ensure its validity and to support later use for analysis and documentation purposes. 明确描述数据是如何收集与存储,从何处收集与存储以及何 时进行收集与存储,以保证数据的有效性并作为之后分析和 编写文件之用。 Questions to be considered typically include the following: 通常考虑的问题包括:  Have the frequency of collection and the points in the process where measurements will be made been determined? 是否已经决定了收集数据的频率以及指定度量的时间点?  Has the timeline that is required to move measurement results from points of collection to repositories, other databases, or end users been established? 是否已经将度量结果从数据收集点移到按照时间顺序建立 的存储库,其他数据库或最终用户处?  Who is responsible for obtaining data? 谁负责取得数据?  Who is responsible for data storage, retrieval, and security? 谁负责保存,提取数据以及数据的安全性?  Have necessary supporting tools been developed or acquired? 是否已经开发或获得了必要的支持工具? 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 402 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 4. Create data collection mechanisms and process guidance. 建立数据制度和流程指南。 Data collection and storage mechanisms are well integrated with other normal work processes. Data collection mechanisms can include manual or automated forms and templates. Clear, concise guidance on correct procedures is available to those who are responsible for doing the work. Training is provided as needed to clarify processes required for the collection of complete and accurate data and to minimize the burden on those who provide and record data. 数据收集和保存制度需要与其他一般工作流程进行整合。数 据收集制度可以包括手动或自动的表格或模板。这需要为负 责这项工作的工作人员提供清楚,简明的指引以正确执行工 作。根据需要对完整准确的数据收集过程进行培训以便减轻 负责提供和记录数据的工作人员的负担。 5. Support automatic collection of data as appropriate and feasible. 适当且可行时,支持自动收集数据。 Examples of such automated support include the following: 自动收集数据的样例包括:  Time stamped activity logs 带有时间标准的活动日志  Static or dynamic analyses of artifacts 成果的动态或静态分析 6. Prioritize, review, and update data collection and storage procedures. 对数据收集和保存流程进行排序,审查和更新。 Proposed procedures are reviewed for their appropriateness and feasibility with those who are responsible for providing, collecting, and storing data. They also may have useful insights about how to improve existing processes or may be able to suggest other useful measures or 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 403 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 analyses. 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 数据收集与保存的适当性与可行性,必须经过负责提供、收 集和保存数据的人员审查。他们对如何改进现行的流程或建 议其他有用的度量与分析,具备洞察力。 7. Update measures and measurement objectives as necessary. 必要时更新度量项和度量目标。 SP 1.4 Specify Analysis Procedures 指定分析流程 Specify how measurement data are analyzed and communicated. 指定度量数据如何进行分析和报告。 Specifying analysis procedures in advance ensures that appropriate analyses will be conducted and reported to address documented measurement objectives (and thereby the information needs and objectives on which they are based). This approach also provides a check that necessary data will, in fact, be collected. Analysis procedures should account for the quality (e.g., age, reliability) of all data that enter into an analysis (whether from the project, organization’s measurement repository, or other source). The quality of data should be considered to help select the appropriate analysis procedure and evaluate the results of the analysis. 事先指定度量分析流程可以保证对已记录的度量目标执行适当的 分析与报告(因此也说明了信息需求和目标是度量目标的基础)。 实际上,这种方法对必要的数据收集也提供了一种检查。分析流 程是对一个分析(无论是项目级,组织级度量库或其他的来源) 需要输入所有数据的质量(例如,年龄,稳定性)。数据的质量可 以被认为是帮助选择适当分析流程和对分析结果进行评估。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Analysis specifications and procedures 分析标准与流程 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 404 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 2. Data analysis tools 数据分析工具 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Subpractices 子实践 1. Specify and prioritize the analyses to be conducted and the reports to be prepared. 指定将要执行的分析与准备报告,并排定优先顺序。 Early on, pay attention to the analyses to be conducted and to the manner in which results will be reported. These analyses and reports should meet the following criteria: 尽早注意所执行的分析,以及分析报告展现的方式。这些分 析和报告应符合以下标准:  The analyses explicitly address the documented measurement objectives. 清楚的分析说明度量目标  Presentation of results is clearly understandable by the audiences to whom the results are addressed. 表达结果的方式能让需要处理此结果的人员清楚地了解 2. Priorities may have to be set for available resources. 对可用资源排定优先顺序。 3. Select appropriate data analysis methods and tools. 选择适当的数据分析方法和工具。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 405 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Issues to be considered typically include the following: 需要特别注意的问题包括:  Choice of visual display and other presentation techniques (e.g., pie charts, bar charts, histograms, radar charts, line graphs, scatter plots, tables) 选择可视显示方法和其他展现技术(例如,饼图,条状图, 柱状图,雷达图,线条图,散点图和表格)  Choice of appropriate descriptive statistics (e.g., arithmetic mean, median, mode) 选择合适的描述统计方法(例如,算术平均数,中值和模式)  Decisions about statistical sampling criteria when it is impossible or unnecessary to examine every data element 当无法或不需要检查每天的数据元素时,决定统计取样的标 准  Decisions about how to handle analysis in the presence of missing data elements 当缺少数据元素时决定如何处理分析  Selection of appropriate analysis tools 选址适当的分析工具 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 406 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Descriptive statistics are typically used in data analysis to do the following: 表述通常用于数据分析的统计要做如下几件事情:  Examine distributions of specified measures (e.g., central tendency, extent of variation, data points exhibiting unusual variation) 检查指定的度量分布(例如,中心趋势,变化程度,数据点 呈现异常变化)  Examine interrelationships among specified measures (e.g., comparisons of defects by phase of the product’s lifecycle, comparisons of defects by product component) 检查指定度量之间的相互关系(例如,产品生命周期不同阶 段的缺陷对比,产品不同组件的缺陷对比)  Display changes over time 显示随着时间变动发生的变化 Refer to the Select Measures and Analytic Techniques specific practice and Monitor the Performance of Selected Subprocesses specific practice in the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about the appropriate use of statistical techniques and understanding variation. 关于使用合适的统计技术并了解误差的更多信息,参考量化 项目管理过程域中选择度量与分析技术特定时间和选择子 过程特定时间的监督性能。 3. Specify administrative procedures for analyzing data and communicating results. 确定分析数据和沟通结果的管理流程。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 407 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Issues to be considered typically include the following: 需要特别考虑的问题包括:  Identifying the persons and groups responsible for analyzing the data and presenting the results 指定合适的人员和团队负责分析数据和汇报结果  Determining the timeline to analyze the data and present the results 决定分析数据和汇报结果的时间点  Determining the venues for communicating the results (e.g., progress reports, transmittal memos, written reports, staff meetings) 决定结果沟通的方式(例如,进度报告,传递备忘录,编写 报告或团队会议) 4. Review and update the proposed content and format of specified analyses and reports. 审查并更新分析与报告的内容和形式。 All of the proposed content and format are subject to review and revision, including analytic methods and tools, administrative procedures, and priorities. Relevant stakeholders consulted should include end users, sponsors, data analysts, and data providers. 所有提出的分析与报告的内容和形式都应该进行审核和调 整,包括分析方法和工具,管理流程以及优先顺序。相关人 员的咨询应该包括预期的最终用户,赞助者,数据分析人员 和数据提供人员。 5. Update measures and measurement objectives as necessary. 必要时,更新度量和度量目标。 Just as measurement needs drive data analysis, clarification of analysis criteria can affect measurement. Specifications for some measures may be refined further based on specifications established for data analysis procedures. Other measures may prove unnecessary or a need for additional measures may be recognized. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 408 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 正如同度量需求会引导数据分析一样,清楚的分析准则会影 响到度量。以数据分析程序为基础,某些度量规则可能会进 一步调整。一些度量项可能并不需要,而可能会发现一些其 他的度量项。 Specifying how measures will be analyzed and reported can also suggest the need for refining measurement objectives themselves. 当描述度量项分析和报告时,可能会建议调整度量目标。 6. Specify criteria for evaluating the utility of analysis results and for evaluating the conduct of measurement and analysis activities. 指定评估分析结果的有效性及评估度量与分析活动的准则。 Criteria for evaluating the utility of the analysis might address the extent to which the following apply: 评估分析结果有效性的准则包括:  The results are provided in a timely manner, understandable, and used for decision making. 提供的结果是否及时、清晰易懂且可以用于制定决策  The work does not cost more to perform than is justified by the benefits it provides. 分析工作的成本不应该比它提供的效益成本更高 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 409 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Criteria for evaluating the conduct of the measurement and analysis might include the extent to which the following apply: 度量与分析结果的评估准则可以考虑以下几点:  The amount of missing data or the number of flagged inconsistencies is beyond specified thresholds. 数据的缺失数量或忽略的个数是否超出了指定的范围  There is selection bias in sampling (e.g., only satisfied end users are surveyed to evaluate end-user satisfaction, only unsuccessful projects are evaluated to determine overall productivity). 数据选择是否有偏差(例如,仅调查满意的最终用户作为最 终用户的满意度评估,只评估不成功的项目来确定整个生产力)  Measurement data are repeatable (e.g., statistically reliable). 度量数据是否可重复(例如,统计的可靠性)  Statistical assumptions have been satisfied (e.g., about the distribution of data, about appropriate measurement scales). 统计假设是否满足(例如,数据的分布,度量范围的适当性) SG 2 Provide Measurement Results 提供独立结果 Measurement results, which address identified information needs and objectives, are provided. 提供独立结果,这些度量结果说明了已提供了已界定的信息需求和目标。 The primary reason for conducting measurement and analysis is to address identified information needs derived from project, organizational, and business objectives. Measurement results based on objective evidence can help to monitor progress and performance, fulfill obligations documented in a supplier agreement, make informed management and technical decisions, and enable corrective actions to be taken. 进行度量与分析的主要原因是要处理已界定的项目级和组织级的 信息需求,以及商业目标。以客观证据为基础的度量结果能够帮 助监控项目和性能,履行供应协议中规定的义务,制定管理准则 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 410 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 和技术决策,以及采取正确的纠正措施。 SP 2.1 Obtain Measurement Data 收集度量数据 Obtain specified measurement data. 获得指定的度量数据。 The data necessary for analysis are obtained and checked for completeness and integrity. 取得需要分析的数据并检查其完整性和整合性。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Base and derived measurement data sets 设置基本度量数据和衍生度量数据 2. Results of data integrity tests 数据结果进行整合性测试 Subpractices 子实践 1. Obtain data for base measures. 获得基本度量数据。 Data are collected as necessary for previously used and newly specified base measures. Existing data are gathered from project records or elsewhere in the organization. 根据需要收集数据,包括已使用的和新指定的基本度量。现 存数据可从项目记录或组织中其他地方收集。 2. Generate data for derived measures. 生成衍生度量数据。 Values are newly calculated for all derived measures. 重新计算所有衍生度量值。 3. Perform data integrity checks as close to the source of data as possible. 检查数据的一致性,使其尽可能接近原始数据。 All measurements are subject to error in specifying or recording data. It 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 411 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 is always better to identify these errors and sources of missing data early in the measurement and analysis cycle. 所有度量在说明或记录数据过程中可能发生的错误。最好能 在度量与分析周期的初期确定这些错误,并指出所缺失的数 据来源。 Checks can include scans for missing data, out-of-bounds data values, and unusual patterns and correlation across measures. It is particularly important to do the following: 检查可以包括详细检查缺少的数据,超出范围的数据以及非 常用样式和度量之间的相关性。下列工作非常重要:  Test and correct for inconsistency of classifications made by human judgment (i.e., to determine how frequently people make differing classification decisions based on the same information, otherwise known as ―inter-coder reliability‖). 检测和修订由于人为判断分类不一致的内容(例如,确定工 作人员根据相同的信息作出不同的分类决策的频率,否则称 为“内部编码可靠性”)。  Empirically examine the relationships among measures that are used to calculate additional derived measures. Doing so can ensure that important distinctions are not overlooked and that derived measures convey their intended meanings (otherwise known as ―criterion validity‖). 用之前的经验来检查用于计算衍生度量的度量项之间的关 系。这样做可以保证不会忽略一些重要的差异,并能保证衍 生度量预期的意义(否则称为“标准有效性”)。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 412 页 共 1064 页--- SP 2.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Analyze Measurement Data 分析度量数据 Analyze and interpret measurement data. 分析与解释度量数据。 Measurement data are analyzed as planned, additional analyses are conducted as necessary, results are reviewed with relevant stakeholders, and necessary revisions for future analyses are noted. 根据计划分析度量数据,并根据需要执行其他分析,分析结果需 要由相关人员审查,并记录将来分析所需要作出的修订。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Analysis results and draft reports 分析结果并起草报告 Subpractices 子实践 1. Conduct initial analyses, interpret results, and draw preliminary conclusions. 做出初步分析并解释结果,并导出初步结果。 The results of data analyses are rarely self evident. Criteria for interpreting results and drawing conclusions should be stated explicitly. 数据分析的结果很少可以显而易见。解释结果与产生结论的 准则应进行明确的陈述。 2. Conduct additional measurement and analysis as necessary and prepare results for presentation. 必要时,执行其他的度量与分析,并准备进行汇报结果。 Results of planned analyses can suggest (or require) additional, unanticipated analyses. In addition, these analyses can identify needs to refine existing measures, to calculate additional derived measures, or even to collect data for additional base measures to properly complete the planned analysis. Similarly, preparing initial results for presentation can identify the need for additional, unanticipated analyses. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 413 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 规划的分析结果可能提出进行额外的,非预期分析的建议。 此外,为了适当完成计划内的分析工作,这些分析可以确定 现有分析的需要,并计算额外衍生度量,或为额外的基本度 量收集数据。相同的,准备初步分析结果的报告,可以确定 额外的,非预期分析的需要。 3. Review initial results with relevant stakeholders. 相关人员审查初步分析结果。 It may be appropriate to review initial interpretations of results and the way in which these results are presented before disseminating and communicating them widely. 在分析结果广泛公布之前,对结果的初步解释及其表达方式 是否合适要进行审查。 Reviewing the initial results before their release can prevent needless misunderstandings and lead to improvements in the data analysis and presentation. 在初步结果发布之前的审查可以避免不必要的误会并改进 数据分析和展现方式。 Relevant stakeholders with whom reviews may be conducted include intended end users, sponsors, data analysts, and data providers. 进行审查的相关人员包括预期的最终用户,赞助人,数据分 析人员和数据提供人员。 4. Refine criteria for future analyses. 为未来的分析调整标准。 Lessons that can improve future efforts are often learned from conducting data analyses and preparing results. Similarly, ways to improve measurement specifications and data collection procedures can become apparent as can ideas for refining identified information needs and objectives. 经常的执行数据分析和准备报告,可以改进未来工作的学习 心得。相同的,当要调整指定的信息需和目标时,改进度量 规则及数据收集流程的方式可变得更明显。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 414 页 共 1064 页--- SP 2.3 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Store Data and Results 保存数据结果 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Manage and store measurement data, measurement specifications, and analysis results. 管理和保存度量数据,度量规则和分析结果。 Storing measurement related information enables its timely and cost effective use as historical data and results. The information also is needed to provide sufficient context for interpretation of data, measurement criteria, and analysis results. 保存度量相关信息可以保证未来能更及时和经济的使用历史数据 和结果。这些信息也可以为数据解释,度量准则和分析结果提供 充分的说明。 Information stored typically includes the following: 保存的信息通常包括以下内容:  Measurement plans 度量计划  Specifications of measures 度量准则  Sets of data that were collected 已收集的数据集  Analysis reports and presentations 分析报告和汇报资料  Retention period for data stored 数据保存周期 Stored information contains or refers to other information needed to understand and interpret the measures and to assess them for reasonableness and applicability (e.g., measurement specifications used on different projects when comparing across projects). 保存信息包括或其他信息:了解需要的信息并对度量进行解释, 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 415 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 以及评价度量的合理性和适用性(例如,当不同项目进行比较时 在不同项目中使用的度量准则)。 Typically, data sets for derived measures can be recalculated and need not be stored. However, it may be appropriate to store summaries based on derived measures (e.g., charts, tables of results, report text). 通常情况下,衍生度量的数据由于可以重新计算所以不需要保存。 然而,可能需要保存衍生度量的摘要(例如,图表,结果表格, 报告文本)。 Interim analysis results need not be stored separately if they can be efficiently reconstructed. 如果可以有效的重建中间的分析结果,那么这个中间的分析结果 也不需要单独保存。 Projects can choose to store project specific data and results in a project specific repository. When data are shared across projects, the data can reside in the organization’s measurement repository. 项目可以选择在项目指定的存储库中保存项目特定数据。当项目 间的数据是共享时,这些数据可以存放在组织级度量库中。 Refer to the Configuration Management process area for more information about establishing a configuration management system. 关于建立配置管理系统的更多信息,参考配置管理过程域。 Refer to the Establish the Organization’s Measurement Repository specific practice in the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing the organization’s measurement repository. 关于建立组织级度量库的更多信息,参考在组织过程定义过程域 中建立组织级度量库的特定实践。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Stored data inventory 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 416 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 保存的数据清单 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Subpractices 子实践 1. Review data to ensure their completeness, integrity, accuracy, and currency. 审查数据以保证其完整性,整合性,准确性和及时性。 2. Store data according to data storage procedures. 根据数据存储程序保存数据。 3. Make stored contents available for use only to appropriate groups and staff members. 确定可以提供给适当团队和人员使用的保存内容。 4. Prevent stored information from being used inappropriately. 防止保存的数据不当使用。 Examples of ways to prevent the inappropriate use of data and related information include controlling access to data and educating people on the appropriate use of data. 防止数据和相关的信息不当使用的例子包括控制数据的存 取权限以及指导同事适当的使用数据。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 417 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of the inappropriate use of data include the following: 不当使用数据的样例包括以下几点:  Disclosure of information provided in confidence 揭露机密信息  Faulty interpretations based on incomplete, out-of-context, or otherwise misleading information 由于不完整,不相关或其他误导信息而造成的错误的解释  Measures used to improperly evaluate the performance of people or to rank projects 度量用于对他人的绩效进行不当的评估或进行项目评定  Impugning the integrity of individuals 抨击个人诚信 SP 2.4 Communicate Results 沟通结果 Communicate results of measurement and analysis activities to all relevant stakeholders. 向所有相关人员汇报度量与分析活动的结果。 The results of the measurement and analysis process are communicated to relevant stakeholders in a timely and usable fashion to support decision making and assist in taking corrective action. 用及时并有效的方法向所有相关人员报告度量与分析的结果,以 支持制定决策并采取纠正措施。 Relevant stakeholders include intended end users, sponsors, data analysts, and data providers. 相关人员包括最终用户,赞助者,数据分析人员和数据提供人员。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Delivered reports and related analysis results 交付报告和相关的分析结果 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 418 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Contextual information or guidance to help interpret analysis results 能帮助解释分析结果的相关信息或指南 Subpractices 子实践 1. Keep relevant stakeholders informed of measurement results in a timely manner. 及时告知相关人员度量结果的信息。 To the extent possible and as part of the normal way they do business, users of measurement results are kept personally involved in setting objectives and deciding on plans of action for measurement and analysis. Users are regularly kept informed of progress and interim results. 作为他们经营活动可能的范围和正常业务的一部分,用户根 据他们设置的目标对度量的结果单独保存并单独决定度量与 分析活动计划。用户定期通报项目进展和中间结果。 Refer to the Project Monitoring and Control process area for more information about conducting progress reviews. 关于项目审查沟通的更多信息,参考项目监督与控制过程 域。 2. Assist relevant stakeholders in understanding results. 协助相关人员理解结果。 Results are communicated in a clear and concise manner appropriate to relevant stakeholders. Results are understandable, easily interpretable, and clearly tied to identified information needs and objectives. 以清楚简明的方式,对相关人员报告结果。结果必须易于理 解,解释,并且与指定的信息需求清楚的连接。 The data analyzed are often not self evident to practitioners who are not measurement experts. The communication of results should be clear about the following: 对不是度量专家的从业者而言,很难自行对数据进行分析。 度量结果沟通需要清楚了解以下几点: 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 419 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  How and why base and derived measures were specified 如何与为何指定基本和衍生度量  How data were obtained 如何取得数据  How to interpret results based on the data analysis methods used 如何使用数据分析方法来解释结果  How results address information needs 结果如何说明信息需求 Examples of actions taken to help others to understand results include the following: 协助其他人理解结果的活动包括以下:  Discussing the results with relevant stakeholders 与相关人员讨论结果  Providing background and explanation in a document 提供背景和解释说明文档  Briefing users on results 向用户简要说明结果  Providing training on the appropriate use and understanding of measurement result 提供关于适当使用和度量结果理解的相关培训 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 420 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS DEFINITION 组织过程定义 A Process Management Process Area at Maturity Level 3 成熟度 3 级的过程管理类过程域 Purpose 目的 The purpose of Organizational Process Definition (OPD) is to establish and maintain a usable set of organizational process assets, work environment standards, and rules and guidelines for teams. 组织过程定义的目的,是建立并维护一套可用的组织过程资产和 工作环境标准,以及团队规则和指导。 Introductory Notes 简介 Organizational process assets enable consistent process execution across the organization and provide a basis for cumulative, long-term benefits to the organization. (See the definition of “organizational process assets” in the glossary.) 组织过程资产使整个组织能一致地执行过程,并且给组织提供一 个渐进的、长期效益的基础 。(请参考词汇表中“组织过程资产” 的定义。) The organization’s process asset library supports organizational learning and process improvement by allowing the sharing of best practices and lessons learned across the organization. (See the definition of “organizational process assets” in the glossary.) 组织过程资产库通过在组织层面共享最佳实践和经验教训学习, 支持组织级的学习与过程改进。(请查看词汇表中“组织过程资产” 的定义。) The organization’s set of standard processes also describes standard interactions with suppliers. Supplier interactions are 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 421 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 characterized by the following typical items: deliverables expected from suppliers, acceptance criteria applicable to those deliverables, standards (e.g., architecture and technology standards), and standard milestone and progress reviews. 组织的标准过程也对与供应商之间的标准互动进行了描述。供应 商的互动主要通过如下几点来体现:供应商的预期成果,适用于 这些成果的验收标准,标准(例如,架构和技术标准),标准的里 程碑和进度审查。 The organization’s “set of standard processes” is tailored by projects to create their defined processes. Other organizational process assets are used to support tailoring and implementing defined processes. Work environment standards are used to guide the creation of project work environments. Rules and guidelines for teams are used to aid in their structuring, formation, and operation. 组织的“标准过程集”被项目裁剪,以创建它们自己定义的过程。 而其它组织过程资产用来支持裁剪,并实施已定义的过程。工作 环境标准用于指导建立项目工作环境。团队规则和指导是用来帮 助他们搭建,形成和运作其项目的。 A “standard process” is composed of other processes (i.e., subprocesses) or process elements. A “process element” is the fundamental (i.e., atomic) unit of process definition that describes activities and tasks to consistently perform work. The process architecture provides rules for connecting the process elements of a standard process. The organization’s set of standard processes can include multiple process architectures.(See the definitions of “standard process,” “process architecture,” “subprocess,” and “process element” in the glossary.) 一个“标准过程”由其它过程(如子过程)或过程要素组成。“过 程要素”是过程定义的基本(例如:原子)单位,它说明执行工 作的活动与工作项目的一致性。过程架构提供连接标准过程的过 程要素的规则。组织标准过程集可以包含多个过程架构。(请查看 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 422 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 词汇标中“标准过程”、“过程架构”、“子过程”与“过程组件” 的定义。) Organizational process assets can be organized in many ways, depending on the implementation of the Organizational Process Definition process area. Examples include the following: 组织过程资产可以以多种方式进行组织,组织方式取决于所实施 的组织过程定义过程域。举例如下:  Descriptions of lifecycle models can be part of the organization’s set of standard processes or they can be documented separately. 生命周期模型的说明,可以是组织标准过程集的一部分,或是 独立成另一文档  The organization’s set of standard processes can be stored in the organization’s process asset library or it can be stored separately. 组织标准过程集可以存储在组织过程资产库中,或是单独存储  A single repository can contain both measurements and process related documentation, or they can be stored separately. 度量及过程相关的文档可以一起放在一个单独的资产库中,或 是二者分开存储 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Refer to the Organizational Process Focus process area for more information about deploying organizational process assets. 关于部署组织过程资产的更多信息,请参考组织过程焦点过程域。 Specific Goal and Practice Summary 特定目标及实践摘要 SG 1 Establish Organizational Process Assets 建立组织过程资产 SP 1.1 Establish Standard Processes 建立标准过程 SP 1.2 Establish Lifecycle Model Descriptions 建立生命周期模型说明 SP 1.3 Establish Tailoring Criteria and Guidelines 建立裁剪准则和指南 SP 1.4 Establish the Organization’s Measurement Repository 建立组织度量资产库 SP 1.5 Establish the Organization’s Process Asset Library 建立组织过程资产库 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 423 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.6 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Establish Work Environment Standards 建立工作环境标准 SP 1.7 Establish Rules and Guidelines for Teams 建立团队规则和指南 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 SG 1 Establish Organizational Process Assets 建立组织过程资产 A set of organizational process assets is established and maintained. 建立并维护组织过程资产集。 SP 1.1 Establish Standard Processes 建立标准过程 Establish and maintain the organization’s set of standard processes. 建立并维护组织标准过程集。 Standard processes can be defined at multiple levels in an enterprise and they can be related hierarchically. For example, an enterprise can have a set of standard processes that is tailored by individual organizations (e.g., a division, a site) in the enterprise to establish their set of standard processes. The set of standard processes can also be tailored for each of the organization’s business areas, product lines, or standard services. Thus the organization’s set of standard processes can refer to the standard processes established at the organization level and standard processes that may be established at lower levels, although some organizations may have only one level of standard processes. (See the definitions of “standard process” and “organization’s set of standard processes” in the glossary.) 在企业中,标准过程可定义成多个层次,并且能以层次结构的方 式互相关联。例如:一个企业可能拥有一个标准过程集,可供企 业中的单个组织(例如:一个部门或一个区域)进行裁剪,以建立 自己的标准过程集。标准过程集还可按各个组织业务领域、产品 线或标准服务进行裁剪。因此组织标准过程会涉及在组织级所建 立的标准过程,和在组织较低层次所建立的标准过程,尽管有些 组织可能只有单一层次的标准过程。(请参考词汇表中“标准过程” 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 424 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 与“组织标准过程集”的定义。) 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Multiple standard processes may be needed to address the needs of different application domains, lifecycle models, methodologies, and tools. The organization’s set of standard processes contains process elements (e.g., a work product size estimating element) that may be interconnected according to one or more process architectures that describe relationships among process elements. 多个标准过程集可能同时存在,以满足不同的应用领域、生命周 期模型、方法和工具的需要。根据描述过程要素间相互关系的过 程架构,组织标准过程集包含可能存在相互关联的过程要素(例 如:估算工作产品规模大小的组件)。 The organization’s set of standard processes typically includes technical, management, administrative, support, and organizational processes. 组织标准过程通常包括技术、管理、行政、支持和组织过程。 The organization’s set of standard processes should collectively cover all processes needed by the organization and projects, including those processes addressed by the process areas at maturity level 2. 组织标准过程集应涵盖组织和项目所需的全部过程,包括成熟度 2 级介绍的过程域。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Organization’s set of standard processes 组织标准过程集 Subpractices 子实践 1. Decompose each standard process into constituent process elements to the detail needed to understand and describe the process. 分解每个标准过程成构成过程的要素,以了解并说明过程所 必需的细节。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 425 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Each process element covers a closely related set of activities. The descriptions of process elements may be templates to be filled in, fragments to be completed, abstractions to be refined, or complete descriptions to be tailored or used unmodified. These elements are described in such detail that the process, when fully defined, can be consistently performed by appropriately trained and skilled people. 每个过程要素包含一组紧密相关的活动。过程要素说明可能 是供填写的模板、供完成的段落、供进一步细致化的抽象概 念,或供裁剪或不经修改即可采用的完整说明。这些要素描 述要尽可能详细,以使得过程经完整地定义后,能由受过适 当培训和熟练的人员一致地执行。 Examples of process elements include the following: 过程要素,举例如下:  Template for generating work product size estimates 产生工作产品规模估计的模板  Description of work product design methodology 工作产品设计方法的说明  Tailorable peer review methodology 可裁剪的同行评审方法  Template for conducting management reviews 进行管理评审的模板  Templates or task flows embedded in workflow tools 嵌入流程工具的模板或工作流  Description of methods for prequalifying suppliers as preferred suppliers 根据选择供应商资格的描述方法对供应商进行预审 2. Specify the critical attributes of each process element. 详细说明每一过程要素的关键属性。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 426 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of critical attributes include the following: 关键属性,举例如下:  Process roles 过程的角色  Applicable standards 适用的标准  Applicable procedures, methods, tools, and resources 适用的工作程序、方法、工具及资源  Process performance objectives 过程绩效目标  Entry criteria 入口准则  Inputs 输入  Verification points (e.g., peer reviews) 验证点(例如:同行评审)  Outputs 输出  Interfaces 接口  Exit criteria 出口准则  Product and process measures 产品与过程度量 3. Specify relationships among process elements. 详细说明各过程组件的相互关系。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 427 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of relationships include the following: 相互关系,举例如下:  Order of the process elements 过程要素的次序  Interfaces among process elements 过程要素间的接口  Interfaces with external processes 与外部过程的接口  Interdependencies among process elements 过程要素间的依赖关系 The rules for describing relationships among process elements are referred to as the ―process architecture.‖ The process architecture covers essential requirements and guidelines. Detailed specifications of these relationships are covered in descriptions of defined processes that are tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes. 过程要素间关系的规则称做“过程架构”。过程架构涵盖基 本的需求和指南。这些关系的详细规格说明包含于已定义过 程中,而已定义过程是对组织标准过程集进行裁剪而得来 的。 4. Ensure that the organization’s set of standard processes adheres to applicable policies, standards, and models. 确保组织标准过程集是遵循所适用的方针、过程标准与模型。 Adherence to applicable process standards and models is typically demonstrated by developing a mapping from the organization’s set of standard processes to relevant process standards and models. This mapping is a useful input to future appraisals. 遵循适用的过程标准和模型,通常以制作一个组织标准过程 集到相关过程标准和模型的映射来证明,另外,这个映射将 可作为未来评估非常有用的输入。 5. Ensure that the organization’s set of standard processes satisfies process needs and objectives of the organization. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 428 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 确保组织标准过程集能满足组织的过程需要和目标。 Refer to the Organizational Process Focus process area for more information about establishing organizational process needs. 关于建立组织过程的需要的更多信息,请参考组织过程焦点 过程域。 6. Ensure that there is appropriate integration among processes that are included in the organization’s set of standard processes. 确保组织标准过程包括的的各个过程,都能恰当地集成。 7. Document the organization’s set of standard processes. 文档化组织标准过程集。 8. Conduct peer reviews on the organization’s set of standard processes. 对组织标准过程集执行同行评审。 Refer to the Verification process area for more information about performing peer reviews. 关于同行评审的更多信息,请参考验证过程域。 9. Revise the organization’s set of standard processes as necessary. 必要时,修订组织标准过程集。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 429 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of when the organization's set of standard processes may need to be revised include the following: 组织的标准过程何时可能需要修改,举例如下:  When improvements to the process are identified 当过程改进被识别时  When causal analysis and resolution data indicate that a process change is needed 当原因分析与解决数据表明过程需要改变时  When process improvement proposals are selected for deployment across the organization 当在整个组织范围内选择实施过程改进建议时  When the organization’s process needs and objectives are updated 当组织过程需求和目标被更新时 Establish Lifecycle Model Descriptions 建立生命周期模型说明 Establish and maintain descriptions of lifecycle models approved for use in the organization. 建立并维护在组织中使用的经过批准的生命周期模型的说明。 Lifecycle models can be developed for a variety of customers or in a variety of situations, since one lifecycle model may not be appropriate for all situations. Lifecycle models are often used to define phases of the project. Also, the organization can define different lifecycle models for each type of product and service it delivers. 对于不同的客户或不同的情况,可能要开发多个生命周期模型, 因为一个生命周期模型不可能适合所有情况。生命周期模型常用 来定义项目的阶段,同时组织对其要交付的每一产品与服务种类, 可定义不同的生命周期模型。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 430 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Descriptions of lifecycle models 生命周期模型说明 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Subpractices 子实践 1. Select lifecycle models based on the needs of projects and the organization. 基于项目和组织的需要,选择生命周期模型。 Examples of project lifecycle models include the following: 项目的生命周期模型,举例如下:  Waterfall or Serial 瀑布式或系列式  Spiral 螺旋式  Evolutionary 演进式  Incremental 增量式  Iterative 迭代式 2. Document descriptions of lifecycle models. 文档化生命周期模型的说明。 Lifecycle models can be documented as part of the organization’s standard process descriptions or they can be documented separately. 生命周期模型可以是组织标准过程说明文档的一部分,或独 立成另一文档。 3. Conduct peer reviews on lifecycle models. 对生命周期模型执行同行评审。 Refer to the Verification process area for more information 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 431 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.3 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 about performing peer reviews. 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 关于执行同行评审的更多信息,请参考验证过程域。 4. Revise the descriptions of lifecycle models as necessary. 必要时,修订生命周期模型的说明。 Establish Tailoring Criteria and Guidelines 建立裁剪准则和指 南 Establish and maintain tailoring criteria and guidelines for the organization’s set of standard processes. 建立并维护组织标准过程集的裁准则及指南。 Tailoring criteria and guidelines describe the following: 裁剪准则和指南说明如下:  How the organization’s set of standard processes and organizational process assets are used to create defined processes 组织标准过程集和组织过程资产,如何用来创建已定义过程  Requirements that must be satisfied by defined processes (e.g., the subset of organizational process assets that are essential for any defined process) 已定义过程必须满足需求(例如:已定义过程本质上是组织 过程资产的子集)  Options that can be exercised and criteria for selecting among options 列出可选项以及从中进行选择选项的准则  Procedures that must be followed in performing and documenting process tailoring 执行和文档化过程裁剪必须遵循的工作程序 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 432 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of reasons for tailoring include the following 裁剪理由,举例如下:  Adapting the process to a new product line or work environment 为新的产品线或工作环境调整过程  Elaborating the process description so that the resulting defined process can be performed 详述过程说明,以便生成的已定义过程能够执行  Customizing the process for an application or class of similar applications 定制应用或类似应用的过程 Flexibility in tailoring and defining processes is balanced with ensuring appropriate consistency of processes across the organization. Flexibility is needed to address contextual variables such as the domain; the nature of the customer; cost, schedule, and quality tradeoffs; the technical difficulty of the work; and the experience of the people implementing the process. Consistency across the organization is needed so that organizational standards, objectives, and strategies are appropriately addressed, and process data and lessons learned can be shared. 裁剪和定义过程要灵活,需要与确保全组织过程适当的一致性之 间平衡。灵活性是需要的,以满足可能的背景变化,例如:专业 领域,客户性质,成本、进度及质量折衷分析,工作的技术难度, 和实施过程的人员经验。组织中的一致性也是需要的,以便组织 标准、目标及战略能够适当满足,过程数据和经验教训能够共享。 Tailoring is a critical activity that allows controlled changes to processes due to the specific needs of a project or a part of the organization. Processes and process elements that are directly related to critical business objectives should usually be defined as mandatory, but processes and process elements that are less critical or only indirectly affect business objectives may allow for 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 433 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 more tailoring. 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 裁剪是一个项目或组织的部分特定需求而允许控制过程变更的关 键活动。过程和过程要素直接相关的关键业务目标通常应该被定 义为强制性的,但过程和不太重要的过程要素,或者只是间接地 影响企业的目标可以允许更多的剪裁。 The amount of tailoring could also depend on the project’s lifecycle model, the use of suppliers, and other factors. 裁剪数量可能还取决于项目的生命周期模型,对供应商的使用, 以及其他因素。 Tailoring criteria and guidelines can allow for using a standard process “as is,” with no tailoring. 裁剪标准和指南也允许使用标准过程来,就如没有剪裁。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Tailoring guidelines for the organization’s set of standard processes 组织标准过程集的裁剪指南 Subpractices 子实践 1. Specify selection criteria and procedures for tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes. 指定裁剪组织标准过程集的选择准则和流程。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 434 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of criteria and procedures include the following: 准则和流程,举例如下:  Criteria for selecting lifecycle models from the ones approved by the organization 从组织批准的生命周期模型中,选择生命周期模型的准则  Criteria for selecting process elements from the organization’s set of standard processes 从组织标准过程集中,选择过程要素的准则  Procedures for tailoring selected lifecycle models and process elements to accommodate process characteristics and needs 为了适应特定过程的特性和需要,裁剪选定的生命周期模型和 过程要素的程序  Procedures for adapting the organization’s common measures to address information needs 满足信息需求的适应组织共同准则的程序 Examples of tailoring include the following: 裁剪活动,举例如下:  Modifying a lifecycle model 修改生命周期模型  Combining elements of different lifecycle models 组合不同生命周期模型的要素  Modifying process elements 修改过程要素  Replacing process elements 替换过程要素  Reordering process elements 重新排列过程要素的顺序 2. Specify the standards used for documenting defined processes. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 435 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 详细说明文档化已定义过程的标准。 3. Specify the procedures used for submitting and obtaining approval of waivers from the organization’s set of standard processes. 详细说明提出并取得豁免权批准的组织标准过程集的工作程 序。 4. Document tailoring guidelines for the organization’s set of standard processes. 文档化组织标准过程集的裁剪指南。 5. Conduct peer reviews on the tailoring guidelines. 对裁剪指南执行同行评审。 Refer to the Verification process area for more information about performing peer reviews. 关于执行同行评审的更多信息,请参考验证过程域。 6. Revise tailoring guidelines as necessary. 必要时,修订裁剪指南。 SP 1.4 Establish the Organization’s Measurement Repository 建立组 织度量资产库 Establish and maintain the organization’s measurement repository. 建立并维护组织度量资产库。 Refer to the Use Organizational Process Assets for Planning Project Activities specific practice in the Integrated Project Management process area for more information about the use of the organization’s measurement repository in planning project activities. 关于使用组织度量资产库于规划项目活动的更多信息,请参考集 成的项目管理过程域使用组织过程资产于规划项目活动的特定实 践。 The repository contains both product and process measures 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 436 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 that are related to the organization’s set of standard processes. It also contains or refers to information needed to understand and interpret measures and to assess them for reasonableness and applicability. For example, the definitions of measures are used to compare similar measures from different processes. 资产库包含与组织标准过程相关的产品度量和过程度量。资产库 也包含或引用需要了解和解释度量信息,并评价其合理性与适用 性。例如:度量的定义是用于以比较不同过程的同类度量。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Definition of the common set of product and process measures for the organization’s set of standard processes 组织标准过程集通用的产品与过程度量集的定义 2. Design of the organization’s measurement repository 组织度量资产库的设计 3. Organization’s measurement repository (i.e., the repository structure, support environment) 组织度量资产库(即,资产库结构和支持环境) 4. Organization’s measurement data 组织度量数据 Subpractices 子实践 1. Determine the organization’s needs for storing, retrieving, and analyzing measurements. 确定组织存储、检索和分析度量的需要。 2. Define a common set of process and product measures for the organization’s set of standard processes. 为组织的标准过程集,定义通用的产品和过程的度量集。 Measures in the common set are selected for their ability to provide visibility into processes critical to achieving business objectives and to focus on process elements significantly impacting cost, schedule, and performance within a project and across the organization. The common 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 437 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 set of measures can vary for different standard processes. 基于组织的标准过程集,选择通用度量集。所选定的度量有 能力提供过程绩效的可视化,以支持预期的经营目标。通用 度量集可能会因不同的标准过程而不同。 Measures defined include the ones related to agreement management, some of which may need to be collected from suppliers. 度量说明包括多方协议管理,其中一些可能需要从供应商收 集。 Operational definitions for measures specify procedures for collecting valid data and the point in the process where data will be collected. 度量的操作定义详细说明收集正确数据的工作程序和过程 中的数据收集点。 Examples of classes of commonly used measures include the following: 常用的度量类型,举例如下:  Estimates of work product size (e.g., pages) 工作产品规模(例如,页数)估计  Estimates of effort and cost (e.g., person hours) 工作量和成本(例如,人时)估计  Actual measures of size, effort, and cost 规模、工作量和成本的实际度量  Test coverage 测试覆盖率  Reliability measures (e.g., mean time to failure) 可靠性度量(例如,平均故障时间)  Quality measures (e.g., number of defects found, severity of defects) 质量度量(例如,发现的缺陷数、缺陷严重程度)  Peer review coverage 同行评审覆盖率 3. Design and implement the measurement repository. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 438 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 设计和实现度量资产库。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Functions of the measurement repository include the following: 度量资产库的功能包括以下内容:  Supporting effective comparison and interpretation of measurement data among projects 支持项目之间的有效比较和测量数据的解释  Providing sufficient context to allow a new project to quickly identify and access data in the repository for similar projects 提供充足的情况下允许新的项目快速识别和存取档案 库中的类似项目的数据  Enabling projects to improve the accuracy of their estimates by using their own and other projects’ historical data 通过利用自己和其他项目的历史数据,以提高项目估算 的准确性  Aiding in the understanding of process performance 帮助过程执行的理解  Supporting potential statistical management of processes or subprocesses, as needed 根据需要支持过程或子过程潜在的统计管理 4. Specify procedures for storing, updating, and retrieving measures. 详细说明了存储、更新和检索度量的工作程序。 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about specifying data collection and storage procedures. 关于数据收集和储存过程详细说明程序的更多信息,请参考 度量与分析过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 439 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 5. Conduct peer reviews on definitions of the common set of measures and procedures for storing, updating, and retrieving measures. 对于通用度量的定义,存储、更新和检索度量的程序,执行 同行评审。 Refer to the Verification process area for more information about performing peer reviews. 关于执行同行评审的更多信息,请参考验证过程域。 6. Enter specified measures into the repository. 将指定的度量放入存储库。 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about specifying measures. 关于度量的详细说明的更多信息,请参考度量与分析过程 域。 7. Make the contents of the measurement repository available for use by the organization and projects as appropriate. 使得过程度量资产库的内容,能够让组织及项目恰当地使用。 8. Revise the measurement repository, the common set of measures, and procedures as the organization’s needs change. 当组织需求变更时,修订度量资产库、通用度量集和工作程 序。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 440 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of when the common set of measures may need to be revised include the following: 何时需要修订通用度量集,举列如下:  New processes are added 新增过程  Processes are revised and new measures are needed 根据需要修订过程和新度量  Finer granularity of data is required 需要更精细的数据  Greater visibility into the process is required 需要更具可视化的过程  Measures are retired 需要淘汰的度量 SP 1.5 Establish the Organization’s Process Asset Library 建立组织 过程资产库 Establish and maintain the organization’s process asset library. 建立并维护组织过程资产库。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 441 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of items to be stored in the organization’s process asset library include the following: 组织过程资产库中存储项,举例如下:  Organizational policies 组织方针  Process descriptions 过程的说明  Procedures (e.g., estimating procedure) 工作程序(例如,估计流程)  Development plans 开发计划  Acquisition plans 采购计划  Quality assurance plans 质量保证计划  Training materials 培训教材  Process aids (e.g., checklists) 过程的辅助工具(例如,检查表)  Lessons learned reports 经验教训报告 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Design of the organization’s process asset library 组织过程资产库的设计 2. The organization’s process asset library 组织过程资产库 3. Selected items to be included in the organization’s process asset library 包含在组织过程资产库的选择项 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 442 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 4. The catalog of items in the organization’s process asset library 组织过程资产库数据项的目录 Subpractices 子实践 1. Design and implement the organization’s process asset library, including the library structure and support environment. 设计并实现组织过程资产库,包括组织过程资产库的结构和 支持环境。 2. Specify criteria for including items in the library. 说明数据项纳入组织过程资产库的准则。 Items are selected based primarily on their relationship to the organization’s set of standard processes. 主要基于它们与组织标准过程的关联性,选择数据项。 3. Specify procedures for storing, updating, and retrieving items. 详细说明存储、更新和检索数据项的工作流程。 4. Enter selected items into the library and catalog them for easy reference and retrieval. 将已选择的数据项纳入组织过程资产库中,并编入目录,以 易于参考和检索。 5. Make items available for use by projects. 使数据项可供各项目使用。 6. Periodically review the use of each item. 定期审查每个数据项的使用情况。 7. Revise the organization’s process asset library as necessary. 必要时,修订组织过程资产库。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 443 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of when the library may need to be revised include the following: 何时需要修订组织过程资产库,举列如下:  New items are added 新增数据项  Items are retired 淘汰数据项  Current versions of items are changed 变更现有数据项版本 SP 1.6 Establish Work Environment Standards 建立工作环境标准 Establish and maintain work environment standards. 建立和维护工作环境标准。 Work environment standards allow the organization and projects to benefit from common tools, training, and maintenance, as well as cost savings from volume purchases. Work environment standards address the needs of all stakeholders and consider productivity, cost, availability, security, and workplace health, safety, and ergonomic factors. Work environment standards can include guidelines for tailoring and the use of waivers that allow adaptation of the project’s work environment to meet needs. 工作环境标准让组织和项目从通用工具、培训及维护中获益,同 时从大量采购中节省成本。工作环境标准说明了所有相关干系人 的需要,并考虑生产力、成本、可用性、保密和工作区健康、安 全,以及人体工学因素。工作环境标准包括裁剪与/或使用豁免的 指南,这允许适应项目工作环境标准以符合特定需要。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 444 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of work environment standards include the following: 工作环境标准,举例包括:  Procedures for the operation, safety, and security of the work environment 工作环境操作、安全及保密的工作程序  Standard workstation hardware and software 标准工作场所的硬件及软件  Standard application software and tailoring guidelines for it 标准应用软件及其裁剪指南  Standard production and calibration equipment 标准生产和校准设备  Process for requesting and approving tailoring or waivers 申请和批准裁剪或豁免的过程 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Work environment standards 工作环境标准 Subpractices 子实践 1. Evaluate commercially available work environment standards appropriate for the organization. 评估适合组织商用的工作环境标准。 2. Adopt existing work environment standards and develop new ones to fill gaps based on the organization’s process needs and objectives. 采用现存工作环境标准,并且基于组织过程需要和目标,开 发新的工作环境标准来补缺。 SP 1.7 Establish Rules and Guidelines for Teams 建立团队规则和指南 Establish and maintain organizational rules and guidelines for the structure, formation, and operation of 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 445 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 teams. 建立并维护组织规则和指南,以构造、组成和运作的团队。 Operating rules and guidelines for teams define and control how teams are created and how they interact to accomplish objectives. Team members should understand the standards for work and participate according to those standards. 团队的运作规则和指南定义和控制团队如何创造并且相互影响以 完成目标。团队成员必须了解工作的标准,并根据这些标准进行 参与。 When establishing rules and guidelines for teams, ensure they comply with all local and national regulations or laws that can affect the use of teams. 当建立团队规则和指南时,确保团队使用时遵守可能影响到的所 有地方和国家法律法规。 Structuring teams involves defining the number of teams, the type of each team, and how each team relates to the others in the structure. Forming teams involves chartering each team, assigning team members and team leaders, and providing resources to each team to accomplish work. 构建团队包括定义的团队数量,每个组的类型,以及每个团队涉 及到结构中的其他人。组队包括团队成员租用,分配小组成员和 团队领导者,并提供资源,以确保每队完成工作。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Rules and guidelines for structuring and forming teams 构造和组成团队的规则和指南 2. Operating rules for teams 团队的操作规则 Subpractices 子实践 1. Establish and maintain empowerment mechanisms to enable timely decision making. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 446 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 建立和维护授权机制,以便及时决策。 In a successful teaming environment, clear channels of responsibility and authority are established by documenting and deploying organizational guidelines that clearly define the empowerment of teams. 在一个成功的,责任清晰的和权力适当分配的团队环境中, 通过记录和部署组织准则,建立明确的渠道,明确定义授权 的团队。 2. Establish and maintain rules and guidelines for structuring and forming teams. 建立并维护团队结构和组成的规则和准则。 Organizational process assets can help the project to structure and implement teams. Such assets can include the following: 组织过程资产可以帮助项目团队来组织和实施。这类资产包括 以下内容:  Team structure guidelines 团队结构指南  Team formation guidelines 团队形成指南  Team authority and responsibility guidelines 团队的权力和责任指南  Guidelines for establishing lines of communication, authority, and escalation 建立沟通线、权力和升级指南  Team leader selection criteria 团队领导者的选择标准 3. Define the expectations, rules, and guidelines that guide how teams work collectively. 定义如何指导全体小组的工作的期望,规则和准则。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 447 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 These rules and guidelines establish organizational practices for consistency across teams and can include the following: 这些建立团队组织实践的一致性的规则和准则,可以包括以下 内容:  How interfaces among teams are established and maintained 团队间如何建立和维护接口  How assignments are accepted and transferred 职责如何被接受和转移  How resources and inputs are accessed 如何访问资源和投入  How work gets done 如何完成工作  Who checks, reviews, and approves work 谁检查,审查,审批工作  How work is approved 如何核定工作  How work is delivered and communicated 如何传递和沟通工作  Who reports to whom 谁向谁汇报  What the reporting requirements (e.g., cost, schedule, performance status), measures, and methods are 要求什么报告(如成本,进度,性能状态),措施和方法  Which progress reporting measures and methods are used 取得的进展报告所使用的措施和方法 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 448 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS FOCUS 组织过程焦点 A Process Management Process Area at Maturity Level 3 成熟度 3 级的过程管理类过程域 Purpose 目的 The purpose of Organizational Process Focus (OPF) is to plan, implement, and deploy organizational process improvements based on a thorough understanding of current strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s processes and process assets. 组织过程焦点(OPF)的目的是基于对当前组织过程和过程资产 强项和弱项的充分了解,以策划、实施和开展组织过程改进。 Introductory Notes 简介 The organization’s processes include all processes used by the organization and its projects. Candidate improvements to the organization’s processes and process assets are obtained from various sources, including the measurement of processes, lessons learned in implementing processes, results of process appraisals, results of product and service evaluation activities, results of customer satisfaction evaluations, results of benchmarking against other organizations’ processes, and recommendations from other improvement initiatives in the organization. 组织过程包括组织及其项目所使用的全部过程。针对组织过程和 过程资产的可能改进来源于多种途径,包括过程度量、实施过程 中得到的教训、过程评价结果、产品和服务评估活动结果、客户 满意度评估结果、与其他组织的过程基准比较结果和来自组织内 其他改进目标倡议的推荐结果。 Process improvement occurs in the context of the organization’s needs and is used to address the organization’s objectives. The 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 449 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 organization encourages participation in process improvement activities by those who perform the process. The responsibility for facilitating and managing the organization’s process improvement activities, including coordinating the participation of others, is typically assigned to a process group. The organization provides the long-term commitment and resources required to sponsor this group and to ensure the effective and timely deployment of improvements. 过程改进源自组织需要并且用于达成组织的目标。组织鼓励那些 执行过程的人员参与过程改进活动。推动和管理组织过程改进活 动,包括协调其他人员参与的职责通常指派给一个过程组。组织 提供支持该过程组所需的长期承诺和资源,并确保有效和及时开 展改进。 Careful planning is required to ensure that process improvement efforts across the organization are adequately managed and implemented. Results of the organization’s process improvement planning are documented in a process improvement plan. 要确保充分管理和实施组织内的过程改进投入就需要认真策划。 组织过程改进策划结果记录在过程改进计划中。 The “organization’s process improvement plan” addresses appraisal planning, process action planning, pilot planning, and deployment planning. Appraisal plans describe the appraisal timeline and schedule, the scope of the appraisal, resources required to perform the appraisal, the reference model against which the appraisal will be performed, and logistics for the appraisal. “组织过程改进计划”包括评估计划、过程行动策划、试点策划 和部署策划。评价计划说明评价时间表和进度表、评价范围、执 行评价所需的资源、针对将执行评价的参考模型和评价的后勤支 持。 Process action plans usually result from appraisals and document how improvements targeting weaknesses uncovered 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 450 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 by an appraisal will be implemented. Sometimes the improvement described in the process action plan should be tested on a small group before deploying it across the organization. In these cases, a pilot plan is generated. 过程行动计划通常源自评估结果,并且记录如何针对评估未覆盖 的弱点进行改进。有时,在组织内开展过程行动计划中所述的改 进之前,应当在一个小型组织范围内进行试验。在这些情况下要 生成一个试点计划。 When the improvement is to be deployed, a deployment plan is created. This plan describes when and how the improvement will be deployed across the organization. 当部署改进时要创建部署计划。该计划说明何时以及如何在组织 内部署改进。 Organizational process assets are used to describe, implement, and improve the organization’s processes. (See the definition of “organizational process assets” in the glossary.) 组织过程资产用于说明、执行和改进组织的过程。(参考词汇表中 “组织过程资产库”的定义。) Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets. 关于建立组织过程资产的更多信息,请参考组织过程定义过程域。 Specific Goal and Practice Summary 特定目标和实践摘要 SG 1 Determine Process Improvement Opportunities 确定过程改进机会 SP 1.1 Establish Organizational Process Needs 建立组织过程要求 SP 1.2 Appraise the Organization’s Processes 评价组织过程 SP 1.3 Identify the Organization’s Process Improvements 识别组织的过程改进 SG 2 Plan and Implement Process Actions 策划和执行过程行动 SP 2.1 Establish Process Action Plans 建立过程行动计划 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 451 页 共 1064 页--- SP 2.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Implement Process Action Plans 执行过程行动计划 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 SG 3 Deploy Organizational Process Assets and Incorporate Experiences 部署组织过程资产并吸收经验 SP 3.1 Deploy Organizational Process Assets 部署组织过程资产 SP 3.2 Deploy Standard Processes 部署标准过程 SP 3.3 Monitor the Implementation 监督执行 SP 3.4 Incorporate Experiences into Organizational Process Assets 将经验吸收到组织过程资产中 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 SG 1 Determine Process Improvement Opportunities 确定过程改进机会 Strengths, weaknesses, and improvement opportunities for the organization’s processes are identified periodically and as needed. 定期或根据需要识别组织过程的强项、弱项和改进机会。 Strengths, weaknesses, and improvement opportunities can be determined relative to a process standard or model such as a CMMI model or ISO standard. Process improvements should be selected to address the organization’s needs. 可以依据一种过程标准或例如 CMMI 模型或 ISO 标准这样的模型 确定强项、弱项和改进机会。应当选择过程改进活动过来满足组 织需要。 Process improvement opportunities can arise as a result of changing business objectives, legal and regulatory requirements, and results of benchmarking studies. 改变商业目标、法律和管理需求以及基准研究的结果都可以产生 过程改进机会。 SP 1.1 Establish Organizational Process Needs 建立组织过程要求 Establish and maintain the description of process needs and objectives for the organization. 建立和维护组织的过程要求及目标说明。 The organization’s processes operate in a business context that should be understood. The organization’s business objectives, needs, and constraints determine the needs and objectives for 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 452 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 the organization’s processes. Typically, issues related to customer satisfaction, finance, technology, quality, human resources, and marketing are important process considerations. 应当在一种可理解的商业情境中运行组织过程。组织的商业目标、 要求和约束决定组织过程的需要和目标。通常,与客户满意度、 财务、技术、质量、人力资源和市场相关的问题都是重要的过程 考虑因素。 The organization’s process needs and objectives cover aspects that include the following: 组织过程需要和目标涵盖如下这些方面:  Characteristics of processes 过程特征  Process performance objectives, such as time-to-market and delivered quality 过程性能目标,诸如投放市场时间和交付的质量  Process effectiveness 过程有效性 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. The organization’s process needs and objectives 组织的过程要求和目标 Subpractices 子实践 1. Identify policies, standards, and business objectives that are applicable to the organization’s processes. 识别可应用于组织过程的方针、标准和商业目标。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 453 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of standards include the following: 标准的例子包括以下:  ISO/IEC 12207:2008 Systems and Software Engineering – Software Life Cycle Processes [ISO 2008a] ISO/IEC 12207:2008 系统和软件工程-软件生命周期过程[ISO 2008a]  ISO/IEC 15288:2008 Systems and Software Engineering – System Life Cycle Processes [ISO 2008b] ISO/IEC 15288:2008系统和软件工程-系统生命周期过程[ISO 2008b]  ISO/IEC 27001:2005 Information technology – Security techniques – Information Security Management Systems – Requirements [ISO/IEC 2005] ISO/IEC27001:2005信息技术-安全技术-信息安全管理系统-需 求[ISO/IEC 2005]  ISO/IEC 14764:2006 Software Engineering – Software Life Cycle Processes – Maintenance [ISO 2006b] ISO/IEC 14764:2006软件工程-软件生命周期过程-维护[ISO 2006b]  ISO/IEC 20000 Information Technology – Service Management [ISO 2005b] ISO/IEC 20000信息技术– 服务管理[ISO 2005b]  Assurance Focus for CMMI [DHS 2009] CMMI保证关注[DHS 2009]  NDIA Engineering for System Assurance Guidebook [NDIA 2008] 系统保证手册NDIA工程[NDIA 2008]  Resiliency Management Model [SEI 2010c] 弹性管理模型[SEI 2010c] 2. Examine relevant process standards and models for best practices. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 454 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 检查相关过程标准和模型的最佳实践。 3. Determine the organization’s process performance objectives. 决定组织的过程性能目标。 Process performance objectives can be expressed in quantitative or qualitative terms. 过程性能目标可以使用定量或定性方式表述。 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about establishing measurement objectives. 关于建立度量目标的更多信息,请参考度量与分析过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Performance process area for more information about establishing quality and process performance objectives. 关于建立质量和过程性能目标的更多信息,请参考组织过程 性能过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 455 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of process performance objectives include the following: 过程性能目标的例子包括如下:  Achieve a customer satisfaction rating of a certain value 实现具有特定值的客户满意度等级  Ensure product reliability is at least a certain percentage 确保产品可靠性至少达到一个特定百分比  Reduce defect insertion rate by a certain percentage 使缺陷注入率减少到一个特定百分比  Achieve a certain cycle time for a given activity 实现一项给定活动的特定周期时间  Improve productivity by a given percentage 改进生产率达到一个给定百分比  Simplify the requirements approval workflow 简化需求批准工作流  Improve quality of products delivered to customer 改进交付给顾客的产品质量 4. Define essential characteristics of the organization’s processes. 定义组织过程的基本特征 Essential characteristics of the organization’s processes are determined based on the following: 基于以下内容决定组织过程的基本特征:  Processes currently being used in the organization 组织当前使用的过程  Standards imposed by the organization 组织强制执行的标准  Standards commonly imposed by customers of the organization 组织的顾客通常强制执行的标准 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 456 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of process characteristics include the following: 过程特征的例子包括如下:  Level of detail 详细程度  Process notation 过程注释  Granularity 粒度 SP 1.2 5. Document the organization’s process needs and objectives. 记录组织的过程要求和目标。 6. Revise the organization’s process needs and objectives as needed. 根据需要,修订组织的过程要求和目标。 Appraise the Organization’s Processes 评价组织过程 Appraise the organization’s processes periodically and as needed to maintain an understanding of their strengths and weaknesses. 定期和根据需要评价组织过程,保持对其强项和弱项的了解。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 457 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Process appraisals can be performed for the following reasons: 由于以下原因可以执行过程评估:  To identify processes to be improved 识别要改进的过程  To confirm progress and make the benefits of process improvement visible 确认进展并使过程改进的价值可见  To satisfy the needs of a customer-supplier relationship 满足客户-供应商关系的需要  To motivate and facilitate buy-in 激励和推动过程的认可 The buy-in gained during a process appraisal can be eroded significantly if it is not followed by an appraisal based action plan. 如果没有跟进基于评价的行动计划,那么可能严重影响过程评价 期间获得的过程认可。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Plans for the organization’s process appraisals 组织过程评估计划 Appraisal findings that address strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s processes 针对组织过程的强项和弱项的评估证据 3. Improvement recommendations for the organization’s processes 针对组织过程的改进建议 Subpractices 子实践 1. Obtain sponsorship of the process appraisal from senior management. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 458 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 从高层管理者获得过程评价的支持。 Senior management sponsorship includes the commitment to have the organization’s managers and staff participate in the process appraisal and to provide resources and funding to analyze and communicate findings of the appraisal. 高层管理者支持包括承诺组织的管理者和人员参与过程评 价并提供资源和资金以分析和沟通评价证据。 2. Define the scope of the process appraisal. 定义过程评价的范围。 Process appraisals can be performed on the entire organization or can be performed on a smaller part of an organization such as a single project or business area. 可以针对整个组织进行过程评价或者针对组织的较小部分, 例如单个项目或业务领域。 The scope of the process appraisal addresses the following: 过程评价的范围针对以下内容:  Definition of the organization (e.g., sites, business areas) to be covered by the appraisal 评价所覆盖的组织定义(例如,场所、业务领域)  Identification of the project and support functions that will represent the organization in the appraisal 识别在评价中代表组织的项目和支持功能  Processes to be appraised 要评价的过程 3. Determine the method and criteria to be used for the process appraisal. 确定用于过程评价的方法和准则。 Process appraisals can occur in many forms. They should address the needs and objectives of the organization, which can change over time. For example, the appraisal can be based on a process model, such as a 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 459 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.3 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 CMMI model, or on a national or international standard, such as ISO 9001 [ISO 2008c]. Appraisals can also be based on a benchmark comparison with other organizations in which practices that can contribute to improved organizational performance are identified. The characteristics of the appraisal method may vary, including time and effort, makeup of the appraisal team, and the method and depth of investigation. 过程评价可以表现为多种形式。过程评价针对可能随时间而 变化的组织要求和目标。例如,基于像 CMMI 模型这样的过 程模型或像 ISO9001[ISO 2008c]这样的国家或国际标准都可以 进行评估。也可以基于与其他组织的基准比较进行评价,这 些实践可以识别改进后的组织性能。评价方法的特点,包括 时间和工作,评价团队构成以及调查方法及深度可能有所变 化。 4. Plan, schedule, and prepare for the process appraisal. 策划、安排进度和准备过程改进。 5. Conduct the process appraisal. 指导过程评估。 6. Document and deliver the appraisal’s activities and findings. 记录和交付评价活动及证据。 Identify the Organization’s Process Improvements 识别组织过 程改进 Identify improvements to the organization’s processes and process assets. 识别针对组织过程和过程资产的改进。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Analysis of candidate process improvements 分析备选过程改进方案 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 460 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Identification of improvements for the organization’s processes 识别针对组织过程的改进。 Subpractices 子实践 1. Determine candidate process improvements. 确定备选过程改进。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 461 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Candidate process improvements are typically determined by doing the following: 通常执行以下活动来确定备选过程改进方案:  Measuring processes and analyzing measurement results 度量过程和分析度量结果  Reviewing processes for effectiveness and suitability 评审过程的有效性和适用性  Assessing customer satisfaction 评价客户满意度  Reviewing lessons learned from tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes 评审裁剪组织标准过程集合时得到的教训  Reviewing lessons learned from implementing processes 评审实施过程时得到的教训  Reviewing process improvement proposals submitted by the organization’s managers, staff, and other relevant stakeholders 评审组织的管理者、人员和其他相关方提交的过程改进建 议  Soliciting inputs on process improvements from senior management and other leaders in the organization 向组织的高层管理者和其他领导者征求关于过程改进的 输入  Examining results of process appraisals and other process related reviews 检查过程评价和其他过程相关评审的结果  Reviewing results of other organizational improvement initiatives 评审其他组织改进活动的结果 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 462 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Prioritize candidate process improvements. 确定备选过程改进方案的优先级 Criteria for prioritization are as follows: 优先级的准则如下:  Consider the estimated cost and effort to implement the process improvements. 考虑要实施过程改进所估算的成本和工作量  Evaluate the expected improvement against the organization’s improvement objectives and priorities. 针对组织的改进目标和优先级,评价预期的改进  Determine the potential barriers to the process improvements and develop strategies for overcoming these barriers. 确定过程改进的潜在障碍,制定克服这些障碍的策略 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 463 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of techniques to help determine and prioritize possible improvements to be implemented include the following: 帮助确定可能要实施的改进方案优先级的技术实例包括以 下:  A cost benefit analysis that compares the estimated cost and effort to implement the process improvements and their associated benefits 成本效益分析,比较要实施过程改进的预估成本和工作量 及其相关收益  A gap analysis that compares current conditions in the organization with optimal conditions 差距分析,将组织的当前条件和理想条件进行比较  Force field analysis of potential improvements to identify potential barriers and strategies for overcoming those barriers 潜在改进的阻力分析,识别潜在障碍和克服这些障碍的策 略  Cause-and-effect analyses to provide information on the potential effects of different improvements that can then be compared 原因和效果分析,提供接下来可能进行比较的有关不同改 进的潜在影响的信息 3. Identify and document the process improvements to be implemented. 识别和记录要实施的过程改进方案。 4. Revise the list of planned process improvements to keep it current. 修订已计划的过程改进清单以反映最新现状。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 464 页 共 1064 页--- SG 2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Plan and Implement Process Actions 策划和实施过程行动 Process actions that address improvements to the organization’s processes and process assets are planned and implemented. 策划和实施针对组织过程和过程资产改进的过程行动。 The successful implementation of improvements requires participation in process action planning and implementation by process owners, those who perform the process, and support organizations. 成功实施改进需要过程的所有者、执行过程的人员和支持组织共 同参与过程行动策划和实施。 SP 2.1 Establish Process Action Plans 建立过程行动计划 Establish and maintain process action plans to address improvements to the organization’s processes and process assets. 建立和维护进行组织过程和过程资产改进的过程行动计划。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 465 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Establishing and maintaining process action plans typically involves the following roles: 建立和维护过程行动计划通常涉及以下角色:  Management steering committees that set strategies and oversee process improvement activities 建立策略和监督过程改进活动的管理指导委员会  Process groups that facilitate and manage process improvement activities 推动和管理过程改进活动的过程组  Process action teams that define and implement process actions 定义和实施过程行动的过程行动团队  Process owners that manage deployment 管理部署活动的过程所有者  Practitioners that perform the process 执行过程的实践者 Stakeholder involvement helps to obtain buy-in on process improvements and increases the likelihood of effective deployment. 干系人参与有助于实现过程改进的引入并增加有效部署的可能 性。 Process action plans are detailed implementation plans. These plans differ from the organization’s process improvement plan by targeting improvements that were defined to address weaknesses and that were usually uncovered by appraisals. 过程行动计划是详细的实施计划。这些计划不同于目标改进中的 组织过程改进计划,它被定义为用于处理在评估中发现的弱项和 未被覆盖的内容。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. The organization’s approved process action plans 组织已批准的过程行动计划 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 466 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Subpractices 子实践 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 1. Identify strategies, approaches, and actions to address identified process improvements. 针对已识别的过程改进来识别策略、方法和行动。 New, unproven, and major changes are piloted before they are incorporated into normal use. 将新的、未验证的和重大变更纳入常规使用之前要进行试 点。 2. Establish process action teams to implement actions. 建立实施行动的过程行动组。 The teams and people performing the process improvement actions are called ―process action teams.‖ Process action teams typically include process owners and those who perform the process. 执行过程改进行动的组合人员都称之为“过程行动组”。过 程行动组通常包括过程所有者和那些执行过程的人员。 3. Document process action plans. 文档化过程行动计划。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 467 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Process action plans typically cover the following: 过程行动计划通常涵盖以下内容:  Process improvement infrastructure 过程改进架构  Process improvement objectives 过程改进目标  Process improvements to be addressed 要解决的过程改进  Procedures for planning and tracking process actions 策划和跟踪过程行动的流程  Strategies for piloting and implementing process actions 试点和实施过程行动的策略  Responsibility and authority for implementing process actions 实施过程行动的职责和权力  Resources, schedules, and assignments for implementing process actions 实施过程行动的资源、进度和任务分配  Methods for determining the effectiveness of process actions 确定过程行动有效性的方法  Risks associated with process action plans 与过程行动计划有关的风险 4. Review and negotiate process action plans with relevant stakeholders. 与相关人员评审和协商过程行动计划。 5. Revise process action plans as necessary. 必要时修订过程行动计划。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 468 页 共 1064 页--- SP 2.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Implement Process Action Plans 实施过程行动计划 Implement process action plans. 实施过程行动计划。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Commitments among process action teams 过程行动组之间的承诺 2. Status and results of implementing process action plans 实施过程行动计划的状态和结果 Plans for pilots 策划试点活动 Subpractices 子实践 Make process action plans readily available to relevant stakeholders. 使过程行动计划易于相关方使用。 Negotiate and document commitments among process action teams and revise their process action plans as necessary. 协商和记录过程行动组之间的承诺,必要时修订他们的过程 行动计划。 Track progress and commitments against process action plans. 依据过程行动计划,跟踪进展和承诺。 Conduct joint reviews with process action teams and relevant stakeholders to monitor the progress and results of process actions. 指导与过程行动组和相关方进行联合评审以监督过程行动的 进展结果。 1. Plan pilots needed to test selected process improvements. 对测试选定的过程改进所需的试点活动进行策划。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 469 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Review the activities and work products of process action teams. 评审过程行动组的活动和工作产品。 3. Identify, document, and track to closure issues encountered when implementing process action plans. 识别、记录和跟踪直到关闭实施过程行动计划时遇到的问题。 4. Ensure that results of implementing process action plans satisfy the organization’s process improvement objectives. 确保实施过程行动计划的结果满足组织的过程改进目标。 SG 3 Deploy Organizational Process Assets and Incorporate Experiences 部署组织过程资产及合并经验 Organizational process assets are deployed across the organization and process related experiences are incorporated into organizational process assets. 在组织内部部署组织过程资产,将过程相关经验纳入组织过程资产。 The specific practices under this specific goal describe ongoing activities. New opportunities to benefit from organizational process assets and changes to them can arise throughout the life of each project. Deployment of standard processes and other organizational process assets should be continually supported in the organization, particularly for new projects at startup. 该特定目标下的特定实践描述进行中的活动。受益于组织过程资 产的新机会以及组织过程资产的变更可能在每个项目期间产生。 在组织中应当持续支持标准过程和其他组织过程资产的部署,特 别是在新项目启动时。 SP 3.1 Deploy Organizational Process Assets 部署组织过程资产 Deploy organizational process assets across the organization. 在组织内部部署组织过程资产。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 470 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Deploying organizational process assets or changes to them should be performed in an orderly manner. Some organizational process assets or changes to them may not be appropriate for use in some parts of the organization (e.g., because of stakeholder requirements or the current lifecycle phase being implemented). It is therefore important that those who are or will be executing the process, as well as other organization functions (e.g., training, quality assurance), be involved in deployment as necessary. 应当通过一种有序的方式部署组织过程资产或其变更。一些组织 过程资产或其变更可能不适用于组织的某些部分(例如,由于相 关人员的需求或者要实施的当前生命周期阶段)。因此重要的是, 那些执行或将要执行过程的人员以及其他组织功能(例如,培训、 质量保证),必要时要参与部署。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets. 关于建立组织过程资产的更多信息,请参考组织过程定义过程域。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 Plans for deploying organizational process assets and changes to them across the organization 在组织内部部署组织过程资产及其变更的计划 Training materials for deploying organizational process assets and changes to them 部署组织过程资产及其变更的培训资料 Documentation of changes to organizational process assets 文档化对组织过程资产的变更 Support materials for deploying organizational process assets and changes to them 部署组织过程资产及其变更的支持资料 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 471 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Subpractices 子实践 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 1. Deploy organizational process assets across the organization. 在组织内部部署组织过程资产。 Typical activities performed as a part of the deployment of process assets include the following: 作为过程资产部署的一部分,要执行的典型活动包括以下:  Identifying organizational process assets that should be adopted by those who perform the process 识别那些执行过程的人员应当采用的组织过程资产  Determining how organizational process assets are made available (e.g., via a website) 确定如何利用组织过程资产(例如,通过一个网站)  Identifying how changes to organizational process assets are communicated 识别如何沟通对组织过程资产的变更  Identifying resources (e.g., methods, tools) needed to support the use of organizational process assets 识别支持使用组织过程资产所需的资源(例如,方法、 工具)  Planning the deployment 策划部署  Assisting those who use organizational process assets 协助那些使用组织过程资产的人员  Ensuring that training is available for those who use organizational process assets 确保那些使用组织过程资产的人员可以参加培训 Refer to the Organizational Training process area for more 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 472 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 information about establishing an organizational training capability. 参考组织培训过程域,了解有关建立组织培训能力的更多信 息。 2. Document changes to organizational process assets. 记录对组织过程资产的变更。 Documenting changes to organizational process assets serves two main purposes: 记录对组织过程资产的变更出于两个主要目的:  To enable the communication of changes 要启用变更沟通机制  To understand the relationship of changes in the organizational process assets to changes in process performance and results 要了解组织过程资产的变更与过程性能改变及结果的关系 3. Deploy changes that were made to organizational process assets across the organization. 在组织内部部署对组织过程资产所做的变更。 Typical activities performed as a part of deploying changes include the following: 作为部署变更的一部分,要执行的典型活动包括以下:  Determining which changes are appropriate for those who perform the process 确定哪些变更适合于那些执行过程的人员  Planning the deployment 策划部署  Arranging for the support needed for the successful transition of changes 安排成功的变更过渡所需的支持 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 473 页 共 1064 页--- SP 3.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 4. Provide guidance and consultation on the use of organizational process assets. 提供有关使用组织过程资产的指导和咨询。 Deploy Standard Processes 部署标准过程 Deploy the organization’s set of standard processes to projects at their startup and deploy changes to them as appropriate throughout the life of each project. 在项目启动时部署组织的标准过程集合并在每个项目期间适 当时部署组织的标准过程集合的变更。 It is important that new projects use proven and effective processes to perform critical early activities (e.g., project planning, receiving requirements, obtaining resources). 重要的是新项目使用已验证的和有效的过程来执行关键的早期活 动(例如,项目策划、接受需求、获得资源)。 Projects should also periodically update their defined processes to incorporate the latest changes made to the organization’s set of standard processes when it will benefit them. This periodic update helps to ensure that all project activities derive the full benefit of what other projects have learned. 项目也应当定期更新其已定义过程,当组织标准过程集合的最新 变更有利于项目时予以纳入。这种定期更新有助于确保所有项目 活动充分受益于其他项目已获得的经验教训。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing standard processes and establishing tailoring criteria and guidelines. 关于立标准过程和建立裁剪准则及指南的更多信息,请参考组织 过程定义过程域。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 The organization’s list of projects and the status of process deployment on each (i.e., existing and planned projects) 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 474 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 组织的项目清单和每个项目的过程部署状态(例如,现有和 已策划的项目) Guidelines for deploying the organization’s set of standard processes on new projects 在新项目上部署组织的标准过程集合的指南 3. Records of tailoring and implementing the organization’s set of standard processes 裁剪和实施组织的标准过程集合的记录 Subpractices 子实践 1. Identify projects in the organization that are starting up. 识别组织中要启动的项目。 2. Identify active projects that would benefit from implementing the organization’s current set of standard processes. 识别可能受益于组织当前标准过程集合的活动项目。 3. Establish plans to implement the organization’s current set of standard processes on the identified projects. 针对已识别的项目,建立实施组织当前标准过程集合的计 划。 4. Assist projects in tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes to meet their needs. 协助项目裁剪组织的标准过程集合以满足其需要。 Refer to the Integrated Project Management process area for more information about establishing the project’s defined process. 关于建立项目已定义过程的更多信息,请参考集成项目管理 过程域。 5. Maintain records of tailoring and implementing processes on the identified projects. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 475 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 维护已识别的项目进行裁剪和实施过程的记录。 6. Ensure that the defined processes resulting from process tailoring are incorporated into plans for process compliance audits. 确保过程裁剪后的已定义过程都集成到过程符合性审核计 划中。 Process compliance audits are objective evaluations of project activities against the project’s defined process. 过程符合性审核是依据项目已定义过程对项目活动的客观 评价。 7. As the organization’s set of standard processes is updated, identify which projects should implement the changes. 当组织的标准过程集合更新时,识别哪些项目应当实施这些 变更。 SP 3.3 Monitor the Implementation 监督实施 Monitor the implementation of the organization’s set of standard processes and use of process assets on all projects. 监督所有项目对组织标准过程集合的实施和过程资产的使用。 By monitoring implementation, the organization ensures that the organization’s set of standard processes and other process assets are appropriately deployed to all projects. Monitoring implementation also helps the organization to develop an understanding of the organizational process assets being used and where they are used in the organization. Monitoring also helps to establish a broader context for interpreting and using process and product measures, lessons learned, and improvement information obtained from projects. 通过监督实施活动,组织确保所有项目都恰当开展了组织标准过 程集合和其他过程资产。监督实施活动也帮助组织开展对要使用 的组织过程资产以及在组织何处使用的理解。监督也有助于建立 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 476 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 一种用于说明和使用过程及产品度量、获得的教训以及从项目中 得到改进信息的更广泛背景。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Results of monitoring process implementation on projects 监督项目实施过程的结果 Status and results of process compliance audits 过程符合性审核的状态和结果 Results of reviewing selected process artifacts created as part of process tailoring and implementation 评审选定的、作为过程裁剪和实施中的一部分而创建的过程 成果的结果 Subpractices 子实践 1. Monitor the projects’ use of organizational process assets and changes to them. 监督项目使用组织标准过程资产和对其所作的修改。 2. Review selected process artifacts created during the life of each project. 评审选定的、每个项目期间创建的过程成果。 Reviewing selected process artifacts created during the life of a project ensures that all projects are making appropriate use of the organization’s set of standard processes. 评审选定的、每个项目期间创建的过程成果,确保所有项目 都恰当使用了组织的标准过程集合。 3. Review results of process compliance audits to determine how well the organization’s set of standard processes has been deployed. 评审过程符合性审核结果,以确定已部署的组织标准过程集 合的效果。 Refer to the Process and Product Quality Assurance 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 477 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 process area for more information about objectively evaluating processes. 关于客观评价过程的更多信息,请参考过程与产品质量保证 过程域。 4. Identify, document, and track to closure issues related to implementing the organization’s set of standard processes. 识别、文档化并跟踪有关实施组织标准过程集合的问题直到 关闭。 SP 3.4 Incorporate Experiences into Organizational Process Assets 将经验纳入组织过程资产 Incorporate process related experiences derived from planning and performing the process into organizational process assets. 将源自策划和实施过程的相关过程经验纳入组织过程资产。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Process improvement proposals 过程改进建议 2. Process lessons learned 获得的过程教训 3. Measurements of organizational process assets 组织过程资产的度量 Improvement recommendations for organizational process assets 组织过程资产的改进建议 Records of the organization’s process improvement activities 组织过程改进活动记录 Information on organizational process assets and improvements to them 有关组织过程资产和对其进行改进的信息 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 478 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Subpractices 子实践 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 1. Conduct periodic reviews of the effectiveness and suitability of the organization’s set of standard processes and related organizational process assets relative to the process needs and objectives derived from the organization’s business objectives. 依据源自组织商业目标的过程要求和目标,定期评审组织标 准过程集及相关组织过程资产的有效性和适用性。 2. Obtain feedback about the use of organizational process assets. 获得有关组织过程资产使用的反馈。 3. Derive lessons learned from defining, piloting, implementing, and deploying organizational process assets. 在定义、试点、实施和部署组织过程资产过程中得到的教训。 4. Make lessons learned available to people in the organization as appropriate. 适当时使组织中的人员能够利用得到的教训。 Actions may be necessary to ensure that lessons learned are used appropriately. 可能采取必要行动以确保恰当地使用得到的教训。 Examples of the inappropriate use of lessons learned include the following: 不恰当地使用教训的实例包括以下:  Evaluating the performance of people 评价人员绩效  Judging process performance or results 判断过程性能或结果 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 479 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of ways to prevent the inappropriate use of lessons learned include the following: 防止不恰当使用教训的方法实例包括以下:  Controlling access to lessons learned 控制对教训的获取  Educating people about the appropriate use of lessons learned 指导人员正确使用得到的教训 5. Analyze measurement data obtained from the use of the organization’s common set of measures. 使用组织公共度量集获得的度量数据进行分析。 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about analyzing measurement data. 关于分析度量数据的更多信息,请参考度量与分析过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing the organization’s measurement repository. 关于建立组织度量库的更多信息,请参考组织过程定义过程 域。 6. Appraise processes, methods, and tools in use in the organization and develop recommendations for improving organizational process assets. 评价组织中使用的过程、方法和工具并制定改进组织过程资 产的建议。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 480 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 This appraisal typically includes the following: 这种评价通常包括以下:  Determining which processes, methods, and tools are of potential use to other parts of the organization 确定组织的其他部分可能使用哪些过程、方法和工具  Appraising the quality and effectiveness of organizational process assets 评价组织过程资产的质量和效果。  Identifying candidate improvements to organizational process assets 识别组织过程资产的备选改进方案  Determining compliance with the organization’s set of standard processes and tailoring guidelines 确定与组织标准过程集合及裁剪指南的符合性 7. Make the best of the organization’s processes, methods, and tools available to people in the organization as appropriate. 适当时使组织中的人员能够充分利用组织的过程、方法和工 具。 8. Manage process improvement proposals. 管理过程改进建议。 Process improvement proposals can address both process and technology improvements. 过程改进建议可以针对过程和技术两方面的改进。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 481 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 The activities for managing process improvement proposals typically include the following: 管理过程改进建议的活动通常包括以下内容:  Soliciting process improvement proposals 征求过程改进建议  Collecting process improvement proposals 收集过程改进建议  Reviewing process improvement proposals 评审过程改进建议  Selecting the process improvement proposals to be implemented 选择要实施的过程改进建议  Tracking the implementation of process improvement proposals 跟踪过程改进建议的实施 Process improvement proposals are documented as process change requests or problem reports as appropriate. 适当时记录过程改进建议,作为过程变更请求或问题报告。 Some process improvement proposals can be incorporated into the organization’s process action plans. 一些过程改进建议可以合并到组织的过程行动计划中。 9. Establish and maintain records of the organization’s process improvement activities. 建立和维护组织过程改进活动的记录。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 482 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT 组织性能管理 A Process Management Process Area at Maturity Level 5 成熟度 5 级的过程管理类过程域 Purpose 目的 The purpose of Organizational Performance Management (OPM) is to proactively manage the organization’s performance to meet its business objectives. 组织性能管理(OPM)的目的是提前对组织的性能进行管理以满 足组织的商业目标。 Introductory Notes 简介 The Organizational Performance Management process area enables the organization to manage organizational performance by iteratively analyzing aggregated project data, identifying gaps in performance against the business objectives, and selecting and deploying improvements to close the gaps. 组织性能管理过程域是通过反复的分析收集的项目数据,使组织 能够管理组织性能,识别与商业目标不符的性能方面,并选择和 推广改进措施以弥合差距。 In this process area, the term “improvement” includes all incremental and innovative process and technology improvements, including those improvements made to project work environments. “Improvement” refers to all ideas that would change the organization’s processes, technologies, and performance to better meet the organization’s business objectives and associated quality and process performance objectives. 在此过程域中,术语“改进”包括所有增加和创新的过程与技术 改进,也包含用于构成项目工作环境的改进。“改进”涉及改变组 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 483 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 织的过程,技术,和性能的所有概念,以便更好的满足组织的商 业目标和相关的质量和过程性能目标。 Business objectives that this process area might address include the following: 本过程域所说明的商业目标,可包括:  Improved product quality (e.g., functionality, quality attributes) 提高的产品质量(例如,功能,质量属性)  Increased productivity 生产力的提升  Increased process efficiency and effectiveness 增加的过程效率和效力  Increased consistency in meeting budget and schedule 改进预算和进度之间的一致性  Decreased cycle time 减少交付时间  Greater customer and end-user satisfaction 提高客户和最终用户的满意度  Shorter development or production time to change functionality, add new features, or adapt to new technologies 减少用于改变功能,增加新特性,或适应的新技术的开发 或生产的时间  Improved performance of a supply chain involving multiple suppliers 改善多个供应商的供应链的性能  Improved use of resources across the organization 改善跨组织的资源的使用 The organization analyzes product and process performance data from the projects to determine if it is capable of meeting the quality and process performance objectives. Process 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 484 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 performance baselines and process performance models, developed using Organizational Process Performance processes, are used as part of the analysis. Causal Analysis and Resolution processes can also be used to identify potential areas of improvement or specific improvement proposals. 组织通过分析项目组的产品和过程性能数据,确定是否能够满足 质量和过程性能目标。。用通过组织过程性能过程开发的过程性能 基线和过程性能模型,来用于一部分的分析。原因分析与解决过 程域也被用来识别改进措施或明确的改进建议的潜在问题。 The organization identifies and proactively solicits incremental and innovative improvements from within the organization and from external sources such as academia, competitive intelligence, and successful improvements implemented elsewhere. 组织识别和获取增加和创新的改进措施,这些改进措施来源于组 织的内部和外部资源,例如学术,有竞争力的知识产权,和在别 处实施成功的改进措施。 Realization of the improvements and their effects on the quality and process performance objectives depends on being able to effectively identify, evaluate, implement, and deploy improvements to the organization’s processes and technologies. 质量和过程性能目标的改进措施的实现和其影响,依赖于能够有 效地识别,评估,执行,和推广组织的过程和技术的改进措施。 Realization of the improvements and beneficial effects also depends on engaging the workforce in identifying and evaluating possible improvements and maintaining a focus on long-term planning that includes the identification of innovations. 改进措施的实现和有利的影响,同样也依赖于有竞争力的劳动力, 这些劳动力存在于识别和评估合适的改进,维护包含创新识别的 长期计划中。 Improvement proposals are evaluated and validated for their 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 485 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 effectiveness in the target environment. Based on this evaluation, improvements are prioritized and selected for deployment to new and ongoing projects. Deployment is managed in accordance with the deployment plan and performance data are analyzed using statistical and other quantitative techniques to determine the effects of the improvement on quality and process performance objectives. 改进建议被评估和确认,以便它们在目标环境产生效力。基于这 些评估,设定改进措施的优先级,并进行合理的选择,以便推广 在新的和继续进行的项目中。推广工作的管理需符合推广计划, 利用统计和其他的量化技术,分析性能数据,以确定质量和过程 性能目标改进的效果。 This improvement cycle continually optimizes organizational processes based on quality and process performance objectives. Business objectives are periodically reviewed to ensure they are current and quality and process performance objectives are updated as appropriate. 基于质量和过程性能目标,在改进周期中持续地优化组织过程。 在必要的时候,定期的回顾商业目标,以确保它们的可行性和质 量和过程性能目标是否被同步更新。 The Organizational Process Focus process area includes no assumptions about the quantitative basis for identifying improvements, nor their expected results. This process area extends the Organizational Process Focus practices by focusing on process improvement based on a quantitative understanding of the organization’s set of standard processes and technologies and their expected quality and process performance. 在组织过程焦点过程域中,不包括用以识别改进措施的量化基础 的假设,也不包括它们期望的结果。此过程域通过关注过程改进, 扩展了组织过程焦点实践。改进的前提是需要对组织建立的标准 过程、技术、期望的质量和过程性能的量化理解。 The specific practices of this process area apply to organizations whose projects are quantitatively managed. Use 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 486 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 of the specific practices of this process area can add value in other situations, but the results may not provide the same degree of impact to the organization’s quality and process performance objectives. 此过程域的特定实践用于项目已被量化管理的组织。此过程域的 特定实践的作用是能够增加其他工作的价值,但是结果不能达到 组织的质量和过程性能目标的作用的相同等级。 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Refer to the Causal Analysis and Resolution process area for more information about identifying causes of selected outcomes and taking action to improve process performance. 关于识别选择结果的原因,执行过程性能改进的更多信息,请参 考原因分析与解决过程域。 Refer to the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area for more information about analyzing possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. 关于基于已制定的准则评估识别备选方案引用正式的评估过程分 析可能的决策的更多信息,请参考决策分析与解决过程域。 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about aligning measurement and analysis activities and providing measurement results. 关于矫正度量、分析活动和提供度量结果的更多的信息,请参考 度量与分析过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Focus process area for more information about planning, implementing, and deploying organizational process improvements based on a thorough understanding of current strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s processes and process assets. 关于依据现行的组织过程和过程资产的优势和劣势的周全考虑的 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 487 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 想法,进行计划、实施和推广组织过程改进的更多的信息,请参 考组织过程焦点过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Performance process area for more information about establishing quality and process performance objectives and establishing process performance baselines and models. 关于建立质量和过程性能目标,建立过程性能基线和模型的更多 的信息,请参考组织过程性能过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Training process area for more information about providing training. 关于提供培训的更多的信息,请参考组织培训过程域。 Specific Goal and Practice Summary 特定目标及实践摘要 SG 1 Manage Business Performance 管理业务性能 SP 1.1 Maintain Business Objectives 维护商业目标 SP 1.2 Analyze Process Performance Data 分析过程性能数据 SP 1.3 Identify Potential Areas for Improvement 识别潜在的改进方面 SG 2 Select Improvements 选择改进措施 SP 2.1 Elicit Suggested Improvements 挖掘潜在的改进措施 SP 2.2 Analyze Suggested Improvements 分析潜在的改进措施 SP 2.3 Validate Improvements 识别改进措施 SP 2.4 Select and Implement Improvements for Deployment 选择和执行改进措施以便推广 SG 3 Deploy Improvements 推广改进措施 SP 3.1 Plan the Deployment 策划推广计划 SP 3.2 Manage the Deployment 管理推广工作 SP 3.3 Evaluate Improvement Effects 评估改进效果 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 SG 1 Manage Business Performance 管理业务性能 The organization’s business performance is managed using statistical and other quantitative techniques to understand process 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 488 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 performance shortfalls, and to identify areas for process improvement. 用统计和其他量化技术管理组织业务性能,以理解组织性能的不足之处, 和识别过程改进的方面。 Managing business performance requires the following: 管理业务性能的需求,如下所示:  Maintaining the organization’s business objectives 维护组织的商业目标  Understanding the organization’s ability to meet the business objectives 理解满足商业目标需要的组织能力  Continually improving processes related to achieving the business objectives 持续改进与达到商业目标有关的过程 The organization uses defined process performance baselines to determine if the current and projected organizational business objectives are being met. Shortfalls in process performance are identified and analyzed to determine potential areas for process improvement. 组织使用已定义的过程性能基线,以确定是否通用以及是否满足 预期的组织商业目标。定义并分析过程性能的不足之处,以确定 潜在方面以便过程改进。 Refer to the Organizational Process Performance process area for more information about establishing performance baselines and models. 关于建立性能基线和模型的更多信息,请参考组织过程性能过程 域。 As the organization improves its process performance or as business strategies change, new business objectives are identified and associated quality and process performance objectives are derived. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 489 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.1 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 在组织改进其过程性能期间,或在业务策略变更时,需识别新的 商业目标,以获得相关的质量和过程性能目标。 Specific goal 2 addresses eliciting and analyzing improvement suggestions that address shortfalls in achieving quality and process performance objectives. 特定目标 2 说明获取和分析改进建议,这些改进建议说明了达到 质量和过程性能目标的不足之处。 Maintain Business Objectives 维护商业目标 Maintain business objectives based on an understanding of business strategies and actual performance results. 基于对业务策略和实际的性能结果的理解,维护商业目标。 Organizational performance data, characterized by process performance baselines, are used to evaluate whether business objectives are realistic and aligned with business strategies. After business objectives have been revised and prioritized by senior management, quality and process performance objectives may need to be created or maintained and re-communicated. 通过过程性能基线识别的组织性能数据,被用来评估商业目标是 否实际可行以及是否与业务策略保持一致。在商业目标被高层管 理者修订和排定优先级后,质量和过程性能目标可能需要被创建 或维护并再次沟通确认。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例  Revised business objectives 修订的商业目标  Revised quality and process performance objectives 修订的质量和过程性能目标  Senior management approval of revised business objectives and quality and process performance objectives 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 490 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 修订的商业目标与质量和过程性能目标需要获得高层管理许 可  Communication of all revised objectives 所有修订目标的沟通记录  Updated process performance measures 更新的过程性能度量项 Subpractices 子实践 1. Evaluate business objectives periodically to ensure they are aligned with business strategies. 定期的评估商业目标,以确保它们与业务策略一致。 Senior management is responsible for understanding the marketplace, establishing business strategies, and establishing business objectives. 高层管理者负责了解市场,建立业务策略和建立商业目标。 Because business strategies and organizational performance evolve, business objectives should be reviewed periodically to determine whether they should be updated. For example, a business objective might be retired when process performance data show that the business objective is being met consistently over time or when the associated business strategy has changed. 因为业务策略和组织性能在发展,商业目标应该定期审查, 以确定是否需要更新。例如,当过程性能数据显示商业目标 与以往一样时,或当相关的业务策略已被修订时,这个商业 目标就失效了。 2. Compare business objectives with actual process performance results to ensure they are realistic. 商业目标和实际过程性能结果进行比较,以保证商业目标的 可达成性。 Business objectives can set the bar too high to motivate real improvement. Using process performance baselines helps balance desires and reality. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 491 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 商业目标设置足够高的阈值以作为改进的动机。利用过程性 能基线帮助平衡期望与实际结果。 If process performance baselines are unavailable, sampling techniques can be used to develop a quantitative basis for comparison in a short period of time. 如果过程性能基线难以获得,可以采用抽样技术开发用以短 期比较的量化基准。 3. Prioritize business objectives based on documented criteria, such as the ability to win new business, retain existing clients, or accomplish other key business strategies. 基于文档化的基准明确不同商业目标的优先级。例如,获得 新业务的能力,稳定现有的客户,或完成其他关键的业务策 略。 4. Maintain quality and process performance objectives to address changes in business objectives. 对质量和过程性能目标进行维护,以保持和商业目标的一致 性。 Business objectives and quality and process performance objectives will typically evolve over time. As existing objectives are achieved, they will be monitored to ensure they continue to be met, while new business objectives and associated quality and process performance objectives are identified and managed. 商业目标与质量和过程性能目标代表长期以来的演变。监控 已达成的商业目标,以保证持续的满足这些商业目标。同时, 需要不断的识别和管理新的商业目标和相关的质量和过程 性能目标。 Refer to the Organizational Process Performance process area for more information about establishing quality and process performance objectives. 关于建立质量和过程性能目标的更多信息,请参考组织过程 性能过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 492 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 5. Revise process performance measures to align with quality and process performance objectives. 参照质量和过程性能目标,对过程性能度量项进行维护。 Refer to the Organizational Process Performance process area for more information about establishing process performance measures. 关于建立过程性能度量项的更多信息,请参考组织过程性能 过程域。 SP 1.2 Analyze Process Performance Data 分析过程性能数据 Analyze process performance data to determine the organization’s ability to meet identified business objectives. 分析过程性能数据以确定组织满足已识别的商业目标的能力。 The data that result from applying the process performance measures, which are defined using Organizational Process Performance processes, are analyzed to create process performance baselines that help in understanding the current capability of the organization. Comparing process performance baselines to quality and process performance objectives helps the organization to determine its ability to meet business objectives. This data typically are collected from project level process performance data to enable organizational analysis. 使用组织过程性能定义过程性能度量项获得的数据,创建过程性 能基线,帮助了解实际的组织能力。比较过程性能基线与质量和 过程性能目标,帮助组织确定满足商业目标需要的能力。从项目 级过程性能数据中收集代表性的数据,便于组织进行分析和处理。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Analysis of current capability vs. business objectives 现行能力与商业目标的对比分析 2. Process performance shortfalls 过程性能的不足之处 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 493 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 3. Risks associated with meeting business objectives 与满足商业目标相关的风险 Subpractices 子实践 1. Periodically compare quality and process performance objectives to current process performance baselines to evaluate the ability of the organization to meet its business objectives. 定期比较质量和过程性能目标与过程性能基线,以评估组织 满足商业目标的能力。 For example, if cycle time is a critical business need, many different cycle time measures may be collected by the organization. Overall cycle time performance data should be compared to the business objectives to understand if expected performance will satisfy business objectives. 例如,如果交付时间是关键业务需求,多个不同的交付时间 的度量需要被组织收集。全面的交付时间性能数据应该与商 业目标进行对比,以了解期望的性能是否满足商业目标。 2. Identify shortfalls where the actual process performance is not satisfying the business objectives. 识别实际过程性是否满足商业目标的不足之处。 3. Identify and analyze risks associated with not meeting business objectives. 识别和分析与不能满足商业目标相关的风险。 4. Report results of the process performance and risk analyses to organizational leadership. 向组织领导层报告过程性能结果和风险分析。 SP 1.3 Identify Potential Areas for Improvement 识别潜在的改进方面 Identify potential areas for improvement that could contribute to meeting business objectives. 识别潜在的改进方面,以便满足商业目标。 Potential areas for improvement are identified through a 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 494 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 proactive analysis to determine areas that could address process performance shortfalls.Causal Analysis and Resolution processes can be used to diagnose and resolve root causes. 通过主动的分析以识别改进的潜在方面,从而确定需要处理哪些 过程性能不足之处。原因分析与解决过程域能够被用来诊断和解 决根本原因。 The output from this activity is used to evaluate and prioritize potential improvements, and can result in either incremental or innovative improvement suggestions as described in specific goal 2. 这些活动的输出被用来评估和评定潜在改进的优先级,并且能够 按照特定目标 2 的描述增加和革新的改进建议。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Potential areas for improvement 过程改进的潜在方面 Subpractices 子实践 1. Identify potential improvement areas based on the analysis of process performance shortfalls. 基于对过程性能不足之处的分析,识别潜在的改进方面。 Performance shortfalls include not meeting productivity, cycle time, or customer satisfaction objectives. Examples of areas to consider for improvement include product technology, process technology, staffing and staff development, team structures, supplier selection and management, and other organizational infrastructures. 性能的不足之处包括无法实现的生产率,交付时间,或客户 满意度目标。对于改进方面的例子包括产品技术,过程技术, 员工和员工的发展,团队结构,供应商的选择和管理,以及 其他组织的基础设施。 2. Document the rationale for the potential improvement areas, including references to applicable business objectives and process performance data. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 495 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 记录潜在改进方面的理由,包括涉及的合适的商业目标和过 程性能数据。 3. Document anticipated costs and benefits associated with addressing potential improvement areas. 记录与潜在改进方面相关的预期的成本和收益。 4. Communicate the set of potential improvement areas for further evaluation, prioritization, and use. 对潜在的改进方面一系列的深入评估,优先级评定和用途进 行沟通。 SG 2 Select Improvements 选择改进措施 Improvements are proactively identified, evaluated using statistical and other quantitative techniques, and selected for deployment based on their contribution to meeting quality and process performance objectives. 利用统计和其他量化技术,主动识别和评估改进措施,并且选择改进措施 以便推广,使推广改进措施满足质量和过程性能目标。 Improvements to be deployed across the organization are selected from improvement suggestions which have been evaluated for effectiveness in the target deployment environment. These improvement suggestions are elicited and submitted from across the organization to address the improvement areas identified in specific goal 1. 从改进建议中选择用于跨组织推广的改进措施,这些改进建议已 在特定目标推广环境中进行了效果评估。在特定目标 1 中对从跨 组织中获取和提交过程改进建议进行了识别和发布。 Evaluations of improvement suggestions are based on the following: 评估改进建议如下所示:  A quantitative understanding of the organization’s current quality and process performance 组织的现行质量和过程性能的量化理解 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 496 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Satisfaction of the organization’s quality and process performance objectives 满足组织的质量和过程性能目标  Estimated costs and impacts of developing and deploying the improvements, resources, and funding available for deployment 对成本和开发影响以及推广改进建议、资源、和用于推广 的可用资金进行评估  Estimated benefits in quality and process performance resulting from deploying the improvements 估计推广的改进措施对质量和过程性能的好处 SP 2.1 Elicit Suggested Improvements 挖掘潜在的改进措施 Elicit and categorize suggested improvements. 挖掘潜在的改进措施,并对改进措施进行分类。 This practice focuses on eliciting suggested improvements and includes categorizing suggested improvements as incremental or innovative. 此实践关注挖掘潜在的改进措施,也包括对增加的和创新的改进 措施进行分类。 Incremental improvements generally originate with those who do the work (i.e., users of the process or technology). Incremental improvements can be simple and inexpensive to implement and deploy. Incremental improvement suggestions are analyzed, but, if selected, may not need rigorous validation or piloting. Innovative improvements such as new or redesigned processes are more transformational than incremental improvements. 增加的改进措施一般来源于做这些工作的人员(例如,过程或技 术的使用者)。增加的改进措施能够较简单或低成本的执行和推 广。增加的改进建议需要被分析,但是,如果已经选择了相关建 议,不需要严格的确认或试点。创新的改进措施例如新的或重新 设计的过程,则比增加的改进措施需要更多的转化。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 497 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Innovative improvements often arise out of a systematic search for solutions to particular performance issues or opportunities to improve performance. They are identified by those who are trained and experienced with the maturation of particular technologies or whose job it is to track or directly contribute to increased performance. 创新的改进措施经常产生于系统的研究,这些研究是针对解决特 殊的性能问题或改进性能的机会。他们凭借那些受过培训和经历 过成熟的特殊技术的人,或是跟踪或者直接服务于提高性能的工 作人员识别出创新的改进措施。 Innovations can be found externally by actively monitoring innovations used in other organizations or documented in the research literature. Innovations can also be found by looking internally (e.g., by examining project lessons learned). Innovations are inspired by the need to achieve quality and process performance objectives, the need to improve performance baselines, or the external business environment. 创新措施能够通过积极地监控用于其他组织或记录在研究文献上 的创新措施从外部建立。创新措施也能够从内部建立(例如,通 过考察项目的经验教训)。创新措施可以来源于实现质量和过程性 能目标的需求,改进性能基线的需求,或内部的业务环境的需求。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 498 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of incremental improvements include the following: 增加的改进措施,举例如下:  Adding an item to a peer review checklist. 增加一条同行评审的检查项  Combining the technical review and management review for suppliers into a single review. 针对供应商,将技术评审和管理评审合并成一个评审  Introducing an incident workaround. 提出一个新的工作区  Substituting a new component. 替代一个新的组件  Making minor updates to a tool. 对工具做一个小的更新 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 499 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of innovative improvements typically include additions or major updates to the following: 典型的创新的改进措施,包括增加的或主要的更新,举例如下:  Computer and related hardware products 计算机和相关的硬件产品  Transformational support tools 转化支持工具  New or redesigned workflows 新的或重新设计的工作流  Processes or lifecycle models 过程或生命周期模型  Interface standards 接口标准  Reusable components 重用组件  Management techniques and methodologies 管理技术和方法  Quality improvement techniques and methodologies 质量改进技术和方法  Development techniques and methodologies 开发技术和方法 Some suggested improvements may be received in the form of a proposal (e.g., an organizational improvement proposal arising from a causal analysis and resolution activity). These suggested improvements will have been analyzed and documented prior to input to Organizational Performance Management processes. When suggested improvements are received as proposals, the proposals are reviewed for 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 500 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 completeness and are evaluated as part of the selection process for implementation. 有些潜在的改进措施已经记录在建议表中(例如,从原因与解决 方案活动中提出的组织改进建议)。在纳入组织过程性能管理过程 之前,需要分析和记录这些潜在的改进措施。当潜在的改进措施 被当作建议所承认,这些建议需要进行完整性评审,并作为选择 执行过程的一部分进行评估。 Improvement searches can involve looking outside the organization, deriving innovations from projects using Causal Analysis and Resolution processes, using competitive business intelligence, or analyzing existing organizational performance. 改进研究涉及组织的外部的研究,使用原因与解决方案过程推动 项目创新,使用有竞争性的商业智能,或者分析存在的组织性能。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Suggested incremental improvements 已建议的增加的改进措施 2. Suggested innovative improvements 已建议的创新的改进措施 Subpractices 子实践 1. Elicit suggested improvements. 挖掘潜在的改进措施。 These suggestions document potential improvements to processes and technologies. Managers and staff in the organization as well as customers, end users, and suppliers can submit suggestions. The organization can also search the academic and technology communities for suggested improvements. Some suggested improvements may have been implemented at the project level before being proposed for the organization. 这些建议记录了潜在的过程和技术的改进措施。组织中的管 理者和员工和客户,最终用户,供应商一样提交建议。组织 需要对潜在的改进措施进行学术的研究和技术交流。在被组 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 501 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 织建议之前,有些潜在的改进措施已经在项目级执行了。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 502 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of sources for improvements include the following: 改进措施的举例如下:  Findings and recommendations from process appraisals 从过程评估中发现和建议  The organization’s quality and process performance objectives 组织的质量和过程性能目标  Analysis of data about customer and end-user problems as well as customer and end-user satisfaction 分析客户和最终用户的问题和满意度数据  Results of process and product benchmarking efforts 过程和产品基准报告  Measured effectiveness of process activities 过程活动的度量作用  Measured effectiveness of project work environments 项目工作环境的度量效果  Examples of improvements that were successfully adopted elsewhere 被其他地方成功采用的改进例子  Feedback on previous improvements 以前的改进措施的反馈  Spontaneous ideas from managers and staff 管理者和员工自发的建议  Improvement proposals from Causal Analysis and Resolution processes resulting from implemented actions with proven effectiveness 参照在原因分析与解决过程中已证明了执行活动的结果  Analysis of technical performance measures 技术性能度量项分析  Analysis of data on defect causes 缺陷原因数据分析  Analysis of project and organizational performance compared to quality and productivity objectives 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 503 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 项目和组织性能与质量和生产率的目标的对比分析 Refer to the Organizational Process Focus process area for more information about deploying organizational process assets and incorporating experiences. 关于推广组织过程资产和经验总结的更多的信息,请参考组 织过程焦点过程域。 2. Identify suggested improvements as incremental or innovative. 识别可以逐步的或创新的改进措施。 3. Investigate innovative improvements that may improve the organization's processes and technologies. 审查能改进组织过程和技术的创新的改进措施。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 504 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Investigating innovative improvements typically involves the following: 典型地审查创新的改进措施,包括如下:  Maintaining awareness of leading relevant technical work and technology trends 维护已知的主要的相关技术工作和技术趋势  Searching for commercially available innovative improvements 针对可用于商业的创新的改进措施的研究  Collecting proposals for innovative improvements from the projects and the organization 收集针对来源于项目和组织的创新的改进措施的建议  Reviewing processes and technologies used externally and comparing them to the processes and technologies used in the organization 评审已在内部应用的过程和技术,并与已在组织中应用的过 程和技术进行比较  Identifying areas where innovative improvements have been used successfully, and reviewing data and documentation of experience using these improvements 识别已经成功应用的创新措施,并评审应用这些改进措施的 数据和经验记录  Identifying improvements that integrate new technology into products and project work environments 识别将新技术集成到产品和项目工作环境中的改进措施 SP 2.2 Analyze Suggested Improvements 分析潜在的改进措施 Analyze suggested improvements for their possible impact on achieving the organization’s quality and process performance objectives. 分析潜在的改进措施,使它们促进组织质量和过程性能目标的 达成。 Suggested improvements are incremental and innovative improvements that are analyzed and possibly selected for validation, implementation, and deployment throughout the 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 505 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 organization. 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 分析渐进的和创新的改进措施,以便在整个组织中进行确认,执 行和推广。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 • Suggested improvement proposals 潜在的改进措施建议 • Selected improvements to be validated 选择已被确认的改进措施 Subpractices 子实践 1. Analyze the costs and benefits of suggested improvements. 分析潜在改进措施的成本和收益。 Process performance models provide insight into the effect of process changes on process capability and performance. 过程性能模型对在过程能力和性能的过程变化的影响进行 了洞察。 Refer to the Organizational Process Performance process area for more information about establishing process performance models. 关于建立过程性能模型的更多的信息,请参考组织过程性能 过程域。 Improvement suggestions that have a large cost-to-benefit ratio or that would not improve the organization’s processes may be rejected. 如果改进建议的成本和收益比率太大,或者不能改进组织的 过程,就拒绝此改进建议。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 506 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Criteria for evaluating costs and benefits include the following: 评估成本和收益的准则,包括如下:  Contribution toward meeting the organization’s quality and process performance objectives 为了满足组织质量和过程性能目标所做的贡献  Effect on mitigating identified project and organizational risks 可以缓解已识别的项目和组织的风险的影响  Ability to respond quickly to changes in project requirements, market situations, and the business environment 响应项目需求、市场形势和商业环境的快速变化的能力  Effect on related processes and associated assets 对于有关过程和相关资产的影响  Cost of defining and collecting data that support the measurement and analysis of the process and technology improvement 定义和搜集支持度量与分析过程与技术改进的数据的成本  Expected life span of the improvement 期望的改进生命周期 2. Identify potential barriers and risks to deploying each suggested improvement. 识别潜在的阈值和风险以达到推广每个潜在的改进措施的目 的。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 507 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of barriers to deploying improvements include the following: 推广改进措施的阈值,举例如下:  Turf guarding and parochial perspectives 固执和狭隘的观点  Unclear or weak business rationale 不明确或无说服力的商业理由  Lack of short-term benefits and visible successes 缺乏短期利益和可见的成功  Unclear picture of what is expected from everyone 人人期望的不明确的需求  Too many changes at the same time 同一时间变化太多  Lack of involvement and support from relevant stakeholders 相关干系人缺乏创新和支持不够 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 508 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of risk factors that affect the deployment of improvements include the following: 影响改进措施推广的风险因素,举例如下:  Compatibility of the improvement with existing processes, values, and skills of potential end users 对现有的过程、价值、最终用户潜在的能力改进的能力  Complexity of the improvement 改进的复杂性  Difficulty implementing the improvement 执行改进措施的难度  Ability to demonstrate the value of the improvement before widespread deployment 在广泛推广之前,说明改进价值的能力  Justification for large, up-front investments in areas such as tools and training 在某方面中广泛,前瞻性的投资,比如工具和培训  Inability to overcome ―technology drag‖ where the current implementation is used successfully by a large and mature installed base of end users 在当前最终用户中大规模成功和成熟实施时,克服“技术障 碍”的能力 3. Estimate the cost, effort, and schedule required for implementing, verifying, and deploying each suggested improvement. 针对实施、验证和推广每个潜在的改进措施,估计成本、工 作量和需要的进度。 4. Select suggested improvements for validation and possible implementation and deployment based on the evaluations. 根据评估,选择建议的改进措施,以便确认、执行和推广。 Refer to the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 509 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 for more information about analyzing possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. 关于依据建立的标准利用正式评估过程,评估已识别的备选 方案,以分析可能的决策的更多信息,请参考决策分析与解 决过程域。 5. Document the evaluation results of each selected improvement suggestion in an improvement proposal. 在改进建议中,记录每个挑选的改进建议的评估结果。 The proposal should include a problem statement, a plan (including cost and schedule, risk handling, method for evaluating effectiveness in the target environment) for implementing the improvement, and quantitative success criteria for evaluating actual results of the deployment. 这些建议包括问题状态,计划(包括成本和进度、风险处理、 在特定目标环境中评估效力的方法),以便执行改进措施、 量化用以评估推广的实际结果的成功标准。 6. Determine the detailed changes needed to implement the improvement and document them in the improvement proposal. 确定执行改进的变更细节,并记录在改进建议中。 7. Determine the validation method that will be used before broad-scale deployment of the change and document it in the improvement proposal. 在变更大规模推广之前,确定使用的确认方法,并记录在改 进建议中。 Determining the validation method includes defining the quantitative success criteria that will be used to evaluate results of the validation. 确定的确认方法,包括定义用于评估确认结果的量化的成功标 准。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 510 页 共 1064 页--- SP 2.3 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Since innovations, by definition, represent a major change with high impact, most innovative improvements will be piloted. Other validation methods, including modeling and simulation can be used as appropriate. 由于所谓的创新,代表着变化具有广泛的影响,所以,绝大部 分改进措施应进行试点。在适当的时候,可以应用其他的确认 方法,包括建模和模拟。 8. Document results of the selection process. 记录选择过程的结果。 Results of the selection process usually include the following: 选择过程的结果,通常包括以下方面:  The disposition of each suggested improvement 每个推荐措施的部署  The rationale for the disposition of each suggested improvement 每个推荐措施的部署的理由 Validate Improvements 确认改进措施 Validate selected improvements. 确认挑选的改进措施。 Selected improvements are validated in accordance with their improvement proposals. 确认已选择并与其改进建议一致的改进措施。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 511 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of validation methods include the following: 确认方法,举例如下: • Discussions with stakeholders, perhaps in the context of a formal review 和相关干系人的讨论,也许包含在正式评审的内容中 • Prototype demonstrations 原型演示 • Pilots of suggested improvements 推荐改进措施的试点 • Modeling and simulation 建模和模拟 Pilots can be conducted to evaluate significant changes involving untried, high-risk, or innovative improvements before they are broadly deployed. Not all improvements need the rigor of a pilot. Criteria for selecting improvements for piloting are defined and used. Factors such as risk, transformational nature of change, or number of functional areas affected will determine the need for a pilot of the improvement. 在大规模推广之前,可以对试点的重要变更进行评估,评估内容 包括未经试验的,高风险,或创新改进措施。并不是所有的改进 措施都需要严格的试点。组织需要定义和应用选择试点的改进措 施的标准。影响因素包括风险,变更的变化类型,或影响功能问 题的数量。在改进措施试点之前,需要确定这些影响因素。 Red-lined or rough-draft process documentation can be made available for use in piloting. 在试点中,需要确定重要的或初步拟定的过程文件的可用性。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Validation plans 确认计划 2. Validation evaluation reports 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 512 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 确认评估报告 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 3. Documented lessons learned from validation 确认的经验教训记录 Subpractices 子实践 1. Plan the validation. 策划确认活动。 Quantitative success criteria documented in the improvement proposal can be useful when planning validation. 在改进建议中记录的量化成功的标准,对策划确认很有用。 Validation plans for selected improvements to be piloted should include target projects, project characteristics, a schedule for reporting results, and measurement activities. 挑选用于试点的改进措施的确认计划,包括目标项目组,项 目特性,报告结果的进度,和度量活动。 2. Review and get relevant stakeholder agreement on validation plans. 评审确认计划,并得到相关干系人的认同。 3. Consult with and assist those who perform the validation. 与执行确认的人进行商议,并帮助他们。 4. Create a trial implementation, in accordance with the validation plan, for selected improvements to be piloted. 建立一个符合确认计划的执行测验,以便试点选择的改进措 施。 5. Perform each validation in an environment that is similar to the environment present in a broad scale deployment. 在一个与大范围推广相似的环境中,执行每个确认活动。 6. Track validation against validation plans. 依据确认计划跟踪确认活动。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 513 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 7. Review and document the results of validation. 评审并记录确认结果。 Validation results are evaluated using the quantitative criteria defined in the improvement proposal. 利用在改进建议中定义的量化标准,评估确认结果。 Reviewing and documenting results of pilots typically involves the following activities: 典型的试点结果的评审和记录,包括如下活动:  Reviewing pilot results with stakeholders 和相关干系人一起,评审试点结果  Deciding whether to terminate the pilot, rework implementation of the improvement, replan and continue the pilot, or proceed with deployment 决定是否结束试点,是否重新执行改进措施,是否重新策划 试点,是否继续试点,或者是否继续推广。  Updating the disposition of improvement proposals associated with the pilot 更新与试点相关的改进建议的实施。  Identifying and documenting new improvement proposals as appropriate 在必要时,识别和记录新的改进建议。  Identifying and documenting lessons learned and problems encountered during the pilot including feedback to the improvement team and changes to the improvement 在试点期间,识别并记录经验教训和遇到的问题,包括改进 项目反馈的和改进变更。 SP 2.4 Select and Implement Improvements for Deployment 选择和执 行改进措施以便推广 Select and implement improvements for deployment throughout the organization based on an evaluation of costs, benefits, and other factors. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 514 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 基于对成本、收益和其他因素的评估,选择和执行改进措施, 以便推广到整个组织。 Selection of suggested improvements for deployment is based on cost-to-benefit ratios with regard to quality and process performance objectives, available resources, and the results of improvement proposal evaluation and validation activities. 基于成本与收益比率,质量和过程性能目标,可用资源,改进建 议评估结果,确认活动的结果等,选择用以推广的改进措施。 Refer to the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area for more information about analyzing possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. 关于依据建立的标准使用正式评估过程,评估已识别的备选方案, 以分析可能的决策的更多的信息,请参考决策分析与解决过程域。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Improvements selected for deployment 针对推广,选择改进措施 2. Updated process documentation and training 更新的过程记录和培训 Subpractices 子实践 1. Prioritize improvements for deployment. 设定改进措施的优先级,以便推广。 The priority of an improvement is based on an evaluation of its estimated cost-to-benefit ratio with regard to the quality and process performance objectives as compared to the performance baselines. Return on investment can be used as a basis of comparison. 根据改进措施的成本与收益比率,和质量和过程性能目标, 与性能基线进行评估,来确定改进措施的优先级。投资回报 率通常是作为比较的基础。 2. Select improvements to be deployed. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 515 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 选择将推广的改进措施。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Selection of improvements to be deployed is based on their priorities, available resources, and results of improvement proposal evaluation and validation activities. 根据改进措施的优先级,可用资源,评估改进建议的结果, 确认的活动,选择将推广的改进措施。 3. Determine how to deploy each improvement. 确定推广每个改进措施的方式。 Examples of where the improvements may be deployed include the following: 改进措施推广的方面,举例如下:  Project specific or common work environments 特定项目或通用的工作环境  Product families 产品族  Organization’s projects 组织级项目  Organizational groups 组织团队 4. Document results of the selection process. 记录选择过程的结果。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 516 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Results of the selection process usually include the following: 选择过程的记录,通常包括如下方面:  The selection criteria for suggested improvements 已建议的改进措施的选择准则  The characteristics of the target projects 目标项目的特性  The disposition of each improvement proposal 每个改进建议的实施  The rationale for the disposition of each improvement proposal 每个改进建议实施的理由 5. Review any changes needed to implement the improvements. 评审需要执行的改进措施的所有变更。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 517 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of changes needed to deploy an improvement include the following: 需要部署的改进措施的变更,包括如下示例:  Process descriptions, standards, and procedures 过程描述,标准和程序文件  Work environments 工作环境  Education and training 教育和培训  Skills 技能  Existing commitments 现有的承诺  Existing activities 现有的活动  Continuing support to end users 最终用户持续的支持  Organizational culture and characteristics 组织文化和特性 6. Update the organizational process assets. 更新组织过程资产。 Updating the organizational process assets typically includes reviewing them, gaining approval for them, and communicating them. 更新组织过程资产,包括对它们进行评审,批准,和讨论。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets. 关于建立组织过程资产的更多的信息,请参照组织过程定义 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 518 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 过程域。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 SG 3 Deploy Improvements 推广改进措施 Measurable improvements to the organization’s processes and technologies are deployed and evaluated using statistical and other quantitative techniques. 利用统计和其他量化技术,对组织过程和技术的改进措施进行度量和评 估。 Once improvements are selected for deployment, a plan for deployment is created and executed. The deployment of improvements is managed and the effects of the improvements are measured and evaluated as to how well they contribute to meeting quality and process performance objectives. 一旦选择了用以推广的改进措施,就需要建立和执行推广计划。 如何更好的为满足质量和过程性能目标做出贡献,管理推广的改 进措施,度量和评估改进措施的效果。 SP 3.1 Plan the Deployment 策划推广工作 Establish and maintain plans for deploying selected improvements. 建立和维护选择的改进措施的推广计划。 The plans for deploying selected improvements can be included in the plan for organizational performance management, in improvement proposals, or in separate deployment documents. 推广改进措施的计划应包括组织性能管理的计划,在过程改进建 议中记录,或存在于独立的推广文档中。 This specific practice complements the Deploy Organizational Process Assets specific practice in the Organizational Process Focus process area and adds the use of quantitative data to guide the deployment and to determine the value of improvements. 此特定实践补充了组织过程焦点过程域中推广组织过程资产特定 实践,并增加了量化数据的用途以指导推广工作,确定改进措施 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 519 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 的价值。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Refer to the Organizational Process Focus process area for more information about deploying organizational process assets and incorporating experiences. 关于推广组织过程资产和经验总结的更多的信息,请参考组织过 程焦点过程域。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Eployment plans for selected improvements 已选择的改进措施的推广计划 Subpractices 子实践 1. Determine how each improvement should be adjusted for deployment. 确定每个改进如何调整以便于推广。 Improvements identified in a limited context (e.g., for a single improvement proposal) might need to be modified for a selected portion of the organization. 在限定环境中识别的改进措施(例如,对于一个简单的改进 建议)可能需要被修改以便于组织有选择的分配。 2. Identify strategies that address the potential barriers to deploying each improvement that were defined in the improvement proposals. 在改建建议中定义可能的阈值,以推广每个改进措施的识别 策略。 3. Identify the target project population for deployment of the improvement. 识别指定目标的项目成员以便改进推广。 Not all projects are good candidates for all improvements. For example, improvements may be targeted to software only projects, COTS integration projects, or operations and support projects. 不是所有的项目都是推广改进措施的好的候选者。例如,改 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 520 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 进措施也许是针对的仅仅是软件项目,商用现货集成项目, 或操作和支持项目。 4. Establish measures and objectives for determining the value of each improvement with respect to the organization’s quality and process performance objectives. 建立度量和目标以便于确定每个改进措施的价值,这些改进 措施关注于组织的质量和过程性能目标。 Measures can be based on the quantitative success criteria documented in the improvement proposal or derived from organizational objectives. 度量可以基于量化成功准则,这些准则记录在改进建议或源 于组织目标。 Examples of measures for determining the value of an improvement include the following: 度量以便确定改进措施的价值,举例如下:  Measured improvement in the project’s or organization’s process performance 度量项目的或组织的过程性能的改进  Time to recover the cost of the improvement 恢复改进成本的时间  Number and types of project and organizational risks mitigated by the process or technology improvement 通过过程或技术的改进缓解项目类型和组织风险的数量  Average time required to respond to changes in project requirements, market situations, and the business environment 在软件需求,市场形势,和业务环境中相应变化需要的平均 时间 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about aligning measurement and analysis activities and providing measurement results. 关于矫正度量、分析活动和提供度量结果的更多的信息,请 参考度量与分析过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 521 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 5. Document the plans for deploying selected improvements. 记录计划以便推广选择的改进措施。 The deployment plans should include relevant stakeholders, risk strategies, target projects, measures of success, and schedule. 推广计划应该包括相关干系人,风险策略,目标项目,成功 的测量,和进度表。 6. Review and get agreement with relevant stakeholders on the plans for deploying selected improvements. 评审推广已选择的措施计划,并得到相关干系人的认可。 Relevant stakeholders include the improvement sponsor, target projects, support organizations, etc. 相关干系人包括改进建议者,目标项目,支持组织,等等。 7. Revise the plans for deploying selected improvements as necessary. 在必要时,修改已选择的改进措施的推广计划。 SP 3.2 Manage the Deployment 管理推广工作 Manage the deployment of selected improvements. 管理选择改进措施的推广工作。 This specific practice can overlap with the Implement Action Proposals specific practice in the Causal Analysis and Resolution process area (e.g., when causal analysis and resolution is used organizationally or across multiple projects). 此特定实践与原因分析与解决过程域的执行行动建议的特定实践 有部分重叠(例如,当原因分析与解决应用于组织级或跨多个项 目的时候)。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Updated training materials (to reflect deployed improvements) 已更新的培训资料(针对推广改进措施的反映) 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 522 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Documented results of improvement deployment activities 记录改进措施推广活动的效果 3. Revised improvement measures, objectives, priorities, and deployment plans 修订改进措施度量,目标,优先级,和推广计划 Subpractices 子实践 1. Monitor the deployment of improvements using deployment plans. 利用推广计划,管理改进措施的推广工作。 2. Coordinate the deployment of improvements across the organization. 协调跨组织的改进措施的推广工作。 Coordinating deployment includes the following activities: 协调改进措施工作,包括如下活动:  Coordinating activities of projects, support groups, and organizational groups for each improvement 针对每个改进,协调项目组,支撑组,和组织团队的活动。  Coordinating activities for deploying related improvements 协调推广相关的改进措施的活动。 3. Deploy improvements in a controlled and disciplined manner. 推广改进措施需依据受控制和训练的方式。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 523 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of methods for deploying improvements include the following: 推广改进措施的方法,举例如下:  Deploying improvements incrementally rather than as a single deployment 推广增加的改进措施好过单一的改进措施的推广  Providing comprehensive consulting to early adopters of improvement in lieu of revised formal training 提供综合的咨询以替代修订的正式培训,能够尽早的促进改 进的采用。 4. Coordinate the deployment of improvements into the projects’ defined processes as appropriate. 在合适的时候,在项目级定义过程中,协调改进措施的推广。 Refer to the Organizational Process Focus process area for more information about deploying organizational process assets and incorporating experiences. 关于推广组织过程资产和组织经验的更多的信息,请参考组 织过程焦点过程域。 5. Provide consulting as appropriate to support deployment of improvements. 在适当的时候,提供咨询以支持改进措施的推广。 6. Provide updated training materials or develop communication packages to reflect improvements to organizational process assets. 改进措施到组织过程资产中提供已升级的培训资料或开发信 息包。 Refer to the Organizational Training process area for more information about providing training. 关于提供培训的更多的信息,请参照组织培训过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 524 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 7. Confirm that the deployment of all improvements is completed in accordance with the deployment plan. 确认所有的改进措施的工作已完成,并与推广计划一致。 8. Document and review results of improvement deployment. 记录和评审改进推广工作的结果。 Documenting and reviewing results includes the following: 记录和评审结果,包括如下:  Identifying and documenting lessons learned 识别和记录经验教训  Revising improvement measures, objectives, priorities, and deployment plans 修订改进度量项,目标,优先级和推广计划 SP 3.3 Evaluate Improvement Effects 评估改进效果 Evaluate the effects of deployed improvements on quality and process performance using statistical and other quantitative techniques. 利用统计和其他量化技术,评估推广质量和过程性能改进措施 的效果。 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about aligning measurement and analysis activities and providing measurement results. 关于协调度量分析活动和提供度量结果的更多的信息,请参考度 量与分析过程域。 This specific practice can overlap with the Evaluate the Effect of Implemented Actions specific practice in the Causal Analysis and Resolution process area (e.g., when causal analysis and resolution is applied organizationally or across multiple projects). 此特定实践与原因分析与解决过程域中的评估执行活动的效果的 特定实践有部分重叠(例如,当原因分析与解决应用于组织级或 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 525 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 跨多个项目的时候)。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Documented measures of the effects resulting from deployed improvements 记录影响推广改进措施的度量项 Subpractices 子实践 1. Measure the results of each improvement as implemented on the target projects, using the measures defined in the deployment plans. 利用在推广计划中定义的度量项,度量每个改进在特定目标 项目中执行的效果。 2. Measure and analyze progress toward achieving the organization’s quality and process performance objectives using statistical and other quantitative techniques and take corrective action as needed. 利用统计和其他量化技术,度量与分析组织质量和过程性能 目标过程。并在需要时,执行纠正活动。 Refer to the Organizational Process Performance process area for more information about establishing quality and process performance objectives and establishing process performance baselines and models. 关于建立质量和过程性能目标,建立过程性能基线和模型的 更多的信息,请参考组织过程性能过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 526 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS PERFORMANCE 组织过程性能 A Process Management Process Area at Maturity Level 4 成熟度 4 级的过程管理类过程域 Purpose 目的 The purpose of Organizational Process Performance (OPP) is to establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of selected processes in the organization’s set of standard processes in support of achieving quality and process performance objectives, and to provide process performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization’s projects. 组织过程性能(OPP)的目的在于建立并维护对组织标准过程集中 已选定的过程的量化认识,以支持取得质量与过程性能目标,并 提供过程性能数据、基线及模式,来量化地管理组织的项目。 Introductory Notes 简介 The Organizational Process Performance process area involves the following activities: 组织过程性能过程域包含如下这些活动: • Establishing organizational quantitative quality and process performance objectives based on business objectives (See the definition of “quality and process performance objectives” in the glossary.) 在商业目标的基础上,建立组织级量化的质量和过程性能 目标(参考在术语章节关于“质量与过程性能目标”的定 义。) • Selecting processes or subprocesses for process performance analyses 选择用来过程性能分析的过程或子过程 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 527 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 • Establishing definitions of the measures to be used in process performance analyses (See the definition of “process performance” in the glossary.) 建立可以用于过程性能分析的度量定义(参考在术语章节 关于“过程性能”的定义) • Establishing process performance baselines and process performance models (See the definitions of “process performance baselines” and “process performance models” in the glossary.) 建立过程性能基线和过程性能模型(参考在术语章节关于 “过程性能基线”和“过程性能模型”的定义) The collection and analysis of the data and creation of the process performance baselines and models can be performed at different levels of the organization, including individual projects or groups of related projects as appropriate based on the needs of the projects and organization. 数据的收集和分析以及建立过程性能基线和模型的活动可以在组 织的不同层次执行,包括独立项目或者根据项目和组织的需要建 立的相关联的项目群。 The common measures for the organization consist of process and product measures that can be used to characterize the actual performance of processes in the organization’s individual projects. By analyzing the resulting measurements, a distribution or range of results can be established that characterize the expected performance of the process when used on an individual project. 组织的常用度量由过程及产品度量所构成,可用以描述组织内的 独立项目的实际过程性能。通过分析度量的结果,可以建立结果 的分布或范围,并在独立项目执行中用来描述期望的过程性能。 Measuring quality and process performance can involve combining existing measures into additional derived measures to provide more insight into overall efficiency and effectiveness 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 528 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 at a project or organization level. The analysis at the organization level can be used to study productivity, improve efficiencies, and increase throughput across projects in the organization. 质量与过程性能度量可以将已经存在的度量组合成为另外的衍生 度量,以便在项目或组织级别提供效率和效果方面的更多洞察。 组织级别的分析能被用于研究组织中项目的生产力,提升效率, 增加生产量。 The expected process performance can be used in establishing the project’s quality and process performance objectives and can be used as a baseline against which actual project performance can be compared. This information is used to quantitatively manage the project. Each quantitatively managed project, in turn, provides actual performance results that become a part of organizational process assets that are made available to all projects. 预期过程性能可用来设定项目的质量及过程性能目标,亦可作为 与实际项目性能比较的基线。本信息用于以量化方式管理项目。 每个已量化管理的项目依序地提供实际的性能结果,以成为组织 过程资产的一部分,这些数据对所有项目是可用的。 Process performance models are used to represent past and current process performance and to predict future results of the process. For example, the latent defects in the delivered product can be predicted using measurements of work product attributes such as complexity and process attributes such as preparation time for peer reviews. 过程性能模型用于展现过去及目前的过程性能,并预测过程的未 来结果。例如,在预测交付产品中潜在的缺陷可以使用诸如复杂 度这样的工作产品属性以及诸如同行评审准备时间这样的过程属 性。 When the organization has sufficient measures, data, and analytical techniques for critical process, product, and service characteristics, it is able to do the following: 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 529 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 当组织对各项关键过程、产品及服务特性具有足够的度量、数据 及分析技术时,就可以进行下列事项: • Determine whether processes are behaving consistently or have stable trends (i.e., are predictable) 决定过程的表现是否具备一致性或有稳定的趋势(如,可 预测性) • Identify processes in which performance is within natural bounds that are consistent across projects and could potentially be aggregated 界定性能在自然边界的过程,此自然边界在项目间是一致 的,并且有可能进行聚合 • Identify processes that show unusual (e.g., sporadic, unpredictable) behavior 界定显示不正常(例如,偶发或不可预测的)行为的过程 • Identify aspects of processes that can be improved in the organization’s set of standard processes 界定组织标准过程中可改进的任何方面 • Identify the implementation of a process that performs best 界定实行最佳的过程 This process area interfaces with and supports the implementation of other high maturity process areas. The assets established and maintained as part of implementing this process area (e.g., the measures to be used to characterize subprocess behavior, process performance baselines, process performance models) are inputs to the quantitative project management, causal analysis and resolution, and organizational performance management processes in support of the analyses described there. Quantitative project management processes provide the quality and process performance data needed to maintain the assets described in this process area. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 530 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 过程域和其他高成熟度过程域相互作用,并支持它们的实施。作 为实施此过程域的一部分的已建立和维护的资产(如:度量被用 来描述子过程的行为,过程性能基线及过程性能模型)都是量化 项目管理、原因分析与解决和组织性能管理过程以支持分析的输 入。量化项目管理过程提供了质量与过程性能数据,这些数据需 要在过程域中资产描述进行维护。 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about specifying measures, obtaining measurement data, and analyzing measurement data. 关于如何指定度量,获得度量数据和分析度量数据的更多信息, 请参考度量与分析过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Performance Management process area for more information about proactively managing the organization’s performance to meet its business objectives. 关于主动管理组织性能以满足业务目标的更多信息,请参考组织 性能管理过程域。 Refer to the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about quantitatively managing the project to achieve the project’s established quality and process performance objectives. 关于量化管理项目以取得项目建立的质量与过程性能目标的更多 信息,请参考量化项目管理过程域。 Specific Goal and Practice Summary 特定目标及实践摘要 SG 1 Establish Performance Baselines and Models 建立性能基线及模型 SP 1.1 Establish Quality and Process Performance Objectives 设定质量及过程性能目标 SP 1.2 Select Processes 选定过程 SP 1.3 Establish Process Performance Measures 建立过程性能度量 SP 1.4 Analyze Process Performance and Establish Process Performance Baselines 分析过程性能并建立过程性能基线 SP 1.5 Establish Process Performance Models 建立过程性能模型 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 531 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 SG 1 Establish Performance Baselines and Models 建立性能基线及模式 Baselines and models, which characterize the expected process performance of the organization’s set of standard processes, are established and maintained. 建立并维护用以描述组织标准过程预期过程性能特性的基线及模型。 Prior to establishing process performance baselines and models, it is necessary to determine the quality and process performance objectives for those processes (the Establish Quality and Process Performance Objectives specific practice), which processes are suitable to be measured (the Select Processes specific practice), and which measures are useful for determining process performance (the Establish Process Performance Measures specific practice). 建立过程性能的基线与模型之前,应先决定过程的质量与过程性 能目标(建立质量与过程性能目标特定实践),这些过程适合被度 量(选定过程特定实践),这些度量对决定过程性能是有用的(建立 过程性能度量特定实践)。 The first three practices of this goal are interrelated and often need to be performed concurrently and iteratively to select quality and process performance objectives, processes, and measures. Often, the selection of one quality and process performance objective, process, or measure will constrain the selection of the others. For example, selecting a quality and process performance objective relating to defects delivered to the customer will almost certainly require selecting the verification processes and defect related measures. 这个目标的前三个实践彼此相互关联,而且常常需要并行和重复 地执行来选定质量与过程性能目标、过程集、度量集。通常,一 个质量与过程性能目标、过程或度量的选择将受到其他选择的约 束。例如,选择质量与过程性能目标与交付给客户的缺陷相关, 它们几乎肯定要求选择验证过程和缺陷相关的度量。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 532 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 The intent of this goal is to provide projects with the process performance baselines and models they need to perform quantitative project management. Many times these baselines and models are collected or created by the organization, but there are circumstances in which a project may need to create the baselines and models for themselves. These circumstances include projects that are not covered by the organization’s baselines and models. For these cases the project follows the practices in this goal to create its baselines and models. 这个目标的目的就是提供项目需要执行量化项目管理的过程性能 基线和模型。很多时候,这些基线和模型都是由组织来收集和创 建。但是项目中有客观情况,可能需要建立自己的基线和模型。 这些客观情况包括项目没有被组织基线和模型所覆盖。针对这些 情况,项目需要按照目标的实践去创建它的基线和模型。 SP 1.1 Establish Quality and Process Performance Objectives 设定质 量及过程性能目标 Establish and maintain the organization’s quantitative objectives for quality and process performance, which are traceable to business objectives. 设定并维护组织质量及过程性能的量化目标,并可以追溯到商 业目标。 The organization’s quality and process performance objectives can be established for different levels in the organizational structure (e.g., business area, product line, function, project) as well as at different levels in the process hierarchy. When establishing quality and process performance objectives, consider the following: 和在过程级别方面不同水平一样,组织的质量与过程性能目标能 被建立在不同的级别的组织架构中(例如,业务领域,产品线, 功能,项目)。在建立质量和过程性能目标时,应考虑如下几点: • Traceability to the organization’s business objectives 可追溯到组织的商业目标 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 533 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 • Past performance of the selected processes or subprocesses in context (e.g., on projects) 之前执行的已选定的过程或子过程的背景(如,在项目级别) • Multiple attributes of process performance (e.g., product quality, productivity, cycle time, response time) 过程性能的多个属性(如,产品质量,生产力,生命周期, 响应时间) • Inherent variability or natural bounds of the selected processes or subprocesses 原有的变化或已选定的过程或子过程的自然边界 The organization’s quality and process performance objectives provide focus and direction to the process performance analysis and quantitative project management activities. However, it should be noted that achieving quality and process performance objectives that are significantly different from current process capability requires use of techniques found in Causal Analysis and Resolution and Organizational Performance Management. 组织质量与过程性能目标提供过程性能分析和量化项目管理活动 的关注和方向。然而,应当注意要取得不同于当前过程能力的质 量与过程性能目标需要使用原因分析与解决和组织性能管理中的 技术。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Organization’s quality and process performance objectives 组织的质量与过程性能目标 Subpractices 子实践 1. Review the organization’s business objectives related to quality and process performance. 审查质量与过程性能相关的组织商业目标。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 534 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of business objectives include the following: 商业目标,举例如下: • Deliver products within budget and on time 在预算和预期内交付产品 • Improve product quality by a specified percent in a specified timeframe 在指定的时间内,将产品的质量提升到特定的百分比 • Improve productivity by a specified percent in a specified timeframe 在指定的时间内,将产品的生产力提升到特定的百分比 • Maintain customer satisfaction ratings 维护客户满意度比例 • Improve time-to-market for new product or service releases by a specified percent in a specified timeframe 在特定时间内,将新产品上市或服务交付的时间提升指 定百分比 • Reduce deferred product functionality by a specified percent in a specified timeframe 在指定的时间内,将功能产品延期率降低到指定的百分 比 • Reduce the rate of product recalls by a specified percent in a specified timeframe 在 指 定 的 时 间 内, 将 产 品 重复 调 用 率减 少 到 指 定的 百 分 比 • Reduce customer total cost of ownership by a specified percent in a specified timeframe 在指定的时间内,将客户关系总成本降低到指定的百分 比 • Decrease the cost of maintaining legacy products by a specified percent in a specified timeframe 在指定的时间内,减少维护产品遗留问题的成本 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 535 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Define the organization’s quantitative objectives for quality and process performance. 定义组织质量与过程性能的量化目标。 Quality and process performance objectives can be established for process or subprocess measurements (e.g., effort, cycle time, defect removal effectiveness) as well as for product measurements (e.g., reliability, defect density) and service measurements (e.g., capacity, response times) as appropriate. 质量与过程性能目标能被用来设定过程或子过程度量(例如,工 作量、周期时间及缺陷移除的有效性)、产品度量(例如,可靠 度及缺陷密度),以及适当的服务度量(例如,容量及反应时间) 的目标。 Examples of quality and process performance objectives include the following: 质量与过程性能目标,举例如下: • Achieve a specified defect escape rate, productivity, duration, capacity, or cost target 达成指定缺陷丢失率,生产效率,周期,能力或成本目标 • Improve the defect escape rate, productivity, duration, capacity, or cost performance by a specified percent of the process performance baseline in a specified timeframe 在指定的时间内,过程性能基线的缺陷逃逸率,生产效率, 周期,能力或成本提升到指定的百分比 • Improve service level agreement performance by a specified percent of the process performance baseline in a specified timeframe 在指定的时间内,将服务级别协议性能提升到过程性能基线 的一个指定的百分比 3. Define the priorities of the organization’s objectives for quality and process performance. 定义组织质量与过程性能目标的优先级。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 536 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 4. Review, negotiate, and obtain commitment to the organization’s quality and process performance objectives and their priorities from relevant stakeholders. 与相关干系人审查,协商和达到组织质量与过程性能目标及 其优先级并取得其承诺。 5. Revise the organization’s quantitative objectives for quality and process performance as necessary. 必要时修订组织质量与过程性能的量化目标。 Examples of when the organization’s quantitative objectives for quality and process performance may need to be revised include the following: 组织质量与过程性能量化目标的修订时机,举例如下: • When the organization’s business objectives change 当组织商业目标改变时 • When the organization’s set of standard processes change 当组织标准过程改变时 • When actual quality and process performance differ significantly from objectives 当实际的质量与过程性能与目标有显著差异时。 Select Processes 选择过程 Select processes or subprocesses in the organization’s set of standard processes to be included in the organization’s process performance analyses and maintain traceability to business objectives. 在组织标准过程中,选定将纳入组织过程性能分析的过程或子 过程并维护商业目标的追溯性。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets. 关于建立组织过程资产的更多信息,请参考组织过程定义过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 537 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 The organization’s set of standard processes consists of a set of standard processes that, in turn, are composed of subprocesses. 组织标准过程包含一组标准过程,而标准过程又由多个按序排列 的子过程所组成。 Typically, it is not possible, useful, or economically justifiable to apply statistical management techniques to all processes or subprocesses of the organization’s set of standard processes. Selection of processes or subprocesses is based on the quality and process performance objectives of the organization, which are derived from business objectives as described in the previous specific practice. 通常情况下,将统计的管理技术应用到组织标准过程的所有过程 或子过程是不可能、没有效果或不符合经济效益的。以组织的质 量与过程性能目标为基础,选择纳入量化过程性能分析的过程或 子过程,这些过程或子过程源于之前特定实践中描述的商业目标。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. List of processes or subprocesses identified for process performance analyses with rationale for their selection including traceability to business objectives 针对具有过程选择理由的过程性能分析而识别的过程或子过 程清单,这些理由包括与商业目标的追溯性 Subpractices 子实践 1. Establish the criteria to use when selecting subprocesses. 当选择子过程时,建立使用的标准。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 538 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of criteria that can be used for the selection of a process or subprocess for the organization’s process performance analysis include the following: 为了组织的过程性能分析,用来选择过程或子过程时的标准 的样例包括如下: • The process or subprocess is strongly related to key business objectives. 过程或子过程和关键业务目标有很强的相关性 • The process or subprocess has demonstrated stability in the past. 之前已经证明了过程或子过程是稳定的 • Valid historical data are currently available that is relevant to the process or subprocess. 确认与过程或子过程相关的历史数据当前是可用的 • The process or subprocess will generate data with sufficient frequency to allow for statistical management. 过程或子过程以足够的频率确定数据用来支持统计管理 • The process or subprocess is an important contributor to quality and process performance. 过程或子过程是执行质量与过程性能的一个重要因素 • The process or subprocess is an important predictor of quality and process performance. 过程或子过程是质量与过程性能的一个重要预测 • The process or subprocess is a factor important to understanding the risk associated with achieving the quality and process performance objectives. 过程或子过程是对于理解取得质量与过程性能目标相关 的风险一个重要的因素 • The quality of the measures and measurements associated with the process or subprocess (e.g., measurement system error) is adequate. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 539 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 与过程或子过程相关的度量质量和度量项是适当的(例 如,度量系统的缺陷) • Multiple measurable attributes that characterize process or subprocess behavior are available 多个度量属性用来描述过程或子过程行为是可用的 2. Select the subprocesses and document the rationale for their selection 选择子过程和的记录选择的根本原因。 Example approaches to identifying and evaluating subprocess alternatives as part of a selection include the following: 作为选择的一部分的备选子过程的识别和评估机制包括: • Causal analysis 原因分析 • Sensitivity analysis 敏感性分析 Refer to the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area for more information about analyzing possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. 关于使用一个正式的评估过程分析可能的决策,根据已建立 的标准来评估已识别的备选方案的更多信息,请参考决策分 析与解决过程域。 3. Establish and maintain traceability between the selected subprocesses, quality and process performance objectives, and business objectives. 建立和维护已选择的子过程、质量与过程性能目标和商业目 标的追溯性。 Examples of ways in which traceability can be expressed include the 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 540 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 following: 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 能用来表示追溯能力的方式举例如下: • Mapping of subprocesses to quality and process performance objectives 子过程和质量与过程性能目标的对应关系 • Mapping of subprocesses to business objectives 子过程和商业目标的对应关系 • Objective flow-down (e.g., Big Y to Vital X, Hoshin planning) 目标的分解(举例:大 Y 和关键 X,参与计划) • Balanced scorecard 平衡计分卡 • Quality Function Deployment (QFD) 质量功能分解 • Goal Question Metric 目标问题矩阵 • Documentation for a process performance model 过程性能模型记录 4. Revise the selection as necessary. 必要时修改选择。 It may be necessary to revise the selection in the following situations: 如果需要,按照以下方法进行修改: • The predictions made by process performance models result in too much variation to make them useful. 出现太大偏差时用过程性能模型预测使它们更有效 • The objectives for quality and process performance change. 质量与过程性能目标变化时 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 541 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 • The organization’s set of standard processes change. 组织的标准过程集变化时 • The underlying quality and process performance changes. 基本的质量与过程性能变化 SP 1.3 Establish Process Performance Measures 建立过程性能度量 Establish and maintain definitions of measures to be included in the organization’s process performance analyses. 建立并维护纳入组织过程性能分析的度量定义。 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about specifying measures. 关于指定度量的更多信息,请参考度量与分析过程域。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Definitions of selected measures of process performance with rationale for their selection including traceability to selected processes or subprocesses 所选定过程性能度量的定义,带有他们选择的根本原因,包 括已选择过程或子过程的课追溯性过程性能分析为已定义的 过程或子过程选择的基本原理包括可以追溯已选择的过程或 子过程。 Subpractices 子实践 1. Select measures that reflect appropriate attributes of the selected processes or subprocesses to provide insight into the organization’s quality and process performance. 选定那些反映已选择的过程或子过程合适属性的度量以洞察 对组织的质量与过程性能。 It is often helpful to define multiple measures for a process or subprocess to understand the impact of changes to the process and avoid sub-optimization. Also, it is often helpful to establish measures for both product and process attributes for the selected process and 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 542 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 subprocess, as well as its inputs, outputs, and resources (including people and the skill they bring) consumed. 为过程或子过程定义多个度量去理解过程变化带来的影响并避 免出现次最优化更为常用,而且,为已选择的过程的产品和过 程性能与子过程建立度量,如它的输入,输出,资源(包括人员 和他们带来的技能)和花费常常有用的。 The Goal Question Metric paradigm is an approach that can be used to select measures that provide insight into the organization’s quality and process performance objectives. It is often useful to analyze how these quality and process performance objectives can be achieved based on an understanding of process performance provided by the selected measures. 如何选择能适当洞察组织质量与过程性能目标的度量,可使用 目标问题矩阵的相关作法。分析质量与过程性能目标怎样能达 成的基础是对已选择的度量提供的过程性能理解。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 543 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of criteria used to select measures include the following: 选择度量的准则,举例如下: • Relationship of measures to the organization’s quality and process performance objectives 度量与组织质量和过程性能目标的相关关系 • Coverage that measures provide over the life of the product or service 度量对产品或服务生命期的涵盖度 • Visibility that measures provide into process performance 度量是否能表现过程性能 • Availability of measures 度量的可用性 • Frequency at which observations of the measure can be collected 度量数据的搜集频率 • Extent to which measures are controllable by changes to the process or subprocess 度量受过程或子过程改变的控制程度 • Extent to which measures represent the end users’ view of effective process performance 哪种度量可用以代表使用者对于有效过程性能的观点。 2. Establish operational definitions for the selected measures. 为已选择的度量建立可操作定义 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about specifying measures. 关于指定度量的信息的更多信息,请参考度量与分析过程域。 3. Incorporate selected measures into the organization’s set of common measures. 将所选定的度量纳入组织的常用度量中。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 544 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets. 关于何建立组织过程资产的更多信息,请参考组织过程定义过 程域。 4. Revise the set of measures as necessary. 必要时修订度量。 Measures are periodically evaluated for their continued usefulness and ability to indicate process effectiveness. 度量被用来周期性地评估他们持续的效用和能力,以便识别过程 有效性。 SP 1.4 Analyze Process Performance and Establish Process Performance Baselines 分析过程性能和建立过程性能基线 Analyze the performance of the selected processes, and establish and maintain the process performance baselines. 分析已经选择的过程性能并建立和维护组织过程性能基线。 The selected measures are analyzed to characterize the performance of the selected processes or subprocesses achieved on projects. This characterization is used to establish and maintain process performance baselines (See the definition of “process performance baseline” in the glossary.) These baselines are used to determine the expected results of the process or subprocess when used on a project under a given set of circumstances. 已选择的度量被用来分析描述已选择过程或子过程的性能在项目 中的预期。这个特性被用来建立和维护过程性能基线(参考术语 章节部分关于“过程性能基线”的定义)。当在一个给定环境下的 项目中使用时,这些基线被用来决定过程或子过程的期望结果。 Process performance baselines are compared to the organization’s quality and process performance objectives to 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 545 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 determine if the quality and process performance objectives are being achieved. 过程性能基线和组织质量与过程性能目标进行比较,以便决定是 否达成质量与过程性能目标。 The process performance baselines are a measurement of performance for the organization’s set of standard processes at various levels of detail. The processes that the process performance baselines can address include the following: 过程性能基线是组织标准过程不同详细程度的性能度量。能获取 过程性能基线的过程包括如下:  Sequence of connected processes 关联过程的顺序  Processes that cover the entire life of the project 涵盖整个项目生命周期的过程  Processes for developing individual work products 开发单独工作产品的过程 There can be several process performance baselines to characterize performance for subgroups of the organization. 组织可能需要多套过程性能基线,以描述组织的子群组性能特性。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 546 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of criteria used to categorize subgroups include the following: 用以分类组织子群组的准则,举例如下:  Product line 产品线  Line of business 业务线  Application domain 应用领域  Complexity 复杂度  Team size 团队规模  Work product size 工作产品规模  Process elements from the organization’s set of standard processes 从组织标准过程的过程元素 Tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes can significantly affect the comparability of data for inclusion in process performance baselines. Effects of tailoring should be considered in establishing baselines. Depending on the tailoring allowed, separate performance baselines may exist for each type of tailoring. 裁剪组织过程标准可能显著影响纳入过程性能基线的数据兼容 性。裁剪的结果应列入建立基线的考量。根据允许的裁剪,针对 每一种裁剪类型可能存在单独的性能基线。 Refer to the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about quantitatively managing the project to achieve the project’s established quality and process performance objectives. 关于量化管理项目以便取得项目已建立的质量与过程性能目标的 更多信息,请参考量化项目管理过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 547 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 1. Analysis of process performance data 分析过程性能数据 2. Baseline data on the organization’s process performance 组织过程性能的基线数据 Subpractices 子实践 1. Collect the selected measurements for the selected processes and subprocesses. 就已选择过程和子过程搜集已选择度量。 The process or subprocess in use when the measurement was taken is recorded to enable its use later. 正在使用度量的过程或子过程应加以记录,以便日后使用此纪 录。 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about specifying measurement data collection and storage procedures. 关于制定度量数据收集和存储过程的更多信息,请参考度量 与分析过程域。 2. Analyze the collected measures to establish a distribution or range of results that characterize the expected performance of selected processes or subprocesses when used on a project. 分析已收集的度量以便建立结果分布或范围用来描述已选择 在项目中运用的过程或子过程的期望性能。 This analysis should include the stability of the related process or subprocess, and the impacts of associated factors and context. Related factors include inputs to the process and other attributes that can affect the results obtained. The context includes the business context (e.g., domain) and significant tailoring of the organization’s set of standard processes. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 548 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 分析应该包含相关过程或子过程的稳定性,相关因素的影响和 背景。相关因素包括过程的输入和其他能被获得影响结果的属 性。背景包括商业背景(如,领域)和组织标准过程集的重要 裁剪。 The measurements from stable subprocesses in projects should be used when possible; other data may not be reliable. 可能时应当使用来自项目中稳定子过程的度量;其他数据不一 定可靠。 3. Establish and maintain the process performance baselines from collected measurements and analyses. 根据搜集的度量数据及分析结果,建立并维护过程性能基线。 Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about aligning measurement and analysis activities and providing measurement results. 关于设定度量与分析的活动和提供度量结果的更多信息,请 参考度量与分析过程域。 Process performance baselines are derived by analyzing collected measures to establish a distribution or range of results that characterize the expected performance for selected processes or subprocesses when used on a project in the organization. 过程性能基线来源于分析已搜集的度量数据建立结果的分 布与范围,用来描述组织的独立项目在使用选定过程或子过 程的预期性能。 4. Review and get agreement with relevant stakeholders about the process performance baselines. 与相关干系人审查过程性能基线,并达成协议。 5. Make the process performance information available across the organization in the measurement repository. 将组织过程性能信息纳入度量库,供整个组织使用。 The organization’s process performance baselines are used by projects to estimate the natural bounds for process performance. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 549 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 项目可使用组织过程度量基线用来估计过程性能的自然边 界。 6. Compare the process performance baselines to associated quality and process performance objectives to determine if those quality and process performance objectives are being achieved. 比较质量与过程性能目标与过程性能基线,以便判定这些质 量与过程性能目标是否正在被达成。 These comparisons should use statistical techniques beyond a simple comparison of the mean to gauge the extent of quality and process performance objective achievement. If the quality and process performance objectives are not being achieved, corrective actions should be considered. 这些比较应使用统计技术,除去一个简单的平均值去测量质量 与过程性能目标成果大小。如果质量与过程性能目标没有达成, 应该考虑纠正措施。 Refer to the Causal Analysis and Resolution process area for more information about determining causes of selected outcomes. 关于判定已选择输出的原因的更多信息,请参考原因分析与 解决过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Focus process area for more information about planning and implementing process actions. 关于计划和实施过程活动的更多信息,请参考组织过程聚焦 过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Performance Management for more information about analyzing process performance data and identifying potential areas for improvement. 关于分析过程性能数据和识别潜在改进区域的更多信息,请 参考组织过程性能管理。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 550 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 7. Revise the process performance baselines as necessary. 必要时修订过程性能基线。 Examples of when the organization’s process performance baselines may need to be revised include the following: 组织过程性能基线的修订时机,例如: • When processes change 当过程改变时 • When the organization’s results change 当组织的结果改变时 • When the organization’s needs change 当组织的需求改变时 • When suppliers’ processes change 当供应商的过程改变时 • When suppliers change 当供应商改变时 SP 1.5 Establish Process Performance Models 建立过程性能模型 Establish and maintain process performance models for the organization’s set of standard processes. 建立并维护组织标准过程的过程性能模型。 High maturity organizations generally establish and maintain a set of process performance models at various levels of detail that cover a range of activities that are common across the organization and address the organization’s quality and process performance objectives. (See the definition of “process performance model” in the glossary.) Under some circumstances, projects may need to create their own process performance models. 高成熟度组织通常在不同详细程度上建立和维护一个过程性能模 型集,这些过程性能模型覆盖贯穿组织一般的活动,这行过程性 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 551 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 能模型取得组织质量与过程性能目标(参考在术语章节关于“过 程性能模型”的定义)。在一些情况下,项目可能需要建立自己的 过程性能模型。 Process performance models are used to estimate or predict the value of a process performance measure from the values of other process, product, and service measurements. These process performance models typically use process and product measurements collected throughout the life of the project to estimate progress toward achieving quality and process performance objectives that cannot be measured until later in the project’s life. 配合其它过程、产品及服务度量获得的数值,过程性能模型可用 来估计或预测一个过程性能度量的数值。这些过程性能模型,通 常使用由整个执行过程所搜集的过程及产品度量数值,来估算只 有到项目执行过程后段才能实现质量和过程性能目标的进度。 Process performance models are used as follows: 过程性能模型应用范围如下: • The organization uses them for estimating, analyzing, and predicting the process performance associated with processes in and changes to the organization’s set of standard processes. 组织使用它们来估计、分析及预测与组织标准过程相关的过 程性能并修改组织的标准过程 • The organization uses them to assess the (potential) return on investment for process improvement activities. 组织使用它们来评估组织改进活动的(潜在)投资回报 • Projects use them for estimating, analyzing, and predicting the process performance of their defined processes. 项目使用它们来估计、分析及预测其已定义过程的过程性能 • Projects use them for selecting processes or subprocesses for use. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 552 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 项目使用它们来选择使用的过程或子过程 • Projects use them for estimating progress toward achieving the project’s quality and process performance objectives. 项目使用它们来估算达成项目质量与过程性能目标的进度 These measures and models are defined to provide insight into and to provide the ability to predict critical process and product characteristics that are relevant to the organization’s quality and process performance objectives. 这些度量及模型用来提供必要的洞察力及能力,以预测对组织质 量与过程性能目标有关的关键过程及产品特性。 Examples of process performance models include the following: 过程性能模型,例下: • System dynamics models 系统动态模型 • Regression models 回归模型 • Complexity models 复杂度模型 • Discrete event simulation models 离散事件模拟模型 • Monte Carlo simulation model 蒙特卡洛模拟模型 Refer to the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about quantitatively managing the project to achieve the project’s established quality and process performance objectives. 关于量化管理项目已定义的质量与过程性能目标的更多信息,请 参考量化管理过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 553 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Process performance models 过程性能模型 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Subpractices 子实践 1. Establish process performance models based on the organization’s set of standard processes and process performance baselines. 以组织标准过程及过程性能基线为基础,建立过程性能模型。 2. Calibrate process performance models based on the past results and current needs. 以过去的结果及目前的需求为基础,调整过程性能模型。 3. Review process performance models and get agreement with relevant stakeholders. 与相关干系人审查过程性能模型,并达成协议。 4. Support the projects’ use of process performance models. 支持项目使用的过程性能模型。 5. Revise process performance models as necessary. 必要时修订过程性能模型。 Examples of when process performance models may need to be revised include the following: 过程性能模型的修订时机,举例如下: • When processes change 当过程改变时 • When the organization’s results change 当组织的结果改变时 • When the organization’s quality and process performance objectives change 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 554 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 当组织的质量与过程性能目标改变时 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 555 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 ORGANIZATIONAL TRAINING 组织培训 A Process Management Process Area at Maturity Level 3 成熟度 3 级的过程管理类过程域 Purpose 目的 The purpose of Organizational Training (OT) is to develop skills and knowledge of people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently. 组织培训(OT)的目的在于提高组织成员的技能和知识,使其能 够高效的执行他们所担任角色的任务。 Introductory Notes 简介 Organizational Training addresses training provided to support the organization’s strategic business objectives and to meet the tactical training needs that are common across projects and support groups. Training needs identified by individual projects and support groups to meet their specific needs are handled at the project and support group level and are outside the scope of the Organizational Training process area. 组织培训包括支持组织战略商业目标和满足项目和支持团队的共 同的战术培训需求。各个项目和支持团队需要识别并提出自己团 队范围内所需要,但不被包含在组织级培训过程范围内的特定培 训需求。 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about planning needed knowledge and skills. 关于策划需要的知识和技能培训的更多信息,请参考项目策划过 程域。 An organizational training program involves the following activities: 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 556 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 组织培训过程包含以下活动: 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Identifying the training needed by the organization 识别组织培训需求  Obtaining and providing training to address those needs 获取和提供培训以满足这些需求  Establishing and maintaining a training capability 建立和维护培训能力  Establishing and maintaining training records 建立和维护培训记录  Assessing training effectiveness 评估培训效果 Effective training requires the assessment of needs, planning, instructional design, and appropriate training media (e.g., workbooks, computer software), as well as a repository of training process data. As an organizational process, the main components of training include a managed training development program, documented plans, staff with an appropriate mastery of disciplines and other areas of knowledge, and mechanisms for measuring the effectiveness of the training program. 有效的培训要求对需求、计划、课程设计,及适当的培训媒体(如 工作薄、计算机软件)进行评估,并需要对培训过程数据进行存储。 作为组织过程,培训的主要部件包括受管理的培训发展计划、文 档化的计划、掌握专业技能和其他领域知识的员工,以及度量培 训过程效率的机制。 Identifying process training needs is based primarily on the skills required to perform the organization’s set of standard processes. 主要依据执行组织标准过程集所需要的技能来识别过程培训需 求。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing standard processes. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 557 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 关于建立标准过程的更多信息,请参考组织过程定义过程域。 Certain skills can be effectively and efficiently imparted through vehicles other than classroom training experiences (e.g., informal mentoring). Other skills require more formalized training vehicles, such as in a classroom, by web-based training, through guided self study, or via a formalized on-the-job training program. The formal or informal training vehicles employed for each situation should be based on an assessment of the need for training and the performance gap to be addressed. The term “training” used throughout this process area is used broadly to include all of these learning options. 某些技能可以有效的通过课堂以外的方式传授(如非正式的指 导)。而其他的技能则需要更多的正式的培训方式,如课堂教学、 网络学习、引导自学,或正式的在职培训过程等等。采用正式或 非正式的培训方式,应该通过评估培训需求和培训执行效果之间 的差距来选择。本过程域中使用的术语“培训”泛指所有采用正 式或非正式方式的学习活动。 Success in training is indicated by the availability of opportunities to acquire the skills and knowledge needed to perform new and ongoing enterprise activities. 通过应用培训所获得的技能和知识执行企业新的或持续活动的有 效性,来衡量培训是否成功。 Skills and knowledge can be technical, organizational, or contextual. Technical skills pertain to the ability to use equipment, tools, materials, data, and processes required by a project or process. Organizational skills pertain to behavior within and according to the staff members’ organization structure, role and responsibilities, and general operating principles and methods. Contextual skills are the self-management, communication, and interpersonal abilities needed to successfully perform work in the organizational and social context of the project and support groups. 技能和知识可以是技术的、组织的、或人际关系的。 技术性的技 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 558 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 能是指项目或过程所需的设备、工具、材料、数据,和过程的使 用能力。 组织技能是指依据员工的组织结构、角色和职责,以及 一般性的操作准则和方法关于的行为。 人际关系技能是指在组织 和社会关系中,项目和支持团队成功执行所需的自我管理、沟通 和人际关系能力。 Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Refer to the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area for more information about analyzing possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. 关于使用正式的评估过程根据建立的准则分析可能的决策的更多 信息,请参考决策分析与解决过程域。 Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets. 关于建立组织级过程资产的更多信息,请参考组织过程定义过程 域。 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about planning needed knowledge and skills. 关于策划所需要的知识和技能的更多信息,请参考项目策划过程 域。 Specific Goal and Practice Summary 特定目标及实践摘要 SG 1 Establish an Organizational Training Capability 建立组织培训能力 SP 1.1 Establish Strategic Training Needs 建立战略性培训需求 SP 1.2 Determine Which Training Needs Are the Responsibility of the Organization 确定哪些培训需求是组织的责任 SP 1.3 Establish an Organizational Training Tactical Plan 建立组织培训实施计划 SP 1.4 Establish a Training Capability 建立培训能力 SG 2 Provide Training 提供培训 SP 2.1 Deliver Training 实施培训 SP 2.2 Establish Training Records 建立培训记录 SP 2.3 Assess Training Effectiveness 评估培训效果 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 559 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 SG 1 Establish an Organizational Training Capability 建立组织培训能力 A training capability, which supports the roles in the organization, is established and maintained. 建立与维护用以支持组织中各角色工作的培训能力。 The organization identifies training required to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to perform enterprise activities. Once the needs are identified, a training program addressing those needs is developed. 组织依据企业的执行活动识别培训需求,以发展必要的技能和知 识。一旦需求被识别,即可提出满足这些需求的培训计划。 SP 1.1 Establish Strategic Training Needs 建立战略性培训需求 Establish and maintain strategic training needs of the organization. 建立和维护组织的战略性培训需求。 Strategic training needs address long-term objectives to build a capability by filling significant knowledge gaps, introducing new technologies, or implementing major changes in behavior. Strategic planning typically looks two to five years into the future. 战略性培训需要建立长期目标以建立为弥补重大知识差距、引进 新技术,或者实施重大行为变更的能力。战略性培训计划通常需 要考虑未来二至五年的情况。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 560 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Examples of sources of strategic training needs include the following: 战略性培训需求,举例如下:  The organization’s standard processes 组织的标准过程  The organization’s strategic business plan 组织的战略业务计划  The organization’s process improvement plan 组织的过程改进计划  Enterprise level initiatives 企业层级的想法  Skill assessments 技能评估  Risk analyses 风险分析  Acquisition and supplier management 采购与供应商管理  Example Work Products 工作产品样例 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Training needs 培训需求 2. Assessment analysis 评估分析 Subpractices 子实践 1. Analyze the organization’s strategic business objectives and process improvement plan to identify potential training needs. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 561 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 分析组织战略业务目标和过程改进计划,以识别潜在的培训 需求。 2. Document the strategic training needs of the organization. 记录组织的战略性培训需求。 Examples of categories of training needs include the following: 培训需求分类,示例如下:  Process analysis and documentation 过程分析与文档化  Engineering (e.g., requirements analysis, design, testing, configuration management, quality assurance) 工程(如:需求分析、设计、测试、配置管理、质量保证)  Selection and management of suppliers 选择和管理供应商  Team building 团队建设  Management (e.g., estimating, tracking, risk management) 管理(如:估计、跟踪、风险管理)  Leadership 领导力  Disaster recovery and continuity of operations 灾难恢复与运作的持续性  Communication and negotiation skills 沟通和谈判技能 3. Determine the roles and skills needed to perform the organization’s set of standard processes. 确定执行组织标准过程集所需的角色和技能。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 562 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 4. Document the training needed to perform roles in the organization’s set of standard processes. 记录组织标准过程集中各角色所需的培训 5. Document the training needed to maintain the safe, secure, and continued operation of the business. 记录维护安全、保密,和业务操作持续性所需的培训。 6. Revise the organization’s strategic needs and required training as necessary. 必要时,修订组织战略性需求及所需要的培训。 SP 1.2 Determine Which Training Needs Are the Responsibility of the Organization 确定哪些培训需求是组织的责任 Determine which training needs are the responsibility of the organization and which are left to the individual project or support group. 确定哪些培训需求是组织的责任,以及哪些是项目和支持团队 自己的责任。 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about planning needed knowledge and skills. 关于策划所需要的知识和技能的培训的更多信息,请参考项目策 划过程域。 In addition to strategic training needs, organizational training addresses training requirements that are common across projects and support groups. Projects and support groups have the primary responsibility for identifying and addressing their training needs. The organization’s training staff is responsible for addressing only common cross-project and support group training needs (e.g., training in work environments common to multiple projects). In some cases, however, the organization’s training staff may address additional training needs of projects and support groups, as negotiated with them, in the context of the training resources available and the organization’s training 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 563 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 priorities. 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 除了战略性培训需求,组织级培训还包括跨项目和支持团队的公 共培训需求。项目和支持团队负责识别和提出他们的培训需求。 组织的培训人员负责识别跨项目和支持组织的公共培训需求(例 如,被多个项目共同使用的工作环境的培训)。然而,在某些情况 下,组织的训练人员在与项目组和支持团队协商后,可能提出额 外的培训需求,但前提是组织资源允许及组织级培训优先的原则 之下。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Common project and support group training needs 项目和支持团队的公共培训需求 2. Training commitments 培训承诺 Subpractices 子实践 1. Analyze the training needs identified by projects and support groups. 分析和识别项目和支持团队的培训需求。 Analysis of project and support group needs is intended to identify common training needs that can be most efficiently addressed organization wide. These needs analysis activities are used to anticipate future training needs that are first visible at the project and support group level. 分析项目和支持团队培训需求的目的是识别能够最有效的 满足整个组织范围的公共培训需求。这些需求分析的活动被 用来预测未来的培训需求,而这些未来的培训需求通常首先 出现在项目和支持团队的层面中。 2. Negotiate with projects and support groups on how their training needs will be satisfied. 与各个项目和支持团队协商,如何满足他们的培训需求。 The support provided by the organization’s training staff depends on the 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 564 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 training resources available and the organization’s training priorities. 在培训资源可用和组织培训优先级要求的前提下,由组织中 负责培训的员工提供支持。 Examples of training appropriately performed by the project or support group include the following: 适合由项目和支持团队提供的培训,示例如下:  Training in the application or service domain of the project 项目的应用或服务领域的培训  Training in the unique tools and methods used by the project or support group 项目或支持团队使用的专有工具和方法的培训  Training in safety, security, and human factors 安全、保密和人为因素的培训 SP 1.3 3. Document commitments for providing training support to projects and support groups. 记录将为项目和支持团队提供培训的承诺。 Establish an Organizational Training Tactical Plan 建立组织培 训实施计划 Establish and maintain an organizational training tactical plan. 建立与维护组织培训实施计划。 The organizational training tactical plan is the plan to deliver the training that is the responsibility of the organization and is necessary for individuals to perform their roles effectively. This plan addresses the near-term execution of training and is adjusted periodically in response to changes (e.g., in needs, in resources) and to evaluations of effectiveness. 组织培训计划是将培训交付实施的计划,是组织负责的,对个人 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 565 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 有效执行其角色是必需的。该计划强调近期培训的执行,会因相 关因素的变化(如:需求、资源)和效果评估而进行周期性的修 订。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Organizational training tactical plan 组织培训实施计划 Subpractices 子实践 1. Establish the content of the plan. 建立计划内容。 Organizational training tactical plans typically contain the following: 组织培训实施计划通常包括:  Training needs 培训需求  Schedules based on training activities and their dependencies 以培训活动及其依赖关系为基础的时间表  Methods used for training 培训的方法  Requirements and quality standards for training materials 培训教材的需求和质量标准  Training tasks, roles, and responsibilities 培训任务,角色和职责  Required resources including tools, facilities, environments, staffing, skills, and knowledge 所需的资源,包括:工具、设备、环境、人员、技能和知识 2. Establish commitments to the plan. 建立针对计划的承诺。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 566 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Documented commitments by those who are responsible for implementing and supporting the plan are essential for the plan to be effective. 为保证计划成效,要将负责执行和支持计划人员的承诺文档 化。 3. Revise the plan and commitments as necessary. 必要时,修订计划与承诺。 SP 1.4 Establish a Training Capability 建立培训能力 Establish and maintain a training capability to address organizational training needs. 建立与维护培训能力,以满足组织培训需要。 Refer to the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area for more information about analyzing possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. 关于使用正式的评估过程根据建立的准则分析可能的决策的更多 信息,请参考决策分析与解决过程域。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Training materials and supporting artifacts 培训材料和支持物品 Subpractices 子实践 1. Select appropriate approaches to satisfy organizational training needs. 选择合适的方法,以满足组织培训需求。 Many factors may affect the selection of training approaches, including audience specific knowledge, costs, schedule, and the work environment. Selecting an approach requires consideration of the means to provide skills and knowledge in the most effective way possible given the constraints. 许多因素会影响培训方法的选择,包括听众特定的知识、成 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 567 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 本、时间安排以及工作环境。选择方法时,需要考虑在既定 限制下,提供最有效的技能和知识的方法。 Examples of training approaches include the following: 培训方法,示例如下:  Classroom training 课堂培训  Computer aided instruction 计算机辅助教学  Guided self study 自学  Formal apprenticeship and mentoring programs 正式的师徒传授教学和监督程序  Facilitated videos 视频教学  Chalk talks 使用图解方式的演进  Brown bag lunch seminars 午餐讨论会  Structured on-the-job training 系统的在职培训 2. Determine whether to develop training materials internally or to acquire them externally. 决定内部开发培训材料还是从外部获取。 Determine the costs and benefits of internal training development and of acquiring training externally. 决定内部开发培训和从外部获得培训的成本与收益。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 568 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Example criteria that can be used to determine the most effective mode of knowledge or skill acquisition include the following: 可用以决定获取知识或技能最有效方式的准则,示例如下:  Applicability to work or process performance objectives 适用于工作或过程性能目标  Availability of time to prepare for project execution 准备项目执行的可用时间  Applicability to business objectives 适用于商业目标  Availability of in-house expertise 内部专家的可用性  Availability of training from external sources 外部培训的可用性 Examples of external sources of training include the following: 外部培训来源,示例如下:  Customer provided training 客户提供的培训  Commercially available training courses 可获得的商业培训课程  Academic programs 学术项目  Professional conferences 专业会议  Seminars 研讨会 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 569 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 3. Develop or obtain training materials. 开发或获取培训材料。 Training can be provided by the project, support groups, the organization, or an external organization. The organization’s training staff coordinates the acquisition and delivery of training regardless of its source. 培训可以由项目、支持团队、组织或外部组织提供。无论提 供来源如何,组织培训的工作人员应协调培训的获取与实 施。 Examples of training materials include the following: 培训材料,示例如下:  Courses 课程内容  Computer-aided instruction 计算机辅助教学  Videos 视频 4. Develop or obtain qualified instructors, instructional designers, or mentors. 开发或获得合格的讲师、课程设计者或导师。 To ensure that those who develop and deliver internal training have the necessary knowledge and training skills, criteria can be defined to identify, develop, and qualify them. The development of training, including self study and online training, should involve those who have experience in instructional design. In the case of external training, the organization’s training staff can investigate how the training provider determines which instructors will deliver the training. This selection of qualified instructors can also be a factor in selecting or continuing to use a training provider. 为确保开发和提供内部培训的人员具备必需的知识与培训 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 570 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 技能,可制定识别、开发与评定他们的准则。开发培训,包 括自学和在线学习,应该由具备课程设计经验的人员进行。 在由外部提供培训的情况下,组织培训的工作人员可以调查 培训提供商如何确定实施培训的讲师。选择合格的讲师可以 作为选择或继续使用培训提供商的因素。 5. Describe the training in the organization’s training curriculum. 说明组织培训课程的内容。 Examples of the information provided in training descriptions for each course include the following: 每个培训课程的信息,示例如下:  Topics covered in the training 培训覆盖的主题  Intended audience 预期培训对象  Prerequisites and preparation for participating 参加培训的前提条件和准备事项  Training objectives 培训目标  Length of the training 培训时长  Lesson plans 课程计划  Completion criteria for the course 课程的完成准则  Criteria for granting training waivers 免于培训的准则 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 571 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 6. Revise training materials and supporting artifacts as necessary. 必要时,修订培训材料和支持物品。 Examples of situations in which training materials and supporting artifacts may need to be revised include the following: 培训材料和支持物品修订的时机,示例如下:  Training needs change (e.g., when new technology associated with the training topic is available) 培训需求变化(例如:当与培训主题相关的新技术可用时)  An evaluation of the training identifies the need for change (e.g., evaluations of training effectiveness surveys, training program performance assessments, instructor evaluation forms) 培训效果评估识别出的需求变化(例如:培训效果评估调 查、培训过程绩效评估、教师评估表) SG 2 Provide Training 提供培训 Training for individuals to perform their roles effectively is provided. 提供个人培训,使其能够有效的执行其承担的角色。 When selecting people to be trained, the following should be considered: 选择受训人员时,应考虑如下事项:  Background of the target population of training participants 培训参与者的目标人群背景  Prerequisite background to receive training 受训的必备资格  Skills and abilities needed by people to perform their roles 人员执行其角色所需的技能和能力  Need for cross-discipline training for all disciplines, including 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 572 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 project management 针对各个学科的跨学科培训需求,包括项目管理  Need for managers to have training in appropriate organizational processes 管理人员接受适当的组织过程培训的需要  Need for training in basic principles of all appropriate disciplines or services to support staff in quality management, configuration management, and other related support functions 对员工提供在质量管理、配置管理,以及其他相关支持功能 领域中的基本工作要求或服务的支持需要  Need to provide competency development for critical functional areas 提供关键功能领域的能力发展的需要  Need to maintain competencies and qualifications of staff to operate and maintain work environments common to multiple projects 维持员工操作和维护跨项目的公共工作环境的能力与资格的 需要 SP 2.1 Deliver Training 实施培训 Deliver training following the organizational training tactical plan. 根据组织培训实施计划实施培训。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Delivered training course 实施的培训课程 Subpractices 子实践 1. Select those who will receive the training necessary to perform their roles effectively. 选择需要接受培训以有效执行其角色的受训人员。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 573 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Training is intended to impart knowledge and skills to people performing various roles in the organization. Some people already possess the knowledge and skills required to perform well in their designated roles. Training can be waived for these people, but care should be taken that training waivers are not abused. 培训的目的是向组织内承担各种角色的人员传授知识与技 能。某些人已经拥有良好执行他们承担的角色所需要的知识 和技能。对这些人来说,可以免除培训,但是要注意避免培 训豁免权被滥用。 2. Schedule the training, including any resources, as necessary (e.g., facilities, instructors). 排定培训时间表,包括任何必需的资源(如,设备、讲师)。 Training should be planned and scheduled. Training is provided that has a direct bearing on work performance expectations. Therefore, optimal training occurs in a timely manner with regard to imminent job performance expectations. 培训应该被计划和排定时间表。提供的培训对预期的工作绩 效有直接的影响。因此,最理想的培训对于工作绩效有立竿 见影的效果。 These performance expectations often include the following: 这些期望通常包括:  Training in the use of specialized tools 使用特定工具的培训  Training in procedures that are new to the person who will perform them 个人执行新程序时的培训 3. Deliver the training. 进行培训。 If the training is delivered by a person, then appropriate training 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 574 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 professionals (e.g., experienced instructors, mentors) should deliver the training. When possible, training is delivered in settings that closely resemble the actual work environment and includes activities to simulate actual work situations. This approach includes integration of tools, methods, and procedures for competency development. Training is tied to work responsibilities so that on-the-job activities or other outside experiences will reinforce the training within a reasonable time after the training was delivered. 如果培训是由一个人执行,培训应该由有合适培训经验的人 进行(如,有经验的讲师、指导员)。在可能的情况下,培训 应该在接近实际工作环境的情况下进行,并包括模拟实际工 作情况的活动。该方法包括用以发展能力的工具、方法和程 序的整合。培训应和工作责任结合,如此一来,在职的活动 或其它外来的经验,将在培训后一段合理的时间内得到加强。 4. Track the delivery of training against the plan. 跟踪培训是否按照计划进行。 SP 2.2 Establish Training Records 建立培训记录 Establish and maintain records of organizational training. 建立和维护组织培训记录。 This practice applies to the training performed at the organizational level. Establishment and maintenance of training records for project or support group sponsored training is the responsibility of each individual project or support group. 本实践应用于组织层面实施的培训。对于项目和支持团队自行进 行的培训,由他们自己负责建立和维护相应的培训记录。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Training records 培训记录 2. Training updates to the organizational repository 更新组织数据库中的培训信息 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 575 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 Subpractices子实践 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 1. Keep records of all students who successfully complete each training course or other approved training activity as well as those who are unsuccessful. 保存成功完成每个培训课程或其他已证实哪些未成功进行的 培训活动的学员记录。 2. Keep records of all staff who are waived from training. 保存所有免予培训员工的记录。 The rationale for granting a waiver should be documented, and both the manager responsible and the manager of the excepted individual should approve the waiver. 允许免予培训的理由应该被记录,并且应该获得负责经理与 直属经理的批准。 3. Keep records of all students who successfully complete their required training. 保留所有成功完成指定培训的学员记录。 4. Make training records available to the appropriate people for consideration in assignments. 让适当的人获取培训记录,作为工作分配的考虑依据。 Training records may be part of a skills matrix developed by the training organization to provide a summary of the experience and education of people, as well as training sponsored by the organization. 培训记录可以是培训组织所开发的技能矩阵的一部分,它提 供了关于个人的经验、受教育程度,以及组织所提供培训的 总结。 SP 2.3 Assess Training Effectiveness 评估培训效果 Assess the effectiveness of the organization’s training program. 评估组织培训程序的效果。 A process should exist to determine the effectiveness of training 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 576 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 (i.e., how well training is meeting the organization’s needs). 应存在确定培训效果的过程(例如,培训满足组织需要的程度)。 Examples of methods used to assess training effectiveness include the following: 用于评估培训效果的方法,示例如下:  Testing in the training context 对培训的内容进行测验  Post-training surveys of training participants 培训后,对受训人员的调查  Surveys of manager satisfaction with post-training effects 培训后,对管理人员的满意度进行调查  Assessment mechanisms embedded in courseware 课件中内嵌的评估机制 Measures can be taken to assess the benefits of training against both the project’s and organization’s objectives. Particular attention should be paid to the need for various training methods, such as training teams as integral work units. When used, work or process performance objectives should be unambiguous, observable, verifiable, and shared with course participants. The results of the training effectiveness assessment should be used to revise training materials as described in the Establish a Training Capability specific practice. 针对项目和组织目标,可采用度量来评估培训所产生的价值。对 不同培训方法的需要,应该加以注意,例如将培训团队视为一个 整体的工作单位。当实行度量时,工作或过程绩效目标应该是清 晰的、可观察的、可验证的,并且应该与课程参与者分享。培训 效果评估的结果,应该被用于修订培训材料,如“建立培训能力” 特定实践中所描述的那样。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Training effectiveness surveys 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 577 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 培训效果调查 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Training program performance assessments 培训流程绩效评估 3. Instructor evaluation forms 讲师评估表 4. Training examinations 培训测验 Subpractices 子实践 1. Assess in-progress or completed projects to determine whether staff knowledge is adequate for performing project tasks. 评估正在进行或已完成的项目,判断员工知识是否足以完成 项目中的任务。 2. Provide a mechanism for assessing the effectiveness of each training course with respect to established organizational, project, or individual learning (or performance) objectives. 针对已建立的组织、项目,或个人的学习(或绩效)目标, 提供评估每一培训课程成效的机制。 3. Obtain student evaluations of how well training activities met their needs. 获取学员对培训活动符合他们需要程度的评估。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 578 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 PRODUCT INTEGRATION 产品集成 An Engineering Process Area at Maturity Level 3 成熟度 3 级的工程类过程域 Purpose 目的 The purpose of Product Integration (PI) is to assemble the product from the product components, ensure that the product, as integrated, behaves properly (i.e., possesses the required functionality and quality attributes), and deliver the product. 产品集成(PI)的目的在于将产品组件整合成产品,确保整合后 的产品可以正确工作(也就是说具备必需的功能和质量特性)且 交付产品。 Introductory Notes 简介 This process area addresses the integration of product components into more complex product components or into complete products. 本过程域描述了如何将产品组件集成为更复杂的产品组件或完整 的产品。 The scope of this process area is to achieve complete product integration through progressive assembly of product components, in one stage or in incremental stages, according to a defined integration strategy and procedures. Throughout the process areas, where the terms “product” and “product component” are used, their intended meanings also encompass services, service systems, and their components. 这个过程域的范围是通过已定义的集成策略或规程,不断的在一 个阶段或增量阶段中持续集成产品组件,最终完成产品集成过程。 在这个过程域中,术语“产品”和“产品组件”的有效含义也包 括服务、服务系统以及它们的组件。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 579 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 A critical aspect of product integration is the management of internal and external interfaces of the products and product components to ensure compatibility among the interfaces. These interfaces are not limited to user interfaces, but also apply to interfaces among components of the product, including internal and external data sources, middleware, and other components that may or may not be within the development organization’s control but on which the product relies. Attention should be paid to interface management throughout the project. 产品集成的关键内容是管理产品和产品组件的内外部接口,以确 保接口之间的兼容性。这些接口不仅限于用户界面,还可以应用 于产品组件之间的接口,包括内外部的数据源、中间件、以及在 组织内或不在开发组织内控制但是该产品所依赖的其它组件。应 当关注整个项目过程中的接口管理。 Product integration is more than just a one-time assembly of the product components at the conclusion of design and fabrication. Product integration can be conducted incrementally, using an iterative process of assembling product components, evaluating them, and then assembling more product components. It can be conducted using highly automated builds and continuous integration of the completed unit tested product. This process can begin with analysis and simulations (e.g., threads, rapid prototypes, virtual prototypes, physical prototypes) and steadily progress through increasingly more realistic increments until the final product is achieved. In each successive build, prototypes (virtual, rapid, or physical) are constructed, evaluated, improved, and reconstructed based on knowledge gained in the evaluation process. The degree of virtual versus physical prototyping required depends on the functionality of the design tools, the complexity of the product, and its associated risk. There is a high probability that the product, integrated in this manner, will pass product verification and validation. For some products and services, the last integration phase will occur when they are deployed at the intended operational site. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 580 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 产品集成并不是在设计和构造阶段完成后进行一次产品组件组合 而已。使用一种集成产品组件的迭代的过程,对其进行评价,然 后装配更多的产品组件,就可以增量式进行产品集成。使用高度 自动化的构建和持续集成已完成单元测试的产品就可以进行产品 集成。这个过程可以由分析和模拟开始(例如,线程、快速原型、 虚拟原型、物理原型)并通过逐渐增加更多实际的功能,直至完 成最终的产品来稳步进行。每完成一次成功的构建,都要基于评 价过程中获得的知识来构建、评估、改进和重构原型(虚拟、快 速、物理)。所需的虚拟程度与物理原型化依赖于设计工具的功能、 产品的复杂性及其相关的风险。按照这种方式集成的产品通过产 品验证和确认的可能性很高。对于一些产品和服务,最终的集成 阶段是在计划的操作环境中部署产品的时候。 For product lines, products are assembled according to the product line production plan. The product line production plan specifies the assembly process, including which core assets to use and how product line variation is resolved within those core assets. 在产品线上,按照产品线生产计划组装产品。产品线生产计划中 制定组装过程,包括要使用哪些核心资产,以及如何在核心资产 内解决产品线产品线的变化。 In Agile environments, product integration is a frequent, often daily, activity. For example, for software, working code is continuously added to the code base in a process called ―continuous integration.‖ In addition to addressing continuous integration, the product integration strategy can address how supplier supplied components will be incorporated, how functionality will be built (in layers vs. ―vertical slices‖), and when to ―refactor.‖ The strategy should be established early in the project and be revised to reflect evolving and emerging component interfaces, external feeds, data exchange, and application program interfaces. (See ―Interpreting CMMI When Using Agile Approaches‖ in Part I.) 在敏捷环境下产品集成活动是一种频繁,通常是每日进行的活动。 例如,通过一种所谓的“持续集成”的过程将软件、工作代码不 断添加到代码库。除了实施持续集成外,产品集成策略能够说明 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 581 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 供应商如何提交要集成的组件,如何构建功能(在层与“垂直切 片”)和何时“重构”。在项目周期应当建立这个策略,并且进 行修订以反映不断演化和形成的组件接口、外部数据、数据交换、 以及程序接口。(请参考第一部分的“使用敏捷方法理解 CMMI”。) Related Process Areas 相关过程域 Refer to the Requirements Development process area for more information about identifying interface requirements. 关于识别接口需求方面更多的信息,请参考需求开发过程域。 Refer to the Technical Solution process area for more information about designing interfaces using criteria. 关于使用标准进行接口设计方面的更多信息,请参考技术解决过 程域。 Refer to the Validation process area for more information about performing validation. 关于执行确认方面的更多信息,请参考确认过程域。 Refer to the Verification process area for more information about performing verification. 关于执行验证方面的更多信息,请参考验证过程域。 Refer to the Configuration Management process area for more information about tracking and controlling changes. 关于跟踪和控制变更的更多信息,请参考配置管理过程域。 Refer to the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area for more information about analyzing possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. 有关按照既定标准去评估已识别的可选方案,并按照正式的评估 过程分析可选方案的更多信息,请参考决策分析与解决过程域。 Refer to the Risk Management process area for more information about identifying risks and mitigating risks. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 582 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 关于识别风险和减缓风险的更多信息,请参考风险管理过程域。 Refer to the Supplier Agreement Management process area for more information about managing the acquisition of products and services from suppliers. 关于管理从供应商处采购产品和服务的更多信息,请参考供应商 协议管理过程域。 Specific Goal and Practice Summary 特定目标和实践摘要 SG 1 Prepare for Product Integration 准备产品集成 SP 1.1 Establish an Integration Strategy 建立集成策略 SP 1.2 Establish the Product Integration Environment 建立产品集成环境 SP 1.3 Establish Product Integration Procedures and Criteria 建立产品集成流程和规则 SG 2 Ensure Interface Compatibility 确保接口兼容性 SP 2.1 Review Interface Descriptions for Completeness 审核接口描述的完备性 SP 2.2 Manage Interfaces 管理接口 SG 3 Assemble Product Components and Deliver the Product 集成产品组件并交付产品 SP 3.1 Confirm Readiness of Product Components for Integration 确定待集成的产品组件准备就绪 SP 3.2 Assemble Product Components 集成产品组件 SP 3.3 Evaluate Assembled Product Components 评估集成的产品组件 SP 3.4 Package and Deliver the Product or Product Component 封装并交付产品或产品组件 Specific Practices by Goal 各特定目标的特定实践 SG 1 Prepare for Product Integration 准备产品集成 Preparation for product integration is conducted. 进行产品集成的准备。 Preparing for the integration of product components involves establishing an integration strategy, establishing the environment for performing the integration, and establishing integration procedures and criteria. 准备产品组件集成涉及建立一个集成策略、建立执行集成的环境 并且建立一个集成流程和标准。 Preparation for integration starts early in the project. 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 583 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 在项目早期开始集成的准备。 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 SP 1.1 Establish an Integration Strategy 建立一个集成策略 Establish and maintain a product integration strategy. 建立并且维护一个产品集成策略。 The product integration strategy describes the approach for receiving, assembling, and evaluating the product components that comprise the product. 产品集成策略描述了如何接收、组合和评估构成产品的产品组件。 A product integration strategy addresses items such as the following: 一个产品集成策略针对如下方面:  Making product components available for integration (e.g., in what sequence) 使得产品组件可用于集成(例如,以怎样的顺序集成)  Assembling and evaluating as a single build or as a progression of incremental builds 组合并且评估一个单独构建或持续的增量构建  Including and testing features in each iteration when using iterative development 当采用迭代开发时,要包括和测试每个迭代中的特性  Managing interfaces 管理接口  Using models, prototypes, and simulations to assist in evaluating an assembly, including its interfaces 使用模型、原型或模拟方式来协助评估集成,包括其接口  Establishing the product integration environment 建立产品集成环境  Defining procedures and criteria 定义流程和规则  Making available the appropriate test tools and equipment 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 584 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 可用的适当测试工具和设备 【Step365.COM-译站】出品  Managing product hierarchy, architecture, and complexity 管理产品层级、架构和复杂性  Recording results of evaluations 记录评估结果  Handling exceptions 处理异常情况 The integration strategy should also be aligned with the technical approach described in the Project Planning process area and harmonized with the selection of solutions and the design of product and product components in the Technical Solution process area. 集成策略应当于项目策划过程域中描述的技术方法配合并与技术 解决过程域中产品和产品组件解决方案的选择和设计协调一致。 Refer to the Technical Solution process area for more information about selecting product component solutions and implementing the design. 关于选择产品组件解决方案和实施设计的更多的信息,请参考技 术解决过程域。 Refer to the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area for more information about analyzing possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. 关于如何使用一个正式评估过程分析可能的决定,参照已建立的 规则去评估已识别的可选方案更多相关的信息,请参考决策分析 与解决过程域。 Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about establishing and maintaining plans that define project activities. 关于建立并维护定义项目活动的计划的更多信息,请参考项目策 划过程域。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 585 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 Refer to the Risk Management process area for more information about identifying risks and mitigating risks. 关于识别风险和减缓风险的更多相关信息,请参考风险管理过程 域。 Refer to the Supplier Agreement Management process area for more information about managing the acquisition of products and services from suppliers. 关于如何管理从供应商处采购产品和服务的更多信息,请参考供 应商协议管理过程域。 The results of developing a product integration strategy are typically documented in a product integration plan, which is reviewed with stakeholders to promote commitment and understanding. Some of the items addressed in a product integration strategy are covered in more detail in the other specific practices and generic practices of this process area (e.g., environment, procedures and criteria, training, roles and responsibilities, involvement of relevant stakeholders). 开发一个产品集成策略通常需要记录在一个产品集成计划中,这 个计划需由项目干系人审核并取得相应承诺和理解。产品集成策 略中定义的一些其它条款在这个过程域的其它特定实践和通用实 践中(例如:环境、流程和规则、培训、角色和职责、以及与项 目有利益关系的项目干系人)更详细地进行介绍。 Example Work Products 工作产品样例 1. Product integration strategy 产品集成策略 2. Rationale for selecting or rejecting alternative product integration strategies 选择或拒绝其它可选的产品集成策略的理由 Subpractices 子实践 1. Identify the product components to be integrated. 识别待集成的产品组件。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 586 页 共 1064 页--- CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 2. Identify the verifications to be performed during the integration of the product components. 产品组件集成期间识别要执行的确认。 This identification includes verifications to be performed on interfaces. 这个确认信息包括确认接口的正常运行。 3. Identify alternative product component integration strategies. 识别可选的产品组件集成策略。 Developing an integration strategy can involve specifying and evaluating several alternative integration strategies or sequences. 开发一个集成策略需包括描述和评估多个可选集成策略方 案或集成顺序。 4. Select the best integration strategy. 选择最佳集成策略。 The availability of the following will need to be aligned or harmonized with the integration strategy: product components; the integration environment; test tools and equipment; procedures and criteria; relevant stakeholders; and staff who possess the appropriate skills. 下面的可用性信息需要与集成策略协调对应:产品组件、集 成环境、测试工具和设备、流程和规则、相关干系人以及具 备合适技能的人员。 5. Periodically review the product integration strategy and revise as needed. 定期的审核产品集成策略并在必要时进行修订。 Assess the product integration strategy to ensure that variations in production and delivery schedules have not had an adverse impact on the integration sequence or compromised the factors on which earlier decisions were made. 评估产品集成策略用以确保在产品中的各种变化和交付进 度不会影响集成顺序或早期已确定的妥协因素。 【翻译支持】思步科技(www.stepoo.com):实实在在的咨询、培训与 IT 工具服务者! 联系电话:(0571)87352760 客服邮箱:service@stepoo.com 投诉建议:info@stepoo.com ---第 587 页 共 1064 页--- SP 1.2 CMMI for Development, Version 1.3 【Step365.COM-译站】出品 6. Record the rationale for decisions made and deferred. 记录做出决策和延期的理由。 Establish the Product Integration Environment 建立产品集成 环境 Establish and maintain the environment needed to support the integration of the product components. 建立并且维护产品组件集成所需的环境。 The environment for product integration can either be acquired or developed. To establish an environment, requireme