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PROFILE.PDF

Specification Volume 2 Specification of the Bluetooth System Wireless connections made easy Profiles v1.0 B December 1st 1999 BLUETOOTH DOC Responsible Date / Day-Month-Year N.B. 01 Dec 99 e-mail address page 3 of 440 Document No. 1.C.47/1.0 B Status Profiles of the Bluetooth System Version 1.0B 3 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Profiles of the Bluetooth System Revision History The Revision History is shown in Appendix I on page 413 Contributors The persons who contributed to this specification are listed in Appendix II on page 421. page 4 of 440 Web Site This specification can also be found on the Bluetooth web site: http://www.bluetooth.com Disclaimer and copyright notice THIS SPECIFICATION IS PROVIDED “AS IS” WITH NO WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, NONINFRINGEMENT, FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ANY WARRANTY OTHERWISE ARISING OUT OF ANY PROPOSAL, SPECIFICATION OR SAMPLE. All liability, including liability for infringement of any proprietary rights, relating to use of information in this document is disclaimed. No license, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property rights are granted herein. Copyright © 1999 Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson, International Business Machines Corporation, Intel Corporation, Nokia Corporation, Toshiba Corporation . *Third-party brands and names are the property of their respective owners. 4 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B page 5 of 440 MASTER TABLE OF CONTENTS For the Core Specification, see Volume 1 Part K:1 GENERIC ACCESS PROFILE Contents .............................................................................................15 Foreword ...................................................................................19 1 Introduction ..........................................................................20 2 Profile Overview ...................................................................22 3 User Interface Aspects.........................................................25 4 Modes ..................................................................................29 5 Security Aspects ..................................................................33 6 Idle Mode Procedures ..........................................................37 7 Establishment Procedures ...................................................45 8 Definitions ............................................................................52 9 Annex A (Normative): Timers and Constants.......................56 10 Annex B (Informative): Information Flows of Related Procedures...........................................................................57 11 References...........................................................................60 Part K:2 SERVICE DISCOVERY APPLICATION PROFILE Contents .............................................................................................63 Foreword ...................................................................................65 1 Introduction ..........................................................................66 2 Profile Overview ...................................................................68 3 User Interface Aspects.........................................................72 4 Application Layer..................................................................73 5 Service Discovery ................................................................79 6 L2CAP..................................................................................82 7 Link Manager .......................................................................86 8 Link Control ..........................................................................88 9 References...........................................................................91 10 Definitions ............................................................................92 11 Appendix A (Informative): Service Primitives and the Bluetooth PDUS ...................................................................93 1 December 1999 5 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B page 6 of 440 Part K:3 CORDLESS TELEPHONY PROFILE Contents ............................................................................................ 97 1 Introduction ........................................................................ 100 2 Profile Overview................................................................. 103 3 Application Layer ............................................................... 108 4 TCS-BIN Procedures ......................................................... 110 5 Service Discovery Procedures........................................... 120 6 L2CAP Procedures ............................................................ 121 7 LMP Procedures Overview ................................................ 122 8 LC Features ....................................................................... 124 9 General Access Profile Interoperability Requirements ...... 126 10 Annex A (Informative): Signalling Flows ............................ 128 11 Timers and Counters ......................................................... 135 12 References ........................................................................ 136 13 List of Figures .................................................................... 137 14 List of Tables ...................................................................... 138 Part K:4 INTERCOM PROFILE Contents .......................................................................................... 141 1 Introduction ........................................................................ 143 2 Profile Overview................................................................. 145 3 Application Layer ............................................................... 148 4 TCS Binary......................................................................... 149 5 SDP Interoperability Requirements.................................... 153 6 L2CAP Interoperability Requirements................................ 154 7 Link Manager (LM) Interoperability Requirements............. 155 8 Link Control (LC) Interoperability Requirements................ 156 9 Generic Access Profile....................................................... 158 10 Annex A (Informative): Signalling flows ............................. 159 11 Timers and Counters ......................................................... 161 12 List of Figures .................................................................... 162 13 List of Tables ...................................................................... 163 6 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B page 7 of 440 Part K:5 SERIAL PORT PROFILE Contents ...........................................................................................167 Foreword .................................................................................169 1 Introduction ........................................................................170 2 Profile Overview .................................................................171 3 Application Layer................................................................174 4 RFCOMM Interoperability Requirements ...........................177 5 L2CAP Interoperability Requirements................................179 6 SDP Interoperability Requirements....................................181 7 Link Manager (LM) Interoperability Requirements .............183 8 Link Control (LC) Interoperability Requirements ................184 9 References.........................................................................186 10 List of Figures.....................................................................187 11 List of Tables ......................................................................188 Part K:6 HEADSET PROFILE Contents ...........................................................................................191 1 Introduction ........................................................................193 2 Profile Overview .................................................................196 3 Application Layer................................................................200 4 Headset Control Interoperability Requirements .................201 5 Serial Port Profile ...............................................................210 6 Generic Access Profile.......................................................214 7 References.........................................................................215 8 List of Figures.....................................................................216 9 List of Tables ......................................................................217 1 December 1999 7 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B page 8 of 440 Part K:7 DIAL-UP NETWORKING PROFILE Contents .......................................................................................... 221 1 Introduction ........................................................................ 223 2 Profile Overview................................................................. 226 3 Application Layer ............................................................... 230 4 Dialling and Control Interoperability Requirements............ 231 5 Serial Port Profile Interoperability Requirements ............... 235 6 Generic Access Profile Interoperability Requirements....... 238 7 References ........................................................................ 240 8 List of Figures .................................................................... 241 9 List of Tables ...................................................................... 242 Part K:8 FAX PROFILE Contents .......................................................................................... 245 1 Introduction ........................................................................ 246 2 Profile Overview................................................................. 249 3 Application Layer ............................................................... 253 4 Dialling and Control Interoperability Requirements............ 254 5 Serial Port Profile ............................................................... 256 6 Generic Access Profile Interoperability Requirements....... 259 7 References ........................................................................ 261 8 List of Figures .................................................................... 262 9 List of Tables ...................................................................... 263 8 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B page 9 of 440 Part K:9 LAN ACCESS PROFILE Contents ...........................................................................................267 1 Introduction ........................................................................269 2 Profile Overview .................................................................271 3 User Interface Aspects.......................................................275 4 Application Layer................................................................278 5 PPP ....................................................................................281 6 RFCOMM ...........................................................................284 7 Service Discovery ..............................................................285 8 L2CAP................................................................................287 9 Link Manager .....................................................................288 10 Link Control ........................................................................290 11 Management Entity Procedures.........................................291 12 APPENDIX A (Normative): Timers and counters ...............293 13 APPENDIX B (Normative): Microsoft Windows..................294 14 APPENDIX C (Informative): Internet Protocol (IP) .............295 15 List of Figures.....................................................................297 16 List of Tables ......................................................................298 17 References.........................................................................299 Part K:10 GENERIC OBJECT EXCHANGE PROFILE Contents ...........................................................................................303 Foreword .................................................................................305 1 Introduction ........................................................................306 2 Profile Overview .................................................................310 3 User Interface Aspects.......................................................312 4 Application Layer................................................................313 5 OBEX Interoperability Requirements .................................314 6 Serial Port Profile Interoperability Requirements ...............324 7 Generic Access Profile Interoperability Requirements.......326 8 References.........................................................................328 1 December 1999 9 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B page 10 of 440 Part K:11 OBJECT PUSH PROFILE Contents .......................................................................................... 331 Foreword ................................................................................. 333 1 Introduction ........................................................................ 334 2 Profile Overview................................................................. 338 3 User Interface Aspects....................................................... 340 4 Application Layer ............................................................... 344 5 OBEX ................................................................................. 348 6 Service Discovery .............................................................. 351 7 References ........................................................................ 353 Part K:12 FILE TRANSFER PROFILE Contents .......................................................................................... 357 Foreword ................................................................................. 359 1 Introduction ........................................................................ 360 2 Profile Overview................................................................. 364 3 User Interface Aspects....................................................... 367 4 Application Layer ............................................................... 370 5 OBEX ................................................................................. 374 6 Service Discovery .............................................................. 383 7 References ........................................................................ 385 Part K:13 SYNCHRONIZATION PROFILE Contents .......................................................................................... 389 Foreword ................................................................................. 391 1 Introduction ........................................................................ 392 2 Profile Overview................................................................. 396 3 User Interface Aspects....................................................... 399 4 Application Layer ............................................................... 402 5 IrMC Synchronization Requirements ................................. 404 6 OBEX ................................................................................. 406 7 Service Discovery .............................................................. 408 8 References ........................................................................ 411 10 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B page 11 of 440 Appendix I REVISION HISTORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Appendix II CONTRIBUTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Appendix III ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 INDEX 435 1 December 1999 11 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B page 12 of 440 12 1 December 1999 Part K:1 GENERIC ACCESS PROFILE This profile defines the generic procedures related to discovery of Bluetooth devices (idle mode procedures) and link management aspects of connecting to Bluetooth devices (connecting mode procedures). It also defines procedures related to use of different security levels. In addition, this profile includes common format requirements for parameters accessible on the user interface level. BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 14 of 440 14 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile CONTENTS page 15 of 440 1 Introduction ........................................................................................20 1.1 Scope.........................................................................................20 1.2 Symbols and conventions ..........................................................20 1.2.1 Requirement status symbols .........................................20 1.2.2 Signalling diagram conventions.....................................21 1.2.3 Notation for timers and counters ...................................21 2 Profile overview..................................................................................22 2.1 Profile stack ...............................................................................22 2.2 Configurations and roles ............................................................22 2.3 User requirements and scenarios ..............................................23 2.4 Profile fundamentals ..................................................................23 2.5 Conformance .............................................................................24 3 User interface aspects .......................................................................25 3.1 The user interface level..............................................................25 3.2 Representation of Bluetooth parameters ...................................25 3.2.1 Bluetooth device address (BD_ADDR) .........................25 3.2.2 3.2.1.1 Definition .........................................................25 3.2.1.2 Term on user interface level............................25 3.2.1.3 Representation ...............................................25 Bluetooth device name (the user-friendly name)...........25 3.2.3 3.2.2.1 Definition .........................................................25 3.2.2.2 Term on user interface level............................26 3.2.2.3 Representation ...............................................26 Bluetooth passkey (Bluetooth PIN) ...............................26 3.2.4 3.2.3.1 Definition .........................................................26 3.2.3.2 Terms at user interface level ...........................26 3.2.3.3 Representation ...............................................26 Class of Device .............................................................27 3.2.4.1 Definition .........................................................27 3.2.4.2 Term on user interface level............................27 3.2.4.3 Representation ...............................................27 3.3 Pairing ........................................................................................28 1 December 1999 15 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 16 of 440 4 Modes.................................................................................................. 29 4.1 Discoverability modes ................................................................ 29 4.1.1 Non-discoverable mode ................................................ 30 4.1.1.1 Definition......................................................... 30 4.1.1.2 Term on UI-level ............................................. 30 4.1.2 Limited discoverable mode ........................................... 30 4.1.3 4.1.2.1 Definition......................................................... 30 4.1.2.2 Conditions....................................................... 31 4.1.2.3 Term on UI-level ............................................. 31 General discoverable mode .......................................... 31 4.1.3.1 Definition......................................................... 31 4.1.3.2 Conditions....................................................... 31 4.1.3.3 Term on UI-level ............................................. 31 4.2 Connectability modes ................................................................ 31 4.2.1 Non-connectable mode ................................................. 31 4.2.1.1 Definition......................................................... 31 4.2.1.2 Term on UI-level ............................................. 32 4.2.2 Connectable mode ........................................................ 32 4.2.2.1 Definition......................................................... 32 4.2.2.2 Term on UI-level ............................................. 32 4.3 Pairing modes............................................................................ 32 4.3.1 Non-pairable mode........................................................ 32 4.3.1.1 Definition......................................................... 32 4.3.1.2 Term on UI-level ............................................. 32 4.3.2 Pairable mode ............................................................... 32 4.3.2.1 Definition......................................................... 32 4.3.2.2 Term on UI-level ............................................. 32 5 Security aspects ................................................................................ 33 5.1 Authentication ............................................................................ 33 5.1.1 Purpose......................................................................... 33 5.1.2 Term on UI level ............................................................ 33 5.1.3 Procedure ..................................................................... 34 5.1.4 Conditions ..................................................................... 34 5.2 Security modes .......................................................................... 34 5.2.1 Security mode 1 (non-secure)....................................... 36 5.2.2 Security mode 2 (service level enforced security)......... 36 5.2.3 Security modes 3 (link level enforced security)............. 36 16 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 17 of 440 6 Idle mode procedures ........................................................................37 6.1 General inquiry...........................................................................37 6.1.1 Purpose .........................................................................37 6.1.2 Term on UI level ............................................................37 6.1.3 Description ....................................................................38 6.1.4 Conditions .....................................................................38 6.2 Limited inquiry ............................................................................38 6.2.1 Purpose .........................................................................38 6.2.2 Term on UI level ............................................................39 6.2.3 Description ....................................................................39 6.2.4 Conditions .....................................................................39 6.3 Name discovery .........................................................................40 6.3.1 Purpose .........................................................................40 6.3.2 Term on UI level ............................................................40 6.3.3 Description ....................................................................40 6.3.3.1 Name request .................................................40 6.3.3.2 Name discovery ..............................................40 6.3.4 Conditions .....................................................................41 6.4 Device discovery ........................................................................41 6.4.1 Purpose .........................................................................41 6.4.2 Term on UI level ............................................................41 6.4.3 Description ....................................................................42 6.4.4 Conditions .....................................................................42 6.5 Bonding ......................................................................................42 6.5.1 Purpose .........................................................................42 6.5.2 Term on UI level ............................................................42 6.5.3 Description ....................................................................43 6.5.3.1 General bonding .............................................43 6.5.3.2 Dedicated bonding ..........................................44 6.5.4 Conditions .....................................................................44 1 December 1999 17 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 18 of 440 7 Establishment procedures................................................................ 45 7.1 Link establishment ..................................................................... 45 7.1.1 Purpose......................................................................... 45 7.1.2 Term on UI level ............................................................ 45 7.1.3 Description .................................................................... 46 7.1.3.1 B in security mode 1 or 2 ................................ 46 7.1.3.2 B in security mode 3 ....................................... 47 7.1.4 Conditions ..................................................................... 47 7.2 Channel establishment .............................................................. 48 7.2.1 Purpose......................................................................... 48 7.2.2 Term on UI level ............................................................ 48 7.2.3 Description .................................................................... 48 7.2.3.1 B in security mode 2 ....................................... 49 7.2.3.2 B in security mode 1 or 3 ................................ 49 7.2.4 Conditions ..................................................................... 49 7.3 Connection establishment ......................................................... 50 7.3.1 Purpose......................................................................... 50 7.3.2 Term on UI level ............................................................ 50 7.3.3 Description .................................................................... 50 7.3.3.1 B in security mode 2 ....................................... 50 7.3.3.2 B in security mode 1 or 3 ................................ 51 7.3.4 Conditions ..................................................................... 51 7.4 Establishment of additional connection ..................................... 51 8 Definitions .......................................................................................... 52 8.1 General definitions..................................................................... 52 8.2 Connection-related definitions ................................................... 52 8.3 Device-related definitions .......................................................... 53 8.4 Procedure-related definitions ..................................................... 54 8.5 Security-related definitions ........................................................ 54 9 Annex A (Normative): Timers and constants .................................. 56 10 Annex B (Informative): Information flows of related procedures.. 57 10.1 lmp-authentication ..................................................................... 57 10.2 lmp-pairing ................................................................................. 58 10.3 Service discovery....................................................................... 58 11 References.......................................................................................... 60 18 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile FOREWORD page 19 of 440 Interoperability between devices from different manufacturers is provided for a specific service and use case, if the devices conform to a Bluetooth SIGdefined profile specification. A profile defines a selection of messages and procedures (generally termed capabilities) from the Bluetooth SIG specifications and gives an unambiguous description of the air interface for specified service(s) and use case(s). All defined features are process-mandatory. This means that, if a feature is used, it is used in a specified manner. Whether the provision of a feature is mandatory or optional is stated separately for both sides of the Bluetooth air interface. 1 December 1999 19 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 1 INTRODUCTION page 20 of 440 1.1 SCOPE The purpose of the Generic Access Profile is: To introduce definitions, recommendations and common requirements related to modes and access procedures that are to be used by transport and application profiles. To describe how devices are to behave in standby and connecting states in order to guarantee that links and channels always can be established between Bluetooth devices, and that multi-profile operation is possible. Special focus is put on discovery, link establishment and security procedures. To state requirements on user interface aspects, mainly coding schemes and names of procedures and parameters, that are needed to guarantee a satisfactory user experience. 1.2 SYMBOLS AND CONVENTIONS 1.2.1 Requirement status symbols In this document (especially in the profile requirements tables), the following symbols are used: ‘M’ for mandatory to support (used for capabilities that shall be used in the profile); ’O’ for optional to support (used for capabilities that can be used in the profile); ‘C’ for conditional support (used for capabilities that shall be used in case a certain other capability is supported); ‘X’ for excluded (used for capabilities that may be supported by the unit but shall never be used in the profile); ’N/A’ for not applicable (in the given context it is impossible to use this capability). Some excluded capabilities are capabilities that, according to the relevant Bluetooth specification, are mandatory. These are features that may degrade operation of devices following this profile. Therefore, these features shall never be activated while a unit is operating as a unit within this profile. In this specification, the word shall is used for mandatory requirements, the word should is used to express recommendations and the word may is used for options. 20 1 December 1999 Introduction BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 21 of 440 1.2.2 Signalling diagram conventions The following arrows are used in diagrams describing procedures : A B PROC 1 PROC 2 PROC 3 PROC 4 PROC 5 MSG 1 MSG 2 MSG 3 MSG 4 Figure 1.1: Arrows used in signalling diagrams In the table above, the following cases are shown: PROC1 is a sub-procedure initiated by B. PROC2 is a sub-procedure initiated by A. PROC3 is a sub-procedure where the initiating side is undefined (may be both A or B). Dashed arrows denote optional steps. PROC4 indicates an optional sub-procedure initiated by A, and PROC5 indicates an optional sub-procedure initiated by B. MSG1 is a message sent from B to A. MSG2 is a message sent from A to B. MSG3 indicates an optional message from A to B, and MSG4 indicates a conditional message from B to A. 1.2.3 Notation for timers and counters Timers are introduced specific to this profile. To distinguish them from timers used in the Bluetooth protocol specifications and other profiles, these timers are named in the following format: ’TGAP(nnn)’. Introduction 1 December 1999 21 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 2 PROFILE OVERVIEW 2.1 PROFILE STACK page 22 of 440 Object Exchange Protocol (OBEX) Telephony Control Protocol (TCS) RFCOMM Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) Logical Link Control and Adaptiation Protocol (L2CAP) Link Manager Protocol (LMP) Baseband [Link Controller (LC)] Figure 2.1: Profile stack covered by this profile. The main purpose of this profile is to describe the use of the lower layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack (LC and LMP). To describe security related alternatives, also higher layers (L2CAP, RFCOMM and OBEX) are included. 2.2 CONFIGURATIONS AND ROLES For the descriptions in this profile of the roles that the two devices involved in a Bluetooth communication can take, the generic notation of the A-party (the paging device in case of link establishment, or initiator in case of another procedure on an established link) and the B-party (paged device or acceptor) is used. The A-party is the one that, for a given procedure, initiates the establishment of the physical link or initiates a transaction on an existing link. This profile handles the procedures between two devices related to discovery and connecting (link and connection establishment) for the case where none of the two devices has any link established as well as the case where (at least) one device has a link established (possibly to a third device) before starting the described procedure. 22 1 December 1999 Profile overview BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile A B page 23 of 440 A or C B A Figure 2.2: This profile covers procedures initiated by one device (A) towards another device (B) that may or may not have an existing Bluetooth link active. The initiator and the acceptor generally operate the generic procedures according to this profile or another profile referring to this profile. If the acceptor operates according to several profiles simultaneously, this profile describes generic mechanisms for how to handle this. 2.3 USER REQUIREMENTS AND SCENARIOS The Bluetooth user should in principle be able to connect a Bluetooth device to any other Bluetooth device. Even if the two connected devices don’t share any common application, it should be possible for the user to find this out using basic Bluetooth capabilities. When the two devices do share the same application but are from different manufacturers, the ability to connect them should not be blocked just because manufacturers choose to call basic Bluetooth capabilities by different names on the user interface level or implement basic procedures to be executed in different orders. 2.4 PROFILE FUNDAMENTALS This profile states the requirements on names, values and coding schemes used for names of parameters and procedures experienced on the user interface level. This profile defines modes of operation that are not service- or profile-specific, but that are generic and can be used by profiles referring to this profile, and by devices implementing multiple profiles. This profile defines the general procedures that can be used for discovering identities, names and basic capabilities of other Bluetooth devices that are in a mode where they can be discoverable. Only procedures where no channel or connection establishment is used are specified. This profile defines the general procedure for how to create bonds (i.e. dedicated exchange of link keys) between Bluetooth devices. Profile overview 1 December 1999 23 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 24 of 440 This profile describes the general procedures that can be used for establishing connections to other Bluetooth devices that are in mode that allows them to accept connections and service requests. 2.5 CONFORMANCE Bluetooth devices that do not conform to any other Bluetooth profile shall conform to this profile to ensure basic interoperability and co-existence. Bluetooth devices that conform to another Bluetooth profile may use adaptations of the generic procedures as specified by that other profile. They shall, however, be compatible with devices compliant to this profile at least on the level of the supported generic procedures. If conformance to this profile is claimed, all capabilities indicated mandatory for this profile shall be supported in the specified manner (process-mandatory). This also applies for all optional and conditional capabilities for which support is indicated. All mandatory capabilities, and optional and conditional capabilities for which support is indicated, are subject to verification as part of the Bluetooth certification program. 24 1 December 1999 Profile overview BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 3 USER INTERFACE ASPECTS page 25 of 440 3.1 THE USER INTERFACE LEVEL In the context of this specification, the user interface level refers to places (such as displays, dialog boxes, manuals, packaging, advertising, etc.) where users of Bluetooth devices encounters names, values and numerical representation of Bluetooth terminology and parameters. This profile specifies the generic terms that should be used on the user interface level. These terms should be translated into languages supported by the Bluetooth device according to tables provided by the Bluetooth SIG. 3.2 REPRESENTATION OF BLUETOOTH PARAMETERS 3.2.1 Bluetooth device address (BD_ADDR) 3.2.1.1 Definition BD_ADDR is the unique address of a Bluetooth device as defined in [1]. It is received from a remote device during the device discovery procedure. 3.2.1.2 Term on user interface level When the Bluetooth address is referred to on UI level, the term ’Bluetooth Device Address’ should be used. 3.2.1.3 Representation On BB level the BD_ADDR is represented as 48 bits [1]. On the UI level the Bluetooth address shall be represented as 12 hexadecimal characters, possibly divided into sub-parts separated by’:’. (E.g., ’000C3E3A4B69’ or ’00:0C:3E:3A:4B:69’.) At UI level, any number shall have the MSB -> LSB (from left to right) ’natural’ ordering (e.g., the number ’16’ shall be shown as ’0x10’). 3.2.2 Bluetooth device name (the user-friendly name) 3.2.2.1 Definition The Bluetooth device name is the user-friendly name that a Bluetooth device presents itself with. It is a character string returned in LMP_name_res as response to a LMP_name_req. User interface aspects 1 December 1999 25 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 26 of 440 3.2.2.2 Term on user interface level When the Bluetooth device name is referred to on UI level, the term ’Bluetooth Device Name’ should be used. 3.2.2.3 Representation The Bluetooth device name can be up to 248 bytes maximum according to [2]. It shall be coded according to Unicode UTF-8 (i.e. name entered on UI level may be down to 82 characters if UCS-2 is used). A device can not expect that a general remote device is able to handle more than the first 40 characters of the Bluetooth device name. If a remote device has limited display capabilities, it may use only the first 20 characters. 3.2.3 Bluetooth passkey (Bluetooth PIN) 3.2.3.1 Definition The Bluetooth PIN is used to authenticate two Bluetooth devices (that have not previously exchanged link keys) to each other and create a trusted relationship between them. The PIN is used in the pairing procedure (see Section 10.2) to generate the initial link key that is used for further authentication. The PIN may be entered on UI level but may also be stored in the device; e.g. in the case of a device without sufficient MMI for entering and displaying digits. 3.2.3.2 Terms at user interface level When the Bluetooth PIN is referred to on UI level, the term ’Bluetooth Passkey’ should be used. 3.2.3.3 Representation The Bluetooth PIN has different representations on different level. PINBB is used on baseband level, and PINUI is used on user interface level. PINBB is the PIN used by [1] for calculating the initialization key during the pairing procedure. PINUI is the character representation of the PIN that is entered on UI level. The transformation between PINBB and PINUI shall be according to Unicode UTF-8. According to [1], PINBB can be 128 bits (16 bytes). When PIN is entered on UI level (PINUI), it is to be coded into PINBB according to Unicode UTF-8 (i.e. if a 26 1 December 1999 User interface aspects BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 27 of 440 device supports entry of characters outside the Unicode range 0x00 - 0x7F, the maximum number of characters in the PINUI may be less than 16). Examples: User-entered code Corresponding PINBB[0..length-1] (value as a sequence of octets in hexadecimal notation) ’0123’ length = 4, value = 0x30 0x31 0x32 0x33 ’Ärlich’ length = 7, value = 0xC3 0x84 0x72 0x6C 0x69 0x63 0x68 All Bluetooth devices that support the bonding procedure and support PIN handling on UI level shall support UI level handling of PINs consisting of decimal digits. In addition, devices may support UI level handling of PINs consisting of general characters. If a device has a fixed PIN (i.e. PIN is stored in the device and cannot be entered on UI level during pairing), the PIN shall be defined using decimal digits. A device that is expected to pair with a remote device that has restricted UI capabilities should ensure that the PIN can be entered on UI level as decimal digits. 3.2.4 Class of Device 3.2.4.1 Definition Class of device is a parameter received during the device discovery procedure, indicating the type of device and which types of service that are supported. 3.2.4.2 Term on user interface level The information within the Class of Device parameter should be referred to as ’Bluetooth Device Class’ (i.e. the major and minor device class fields) and ’Bluetooth Service Type’ (i.e. the service class field). The terms for the defined Bluetooth Device Types and Bluetooth Service Types are defined in [11]. When using a mix of information found in the Bluetooth Device Class and the Bluetooth Service Type, the term ’Bluetooth Device Type’ should be used. 3.2.4.3 Representation The Class of device is a bit field and is defined in [11]. The UI-level representation of the information in the Class of device is implementation specific. User interface aspects 1 December 1999 27 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 28 of 440 3.3 PAIRING Two procedures are defined that make use of the pairing procedure defined on LMP level (LMP-pairing, see Section 10.2). Either the user initiates the bonding procedure and enters the passkey with the explicit purpose of creating a bond (and maybe also a secure relationship) between two Bluetooth devices, or the user is requested to enter the passkey during the establishment procedure since the devices did not share a common link key beforehand. In the first case, the user is said to perform ’bonding (with entering of passkey)’ and in the second case the user is said to ’authenticate using the passkey’. 28 1 December 1999 User interface aspects BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 4 MODES page 29 of 440 Procedure Ref. Support 1 Discoverability modes 4.1 Non-discoverable mode C1 Limited discoverable mode C2 General discoverable mode C2 2 Connectability modes 4.1.3.3 Non-connectable mode O Connectable mode M 3 Pairing modes 4.2.2.2 Non-pairable mode O Pairable mode C3 C1: If limited discoverable mode is supported, non-discoverable mode is mandatory, otherwise optional. C2: A Bluetooth device shall support at least one discoverable mode (limited or/and general). C3: If the bonding procedure is supported, support for pairable mode is mandatory, otherwise optional. Table 4.1: Conformance requirements related to modes defined in this section 4.1 DISCOVERABILITY MODES With respect to inquiry, a Bluetooth device shall be either in non-discoverable mode or in a discoverable mode. (The device shall be in one, and only one, discoverability mode at a time.) The two discoverable modes defined here are called limited discoverable mode and general discoverable mode. Inquiry is defined in [1]. When a Bluetooth device is in non-discoverable mode it does not respond to inquiry. A Bluetooth device is said to be made discoverable, or set into a discoverable mode, when it is in limited discoverable mode or in general discoverable mode. Even when a Bluetooth device is made discoverable it may be unable to respond to inquiry due to other baseband activity [1]. A Bluetooth device that does not respond to inquiry for any of these two reasons is called a silent device. Modes 1 December 1999 29 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 30 of 440 After being made discoverable, the Bluetooth device shall be discoverable for at least TGAP(103). 4.1.1 Non-discoverable mode 4.1.1.1 Definition When a Bluetooth device is in non-discoverable mode, it shall never enter the INQUIRY_RESPONSE state. 4.1.1.2 Term on UI-level Bluetooth device is ’non-discoverable’ or in ’non-discoverable mode’. 4.1.2 Limited discoverable mode 4.1.2.1 Definition The limited discoverable mode should be used by devices that need to be discoverable only for a limited period of time, during temporary conditions or for a specific event. The purpose is to respond to a device that makes a limited inquiry (inquiry using the LIAC). A Bluetooth device should not be in limited discoverable mode for more than TGAP(104). The scanning for the limited inquiry access code can be done either in parallel or in sequence with the scanning of the general inquiry access code. When in limited discoverable mode, one of the following options shall be used. 4.1.2.1.1 Parallel scanning When a Bluetooth device is in limited discoverable mode, it shall enter the INQUIRY_SCAN state at least once in TGAP(102) and scan for the GIAC and the LIAC for at least TGAP(101). 4.1.2.1.2 Sequential scanning When a Bluetooth device is in limited discoverable mode, it shall enter the INQUIRY_SCAN state at least once in TGAP(102) and scan for the GIAC for at least TGAP(101) and enter the INQUIRY_SCAN state more often than once in TGAP(102) and scan for the LIAC for at least TGAP(101). If an inquiry message is received when in limited discoverable mode, the entry into the INQUIRY_RESPONSE state takes precedence over the next entries into INQUIRY_SCAN state until the inquiry response is completed. 30 1 December 1999 Modes BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 31 of 440 4.1.2.2 Conditions When a device is in limited discoverable mode it shall set bit no 13 in the Major Service Class part of the Class of Device/Service field [11]. 4.1.2.3 Term on UI-level Bluetooth device is ’discoverable’ or in ’discoverable mode’. 4.1.3 General discoverable mode 4.1.3.1 Definition The general discoverable mode shall be used by devices that need to be discoverable continuously or for no specific condition. The purpose is to respond to a device that makes a general inquiry (inquiry using the GIAC). 4.1.3.2 Conditions When a Bluetooth device is in general discoverable mode, it shall enter the INQUIRY_SCAN state more often than once in TGAP(102) and scan for the GIAC for at least TGAP(101). A device in general discoverable mode shall not respond to a LIAC inquiry. 4.1.3.3 Term on UI-level Bluetooth device is ’discoverable’ or in ’discoverable mode’. 4.2 CONNECTABILITY MODES With respect to paging, a Bluetooth device shall be either in non-connectable mode or in connectable mode. Paging is defined in [1]. When a Bluetooth device is in non-connectable mode it does not respond to paging. When a Bluetooth device is in connectable mode it responds to paging. 4.2.1 Non-connectable mode 4.2.1.1 Definition When a Bluetooth device is in non-connectable mode it shall never enter the PAGE_SCAN state. Modes 1 December 1999 31 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 32 of 440 4.2.1.2 Term on UI-level Bluetooth device is ’non-connectable’ or in ’non-connectable mode’. 4.2.2 Connectable mode 4.2.2.1 Definition When a Bluetooth device is in connectable mode it shall periodically enter the PAGE_SCAN state. 4.2.2.2 Term on UI-level Bluetooth device is ’connectable’ or in ’connectable mode’. 4.3 PAIRING MODES With respect to pairing, a Bluetooth device shall be either in non-pairable mode or in pairable mode. In pairable mode the Bluetooth device accepts paring – i.e. creation of bonds – initiated by the remote device, and in non-pairable mode it does not. Pairing is defined in [1] and [2]. 4.3.1 Non-pairable mode 4.3.1.1 Definition When a Bluetooth device is in non-pairable mode it shall respond to a received LMP_in_rand with LMP_not_accepted with the reason pairing not allowed. 4.3.1.2 Term on UI-level Bluetooth device is ’non-bondable’ or in ’non-bondable mode’ or “does not accept bonding”. 4.3.2 Pairable mode 4.3.2.1 Definition When a Bluetooth device is in pairable mode it shall respond to a received LMP_in_rand with LMP_accepted (or with LMP_in_rand if it has a fixed PIN). 4.3.2.2 Term on UI-level Bluetooth device is ’bondable’ or in ’bondable mode’ or “accepts bonding”. 32 1 December 1999 Modes BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 5 SECURITY ASPECTS page 33 of 440 Procedure Ref. Support 1 Authentication 5.1 C1 2 Security modes 5.2 Security mode 1 O Security mode 2 C2 Security mode 3 C2 C1: If security mode 1 is the only security mode that is supported, support for authentication is optional, otherwise mandatory. (Note: support for LMP-authentication and LMP-pairing is mandatory according [2] independent of which security mode that is used.) C2: If security mode 1 is not the only security mode that is supported, then support for at least one of security mode 2 or security mode 3 is mandatory. Table 5.1: Conformance requirements related to the generic authentication procedure and the security modes defined in this section 5.1 AUTHENTICATION 5.1.1 Purpose The generic authentication procedure describes how the LMP-authentication and LMP-pairing procedures are used when authentication is initiated by one Bluetooth device towards another, depending on if a link key exists or not and if pairing is allowed or not. 5.1.2 Term on UI level ’Bluetooth authentication’. Security aspects 1 December 1999 33 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 5.1.3 Procedure Authentication start page 34 of 440 link yes authenticated already? no link key yes available? no fail no Initiate pairing? yes lmp_authentication ok fail lmp_pairing ok authentication failed authentication ok Figure 5.1: Definition of the generic authentication procedure. 5.1.4 Conditions The device that initiates authentication has to be in security mode 2 or in security mode 3. 5.2 SECURITY MODES The following flow chart describes where in the channel establishment procedures initiation of authentication takes place, depending on which security mode the Bluetooth device is in. 34 1 December 1999 Security aspects BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 35 of 440 Connectable mode Paging Link setup LMP_host_co nnection_req Query host Security mode 3 yes Device no rejected? LMP_not_ accepted LMP_accepted Security mode 1&2 LMP_accepted Authentication Encrypt Link setup complete L2CAP_Conn ectReq Query security DB Security mode 2 Security mode 1&3 rejected yes, if auth Access? L2CAP_Conn ectRsp(-) yes, no auth Authentication Encrypt L2CAP_Conn ectRsp(+) Figure 5.2: Illustration of channel establishment using different security modes. Security aspects 1 December 1999 35 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 36 of 440 When authentication is initiated towards a Bluetooth device, it shall act according to [2] and the current pairing mode, independent of which security mode it is in. 5.2.1 Security mode 1 (non-secure) When a Bluetooth device is in security mode 1 it shall never initiate any security procedure (i.e., it shall never send LMP_au_rand, LMP_in_rand or LMP_encryption_mode_req). 5.2.2 Security mode 2 (service level enforced security) When a Bluetooth device is in security mode 2 it shall not initiate any security procedure before a channel establishment request (L2CAP_ConnectReq) has been received or a channel establishment procedure has been initiated by itself. (The behavior of a device in security mode 2 is further described in [10].) Whether a security procedure is initiated or not depends on the security requirements of the requested channel or service. A Bluetooth device in security mode 2 should classify the security requirements of its services using at least the following attributes: • Authorization required; • Authentication required; • Encryption required. Note: Security mode 1 can be considered (at least from a remote device point of view) as a special case of security mode 2 where no service has registered any security requirements. 5.2.3 Security modes 3 (link level enforced security) When a Bluetooth device is in security mode 3 it shall initiate security procedures before it sends LMP_link_setup_complete. (The behavior of a device in security mode 3 is as described in [2].) A Bluetooth device in security mode 3 may reject the host connection request (respond with LMP_not_accepted to the LMP_host_connection_req) based on settings in the host (e.g. only communication with pre-paired devices allowed). 36 1 December 1999 Security aspects BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 6 IDLE MODE PROCEDURES page 37 of 440 The inquiry and discovery procedures described here are applicable only to the device that initiates them (A). The requirements on the behavior of B is according to the modes specified in Section 4 and to [2]. Procedure Ref. Support 1 General inquiry 6.1 C1 2 Limited inquiry 6.2 C1 3 Name discovery 6.3 O 4 Device discovery 6.4 O 5 Bonding 6.5 O C1: If initiation of bonding is supported, support for at least one inquiry procedure is mandatory, otherwise optional. (Note: support for LMP-pairing is mandatory [2].) 6.1 GENERAL INQUIRY 6.1.1 Purpose The purpose of the general inquiry procedure is to provide the initiator with the Bluetooth device address, clock, Class of Device and used page scan mode of general discoverable devices (i.e. devices that are in range with regard to the initiator and are set to scan for inquiry messages with the General Inquiry Access Code). Also devices in limited discoverable mode will be discovered using general inquiry. The general inquiry should be used by devices that need to discover devices that are made discoverable continuously or for no specific condition. 6.1.2 Term on UI level ’Bluetooth Device Inquiry’. Idle mode procedures 1 December 1999 37 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 6.1.3 Description A page 38 of 440 B" B’ B Inquiry (GIAC) inquiry_res inquiry_res list of Bluetooth Device Addresses Figure 6.1: General inquiry ,where B is a device in non-discoverable mode, B´ is a device in limited discoverable mode and B” is a device in general discoverable mode. (Note that all discoverable devices are discovered using general inquiry, independent of which discoverable mode they are in.) 6.1.4 Conditions When general inquiry is initiated by a Bluetooth device, it shall be in the INQUIRY state for at least TGAP(100) and perform inquiry using the GIAC. In order to receive inquiry response, the remote devices in range have to be made discoverable (limited or general). 6.2 LIMITED INQUIRY 6.2.1 Purpose The purpose of the limited inquiry procedure is to provide the initiator with the Bluetooth device address, clock, Class of Device and used page scan mode of limited discoverable devices. The latter devices are devices that are in range with regard to the initiator, and may be set to scan for inquiry messages with the Limited Inquiry Access Code, in addition to scanning for inquiry messages with the General Inquiry Access Code. The limited inquiry should be used by devices that need to discover devices that are made discoverable only for a limited period of time, during temporary conditions or for a specific event. Since it is not guaranteed that the 38 1 December 1999 Idle mode procedures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 39 of 440 discoverable device scans for the LIAC, the initiating device may choose any inquiry procedure (general or limited). Even if the remote device that is to be discovered is expected to be made limited discoverable (e.g. when a dedicated bonding is to be performed), the limited inquiry should be done in sequence with a general inquiry in such a way that both inquiries are completed within the time the remote device is limited discoverable, i.e. at least TGAP(103). 6.2.2 Term on UI level ’Bluetooth Device Inquiry’. 6.2.3 Description B" B’ A B Inquiry (LIAC) inquiry_res list of Bluetooth Device Addresses Figure 6.2: Limited inquiry where B is a device in non-discoverable mode, B’ is a device in limited discoverable mode and B” is a device in general discoverable mode. (Note that only limited discoverable devices can be discovered using limited inquiry.) 6.2.4 Conditions When limited inquiry is initiated by a Bluetooth device, it shall be in the INQUIRY state for at least TGAP(100) and perform inquiry using the LIAC. In order to receive inquiry response, the remote devices in range has to be made limited discoverable. Idle mode procedures 1 December 1999 39 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 6.3 NAME DISCOVERY page 40 of 440 6.3.1 Purpose The purpose of name discovery is to provide the initiator with the Bluetooth Device Name of connectable devices (i.e. devices in range that will respond to paging). 6.3.2 Term on UI level ’Bluetooth Device Name Discovery’. 6.3.3 Description 6.3.3.1 Name request Name request is the procedure for retrieving the Bluetooth Device Name from a connectable Bluetooth device. It is not necessary to perform the full link establishment procedure (see Section 7.1) in order to just to get the name of another device. A B Paging LMP_name_req LMP_name_res LMP_detach Figure 6.3: Name request procedure. 6.3.3.2 Name discovery Name discovery is the procedure for retrieving the Bluetooth Device Name from connectable Bluetooth devices by performing name request towards known devices (i.e. Bluetooth devices for which the Bluetooth Device Addresses are available). 40 1 December 1999 Idle mode procedures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 41 of 440 A list of Bluetooth Device Addresses B" B’ B Name request Name request Name request list of Bluetooth Device Names Figure 6.4: Name discovery procedure. 6.3.4 Conditions In the name request procedure, the initiator will use the Device Access Code of the remote device as retrieved immediately beforehand – normally through an inquiry procedure. 6.4 DEVICE DISCOVERY 6.4.1 Purpose The purpose of device discovery is to provide the initiator with the Bluetooth Address, clock, Class of Device, used page scan mode and Bluetooth device name of discoverable devices. 6.4.2 Term on UI level ’Bluetooth Device Discovery’. Idle mode procedures 1 December 1999 41 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 42 of 440 6.4.3 Description During the device discovery procedure, first an inquiry (either general or limited) is performed, and then name discovery is done towards some or all of the devices that responded to the inquiry. A initiate device discovery list of discovered Bluetooth devices (Bluetooth Device Addresses) list of discovered Bluetooth devices (Bluetooth Device Names) Inquiry B" B’ B make discoverable & connectable Name discovery Figure 6.5: Device discovery procedure. 6.4.4 Conditions Conditions for both inquiry (general or limited) and name discovery must be fulfilled (i.e. devices discovered during device discovery must be both discoverable and connectable). 6.5 BONDING 6.5.1 Purpose The purpose of bonding is to create a relation between two Bluetooth devices based on a common link key (a bond). The link key is created and exchanged (pairing) during the bonding procedure and is expected to be stored by both Bluetooth devices, to be used for future authentication. In addition to pairing, the bonding procedure can involve higher layer initialization procedures. 6.5.2 Term on UI level ’Bluetooth Bonding’ 42 1 December 1999 Idle mode procedures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 43 of 440 6.5.3 Description Two aspects of the bonding procedure are described here. Dedicated bonding is what is done when the two devices are explicitly set to perform only a creation and exchange of a common link key. General bonding is included to indicate that the framework for the dedicated bonding procedure is the same as found in the normal channel and connection establishment procedures. This means that pairing may be performed successfully if A has initiated bonding while B is in its normal connectable and security modes. The main difference with bonding, as compared to a pairing done during link or channel establishment, is that for bonding it is the paging device (A) that must initiate the authentication. 6.5.3.1 General bonding A B initiate bonding (BD_ADDR) Delete link key to paged device Link establishment make pairable update list of paired devices Channel establishment Higher layer initialisation Channel release LMP_detach Figure 6.6: General description of bonding as being the link establishment procedure executed under specific conditions on both devices, followed by an optional higher layer initalization process. Idle mode procedures 1 December 1999 43 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 6.5.3.2 Dedicated bonding page 44 of 440 A B initiate bonding Delete link key to paged device Paging LMP_name_req LMP_name_res LMP_host_connection_req LMP_accepted make pairable Authentication LMP_detach Figure 6.7: Bonding as performed when the purpose of the procedure is only to create and exchange a link key between two Bluetooth devices. 6.5.4 Conditions Before bonding can be initiated, the initiating device (A) must know the Device Access Code of the device to pair with. This is normally done by first performing device discovery. A Bluetooth Device that can initiate bonding (A) should use limited inquiry, and a Bluetooth Device that accepts bonding (B) should support the limited discoverable mode. Bonding is in principle the same as link establishment with the conditions: • The paged device (B) shall be set into pairable mode. The paging device (A) is assumed to allow pairing since it has initiated the bonding procedure. • The paging device (the initiator of the bonding procedure, A) shall initiate authentication. • Before initiating the authentication part of the bonding procedure, the paging device should delete any link key corresponding to a previous bonding with the paged device. • If the paging device does not intend to initiate any higher layer initialization during bonding, it need not send LMP_host_request before initiating authentication. 44 1 December 1999 Idle mode procedures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 7 ESTABLISHMENT PROCEDURES page 45 of 440 Procedure 1 Link establishment 2 Channel establishment 3 Connection establishment Ref. Support in A Support in B 7.1 M M 7.2 O M 7.3 O O Table 7.1: Establishment procedures The establishment procedures defined here do not include any discovery part. Before establishment procedures are initiated, the information provided during device discovery (in the FHS packet of the inquiry response or in the response to a name request) has to be available in the initiating device. This information is: • The Bluetooth Device Address (BD_ADDR) from which the Device Access Code is generated; • The system clock of the remote device; • The page scan mode used by the remote device. Additional information provided during device discovery that is useful for making the decision to initiate an establishment procedure is: • The Class of device; • The Device name. 7.1 LINK ESTABLISHMENT 7.1.1 Purpose The purpose of the link establishment procedure is to establish a physical link (of ACL type) between two Bluetooth devices using procedures from [1] and [2]. 7.1.2 Term on UI level ’Bluetooth link establishment’ Establishment procedures 1 December 1999 45 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 46 of 440 7.1.3 Description In this sub-section, the paging device (A) is in security mode 3. The paging device cannot during link establishment distinguish if the paged device (B) is in security mode 1 or 2. 7.1.3.1 B in security mode 1 or 2 A B init make connectable Paging Switch negotiation Link setup LMP_host_connection_req LMP_accepted Authentication Encryption negotiation Link setup complete Figure 7.1: Link establishment procedure when the paging device (A) is in security mode 3 and the paged device (B) is in security mode 1 or 2. 46 1 December 1999 Establishment procedures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 7.1.3.2 B in security mode 3 page 47 of 440 A B init make connectable Paging Switch negotiation Link setup LMP_host_connection_req LMP_accepted Authentication Authentication Encryption negotiation Link setup complete Figure 7.2: Link establishment procedure when both the paging device (A) and the paged device (B) are in security mode 3. 7.1.4 Conditions The paging procedure shall be according to [1] and the paging device should use the Device access code and page mode received through a previous inquiry. When paging is completed, a physical link between the two Bluetooth devices is established. If role switching is needed (normally it is the paged device that has an interest in changing the master/slave roles) it should be done as early as possible after the physical link is established. If the paging device does not accept the switch, the paged device has to consider whether to keep the physical link or not. Both devices may perform link setup (using LMP procedures that require no interaction with the host on the remote side). Optional LMP features can be used after having confirmed (using LMP_feature_req) that the other device supports the feature. Establishment procedures 1 December 1999 47 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 48 of 440 When the paging device needs to go beyond the link setup phase, it issues a request to be connected to the host of the remote device. If the paged device is in security mode 3, this is the trigger for initiating authentication. The paging device shall send LMP_host_connection_req during link establishment (i.e. before channel establishment) and may initiate authentication only after having sent LMP_host_connection_request. After an authentication has been performed, any of the devices can initiate encryption. Further link configuration may take place after the LMP_host_connection_req. When both devices are satisfied, they send LMP_setup_complete. Link establishment is completed when both devices have sent LMP_setup_complete. 7.2 CHANNEL ESTABLISHMENT 7.2.1 Purpose The purpose of the channel establishment procedure is to establish a Bluetooth channel (a logical link) between two Bluetooth devices using [3]. 7.2.2 Term on UI level ’Bluetooth channel establishment’. 7.2.3 Description In this sub-section, the initiator (A) is in security mode 3. During channel establishment, the initiator cannot distinguish if the acceptor (B) is in security mode 1 or 3. 48 1 December 1999 Establishment procedures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 7.2.3.1 B in security mode 2 page 49 of 440 A B established link L2CAP_ConnectReq Authentication Encryption negotiation L2CAP_ConnectRsp(+) Figure 7.3: Channel establishment procedure when the initiator (A) is in security mode 3 and the acceptor (B) is in security mode 2. 7.2.3.2 B in security mode 1 or 3 A B established link L2CAP_ConnectReq L2CAP_ConnectRsp(+) Figure 7.4: Channel establishment procedure when the initiator (A) is in security mode 3 and the acceptor (B) is in security mode 1 or 3. 7.2.4 Conditions Channel establishment starts after link establishment is completed when the initiator sends a channel establishment request (L2CAP_ConnectReq). Depending on security mode, security procedures may take place after the channel establishment has been initiated. Channel establishment is completed when the acceptor responds to the channel establishment request (with a positive L2CAP_ConnectRsp). Establishment procedures 1 December 1999 49 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 7.3 CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT page 50 of 440 7.3.1 Purpose The purpose of the connection establishment procedure is to establish a connection between applications on two Bluetooth devices. 7.3.2 Term on UI level ’Bluetooth connection establishment’ 7.3.3 Description In this sub-section, the initiator (A) is in security mode 3. During connection establishment, the initiator cannot distinguish if the acceptor (B) is in security mode 1 or 3. 7.3.3.1 B in security mode 2 A B established channel connect_est_req Authentication Encryption negotiation connect_est_acc Figure 7.5: Connection establishment procedure when the initiator (A) is in security mode 3 and the acceptor (B) is in security mode 2. 50 1 December 1999 Establishment procedures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 7.3.3.2 B in security mode 1 or 3 page 51 of 440 A B established channel connect_est_req connect_est_acc Figure 7.6: Connection establishment procedure when the initiator (A) is in security mode 3 and the acceptor (B) is in security mode 1 or 3. 7.3.4 Conditions Connection establishment starts after channel establishment is completed, when the initiator sends a connection establishment request (’connect_est_req’ is application protocol-dependent). This request may be a TCS SETUP message [5] in the case of a Bluetooth telephony application Cordless Telephony Profile, or initialization of RFCOMM and establishment of DLC [4] in the case of a serial port-based application Serial Port Profile (although neither TCS or RFCOMM use the term ’connection’ for this). Connection establishment is completed when the acceptor accepts the connection establishment request (’connect_est_acc’ is application protocol dependent). 7.4 ESTABLISHMENT OF ADDITIONAL CONNECTION When a Bluetooth device has established one connection with another Bluetooth device, it may be available for establishment of: • A second connection on the same channel, and/or • A second channel on the same link, and/or • A second physical link. If the new establishment procedure is to be towards the same device, the security part of the establishment depends on the security modes used. If the new establishment procedure is to be towards a new remote device, the device should behave according to active modes independent of the fact that it already has another physical link established (unless allowed co-incident radio and baseband events have to be handled). Establishment procedures 1 December 1999 51 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 8 DEFINITIONS page 52 of 440 In the following, terms written with capital letters refer to states. 8.1 GENERAL DEFINITIONS Mode A set of directives that defines how a device will respond to certain events. Idle As seen from a remote device, a Bluetooth device is idle, or is in idle mode, when there is no link established between them. Bond A relation between two Bluetooth devices defined by creating, exchanging and storing a common link key. The bond is created through the bonding or LMP-pairing procedures. 8.2 CONNECTION-RELATED DEFINITIONS Physical channel A synchronized Bluetooth baseband-compliant RF hopping sequence. Piconet A set of Bluetooth devices sharing the same physical channel defined by the master parameters (clock and BD_ADDR). Physical link A Baseband-level connection1 between two devices established using paging. A physical link comprises a sequence of transmission slots on a physical channel alternating between master and slave transmission slots. ACL link An asynchronous (packet-switched) connection1 between two devices created on LMP level. Traffic on an ACL link uses ACL packets to be transmitted. SCO link A synchronous (circuit-switched) connection1 for reserved bandwidth communications; e.g. voice between two devices, created on the LMP level by reserving slots periodically on a physical channel. Traffic on an SCO link uses SCO packets to be transmitted. SCO links can be established only after an ACL link has first been established. Link Shorthand for an ACL link. PAGE A baseband state where a device transmits page trains, and processes any eventual responses to the page trains. PAGE_SCAN A baseband state where a device listens for page trains. 1. The term ’connection’ used here is not identical to the definition below. It is used in the absence of a more concise term. 52 1 December 1999 Definitions BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 53 of 440 Page The transmission by a device of page trains containing the Device Access Code of the device to which the physical link is requested. Page scan The listening by a device for page trains containing its own Device Access Code. Channel A logical connection on L2CAP level between two devices serving a single application or higher layer protocol. Connection A connection between two peer applications or higher layer protocols mapped onto a channel. Connecting A phase in the communication between devices when a connection between them is being established. (Connecting phase follows after the link establishment phase is completed.) Connect (to service) The establishment of a connection to a service. If not already done, this includes establishment of a physical link, link and channel as well. 8.3 DEVICE-RELATED DEFINITIONS Discoverable device A Bluetooth device in range that will respond to an inquiry (normally in addition to responding to page). Silent device A Bluetooth device appears as silent to a remote device if it does not respond to inquiries made by the remote device. A device may be silent due to being non-discoverable or due to baseband congestion while being discoverable. Connectable device A Bluetooth device in range that will respond to a page. Trusted device A paired device that is explicitly marked as trusted. Paired device A Bluetooth device with which a link key has been exchanged (either before connection establishment was requested or during connecting phase). Pre-paired device A Bluetooth device with which a link key was exchanged, and the link key is stored, before link establishment. Un-paired device A Bluetooth device for which there was no exchanged link key available before connection establishment was request. Known device A Bluetooth device for which at least the BD_ADDR is stored. Un-known device A Bluetooth device for which no information (BD_ADDR, link key or other) is stored. Definitions 1 December 1999 53 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 54 of 440 Authenticated device A Bluetooth device whose identity has been verified during the lifetime of the current link, based on the authentication procedure. 8.4 PROCEDURE-RELATED DEFINITIONS Paging A procedure for establishing a physical link of ACL type on baseband level, consisting of a page action of the initiator and a page scan action of the responding device. Link establishment A procedure for establishing a link on LMP level. A link is established when both devices have agreed that LMP setup is completed. Channel establishment A procedure for establishing a channel on L2CAP level. Connection establishment A procedure for creating a connection mapped onto a channel. Creation of a trusted relationship A procedure where the remote device is marked as a trusted device. This includes storing a common link key for future authentication and pairing (if the link key is not available). Creation of a secure connection. A procedure of establishing a connection, including authentication and encryption. Device discovery A procedure for retrieving the Bluetooth device address, clock, class-of-device field and used page scan mode from discoverable devices. Name discovery A procedure for retrieving the user-friendly name (the Bluetooth device name) of a connectable device. Service discovery Procedures for querying and browsing for services offered by or through another Bluetooth device. 8.5 SECURITY-RELATED DEFINITIONS Authentication A generic procedure based on LMP-authentication if a link key exists or on LMP-pairing if no link key exists. LMP-authentication An LMP level procedure for verifying the identity of a remote device. The procedure is based on a challenge-response mechanism using a random number, a secret key and the BD_ADDR of the non-initiating device. The secret key used can be a previously exchanged link key or an initialization key created based on a PIN (as used when pairing). Authorization A procedure where a user of a Bluetooth device grants a specific (remote) Bluetooth device access to a specific service. Authorization 54 1 December 1999 Definitions BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 55 of 440 implies that the identity of the remote device can be verified through authentication. Authorize The act of granting a specific Bluetooth device access to a specific service. It may be based upon user confirmation, or given the existence of a trusted relationship. LMP-pairing A procedure that authenticates two devices, based on a PIN, and subsequently creates a common link key that can be used as a basis for a trusted relationship or a (single) secure connection. The procedure consists of the steps: creation of an initialization key (based on a random number and a PIN), LMP-authentication based on the initialization key and creation of a common link key. Bonding A dedicated procedure for performing the first authentication, where a common link key is created and stored for future use. Trusting The marking of a paired device as trusted. Trust marking can be done by the user, or automatically by the device (e.g. when in pairable mode) after a successful pairing. Definitions 1 December 1999 55 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 56 of 440 9 ANNEX A (NORMATIVE): TIMERS AND CONSTANTS The following timers are required by this profile. Timer name Recommended value Description Comment TGAP(100) 10.24 s Normal time span that a Bluetooth device performs inquiry. Used during inquiry and device discovery. TGAP(101) 10.625 ms Minimum time in INQUIRY_SCAN. A discoverable Bluetooth device enters INQUIRY_SCAN for at least TGAP(101) every TGAP(102). TGAP(102) 2.56 s Maximum time between repeated INQUIRY_SCAN enterings. Maximum value of the inquiry scan interval, Tinquiry scan. TGAP(103) 30.72 s A Bluetooth device shall not be in a discoverable mode less than TGAP(103). Minimum time to be discoverable. TGAP(104) 1 min A Bluetooth device should not be in limited discoverable mode more than TGAP(104). Recommended upper limit. Table 9.1: Defined GAP timers 56 1 December 1999 Annex A (Normative): Timers and constants BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 57 of 440 10 ANNEX B (INFORMATIVE): INFORMATION FLOWS OF RELATED PROCEDURES 10.1 LMP-AUTHENTICATION The specification of authentication on link level is found in [2]. Verifier (initiator) init_authentication secret key (link key or Kinit) Generate random number Claimant secret key (link key or Kinit) lmp_au_rand Calculate challenge lmp_sres Calculate response Compare result (ok or fail) Figure 10.1: LMP-authentication as defined by [2]. The secret key used here may be either an already exchanged link key or an initialization key created in the LMP-pairing procedure. Annex B (Informative): Information flows of related procedures 1 December 1999 57 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 10.2 LMP-PAIRING The specification of pairing on link level is found in [2]. page 58 of 440 init_pairing Verifier (Initiator) Generate random number Claimant LMP_in_rand LMP_accepted PIN PIN Calculate Kinit Calculate Kinit Link Key lmp-authentication create link key Link Key Figure 10.2: LMP-pairing as defined in [2]. The PIN used here is PNBB. The create link key procedure is described in section 3.3.4 of [2] and section 14.2.2 of [1]. In case the link key is based on a combination key, a mutual authentication takes place and shall be performed irrespective of current security mode. 10.3 SERVICE DISCOVERY The Service Discovery Protocol [6] specifies what PDUs are used over-the-air to inquire about services and service attributes. The procedures for discovery of supported services and capabilities using the Service Discovery Protocol are described in the Service Discovery Application Profile. This is just an example. 58 1 December 1999 Annex B (Informative): Information flows of BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile page 59 of 440 A initiate service discovery B make connectable Link establishment Channel establishment service discovery session Channel release LMP_detach Figure 10.3: Service discovery procedure. Annex B (Informative): Information flows of related procedures 1 December 1999 59 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Generic Access Profile 11 REFERENCES [1] Bluetooth Baseband Specification [2] Bluetooth Link Manager Protocol [3] Bluetooth Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol [4] Bluetooth RFCOMM [5] Bluetooth Telephony Control Specification [6] Bluetooth Service Discovery Protocol [7] Bluetooth Service Discovery Application Profile [8] Bluetooth Cordless Telephony Profile [9] Bluetooth Serial Port Profile [10] Bluetooth Security Architecture (white paper) [11] Bluetooth Assigned Numbers page 60 of 440 60 1 December 1999 References Part K:2 SERVICE DISCOVERY APPLICATION PROFILE This document defines the features and procedures for an application in a Bluetooth device to discover services registered in other Bluetooth devices and retrieve any desired available information pertinent to these services. BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 62 of 440 62 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile CONTENTS page 63 of 440 1 Introduction ........................................................................................66 1.1 Scope.........................................................................................66 1.2 Symbols and conventions ..........................................................67 2 Profile overview..................................................................................68 2.1 Profile stack ...............................................................................68 2.2 Configurations and roles ............................................................69 2.3 User requirements and scenarios ..............................................70 2.4 Profile fundamentals ..................................................................71 2.5 Conformance .............................................................................71 3 User interface aspects .......................................................................72 3.1 Pairing ........................................................................................72 3.2 Mode selection ...........................................................................72 4 Application layer ................................................................................73 4.1 The service discovery application ..............................................73 4.2 Service primitives abstractions...................................................75 4.3 Message sequence charts (MSCs) ............................................77 5 Service Discovery ..............................................................................79 5.1 An SDP PDU exchange example...............................................80 6 L2CAP .................................................................................................82 6.1 Channel types ............................................................................83 6.2 Signalling ...................................................................................83 6.3 Configuration options .................................................................83 6.3.1 Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) ..............................83 6.3.2 Flush Time-out ..............................................................83 6.3.3 Quality of Service ..........................................................84 6.4 SDP transactions and L2CAP connection lifetime .....................84 7 Link Manager ......................................................................................86 7.1 Capability overview ....................................................................86 7.2 Error behavior ............................................................................87 7.3 Link policy ..................................................................................87 8 Link control.........................................................................................88 8.1 Capability overview ....................................................................88 8.2 Inquiry ........................................................................................89 8.3 Inquiry scan................................................................................90 8.4 Paging ........................................................................................90 8.5 Page scan ..................................................................................90 8.6 Error behavior ............................................................................90 1 December 1999 63 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 64 of 440 9 References.......................................................................................... 91 9.1 Normative references ................................................................ 91 10 Definitions .......................................................................................... 92 11 Appendix A (Informative): Service primitives and the Bluetooth PDUS.................................................................................. 93 64 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile FOREWORD page 65 of 440 Interoperability between devices from different manufacturers is provided for a specific service and use case, if the devices conform to a Bluetooth SIGdefined profile specification. A profile defines a selection of messages and procedures (generally termed capabilities) from the Bluetooth SIG specifications, and gives an unambiguous description of the air interface for specified service(s) and use case(s). All defined features are process-mandatory. This means that, if a feature is used, it is used in a specified manner. Whether the provision of a feature is mandatory or optional is stated separately for both sides of the Bluetooth air interface. 1 December 1999 65 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile 1 INTRODUCTION page 66 of 440 1.1 SCOPE It is expected that the number of services that can be provided over Bluetooth links will increase in an undetermined (and possibly uncontrolled) manner. Therefore, procedures need to be established to aid a user of a Bluetoothenabled device to sort the ever-increasing variety of services that will become available to him/her. While many of the Bluetooth-enabled services that may be encountered are currently unknown, a standardized procedure can still be put into place on how to locate and identify them. The Bluetooth protocol stack contains a Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) BT_SDP_spec:[7] that is used to locate services that are available on or via devices in the vicinity of a Bluetooth enabled device. Having located what services are available in a device, a user may then select to use one or more of them. Selecting, accessing, and using a service is outside the scope of this document. Yet, even though SDP is not directly involved in accessing services, information retrieved via SDP facilitates service access by using it to properly condition the local Bluetooth stack to access the desired service. The service discovery profile defines the protocols and procedures that shall be used by a service discovery application on a device to locate services in other Bluetooth-enabled devices using the Bluetooth Service Discovery Protocol (SDP). With regard to this profile, the service discovery application is a specific user-initiated application. In this aspect, this profile is in contrast to other profiles where service discovery interactions between two SDP entities in two Bluetooth-enabled devices result from the need to enable a particular transport service (e.g. RFCOMM, etc.), or a particular usage scenario (e.g. file transfer, cordless telephony, LAN AP, etc.) over these two devices. Service discovery interactions of the latter kind can be found within the appropriate Bluetooth usage scenario profile documents. The service discovery in the other profile documents has a very narrow scope; e.g. learning about the protocols and related protocol parameters needed for accessing a particular service. Nevertheless, the fundamentals of the service discovery procedures covered in this profile document, and the use of the Bluetooth protocols in support of these procedures can be replicated in other profile documents as well. The only difference is that for the other profiles these procedures are initiated by application-level actions within the applications described by the corresponding profiles, as opposed to user-level actions for this profile. 66 1 December 1999 Introduction BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 67 of 440 SDP provides direct support for the following set of service inquiries: • Search for services by service class; • Search for services by service attributes; and • Service browsing. The generic service discovery application considered for this profile also covers the above service inquiry scenarios. The former two cases represent searching for known and specific services. They provide answers to user questions like: “Is service A, or is service A with characteristics B and C, available?” The latter case represents a general service search and provides answers to questions like: “What services are available?” or “What services of type A are available?” The above service inquiry scenarios can be realized two-fold: • By performing the service searches on a particular device that a user ‘con- sciously’ has already connected to, and/or • By performing the service searches by ‘unconsciously’ connecting to devices discovered in a device's vicinity. Both of the above approaches require that devices need first to be discovered, then linked with, and then inquired about the services they support. 1.2 SYMBOLS AND CONVENTIONS This profile uses the symbols and conventions specified in Section 1.2 of the Generic Access Profile [3]. Introduction 1 December 1999 67 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile 2 PROFILE OVERVIEW page 68 of 440 2.1 PROFILE STACK Figure 2.1 shows the Bluetooth protocols and supporting entities involved in this profile. SrvDscApp BT_module_Cntrl SDP (client) CO L2CA layer SDP (server) CO L2CA layer service records DB LM LM ACL Baseband ACL Baseband LocDev RemDev Figure 2.1: The Bluetooth protocol stack for the service discovery profile The service discovery user application (SrvDscApp) in a local device (LocDev) interfaces with the Bluetooth SDP client to send service inquiries and receive service inquiry responses from the SDP servers of remote devices (RemDevs) BT_SDP_spec:[7]. SDP uses the connection-oriented (CO) transport service in L2CAP, which in turn uses the baseband asynchronous connectionless (ACL) links to ultimately carry the SDP PDUs over the air. Service discovery is tightly related to discovering devices, and discovering devices is tightly related to performing inquiries and pages. Thus, the SrvDscApp interfaces with the baseband via the BT_module_Cntrl entity that instructs the Bluetooth module when to enter various search modes of operation.1 1. The BT_module_Cntrl may be part of a Bluetooth stack implementation (and thus be shared by many Bluetooth-aware applications) or a ’lower part’ of the SrvDscApp. Since, no assumptions about any particular stack or SrvDscApp implementations are made, the BT_module_Cntrl entity represents a logical entity separate from the SrvDscApp, which may or may not be part of the SrvDscApp itself, a stack component, or any other appropriate piece of code. 68 1 December 1999 Profile overview BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 69 of 440 The service records database (DB) shown in Figure 2.1 next to an SDP server is a logical entity that serves as a repository of service discovery-related information. The ‘physical form’ of this database is an implementation issue outside the scope of this profile. 2.2 CONFIGURATIONS AND ROLES The following roles are defined in this profile: • Local device (LocDev): A LocDev is the device that initiates the service discovery procedure. A LocDev must contain at least the client portion of the Bluetooth SDP architecture BT_SDP_spec:[7]. A LocDev contains the service discovery application (SrvDscApp) used by a user to initiate discoveries and display the results of these discoveries. • Remote Device(s) (RemDev(s)): A RemDev is any device that participates in the service discovery process by responding to the service inquiries generated by a LocDev. A RemDev must contain at least the server portion of the Bluetooth SDP architecture BT_SDP_spec:[7]. A RemDev contains a service records database, which the server portion of SDP consults to create responses to service discovery requests. The LocDev or RemDev role assigned to a device is neither permanent nor exclusive. A RemDev may also have a SrvDscApp installed into it as well as an SDP client, and a LocDev may also have an SDP server. In conjuction with which device has an SrvDscApp installed, an SDP-client installed, and an SDP-server installed, the assignment of devices to the above roles is relative to each individual SDP (and related) transaction and which device initiates the transaction. Thus, a device could be a LocDev for a particular SDP transaction, while at the very same time be a RemDev for another SDP transaction. With respect to this profile, a device without a UI (directly or indirectly available) for entering user input and returning the results of service searches is not considered as a candidate for a LocDev. Nevertheless, even if such a device is not considered as a candidate for a LocDev, the procedures presented in the following sections can still apply if applications running in such a device need to execute a service discovery transaction. Profile overview 1 December 1999 69 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 70 of 440 LAN_AP PDA cellular phone (Internet bridge) printer notebook PSTN GW headset fax Figure 2.2: A typical service discovery scenario The figure above shows a local device (the notebook) inquiring for services among a plethora of remote devices. 2.3 USER REQUIREMENTS AND SCENARIOS The scenarios covered by this profile are the following: • Search for services by service class, • Search for services by service attributes, and • Service browsing. The first two cases represent searching for known and specific services, as part of the user question “Is service A, or is service A with characteristics B and C, available?” The latter case represents a general service search that is a response to the user question “What services are available?” This profile implies the presence of a Bluetooth-aware, user-level application, the SrvDscApp, in a LocDev that interfaces with the SDP protocol for locating services. In this aspect, this profile is unique as compared to other profiles. It is a profile that describes an application that interfaces to a specific Bluetooth protocol to take full advantage of it for the direct benefit of an end-user. 70 1 December 1999 Profile overview BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 71 of 440 2.4 PROFILE FUNDAMENTALS Before any two Bluetooth-equipped devices can communicate with each other the following may be needed: • The devices need to be powered-on and initialized. Initialization may require providing a PIN for the creation of a link key, for device authorization and data encryption. • A Bluetooth link has to be created, which may require the discovery of the other device's BD_ADDR via an inquiry process, and the paging of the other device. While it may be seem natural to consider a LocDev serving as a Bluetooth master and the RemDev(s) serving as Bluetooth slave(s), there is no such requirement imposed on the devices participating in this profile. Service discovery as presented in this document can be initiated by either a master or a slave device at any point for which these devices are members of the same piconet. Also, a slave in a piconet may possibly initiate service discovery in a new piconet, provided that it notifies the master of the original piconet that it will be unavailable (possibly entering the hold operational mode) for a given amount of time.2 The profile does not require the use of authentication and/or encryption. If any of these procedures are used by any of the devices involved, service discovery will be performed only on the subset of devices that pass the authentication and encryption security ‘roadblocks’ that may impose to each other. In other words, any security restrictions for SDP transactions are dictated by the security restrictions already in place (if any) on the Bluetooth link. 2.5 CONFORMANCE If conformance to this profile is claimed, all capabilities indicated mandatory for this profile shall be supported in the specified manner (process-mandatory). This also applies to all optional and conditional capabilities for which support is indicated. All mandatory capabilities, and optional and conditional capabilities for which support is indicated, are subject to verification as part of the Bluetooth certification program. 2. Recall that a master of a piconet cannot initiate a new piconet. Since a piconet is ultimately identified by the BD_ADDR and the Bluetooth clock of its master, the latter piconet will be identical to and indistinguishable from the former. Profile overview 1 December 1999 71 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile 3 USER INTERFACE ASPECTS page 72 of 440 3.1 PAIRING No particular requirements regarding pairing are imposed by this profile. Pairing may or may not be performed. Whenever a LocDev performs service discovery against as yet ‘unconnected’ RemDev(s), it shall be the responsibility of the SrvDscApp to allow pairing prior to connection, or to by-pass any devices that may require pairing first. This profile is focused on only performing service discovery whenever the LocDev can establish a legitimate and useful baseband link3 with RemDev(s). 3.2 MODE SELECTION This profile assumes that, under the guidance of the SrvDscApp, the LocDev shall be able to enter the inquiry and/or page states. It is also assumed that a RemDev with services that it wants to make available to other devices (e.g. printer, a LAN DAP, a PSTN gateway, etc.) shall be able to enter the inquiry scan and/or page scan states. For more information about the inquiry and page related states see Section 8. Since the SrvDscApp may also perform service inquiries against already connected RemDevs, it is not mandatory according to the profile that a LocDev always be the master of a connection with a RemDev. Similarly, a RemDev may not always be the slave of a connection with a LocDev. 3. A legitimate and useful baseband link is a Bluetooth baseband link that is properly authenticated and encrypted (if so desired), whenever any of these options are activated by any of the devices participating in this profile. 72 1 December 1999 User interface aspects BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile 4 APPLICATION LAYER page 73 of 440 4.1 THE SERVICE DISCOVERY APPLICATION In this subsection, the operational framework of the SrvDscApp is presented.4 Figure 4.1 shows alternative possibilities for a SrvDscApp. collect user input inquire for devices for each RemDev yes RemDev new? no connect with RemDev search RemDev for desired services yes RemDev was new? no disconnect with RemDev inquire for devices collect user input for each RemDev yes RemDev new? no connect with RemDev search RemDev for desired services yes RemDev was new? no disconnect with RemDev display results SrvDscApp_A display results SrvDscApp_B inquire for devices collect user input connect to “all” RemDevs for each RemDev search RemDev for desired services display results no RemDev was new? yes disconnect with RemDev SrvDscApp_C Figure 4.1: Three possible SrvDscApps The SrvDscApp alternatives shown in Figure 4.1, which are not exhaustive by any means, achieve the same objectives but they follow different paths for achieving them. In the first alternative (SrvDscApp_A), the SrvDscApp on a LocDev inquires its user to provide information for the desired service search. Following this, the SrvDscApp searches for devices, via the Bluetooth inquiry procedure. For each device found, the LocDev will connect to it, perform any necessary link set-up, see related procedures in Generic Access Profile [3], and then inquire it for the desired services. In the second alternative (SrvDscApp_ B), the inquiry of devices is done prior to collecting user input for the service search.5 4. This profile does not dictate any particular implementation for a SevDisApp. It only presents the procedures needed to achieve its objectives. 5. Device inquiries may even occur by means outside the scope of a particular SrvDscApp implementation. But, since such other means are not guaranteed to exist, it is recommended that the SrvDscApp activates device inquiries too. Application layer 1 December 1999 73 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 74 of 440 In the first two alternatives, page, link creation, and service discovery are done sequentially on a per RemDev basis; i.e., the LocDev does not page any new RemDev prior to completing the service search with a previous RemDev and (if necessary) disconnecting from it. In the last alternative (SrvDscApp_C), the LocDev, under the control of the SrvDscApp, will first page all RemDevs, then will create links with all of these devices (up to a maximum of 7 at a time), and then inquire all the connected devices for the desired services. Just as an example, we focus on a SrvDscApp similar to the one represented by the SrvDscApp_A in Figure 4.1. In summary, SrvDscApp (for ease of notation, the suffix ’_A’ has been dropped) has the following features: • The SrvDscApp activates Bluetooth inquiries following a user request for a service search, • For any new RemDev found following an inquiry, the SrvDscApp will finish service discovery and terminate its link against this device prior to attempting to connect to the next RemDev, • For any RemDev already connected, the LocDev does not disconnect following service discovery, and • The user of the SrvDscApp has the option of a trusted and untrusted mode of operation, whereby the SrvDscApp permits connections – a) only with trusted RemDev, or b) with any of the devices above plus any newly discovered RemDevs that require nothing more beyond possibly pairing with the default all-zero PIN, or c) with any of the devices above, plus any additional RemDev for which the user explicitly enters a non-zero PIN. The above options have to do with the degree of user involvement in configuring and interacting with the SrvDscApp and setting the security levels that the user is willing to accept for the service searches. When selecting options (a) or (b), then for the devices with which no legitimate connections can be established, it is assumed that the SrvDscApp ignores them without any cue to its user (however, this too is an implementation issue). When a LocDev performs a service discovery search, it does so against three different types of RemDevs: 1. trusted devices: These are devices that are currently not connected with the LocDev but the LocDev device has already an established trusted relation with. 2. unknown (new) devices: These are untrusted devices that are currently not connected with the LocDev. 3. connected devices: These are devices that are already connected to the LocDev. 74 1 December 1999 Application layer BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 75 of 440 To discover type 1 or 2 RemDevs, the SrvDscApp needs to activate the Bluetooth inquiry and/or page processes. For type 3 RemDevs, the latter processes are needed. To perform its task, SrvDscApp needs to have access to the BD_ADDR of the devices in the vicinity of a LocDev, no matter whether these devices have been located via a Bluetooth inquiry process or are already connected to the LocDev. Thus, BT_module_Cntr in a LocDev shall maintain the list of devices in the vicinity of the LocDev and shall avail this list to the SrvDscApp. 4.2 SERVICE PRIMITIVES ABSTRACTIONS This section briefly describes the functionality of a SrvDscApp. This functionality is presented in the form of service primitive abstractions that provide a formal framework for describing the user expectations from a SrvDscApp. It is assumed that the underlying Bluetooth stack can meet the objectives of these service primitive abstractions directly or indirectly.6 The exact syntax and semantics of the service primitive abstractions (or simply “service primitives”) may be platform-dependent (e.g. an operating system, a hardware platform, like a PDA, a notebook computer, a cellular phone, etc.) and are beyond the scope of this profile. However, the functionality of these primitives is expected to be available to the SrvDscApp to accomplish its task. Table 4.1 contains a minimum set of enabling service primitives to support a SrvDscApp. Low-level primitives like openSearch(.) or closeSearch(.) are not shown and are assumed to be part of the implementation of the primitives shown whenever necessary. Different implementations of the Bluetooth stack shall (at a minimum) enable the functions that these service primitives provide. For example, the serviceSearch(.) service primitive permits multiple identical operations to be handled at once. A stack implementation that requires an application to accomplish this function by iterating through the multiple identical operations one-at-a-time will be considered as enabling the function of this service primitive.7 The service primitives shown next relate only to service primitives whose invocation result or relate to an over-the-air data exchange using the Bluetooth protocols. Additional service primitives can be envisioned relating to purely local operations like service registration, but these primitives are outside the scope of this profile. 6. These service primitive abstractions do not represent programming interfaces, even though they may be related to them. The word ‘directly’ is used to describe the possibility that the described function is the result of a single appropriate call of the underlying Bluetooth stack implementation. The word ‘indirectly’ is used to describe the possibility that the described function can be achieved by combining the results from multiple appropriate calls of the underlying Bluetooth stack implementation. 7. Even though the service primitives presented in this profile are assumed to act upon a local device for accessing physically remote devices, they are general enough to apply in cases where the ‘remote device’ characterization is only a logical concept; i.e. inquired service records and service providers are located within the same device that invokes these primitives. This general situation is outside the scope of this profile. Application layer 1 December 1999 75 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 76 of 440 service primitive abstraction resulted action serviceBrowse (LIST( RemDev ) LIST( RemDevRelation ) LIST( browseGroup ) getRemDevName stopRule) a search for services (service browsing) that belong to the list of browseGroup services in the devices in the list of RemDevs; the search may be further qualified with a list of RemDevRelation parameters, whereby a user specifies the trust and connection relation of the devices to be searched; e.g. search only the devices that are in the RemDev list for which there is a trust relation already established; when the getRemDevName parameter is set to “yes,” the names of the devices supporting the requested services are also returned; the search continues until the stopping rule stopRule is satisfied serviceSearch (LIST( RemDev ) LIST( RemDevRelation ) LIST( searchPattern, attributeList ) getRemDevName stopRule) a search whether the devices listed in the list of RemDevs support services in the requested list of services; each service in the list must have a service search pattern that is a superset of the searchPattern; for each such service the values of the attributes contained in the corresponding attributeList are also retrieved; the search may be further qualified with a list of RemDevRelation parameters, whereby a user specifies the trust and connection relation of the devices to be searched (e.g. search only the devices that are in the RemDev list for which there is a trust relation already established); when the getRemDevName parameter is set to “yes,” the names of the devices supporting the requested services are also returned; the search continues until the stopping rule stopRule is satisfied enumerateRemDev (LIST( classOfDevice ) stopRule) a search for RemDev in the vicinity of a LocDev; RemDev searches may optionally be filtered using the list of classOfDevice (e.g. LAN APs); the search continues until the stopping rule stopRule is satisfied terminatePrimitive (primitiveHandle returnResults) a termination the actions executed as a result of invoking the services primitive identified by the primitiveHandle;* optionally, this service primitive may return any partially accumulated results related to the terminated service primitive Table 4.1: Service primitives in support of SrvDscApp *. It is assumed that each invocation of a service primitive can be identified by a primitiveHandle, the realization of which is implementation-dependent. The stopRule parameter is used to guarantee a graceful termination of a service search. It could represent the number of search items found, or the duration of search, or both. A Bluetooth stack implementation may not expose this parameter, in which case it should provide guarantees that all searches terminate within a reasonable amount of time, for example, say, 120sec. 76 1 December 1999 Application layer BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 77 of 440 The enumerateRemDev(.) service primitive is directly related to the inquiry mode of operation for the baseband. It also relates to the collection of RemDev that a LocDev is currently connected with. This service is exported to the SrvDscApp via the BT_module_Cntr, see Figure 2.1. The interface between BT_module_Cntr and baseband is for activating Bluetooth inquiries and collecting the results of these inquiries. The interface between the BT_module_Cntrl and (an) L2CAP (implementation) is for keeping track of the RemDev that currently are connected to the LocDev. The result of the enumerateRemDev(.) service primitive can be used with the serviceSearch(.) to search for desired services in the devices found. Once again, based on the implementation of the Bluetooth stack, this service primitive may not be provided explicitly, but its service may be provided within other service primitives; e.g. the serviceSearch(.). Missing primitive parameters shall be interpreted (whenever appropriate) as a general service search on the remaining parameters. For example, if the LIST( RemDev ) parameter is missing from the serviceSearch(.), it means that the search shall be performed against any device found in the vicinity of a LocDev. In this case, the first two service primitives may be combined to a single one. The above service primitives return the requested information, whenever found. Based on the way that these service primitives are supported by a Bluetooth stack implementation, the results of a search may directly return by the corresponding calling function, or a pointer to a data structure may be returned that contains all the relevant information. Alternatively, a Bluetooth stack implementation may have altogether different means for providing the results of a search. 4.3 MESSAGE SEQUENCE CHARTS (MSCS) This profile is concerned with three distinct Bluetooth procedures. Device discovery, device name discovery, service discovery. Note that each one of these procedures does not preclude any other; e.g. to connect to a RemDev, a LocDev may have to first discover it, and it may also ask for its name. The MSCs relating to the first two procedures (i.e., device and name discovery) are provided in section 2 of LM/HCI_MSCs:[6]. Sections 3, 4.1 and 4.2 of LM/HCI_MSCs:[6] provide the MSCs relating to the third procedure (i.e., service discovery). See also section 4 of BT_LM_spec:[4]. The first two procedures do not require host intervention, while the third does. Figure 4.2 summarizes the key message exchange ‘phases’ encountered during the execution of this profile. Not all procedures are present at all times, and not all devices need to go through these procedures all the time. For example, if authentication is not required, the authentication phase in the figure will not be executed. If the SrvDsvApp needs to inquire for services on a specific RemDev with which the LocDev is currently connected, inquiries and pages Application layer 1 December 1999 77 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 78 of 440 may not be executed. In the figure, the conditions under which particular phases are executed or not are also provided. LocDev RemDev Inquire (BB) Page(BB) needed only when inquiring against non-connected devices LMP_name_req LMP_name_res LMP_host_connection_req LMP_host_connection_res Authentication (LM) LMP_setup_complete LMP_setup_complete needed only when the user-friendly name of a device is required needed only when inquiring against non-connected devices needed only when security requirements dictate so (includes pairing, authentication & encryption as needed) needed only when LM-level transactions & negotiations take place (not shown) L2CAP_connection_req L2CAP_connection_res L2CAP connection between an SDP client and an SDP server SDP inquires SDP responses Termination terminate any connections/links as needed Figure 4.2: Bluetooth processes in support of this profile In addition to the MSC in Figure 4.2, Annex A shows what Bluetooth procedures and PDUs are needed to support the service primitives presented in Section 4.2. 78 1 December 1999 Application layer BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile 5 SERVICE DISCOVERY page 79 of 440 The service discovery application does not make use of SDP as a means of accessing a service, but rather as a means of informing the user of a LocDev about the services that are available to his/her device by (and possibly via) RemDev(s). BT-aware applications running in a local device can also use the procedures described in this and the following sections to retrieve any pertinent information that will facilitate the application in accessing a desired service in a remote device. Table 5.1 shows the SDP feature requirements in a LocDev and in a RemDev. SDP feature 1. SDP client 2. SDP server Table 5.1: SDP feature requirements Support in LocDev M O Support in RemDev O M Table 5.2 shows the SDP PDUs can be exchanged between devices following this profile. SDP PDUs Ability to Send Ability to Receive LocDev RemDev LocDev RemDev SDP_ErrorResponce C1 M M C1 SDP_ServiceSearchRequest M C1 C1 M SDP_ServiceSearchResponse C1 M M C1 SDP_ServiceAttributeRequest M C1 C1 M SDP_ServiceAttributeResponse C1 M M C1 SDP_ServiceSearchAttributeRequest M C1 C1 M SDP_ServiceSearchAttributeResponse C1 M M C1 Comments: [C1]: With regard to this current profile, these PDU transmissions will not occur. Nevertheless, since a device could act as a LocDev on some occasions and as a RemDev on others, these PDU transmission may still take place between these devices. Table 5.2: Allowed SDP PDUs Service Discovery 1 December 1999 79 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 80 of 440 5.1 AN SDP PDU EXCHANGE EXAMPLE Figure 5.1 shows two examples of SDP PDU exchanges. In particular, it shows PDU exchange sequences for the inquiry and retrieval of any information pertinent to a particular Bluetooth profile. LocDev RemDev connection establishment of L2CAP connection for SDP SDP_serviceSearchReq() profile XYZ supported? serviceSearchPattern{ profile_XYZ_UUID } serviceRecordHandle{ 32-bit Hndl:Hp } SDP_serviceAttributeReq() protocolDescriptorList? attributeList{ dataElemSequence: protocol_UUID + protocolParameter(s) } SDP_serviceSearchRsp() serviceRecordHandle{ 32-bit Hndl:Hp } attributeIDList{ attributeID:0x0004 } SDP_serviceAttributeRsp() SDP_serviceSearchAttributeReq() attributeList{ dataElemSequence: protocol_UUID + protocolParameter(s) } profile XYZ supported + protocolDescriptorList? * ALTERNATIVELY * serviceSearchPattern{ profile_XYZ_UUID } attributeIDList{ attributeID:0x0004 } SDP_serviceSearchAttributeRsp() other SDP transactions and termination of L2CAP connection for SDP Figure 5.1: SDP PDU exchange examples for retrieving protocolDescriptorLists For each PDU sent, the figure shows which device sends it (shown on the starting side of an arrow) and any relative information that this PDU carries (shown on the ending side of an arrow). Note that the LocDev sends request PDUs, while the RemDev sends back response PDUs. Two alternatives are shown utilizing different SDP PDUs to ultimately retrieve the same information – the protocolDescriptorList attribute from devices that support a specific Bluetooth profile. With the first alternative, the desired information is derived in two steps. • The LocDev sends an SDP_serviceSearchReq PDU which contains a service search pattern composed of the UUID associated with the desired profile; see section 4.3 of BT_ASN:[2]. The desired profile (profile ‘XYZ’) is identified by its UUID, denoted in the figure as ‘profile_XYZ_UUID.’ In its response PDU, the SDP server returns one or more 32-bit service record handles whose corresponding service records contain the ‘profile_XYZ_UUID’ UUID. In the figure, only one such handle is shown, denoted as ‘prHndl’. • The LocDev then enters prHndl in an SDP_serviceAttribute PDU together with one or more attribute IDs. In this example, the attribute of interest is the 80 1 December 1999 Service Discovery BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 81 of 440 protocolDescriptorList, whose attribute ID is 0x0004. The SDP server then, in its response, returns the requested protocol list. In the event that no service record containing the desired service search pattern is found in the SDP server, the SDP_serviceSearchResp PDU will contain an empty serviceRecordHandleList and a totalServiceRecordCount parameter set to its minimum value; see section 4.5.2 of BT_SDP_spec:[7]. If the desired attributes do not exist in the SDP server, the SDP_serviceAttributeResp PDU will contain an empty attributeList and an attributeListByteCount parameter set to its minimum value, see section 4.6.2 of BT_SDP_spec:[7]. With the second alternative, the desired attributes are retrieved in one step: • The LocDev sends an SDP_serviceSearchAttributeReq PDU where both the desired profile is included (service search pattern: profile_XYZ_UUID) and the desired attribute(s) is provided (attribute ID: 0x0004). In its response the SDP server will provide the requested attribute(s) from the service record(s) that matches the service search pattern. In case no service record containing the desired service search pattern and/or the desired attribute(s) is found in the SDP server, the SDP_serviceSearchAttributeResp PDU will contain an empty attributeLists and an attributeListsByteCount parameter set to its minimum value, see section 4.7.2 of BT_SDP_spec:[7]. While, in the example in Figure 5.1, only very few service attributes are shown retrieved by the SDP client, additional information could and should be requested. Particularly in cases where service information is to be cached for future use, an SDP client should also request any pertinent information that can aid in assessing whether cached information has become stale. The service attributes serviceDatabaseState, serviceRecordState, and serviceInfoTimeToLive have been defined for this purpose in BT_SDP_spec:[7]; see sections 5.2.4, 5.1.3 and 5.1.8 respectively. Service Discovery 1 December 1999 81 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile 6 L2CAP page 82 of 440 The following text, together with the associated subclauses, defines the mandatory requirements with regard to this profile. L2CAP procedure Support in LocDev Support in RemDev 1. Channel types Connection-oriented channel M M Connectionless channel X1 X1 2. Signalling Connection Establishment M C1 Configuration M M Connection Termination M C2 Echo M M Command Rejection M M 3. Configuration Parameter Options Maximum Transmission Unit M M Flush Time-out M M Quality of Service O O Comments: [X1]: This feature is not used in this profile, but its use by other applications running simultaneously with this profile is not excluded. [C1]: An SDP server shall not (and cannot) initiate an L2CAP connection for SDP transactions. Nevertheless, the device that the SDP server resides in may also have an SDP client that may initiate an L2CAP connection for SDP transactions. Such action does not contradict the execution of this profile. In any case, a RemDev shall be able to process incoming requests for connection establishment. [C2] Under normal operation, an SDP server shall not initiate the process of terminating an L2CAP connection for SDP. However, exceptional cases, such as when a RemDev shuts down during the execution on an SDP transaction, cannot be excluded. In such a case, prior to the final power-off, the RemDev may gracefully (or not!) terminate all its active L2CAP connections by sending connection termination PDUs. In any case, a RemDev shall always be able to process incoming requests for connection termination. Table 6.1: L2CAP procedures 82 1 December 1999 L2CAP BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 83 of 440 6.1 CHANNEL TYPES In this profile, only connection-oriented channels shall be used. In particular, no L2CAP broadcasts are to be used for this profile. 6.2 SIGNALLING For the purpose of retrieving SDP-related information, only a LocDev can initiate an L2CAP connection request and issue an L2CAP connection request PDU; for exceptions, see comments C1 and C2 on Table 6.1. Likewise with the corresponding L2CAP connection terminations, and the same exceptional comments C1 and C2 on Table 6.1 apply. Other than that, SDAP does not impose any additional restrictions or requirements on L2CAP signalling. In the PSM field of the Connection Request packet, the value 0x0001 (see section 5.2 of BT_L2CAP_spec:[5]) shall be used to indicate the request for creation of an L2CAP connection for accessing the SDP layer. 6.3 CONFIGURATION OPTIONS This section describes the usage of configuration options in the service discovery profile. 6.3.1 Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) This profile does not impose any additional restrictions to MTU beyond the ones stated in section 6.1 of BT_L2CAP_spec:[5]. If no MTU negotiation takes place, the default MTU value in section 6.1 of BT_L2CAP_spec:[5] shall be used. For efficient use of the communication resources, the MTU shall be selected as large as possible, while respecting any physical constraints imposed by the devices involved, and the need that these devices continue honoring any already agreed upon QoS contracts with other devices and/or applications. It is expected that during the lifetime of an L2CAP connection for SDP transactions (also referred to as the ‘SDP session’, see Section 6.4) between two devices, any one of these devices may become engaged in an L2CAP connection with another device and/or application. If this new connection has ‘non-default’ QoS requirements, the MTU for the aforementioned SDP session is allowed to be re-negotiated during the lifetime of this SDP session, to accommodate the QoS constraints of the new L2CAP connection. 6.3.2 Flush Time-out The SDP transactions are carried over an L2CAP reliable channel. The flush time-out value (see section 6.2 of BT_L2CAP_spec:[5]) shall be set to its default value 0xFFFF. L2CAP 1 December 1999 83 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 84 of 440 6.3.3 Quality of Service The use of Quality of Service (QoS) and QoS negotiation is optional. If QoS is to be negotiated, the default settings in section 6.4 of BT_L2CAP_spec:[5] shall be used. In particular, SDP traffic shall be treated as a best-effort service type traffic. 6.4 SDP TRANSACTIONS AND L2CAP CONNECTION LIFETIME While, in general, SDP transactions comprise a sequence of service requestand-response PDU exchanges, SDP itself constitutes a connectionless datagram service in that no SDP-level connections are formed prior to any SDP PDU exchange. SDP delegates the creation of connections on its behalf to the L2CAP layer. It is thus the responsibility of SDP – or, more correctly, of the SDP layer – to request the L2CAP layer to ‘tear down’ these connections on its behalf as well. Since SDP servers are considered stateless, ‘tearing down’ an L2CAP connection after a service request PDU is sent (as a true connectionless service may imply) will be detrimental to the SDP transaction. Moreover, significant performance penalty will have to be paid if, for each SDP PDU transmission, a new L2CAP connection is to be created. Thus, L2CAP connections for SDP transactions shall last more than the transmission of a single SDP PDU. An SDP session between an SDP client and an SDP server represents the time interval that the client and the server have the same L2CAP connection continuously present. A minimal SDP transaction will represent a single exchange of an SDP request PDU transmission from an SDP client to an SDP server, and the transmission of a corresponding SDP response PDU from the SDP server back to the SDP client. With respect to this profile, under normal operational conditions, the minimum duration of an SDP session shall be the duration of a minimal SDP transaction. An SDP session may last less than the minimum required in the event of unrecoverable (processing or link) errors in layers below SDP in the LocDev and RemDev, or in the SDP layer and the service records database in the RemDev. An SDP session may also be interrupted by user intervention that may terminate the SDP session prior to the completion of an SDP transaction. The above minimum duration of an SDP session guarantees smooth execution of the SDP transactions. For improved performance, implementers may allow SDP sessions to last longer than the minimum duration of an SDP session. As a general implementation guideline, an SDP session shall be maintained for as long as there is a need to interact with a specific device. Since the latter time is in general unpredictable, SDP implementations may maintain timers used to time periods of SDP transaction inactivity over a specific SDP session. 84 1 December 1999 L2CAP BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 85 of 440 SDP implementations may also rely on explicit input received from a higher layer (probably initiated from the SrvDscApp itself) to open and close an SDP session with a particular device using low level primitives; e.g. openSearch(.) and closeSearch(.). Finally, an implementation may permit users to interrupt an SDP session at any time, see the terminatePrimitive(.) service primitive in Section 4.2. Normally, an SDP session shall not terminate by a RemDev. Yet, such an event can indeed occur, either having the RemDev gracefully terminating the SDP session, using the L2CAP connection termination PDU, or abnormally terminating the SDP by stopping responding to SDP requests or L2CAP signalling commands. Such an event may be an indication of an exceptional condition that SDP client/server implementers should consider addressing for the smooth execution of this profile. If a termination event initiates from a RemDev, an SDP client may want to consider clearing any information obtained by this RemDev. Such an exceptional event may imply that the SDP server has (or is about to) shut-down, in which case any service information retrieved from this server should automatically become stale. L2CAP 1 December 1999 85 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile 7 LINK MANAGER page 86 of 440 7.1 CAPABILITY OVERVIEW In this section, the LMP layer is discussed. In the table below, all LMP features are listed. The table shows which LMP features are mandatory to support with respect to this service discovery profile, which are optional and which are excluded. The reason for excluding features is that they may degrade operation of devices in this use case. Therefore, these features shall never be activated by a unit active in this use case. If any of the rules stated below are violated, the units shall behave as defined in Section 7.2. Traffic generated during service discovery interactions has no particular QoS requirements. As such, no particular provision of the Bluetooth link is required to support this profile. LM Procedure 1. Authentication 2. Pairing 3. Change link key 4. Change the current link key 4. Encryption 5. Clock offset request 6. Timing accuracy information request 7. LMP version 8. Supported features 9. Switch of master slave role 10. Name request 11. Detach 12. Hold mode 13. Sniff mode 14. Park mode 15. Power control Table 7.1: LMP procedures Support in LMP Support in LocDev M C1 M M M O C1 M O M M O M M M O O O Support in RemDev C1 C1 86 1 December 1999 Link Manager BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 87 of 440 LM Procedure Support in LMP Support in LocDev Support in RemDev 16. Channel quality driven DM/DH O 17. Quality of service M 18. SCO links O X1 X1 19. Control of multi-slot packets M 20. Concluding parameter negotiation M 21. Host connection M Comments: [C1] No authentication or encryption is required specifically by this profile. This profile will, however, not attempt to change the existing operational settings for these procedures. Nevertheless, when this profile is executed all by itself, the default operational settings are: - authentication: no active - encryption: no active In the latter case, a LocDev will always comply with the security requirements imposed by a RemDev. If it cannot comply, it will bypass the RemDev. [X1]: This feature is not used in this profile, but its use by other applications running simultaneously with this profile is not excluded. Table 7.1: LMP procedures 7.2 ERROR BEHAVIOR If a unit tries to use a mandatory feature, and the other unit replies that it is not supported, the initiating unit shall send an LMP_detach PDU with detach reason "unsupported LMP feature." A unit shall always be able to handle the rejection of the request for an optional feature. 7.3 LINK POLICY There are no fixed master-slave roles for the execution of this profile. This profile does not state any requirements on which low-power modes to use, or when to use them. It is up to the Link Manager of each device to decide and request special link features as seen appropriate. Link Manager 1 December 1999 87 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile 8 LINK CONTROL 8.1 CAPABILITY OVERVIEW The following table lists all features on the LC level page 88 of 440 Procedure 1. Inquiry 2. Inquiry scan 3. Paging 4. Page scan A Type R0 B Type R1 C Type R2 5. Packet types A ID packet B NULL packet C POLL packet D FHS packet E DM1 packet F DH1 packet G DM3 packet H DH3 packet I DM5 packet J DH5 packet K AUX packet L HV1 packet M HV2 packet N HV3 packet O DV packet 6. Inter-piconet capabilities 7. Voice codec Table 8.1: LC features 88 Support in baseband M M M Support in LocDev C1 C1 Support in RemDev C2 M C3 M C3 M C3 M M M M M M O O O O M X1 X1 M X1 X1 O X1 X1 O X1 X1 M X1 X1 O 1 December 1999 Link control BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 89 of 440 Procedure Support in baseband Support in LocDev Support in RemDev A A-law O X1 X1 B µ-law C CVSD O X1 X1 O X1 X1 Comments: [C1]: This mandatory LC feature will be activated under the control of the SrvDscApp. [C2]: This mandatory LC feature is a settable device policy (outside the scope of this profile) that is activated whenever a device is to operate in a discoverable (public) mode. [C3] This mandatory LC feature is a settable device policy (outside the scope of this profile) that is activated whenever a device is to operate in a discoverable or connectable (private) mode. [X1]: These features are not used in this profile, but their use by other applications running simultaneously with this profile is not excluded. Table 8.1: LC features For the next four subsections, it is assumed that a LocDev is to perform service searches with originally unconnected RemDevs. It thus needs to inquire for and page (or only page) these RemDevs. None of the following four subsections apply whenever a LocDev performs service searches with RemDevs to which it is already connected. 8.2 INQUIRY Whenever instructed by the SrvDscApp, the LocDev shall advise its baseband to enter the inquiry state. Entry into this state may or may not be immediate, however, depending on QoS requirements of any already existing and ongoing connections. The user of the SrvDscApp shall be able to set the criteria for the duration of an inquiry, see stopRule service primitive parameter in Section 4.2. Nevertheless, the actual residence time in the inquiry state must comply with the recommendation given in section 10.7.3 of Bluetooth Baseband Specification [1]. When inquiry is invoked in a LocDev, the general inquiry procedure shall be used using a GIAC as described in Section 6.1 of Bluetooth GAP_profile:[3]. Instead of a GIAC, an appropriate DIAC can be used to narrow down the scope of the inquiry. Since the only defined DIAC (referred to as the LIAC) does not reflect any specific device or service categories, the use of DIACs is of limited (but non-zero) benefit in this profile. In particular, the profile does not exclude (but neither does it encourage) performing inquiries according to the limited inquiry procedure described in Section 6.2 of GAP_profile:[3].The information contained in the Class of Device field in the FHS packet returned by the ‘inquired devices’ can be used as a filter to limit the number of devices to page and connect to for subsequent SDP transactions. Link control 1 December 1999 89 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 90 of 440 8.3 INQUIRY SCAN Inquiry scans are device-dependent policies outside the scope of this profile. Devices that operate in a discoverable mode of operation, see Section 4.1 of GAP_profile:[3], could be discovered by inquiries sent by other devices. To be discovered by an inquiry resulting from a SrvDscApp action, a RemDev must enter inquiry scans using the GIAC; see general discoverable mode in Section 4.1.3 of GAP_profile:[3]. A DIAC can be used instead of a GIAC. As previously mentioned, the use of DIACs are of limited (but non-zero) benefit in this profile. In particular, performing inquiry scans according to the limited discoverable procedure described in Section 6.2 of GAP_profile:[3] is not excluded, but is not encouraged either. 8.4 PAGING Whenever the SrvDscApp needs to connect to a specific RemDev for inquiring about its service records, the LocDev will advise its baseband to enter the page state. Entry into this state may or may not be immediate, however, depending on QoS requirements of any already existing and ongoing connections. Depending on the paging class (R0, R1, or R2) indicated by a RemDev device, the LocDev shall page accordingly. The total residence time in the page state must comply with the recommendation given in section 10.6.3 of BT_BB_spec:[1]. For the pages, the 48-bit BD_ADDR of the RemDev must be used. 8.5 PAGE SCAN Just like inquiry scans, page scans are device-dependent policies outside the scope of this profile. Devices that operate in a connectable mode of operation, see Section 4.2.2 of GAP_profile:[3], could establish Bluetooth links with other devices from pages sent by these other devices. To establish a link with a RemDev, a LocDev must send a page that results from a SrvDscApp action using the RemDev’s 48-bit BD_ADDR. 8.6 ERROR BEHAVIOR Since most features on the LC level have to be activated by LMP procedures, errors will usually be caught at that layer. However, there are some LC procedures that are independent of the LMP layer, such as inquiry or paging. Misuse of such features is difficult or sometimes impossible to detect. There is no mechanism defined to detect or prevent such improper use. 90 1 December 1999 Link control BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile 9 REFERENCES page 91 of 440 9.1 NORMATIVE REFERENCES [1] Baseband specification (see Volume 1, Part B) [2] Bluetooth Assigned Numbers (see Volume 1, Appendix VIII) [3] Generic Access Profile (see Volume 2, Part K1) [4] Link Manager Protocol (see Volume 1, Part C) [5] Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol Specification (see Volume 1, Part D) [6] Message Sequence Charts between Host–Host Controller/Link Manager (see Volume 1, Appendix IX) [7] Service Discovery Protocol (see Volume 1, Part E) References 1 December 1999 91 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile 10 DEFINITIONS page 92 of 440 Term conscious known new (RemDev) private public unconscious unknown Definition (usually referred to) a process that requires the explicit intervention of a user to be accomplished (with respect to a specific device) opposite to unknown; a known devices is not necessarily a paired device (with regard to this profile) an additional remote device (RemDev) that is discovered during a Bluetooth inquiry, and that is not already connected to local device (LocDev) a mode of operation whereby a device can only be found via Bluetooth baseband pages; i.e. it only enters page scans a mode of operation whereby a device can be found via Bluetooth baseband inquiries; i.e. it enters into inquiry scans. A public device also enters into page scans (contrast this with private) opposite to conscious (with respect to a specific device) any other device that a specific device has no record of 92 1 December 1999 Definitions BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 93 of 440 11 APPENDIX A (INFORMATIVE): SERVICE PRIMITIVES AND THE BLUETOOTH PDUS In this Annex, we relate the service primitives shown in section 4.2 with the various Bluetooth PDUs which support these primitives. The table below only shows the actions taken at the higher involved Bluetooth layer. Thus, unless specifically stated, the low-level inquiries and pages needed to discover and connect to Bluetooth devices are not discussed in detail. service primitive (highest layer) Bluetooth PDUs involved serviceBrowse (LIST( RemDev ) LIST( RemDevRelation ) LIST( browseGroup ) getRemDevName stopRule) For the subset of RemDev that satisfy the RemDevRelation, this service primitive will cause the LocDev to send: an SDP_ServiceSearchRequest PDU and receives a corresponding response PDU, see section 4.5 in BT_SDP_spec:[7]; an SDP_ServiceAttributeRequest PDU and receives a corresponding response PDU, see section 4.6 in BT_SDP_spec:[7]. The first transaction above identifies the SDP servers that contain pertinent service records, while the second transaction retrieves the desired information; Alternatively, the two transactions above are combined to one: LocDev sends an SDP_ServiceSearchAttributeRequest PDU and receives a corresponding response PDU, see section 4.7 in BT_SDP_spec:[7] In either of the above cases, the corresponding SDP transaction may last a number of request and response PDU exchanges, due to the L2CAP MTU limitation. If the getRemDevName parameter is set to ‘yes’, then for each RemDev involved in the execution of this service primitive, the service primitive will cause a sequence of LMP_name_request() LM level PDUs to be sent by the LocDev.* The corresponding RemDev responds with a LMP_name_response() LM level PDU containing the requested user-friendly device name. serviceSearch (LIST( RemDev ) LIST( RemDevRelation ) LIST( searchPattern, attributeList ) getRemDevName stopRule) same as above Table 11.1: Bluetooth PDUs related to the service primitives in Section 4.2 Appendix A (Informative): Service primitives and the Bluetooth PDUS 1 December 1999 93 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Service Discovery Application Profile page 94 of 440 service primitive (highest layer) Bluetooth PDUs involved enumerateRemDev (LIST( classOfDevice ) stopRule) This service primitive will cause a Bluetooth baseband inquiry process. The inquiry will ‘indiscriminately†’ find devices residing in the vicinity of the LocDev. Prior to returning the results of this inquiry the LocDev may filter them using the classOfDevice qualifier. terminatePrimitive (primitiveHandle returnResults) This service primitive will cause the termination of any outstanding operation caused by the invocation of the service primitive identified by the primitiveHandle parameter. This may cause an L2CAP connection termination request PDU to be sent from the LocDev to the RemDev, and the subsequent transmission of an L2CAP termination response PDU. It the LocDev is connecting to the RemDev only for the purposes of an SDP transaction, the baseband link will also be severed by the transmission of an LMP_detach LM level PDU. Table 11.1: Bluetooth PDUs related to the service primitives in Section 4.2 *. If the information requested is already stored (cached) in the LocDev, this service primitive may not have to cause the described LM level PDU transaction. †. The inquiries considered here use the GIAC. No CoD-specific DIACs have been defined. Nevertheless, the use of appropriate DIACs whenever possible is not excluded and is not outside the scope of this profile. 94 1 December 1999 Appendix A (Informative): Service primitives Part K:3 CORDLESS TELEPHONY PROFILE This profile defines the features and procedures that are required for interoperability between different units active in the ‘3-in-1 phone’ use case. The scope of this profile includes the following layers/protocols/ profiles: Bluetooth Baseband, Link Manager Protocol, L2CAP, Service Discovery Protocol, Telephony Control Protocol Specification (TCS-Binary) and the General Access Profile. BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 96 of 440 96 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile CONTENTS page 97 of 440 1 Introduction ......................................................................................100 1.1 Scope.......................................................................................100 1.2 Profile Dependencies ...............................................................100 1.3 Symbols and conventions ........................................................101 1.3.1 Requirement status symbols .......................................101 1.3.2 Signalling diagram conventions...................................102 1.3.3 Notation for timers and counters .................................102 2 Profile overview................................................................................103 2.1 Profile stack .............................................................................103 2.2 Configurations and roles ..........................................................104 2.3 User requirements and scenarios ............................................105 2.4 Profile fundamentals ................................................................106 2.5 Feature definitions ...................................................................106 2.6 Conformance ...........................................................................107 3 Application layer ..............................................................................108 4 TCS-BIN procedures ........................................................................ 110 4.1 Connection Management ......................................................... 110 4.1.1 Connecting to a GW .................................................... 110 4.1.2 Connecting to another TL............................................ 110 4.2 Call Control procedures ........................................................... 111 4.2.1 Sides ........................................................................... 111 4.2.2 Call class ..................................................................... 111 4.2.3 Call request ................................................................. 111 4.2.4 Overlap sending .......................................................... 111 4.2.5 Call proceeding ........................................................... 111 4.2.6 Call confirmation.......................................................... 111 4.2.7 Call connection............................................................ 112 4.2.8 Non-selected user clearing.......................................... 112 4.2.9 In-band tones and announcements............................. 112 4.2.10 Failure of call establishment........................................ 112 4.2.11 Call clearing................................................................. 112 4.2.12 Call information ........................................................... 113 4.3 Supplementary services........................................................... 113 4.3.1 DTMF signalling .......................................................... 113 4.3.2 Calling line identity ...................................................... 113 4.3.3 Register recall ............................................................. 113 4.4 Group Management procedures .............................................. 114 1 December 1999 97 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 98 of 440 4.4.1 Obtain Access Rights.................................................. 114 4.4.2 Configuration distribution ............................................ 114 4.4.2.1 Link loss detection by GW ............................ 114 4.4.3 Periodic key update .................................................... 115 4.4.4 Fast inter-member access........................................... 115 4.5 Connectionless procedures ..................................................... 115 4.6 TCS-BIN Message overview.................................................... 116 4.7 Information Element overview ................................................. 117 4.7.1 Bearer capability ......................................................... 118 4.7.2 Called party number.................................................... 118 4.7.3 Calling party number ................................................... 118 4.7.4 Cause.......................................................................... 119 4.8 Link loss ................................................................................... 119 5 Service Discovery procedures ....................................................... 120 6 L2CAP procedures........................................................................... 121 6.1 Channel types .......................................................................... 121 6.2 Configuration options ............................................................... 121 6.2.1 Maximum Transmission unit ....................................... 121 6.2.2 Flush timeout option.................................................... 121 6.2.3 Quality of Service ........................................................ 121 7 LMP procedures overview .............................................................. 122 7.1 Master-slave switch ................................................................. 123 7.2 Link policy ................................................................................ 123 8 LC features ....................................................................................... 124 8.1 Inquiry scan ............................................................................. 125 8.2 Inter-piconet capabilities .......................................................... 125 9 General Access Profile Interoperability Requirements................ 126 9.1 Modes ...................................................................................... 126 9.2 Security aspects ...................................................................... 126 9.3 Idle mode procedures .............................................................. 127 9.3.1 Bonding ....................................................................... 127 98 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 99 of 440 10 Annex A (Informative): Signalling flows ........................................128 10.1 Outgoing external call without post-dialling..............................128 10.2 Outgoing external call with post-dialling...................................129 10.3 Incoming external call, SETUP delivered on connectionless channel130 10.4 Incoming external call, SETUP delivered on connection-oriented channel130 10.5 Call Clearing.............................................................................131 10.6 DTMF signalling .......................................................................131 10.7 DTMF signalling failure ............................................................131 10.8 Access rights request...............................................................132 10.9 Configuration distribution .........................................................132 10.10 Periodic key update .................................................................133 10.11 Fast inter-member access........................................................133 11 Timers and counters ........................................................................135 12 References ........................................................................................136 13 List of Figures...................................................................................137 14 List of Tables ....................................................................................138 1 December 1999 99 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 1 INTRODUCTION page 100 of 440 1.1 SCOPE The Cordless Telephony profile defines the protocols and procedures that shall be used by devices implementing the use case called ‘3-in-1 phone’. The ‘3-in-1 phone’ is a solution for providing an extra mode of operation to cellular phones, using Bluetooth as a short-range bearer for accessing fixed network telephony services via a base station. However, the 3-in-1 phone use case can also be applied generally for wireless telephony in a residential or small office environment, for example for cordless-only telephony or cordless telephony services in a PC – hence the profile name ‘Cordless Telephony’. This use case includes making calls via the base station, making direct intercom calls between two terminals, and accessing supplementary services provided by the external network. 1.2 PROFILE DEPENDENCIES In Figure 1.1, the Bluetooth profile structure and the dependencies of the profiles are depicted. A profile is dependent upon another profile if it re-uses parts of that profile, by implicitly or explicitly referencing it. Dependency is illustrated in the figure. A profile has dependencies on the profile(s) in which it is contained – directly and indirectly. As indicated in the figure, the Cordless Telephony profile is dependent only upon the Generic access profile. The terminology, user interface and security aspects, modes and procedures as defined in the Generic access profile are applicable to this profile, unless explicitly stated otherwise. 100 1 December 1999 Introduction BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 101 of 440 Generic Access Profile TCS Binary based profiles Service Discovery Profile Cordless Telephony Profile Intercom Profile Serial Port Profile Dial-up Networking Profile Fax Profile Headset Profile LAN Access Profile Generic Object Exchange Profile File Transfer Profile Object Push Profile Synchronization Profile Figure 1.1: Bluetooth Profiles 1.3 SYMBOLS AND CONVENTIONS 1.3.1 Requirement status symbols In this document, the following symbols are used: ’M’ for mandatory to support (used for capabilities that shall be used in the profile); ’O’ for optional to support (used for capabilities that can be used in the profile); ’C’ for conditional support (used for capabilities that shall be used in case a certain other capability is supported); ’X’ for excluded (used for capabilities that may be supported by the unit, but which shall never be used in the profile); ’N/A’ for not applicable (in the given context it is impossible to use this capability). Some excluded capabilities are capabilities that, according to the relevant Bluetooth specification, are mandatory. These are features that may degrade operation of devices following this profile. Therefore, these features shall never be activated while a unit is operating as a unit within this profile. Introduction 1 December 1999 101 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 102 of 440 1.3.2 Signalling diagram conventions The following arrows are used in diagrams describing procedures: A B PROC1 PROC2 PROC3 (PROC4) (PROC5) MSG1 MSG2 (MSG3) (MSG4) In the table above, the following cases are shown: PROC1 is a sub-procedure initiated by B. PROC2 is a sub-procedure initiated by A. PROC3 is a subprocedure where the initiating side is undefined (may be both A and B). PROC4 indicates an optional sub-procedure initiated by A, and PROC5 indicates an optional sub-procedure initiated by B. MSG1 is a message sent from B to A. MSG2 is a message sent from A to B. MSG3 indicates an optional message from A to B, and MSG4 indicates an optional message from B to A. 1.3.3 Notation for timers and counters Timers and counters may be introduced specific to this profile. To distinguish them from timers (counters) used in the Bluetooth protocol specifications and other profiles, these timers (counters) are named in the following format: ‘TCTPnnn’ (’NCTPnnn’). 102 1 December 1999 Introduction BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 2 PROFILE OVERVIEW page 103 of 440 2.1 PROFILE STACK Figure 2.1 below shows the protocols as used within this profile: Telephony Application CL GM CC S D P Protocol Discrimination TCS Binary A Speech Synchronisation Control Speech C B CO CL L2CAP F ED BaseBand LMP ACL G SCO Figure 2.1: Protocol model This profile will define the requirements for each of the layers in the model above for the Cordless Telephony profile. Profile overview 1 December 1999 103 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 104 of 440 In the profile, the interfaces in Figure 2.1 above are used for the following purposes: A) The Call Control entity uses this interface to the speech synchronization control to connect and disconnect the internal speech paths. B) This interface is used by the GW to send and by the TL to receive broadcast TCS-Binary messages. C) This interface is used to deliver all TCS messages that are sent on a connection-oriented (point-to-point) L2CAP channel. D) This interface is used by the Call Control entity to control the Link Manager directly for the purpose of establishing and releasing SCO links. E) This interface is used by the Group Management to control Link Manager functions when initializing and for key handling purposes. F) This interface is not within the scope of this profile. G)This interface is used by the Group Management entity to control the LC/ Baseband directly to enable inquiry, paging, inquiry scan and page scan. 2.2 CONFIGURATIONS AND ROLES The following two roles are defined for this profile: Gateway (GW) – The GW acts as a terminal endpoint from the external network point of view and handles all interworking towards that network. The GW is the central point with respect to external calls, which means that it handles all call set-up requests to/from the external network. Examples of devices that can act as a gateway include a PSTN home base station, an ISDN home base station, a GSM gateway, a satellite gateway and an H.323 gateway. With respect to this profile, the gateway may have the functionality to support multiple terminals being active at once, or be of a simple kind where only one terminal may be active. The simple gateway will not support multiple ringing terminals, multiple active calls or services involving more than one terminal simultaneously. Terminal (TL) – The TL is the wireless user terminal, which may for example be a cordless telephone, a dual-mode cellular/cordless phone or a PC. Note that the scope of this profile with respect to a dual-mode cellular/cordless phone acting as TL is only the cordless mode. 104 1 December 1999 Profile overview BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 105 of 440 The Cordless Telephony profile supports a topology of one gateway (GW) and a small number (≤7) of terminals (TLs)1. Figure 2.2 below shows an example of the considered architecture: PSTN Gateway External network 1 or more “Bluetooth only” speech PPs Cellular phone with Bluetooth speech Figure 2.2: System configuration example Multi-media PC with Bluetooth speech 2.3 USER REQUIREMENTS AND SCENARIOS The following scenarios are covered by this profile: 1. Connecting to the gateway so that incoming calls can be routed to the TL and outgoing calls can be originated. 2. Making a call from a TL to a user on the network that the gateway is connected to. 3. Receiving a call from the network that the gateway is connected to. 4. Making direct calls between two terminals. 5. Using supplementary services provided by the external network by means of DTMF signalling and register recall (hook flash). 1. Optionally, more terminals may be supported. Profile overview 1 December 1999 105 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 106 of 440 2.4 PROFILE FUNDAMENTALS The GW is normally the master of the piconet in the Cordless Telephony profile. As master, the GW will control the power mode of the TLs and may broadcast information to the TLs. A TL that is out of range of a GW searches for it by periodically trying to page it. A GW shall devote as much of its free capacity as possible (considering power limitations and ongoing signalling) to page scanning in order to allow roaming TLs that enter the range of the GW to find it as quickly as possible. This scheme minimizes ‘air pollution’ and gives reasonable access time when coming into range of the GW. When a TL has successfully paged a GW, a masterslave switch shall be performed since the GW shall be the master. A connection-oriented L2CAP channel and, possibly, a L2CAP connectionless channel are established to be used for all TCS signalling during that Cordless Telephony session. A TL that is within range of a GW shall normally be in park mode when it is not engaged in calls. This mode is power-efficient, allows for reasonable call setup times and allows broadcasting to the attached TLs. Upon arrival of an incoming call, or when a TL wants to make an outgoing call, the GW shall be put in active mode. The L2CAP channels (see above) are used for all TCS control signalling. Voice is transported using SCO links. For security purposes, authentication of TLs and GW is used, and all user data is encrypted. To facilitate secure communication between cordless units, the WUG concept (see TCS Binary, Section 3) is used. The GW always acts as WUG master. 2.5 FEATURE DEFINITIONS Calling line identification presentation (CLIP) – The ability to provide the calling party number to the called party before accepting the call. Call information – The ability to provide additional information during the active phase of a call. Connection Management – The ability to accept and (TLs only) request connections for the purposes of TCS-Bin procedures. DTMF signalling – The ability, in external calls, to send a DTMF signal over the external network to the other party. Incoming external call – A call originating from the external network connected to the GW. Initialization – The infrequent process whereby a TL receives access rights to a certain GW. 106 1 December 1999 Profile overview BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 107 of 440 Intercom call – A call originating from a TL towards another TL. Multi-terminal support – 1. In the GW, the ability to handle multiple active terminals being registered at the same time2 2. In the TL, the support for a Wireless User Group (WUG) On hook – The ability to indicate the action of going on-hook (e.g. to terminate a call), and release of all radio resources related to that call. Outgoing external call – A call originated by a TL towards the external network connected to the GW. Post-dialling – The ability to send dialling information after the outgoing call request set-up message is sent. Register recall – The ability of the TL to request ‘register recall’, and of the GW to transmit the request to the local network. Register recall means to seize a register (with dial tone) to permit input of further digits or other actions. In some markets, this is referred to as ‘hook flash’. 2.6 CONFORMANCE If conformance to this profile is claimed, all capabilities indicated as mandatory for this profile shall be supported in the specified manner (process-mandatory). This also applies to all optional and conditional capabilities for which support is indicated. All mandatory capabilities, and optional and conditional capabilities for which support is indicated, are subject to verification as part of the Bluetooth certification program. Note that the Intercom Profile is used for intercom calls. This means that a TL claiming conformance to the Cordless Telephony profile must conform to Intercom Profile. 2. Note that a GW may support multiple active terminals but not a Wireless User Group (WUG). Profile overview 1 December 1999 107 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 3 APPLICATION LAYER page 108 of 440 The following text, together with the associated sub-clauses, defines the feature requirements with regard to this profile. Table 3.1 shows the feature requirements made by this profile. Item no. Feature 1. Connection Management 2. Outgoing external call 3. Incoming external call 4. Intercom call 5. On hook 6. Post-dialling 7. Multi-terminal support 8. Call information 9. Calling line identification presentation (CLIP) 10. DTMF signalling 11. Register recall Table 3.1: Application layer features Support in TL Support in GW M M M M M M M N/A M M O O O O O O M O M M M M Table 3.2 maps each feature to the procedures used for that feature, and shows if the procedure is optional, mandatory or conditional for that feature. The procedures are described in the referenced section. Feature Procedure Ref. 1. Connection Management Connecting to a GW 4.1.1 Connecting to a TL 4.1.2 2. Outgoing external call Call request 4.2.3 Overlap sending 4.2.4 Call proceeding 4.2.5 Call confirmation 4.2.6 Call connection 4.2.7 In-band tones and announcements 4.2.9 Table 3.2: Application layer feature to procedure mapping Support in TL M M M C2 C2 M M M Support in GW M N/A M C2 C2 O M O 108 1 December 1999 Application layer BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 109 of 440 Feature Procedure Ref. Support Support in TL in GW 3. Incoming external call Call request 4.2.3 M M Call confirmation 4.2.6 M M Call connection 4.2.7 M M Non-selected user 4.2.8 M M clearing In-band tones and 4.2.9 M O announcements 4. Intercom call NOTE 1 5. On hook Call clearing 4.2.11 M M 6. Post-dialling Overlap sending 4.2.4 M M Call proceeding 4.2.5 M M 7. Multi-terminal support Obtain access rights 4.4.1 M O Configuration distri- 4.4.1 M O bution Fast inter-member 4.4.4 M O access Periodic key update 4.4.3 M O 8. Call information Call information 4.2.12 M M 9. Calling line identification Calling line identity 4.3.2 M M presentation (CLIP) 10. DTMF signalling DTMF signalling 4.3.1 M M 11. Register recall Register recall 4.3.3 M M C2: IF feature 6 THEN M else N/A Table 3.2: Application layer feature to procedure mapping Note 1: For intercom calls, the intercom profile is used. Before initiating the intercom call, the TL which is initiating the call may optionally use the fast inter-member access procedure to speed up the call set-up. Application layer 1 December 1999 109 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 4 TCS-BIN PROCEDURES page 110 of 440 The following text together with the associated sub-clauses defines mandatory requirements with regard to this profile. When describing TCS-BIN procedures, this section provides additional information concerning lower layer handling. The normative reference for TCS-BIN procedures is TCS Binary. Annex A contains signalling flows that illustrate the procedures in this section. 4.1 CONNECTION MANAGEMENT 4.1.1 Connecting to a GW When a TL connects to the GW, the link is configured and the L2CAP connection that is used for further signalling during that TCS-BIN session is set up and configured. The TL which is connecting is responsible for setting up the connection-oriented L2CAP channel. Only trusted TLs are allowed to connect to the GW. Note that, in order to avoid the paging delay at call set-up and to enable broadcasted messages, the TL establishes a L2CAP connection to the GW when it comes into range, and not before every call. This L2CAP connection remains until the radio link is lost or the TL stops being active in this profile. This means that the L2CAP connections used may be idle (i.e. not used to transfer data) for long periods of time. A GW supporting feature 7, ‘Multi-terminal support’, uses a connectionless L2CAP channel for TCS-BIN broadcasted messages. A TL is added to the connectionless group when it connects to the GW. 4.1.2 Connecting to another TL In the case of an intercom call, the TL which initiates the call establishes a direct link to the other TL. See the Intercom Profile for a description of these procedures. If the TL has the capability to participate in two piconets at the same time, the TL may remain a member of the GW piconet and participate in signalling towards the GW during the intercom call. If the TL does not have the capability to participate in two piconets at the same time, it must detach from the GW while the intercom call is active. After the intercom call is finished, the TL must re-establish the connection to the GW. 110 1 December 1999 TCS-BIN procedures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 4.2 CALL CONTROL PROCEDURES page 111 of 440 4.2.1 Sides This section describes which sides shall be assumed for the purpose of reading TCS Binary. In an outgoing external call, the TL is the outgoing side and the GW is the incoming side. In an incoming external call, the TL which terminates the call is the incoming side and the GW is the outgoing side. Refer to the Intercom Profile for the sides assumed in intercom calls. 4.2.2 Call class This section describes the usage of call classes in the Cordless Telephony profile. An external call is a call between a TL and a third party connected via an external network (PSTN, ISDN, GSM or other). The call class used in SETUP messages for external calls (outgoing and incoming) is ‘external call’. An intercom call is a call between two TLs, which may be setup with GW support if the two TLs are members of the same WUG. Refer to Intercom Profile for call class usage in intercom calls. 4.2.3 Call request This procedure shall be performed as defined in TCS Binary. 4.2.4 Overlap sending This procedure shall be performed as defined in TCS Binary. 4.2.5 Call proceeding This procedure shall be performed as defined in TCS Binary. 4.2.6 Call confirmation This procedure shall be performed as defined in TCS Binary. If the call is an incoming external call, and the SETUP message was delivered on a connection-oriented channel, the incoming side must acknowledge the SETUP message by performing the call confirmation procedure. TCS-BIN procedures 1 December 1999 111 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 112 of 440 4.2.7 Call connection This procedure shall be performed as defined in TCS Binary. The following text defines the mandatory requirements with regard to this profile. If the bearer capability for this call is ‘Synchronous Connection-Oriented’, the SCO link establishment sub-procedure (see LMP, Section 3.21) shall be initiated before sending a CONNECT. If the bearer capability for this call is ‘Synchronous Connection-Oriented’, the audio path shall be connected to by a unit when it receives a CONNECT or CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE. 4.2.8 Non-selected user clearing This procedure shall be performed as defined in TCS Binary. Additionally, the text in 4.2.11 defines the mandatory requirements with regard to this profile concerning call clearing. 4.2.9 In-band tones and announcements This procedure shall be performed as defined in TCS Binary. The following text defines the mandatory requirements with regard to this profile. Only the GW may provide in-band tones and announcements. The SCO link establishment sub-procedure (see Link Manager Protocol, Section 3.21) is initiated before sending a Progress Indicator information element #8, “In-band information or appropriate pattern is now available”. The audio path shall be connected to by a TL when it receives a Progress Indicator information element #8, “In-band information or appropriate pattern is now available”. 4.2.10 Failure of call establishment This procedure shall be performed as defined in TCS Binary. Additionally, the text in 4.2.11 defines the mandatory requirements with regard to this profile concerning call clearing. 4.2.11 Call clearing All call clearing and call collision procedures as defined in TCS Binary shall be supported by both GW and TL. For a specification of the complete behavior, see TCS Binary. This section describes how the lower layers are used to release circuit switched (SCO) connections. A unit shall release the SCO link by invoking the appropriate LMP subprocedure (see Link Manager Protocol, Section 3.21) when a unit has received a RELEASE message. 112 1 December 1999 TCS-BIN procedures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 113 of 440 A unit shall release the SCO link (if not already released) by invoking the appropriate LMP sub-procedure (see Link Manager Protocol, Section 3.21) when it has received a RELEASE COMPLETE message. 4.2.12 Call information This procedure shall be performed as defined in TCS Binary. 4.3 SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES Supplementary services can be either internal services within the WUG, or external services provided by the network the GW is connected to. The exact set of external supplementary services is not defined in this profile and is dependent on the network the GW is connected to. This profile provides the means for accessing them; for example through the use of DTMF signalling and register recall. The required support for internal services and DTMF signalling is defined in the following sub-clauses. 4.3.1 DTMF signalling The capability to request DTMF signalling towards the external network is mandatory for the TL. The capability to accept DTMF signalling requests is mandatory for the GW. Depending on the network the GW is connected to, it shall translate the DTMF messages to the appropriate in-band or out-of-band signalling. If the network has no DTMF signalling capability, or if the GW for some reason is unable to perform DTMF signalling towards the external network, the GW shall reject the request for DTMF signalling as described below. In the START DTMF REJECT message, the GW shall use Cause #29, “Facilities rejected”. 4.3.2 Calling line identity This procedure shall be performed as defined in TCS Binary. It is recommended that all GWs that are connected to networks that provide calling line identity have the capability to provide this information to the user. 4.3.3 Register recall This procedure shall be performed as defined in TCS Binary. TCS-BIN procedures 1 December 1999 113 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 4.4 GROUP MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES page 114 of 440 4.4.1 Obtain Access Rights This procedure shall be performed as defined in TCS Binary. A TL which wants to become member of a WUG may initiate this procedure towards a GW. The GW may accept or reject the request depending, for example, on configuration, or if the user has physical access to the base. A GW which accepts the access rights request shall add the TL to the WUG and initiate the Configuration distribution procedure. 4.4.2 Configuration distribution This procedure shall be performed as defined in TCS Binary. Because of the security implications of this procedure, a TL is not forced to store the key information received during this procedure. In addition, GW may always reject the ACCESS RIGHTS REQUEST from a TL because of implementation-dependent reasons. For example, the user may be required to press a button on the GW before being granted access to the group. Note that for intercom calls, two TLs that are members of the WUG do not need to perform the initialization procedure described in the Intercom profile (see Intercom Profile) if they use the keys distributed in the Configuration distribution procedure. A TL which stores link keys during the Configuration Distribution procedure shall never overwrite existing link keys to other WUG members. Only if there was previously no link key to a specific device shall the key obtained during the Configuration Distribution procedure be used. In addition to the link-loss handling described in Section 4.8, Section 4.4.2.1 applies for this procedure. 4.4.2.1 Link loss detection by GW If the GW detects loss of link before receiving the INFO ACCEPT message, it shall consider the WUG update to be terminated unsuccessfully and consider the TL detached. If the GW detects loss of link after receiving the INFO ACCEPT message, it shall consider the WUG update to be terminated successfully. 114 1 December 1999 TCS-BIN procedures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 115 of 440 4.4.3 Periodic key update The Kmaster to be used during a GW-TL connection is issued to the TL when connecting to a GW. The Kmaster is intended to be a key valid for a single session only, but since the GW piconet is operational all the time, this would mean that the same Kmaster would always be used. In order to increase the security level, the Kmaster is changed periodically. Timer TCTP400 determines the interval between key changes. When TCTP400 expires, the GW tries to do a periodic key update on all TLs. However, some TLs may be out of range or powered off, or the procedure may fail for some other reason. The new key in these cases is given to the TL when it attaches the next time. After there has been an attempt to update all TLs, TCTP400 is reset. The periodic key update for one TL is performed as follows. First, if the TL was parked, it is unparked. Then, the new link key is issued. After this, the new link key is activated by turning encryption off and back on. Finally, the TL may be parked. If any of the sub-procedures fails, further sub-procedures will not be performed on that TL. The GW shall proceed with updating the next TL. 4.4.4 Fast inter-member access The Fast inter-member access procedure is used when two TLs that are members of the same WUG need to establish a piconet of their own. This may be needed when an intercom call shall be established. Refer to TCS Binary for a definition of the procedure. The TLT may detach from the GW after having sent the LISTEN ACCEPT message by terminating the L2CAP channel to the GW and sending a LMP_detach. The TLI may detach from the GW after having received the LISTEN ACCEPT message by terminating the L2CAP channel to the GW and sending a LMP_detach. 4.5 CONNECTIONLESS PROCEDURES TCS-BIN Connectionless (CL) messaging is not within the scope of the Cordless Telephony profile. TCS-BIN procedures 1 December 1999 115 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 116 of 440 4.6 TCS-BIN MESSAGE OVERVIEW This section defines the allowed TCS-BIN messages in the Cordless Telephony profile. Message Access rights accept Access rights reject Access rights request Alerting Call Proceeding Connect Connect Acknowledge Disconnect Info suggest Info accept Information Listen request Listen suggest Listen accept Listen reject Progress Release Release Complete Setup Setup Acknowledge Start DTMF Start DTMF Acknowledge Start DTMF Reject Stop DTMF Stop DTMF Acknowledge C1: IF feature 7 THEN M else N/A C2: IF feature 6 THEN M else N/A Table 4.1: TCS-BIN messages Ability to Send TL GW N/A O N/A O C1 N/A M O C2 C2 M M M M M M N/A O C1 N/A M O C1 N/A N/A O C1 O C1 O N/A O M M M M M M N/A O M N/A N/A M N/A M M N/A N/A M Ability to Receive TL GW C1 N/A C1 N/A N/A O M M M M M M M M M M C1 N/A N/A O O M N/A O C1 N/A C1 O C1 O M N/A M M M M M M O N/A N/A M M N/A M N/A N/A M M N/A 116 1 December 1999 TCS-BIN procedures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 117 of 440 4.7 INFORMATION ELEMENT OVERVIEW This section together with the associated sub-clauses defines the allowed information elements used in TCS-BIN messages in the Cordless Telephony profile. Information Element Ability to Send Ability to Receive TL GW TL GW Message type M M M M Audio control N/A N/A N/A N/A Bearer capability M M M M Call class M M M M Called party number M O O M Calling party number O C2 M O Cause M M M M Clock offset C1 O C1 O Company-specific O O O O Configuration data N/A O C1 N/A Destination CID N/A N/A N/A N/A Keypad facility M N/A N/A M Progress indicator N/A O M N/A SCO handle M M M M Sending complete M N/A N/A M Signal N/A M M N/A C1: IF feature 7 THEN M else N/A C2: IF feature 9 THEN M else N/A Table 4.2: TCS-BIN information elements The following subsections define restrictions that apply to the contents of the TCS-BIN information elements in the Cordless Telephony profile. Note that in the tables, only fields where restrictions apply are shown. If a field is not shown in a table, it means that all values defined in TCS Binary for that field are allowed. For those information elements not listed below, no restrictions apply. TCS-BIN procedures 1 December 1999 117 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 118 of 440 4.7.1 Bearer capability The following restrictions apply to the contents of the Bearer capability information element: Field Values allowed Link type SCO, None Table 4.3: Restrictions to contents of Bearer capability information element 4.7.2 Called party number Maximum information element length is 27 octets, thus allowing a maximum of 24 number digits. 4.7.3 Calling party number Maximum information element length is 28 octets, thus allowing a maximum of 24 number digits. 118 1 December 1999 TCS-BIN procedures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 119 of 440 4.7.4 Cause The following restrictions apply to the contents of the Cause information element: Field Values allowed Cause value #1 – “Unassigned (unallocated number)” #3 – “No route to destination” #16 – “Normal call clearing” #17 – “User busy” #18 – “No user responding” #19 – “No answer from user (user alerted)” #21 – “Call rejected by user” #22 – “Number changed” #26 – “Non-selected user clearing” #28 – “Invalid number format (incomplete number” #29 – “Facilities rejected” #34 – “No circuit/channel available” #41 – “Temporary failure” #44 – “Requested circuit/channel not available” #58 – “Bearer capability not presently available” #65 – “Bearer capability not implemented” #69 – “Requested facility not implemented” #102 – “Recovery on timer expiry” Table 4.4: Restrictions to contents of Cause information element 4.8 LINK LOSS If a unit in a CC state other than Null detects loss of link, it shall immediately go to the Null state. Release procedures shall in this case not be performed. A unit in any GM state which detects loss of link shall consider itself to be in the null state. Any ongoing GM procedure shall immediately be aborted and considered to be terminated unsuccessfully. TCS-BIN procedures 1 December 1999 119 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 5 SERVICE DISCOVERY PROCEDURES page 120 of 440 Table 5.1 below lists all entries in the SDP database of the GW defined by this profile. The ‘Status’ column indicates whether the presence of this field is mandatory or optional. The codes assigned to the mnemonic’s used in the ‘Value’ column, and the codes assigned to the attribute identifiers, can be found in the Bluetooth Assigned Numbers. Item Service Class ID List Service Class #0 Service Class #1 Definition: Protocol Descriptor List Protocol #0 Protocol #1 Service Name External Network Displayable Text name BluetoothProfileDescriptorList Profile #0 Parameter for Profile #0 Version Table 5.1: SDP entry for GW service *. Indicating version 1.0 Type: UUID UUID UUID UUID String UInt8 UUID UInt16 Value: Generic Telephony Cordless Telephony L2CAP TCS-BIN-CORDLESS Service-provider defined 0x01=PSTN 0x02=ISDN 0x03=GSM 0x04=CDMA 0x05=Analogue cellular 0x06=Packetswitched 0x07=Other Cordless Telephony 0x0100* Status Default M O M M M M O ’Cord- less Tele- phony’ O M M O 0x100 120 1 December 1999 Service Discovery procedures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 6 L2CAP PROCEDURES page 121 of 440 The following text, together with the associated sub-clauses, define the mandatory requirements with regard to this profile. 6.1 CHANNEL TYPES In this profile, both connection-oriented channels and connectionless channels are used. Connectionless channels are used to broadcast information from the GW to the TLs. Only the GW shall use connectionless channels for sending. Refer to the Bluetooth Security Architecture White paper for information on the security implications of using L2CAP connectionless traffic. In this profile, only the TL may initiate the establishment of connection-oriented channels. When connecting to the GW, the TL shall use the value 0x0007 (TCS-BIN-CORDLESS) in the PSM field of the Connection Request packet. For PSM usage in intercom calls, see Intercom Profile. 6.2 CONFIGURATION OPTIONS This section describes the usage of configuration options in the Cordless Telephony Profile. 6.2.1 Maximum Transmission unit The minimum MTU that a L2CAP implementation used for this profile should support is 171 octets. This means that the maximum number of TLs supported by this profile is 7. 6.2.2 Flush timeout option The flush timeout value used for both the GW and the TL shall be the default value of 0xFFFF. 6.2.3 Quality of Service Negotiation of Quality of Service is optional. L2CAP procedures 1 December 1999 121 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 7 LMP PROCEDURES OVERVIEW page 122 of 440 In this section the LMP layer is discussed. In the table below, all LMP features are listed. In the table it is shown what LMP features are mandatory to support with respect to the Cordless Telephony profile, which are optional and which are excluded. The reason for excluding features is that they may degrade operation of devices in this profile. Therefore, these features shall never be activated by a unit active in this profile. Procedure 1. Authentication 2. Pairing 3. Change link key 4. Change the current link key 5. Encryption 6. Clock offset request 7. Slot offset information 8. Timing accuracy information request 9. LMP version 10. Supported features 11. Switch of master slave role 12. Name request 13. Detach 14. Hold mode 15. Sniff mode 16. Park mode 17. Power control 18. Channel-quality driven DM/DH 19. Quality of service 20. SCO links 21. Control of multi-slot packets 22. Paging scheme 23. Link supervision 24. Connection establishment C1: IF feature 7 THEN M else N/A Table 7.1: LMP procedures Support in Support LMP in TL M M M M O M M O O M M O M M M O O O M O O M O M O O M M Support in GW M C1 M M 122 1 December 1999 LMP procedures overview BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 123 of 440 7.1 MASTER-SLAVE SWITCH A GW supporting feature 7, ‘Multi-terminal support’, must always be the master of the piconet. Such a GW will request a master-slave switch when a TL connects. If the TL rejects the request, the GW may detach it. Thus, a TL which does not accept master-slave switch requests can not be guaranteed service by all GWs. 7.2 LINK POLICY The GW shall be as conservative as possible when deciding what power mode to put the TLs in. This means that when a TL is not engaged in signalling, the GW shall put it in a low-power mode. The recommended low-power mode to use is the park mode. The low-power mode parameters shall be chosen such that the TL can always return to the active state within 300 ms. If the GW can save power during a call, it may use the sniff mode. A TL may request to be put in the sniff mode. LMP procedures overview 1 December 1999 123 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 8 LC FEATURES The following table lists all features on the LC level. Procedure Support in TL Support in GW 1. Inquiry X 2. Inquiry scan X 3. Paging X 4. Page scan A Type R0 B Type R1 C Type R2 5. Packet types A ID packet B NULL packet C POLL packet D FHS packet E DM1 packet F DH1 packet G DM3 packet H DH3 packet I DM5 packet J DH5 packet K AUX packet X X L HV1 packet M HV2 packet N HV3 packet M M O DV packet X X 6. Inter-piconet capabilities O C1 7. Voice codec A A-law B µ-law C CVSD M M C1: IF feature 7 THEN M else O Table 8.1: LC features 124 1 December 1999 page 124 of 440 LC features BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 125 of 440 8.1 INQUIRY SCAN A device which is active in the GW role of the Cordless Telephony profile shall, in the Class of Device field: 1. Set the ‘Telephony’ bit in the Service Class field 2. Indicate ‘Phone’ as Major Device class This may be used by an inquiring device to filter the inquiry responses. 8.2 INTER-PICONET CAPABILITIES Inter-piconet capability is the capability, as master, to keep the synchronization of a piconet while page scanning in free slots and allowing for new members to join the piconet. While a new unit is joining the piconet (until the master-slave switch has been performed), operation may temporarily be degraded for the other members. A GW which supports feature 7, ‘Multiple terminal support’, shall have interpiconet capabilities. The TL may have inter-piconet capabilities. LC features 1 December 1999 125 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 126 of 440 9 GENERAL ACCESS PROFILE INTEROPERABILITY REQUIREMENTS This profile requires compliance to the Generic Access Profile. This section defines the support requirements with regards to procedures and capabilities defined in Generic Access Profile. 9.1 MODES The table shows the support status for Modes within this profile. Procedure 1 Discoverability modes Non-discoverable mode Limited discoverable mode General discoverable mode 2 Connectability modes Non-connectable mode Connectable mode 3 Pairing modes Non-pairable mode Pairable mode Table 9.1: Modes Support in TL Support in GW N/A M N/A O N/A M N/A X N/A M M M O M 9.2 SECURITY ASPECTS The table shows the support status for Security aspects within this profile. Procedure Support in TL Support in GW 1 Authentication M M 2 Security modes Security mode 1 X X Security mode 2 C1 C1 Security mode 3 C1 C1 C1: Support for at least one of the security modes 2 and 3 is mandatory. Table 9.2: Security aspects 126 1 December 1999 General Access Profile Interoperability BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 127 of 440 9.3 IDLE MODE PROCEDURES The table shows the support status for Idle mode procedures within this profile. Procedure 1 General inquiry 2 Limited inquiry 3 Name discovery 4 Device discovery 5 Bonding Table 9.3: Idle mode procedures Support in TL M O O O M Support in GW N/A N/A N/A N/A M 9.3.1 Bonding It is mandatory for the TL to support initiation of bonding, and for the GW to accept bonding. General Access Profile Interoperability Requirements 1 December 1999 127 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 128 of 440 10 ANNEX A (INFORMATIVE): SIGNALLING FLOWS This annex contains signalling diagrams that are used to clarify the interworking between units. This annex is informative only. The diagrams do not represent all possible signalling flows as defined by this profile. 10.1 OUTGOING EXTERNAL CALL WITHOUT POST-DIALLING The following sequence shows the successful case when the TL does not use overlap sending: TL GW SETUP ========================> (CALL PROCEEDING) <======================== (ALERTING) <======================== SCO LINK ESTABLISHMENT <--------------------------------------- CONNECT <======================== CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE ========================> Figure 10.1: TL-originated call when overlap sending is not used 128 1 December 1999 Annex A (Informative): Signalling flows BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 129 of 440 10.2 OUTGOING EXTERNAL CALL WITH POST-DIALLING The following sequence shows the successful case when post-dialling is used. TL This message is repeated until the GW has enough dialling information SETUP ========================> SETUP ACKNOWLEDGE <======================== INFORMATION ========================> (CALL PROCEEDING) <======================== (ALERTING) <======================== SCO LINK ESTABLISHMENT <--------------------------------------- CONNECT <======================== CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE ========================> Figure 10.2: Outgoing external call with post-dialling GW When the GW has sufficient information to complete the call, CALL PROCEEDING, ALERTING or CONNECT is sent. Annex A (Informative): Signalling flows 1 December 1999 129 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 130 of 440 10.3 INCOMING EXTERNAL CALL, SETUP DELIVERED ON CONNECTIONLESS CHANNEL The figure below shows the allowed signalling flow in the successful case: TL GW SETUP <======================== (UNPARK) ----------------------------------------> SCO LINK ESTABLISHMENT ----------------------------------------> CONNECT ========================> CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE <======================== Figure 10.3: Incoming external call, SETUP delivered on connectionless channel 10.4 INCOMING EXTERNAL CALL, SETUP DELIVERED ON CONNECTION-ORIENTED CHANNEL The figure below shows the allowed signalling flow in the successful case: TL GW SETUP <======================== (UNPARK) ----------------------------------------> ALERTING ========================> SCO LINK ESTABLISHMENT ----------------------------------------> CONNECT ========================> CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE <======================== Figure 10.4: Incoming external call, SETUP delivered on connection-oriented channel 130 1 December 1999 Annex A (Informative): Signalling flows BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 131 of 440 10.5 CALL CLEARING The figure below shows the allowed signalling flow in the successful case when the TL initiates call clearing: TL GW DISCONNECT ========================> RELEASE <======================== SCO LINK RELEASE <---------------------------------------- RELEASE COMPLETE ========================> Figure 10.5: Call Clearing signalling flow, successful case 10.6 DTMF SIGNALLING The figure below shows the allowed signalling flow in the successful case: TL GW START DTMF ========================> START DTMF ACKNOWLEDGE <======================== STOP DTMF ========================> STOP DTMF ACKNOWLEDGE <======================== Figure 10.6: DTMF signalling, successful case 10.7 DTMF SIGNALLING FAILURE The figure below shows the allowed signalling flow in the unsuccessful case: TL GW START DTMF ========================> START DTMF REJECT <======================== Figure 10.7: DTMF signalling, unsuccessful case Annex A (Informative): Signalling flows 1 December 1999 131 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 132 of 440 10.8 ACCESS RIGHTS REQUEST The figure below shows the allowed signalling flow in the successful case: TL GW ACCESS RIGHTS REQUEST ========================> ACCESS RIGHTS ACCEPT <======================== Figure 10.8: Signalling diagram for Access Rights Request 10.9 CONFIGURATION DISTRIBUTION The figure below shows the allowed signalling flow in the successful case: TL GW (UNPARK) <---------------------------------------- LMP_USE_SEMI_PERMANENT_KEY <--------------------------------------- For additional security, GW uses a point-to-point key to distribute WUG info. START ENCRYPTION <--------------------------------------- INFO SUGGEST <======================= INFO ACCEPT ========================> CHANGE CURRENT LINK KEY <--------------------------------------- GW switches back to a temporary key START ENCRYPTION <--------------------------------------- (PARK) <--------------------------------------- Figure 10.9: Signalling diagram for Configuration distribution 132 1 December 1999 Annex A (Informative): Signalling flows BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 133 of 440 10.10 PERIODIC KEY UPDATE The figure below shows the allowed signalling flow in the successful case: TL GW (UNPARK) <---------------------------------------- CHANGE THE CURRENT LINK KEY <-------------------------------------- TURN OFF ENCRYPTION <-------------------------------------- TURN ON ENCRYPTION <-------------------------------------- (PARK) <-------------------------------------- Figure 10.10: Signalling diagram for periodic key update 10.11 FAST INTER-MEMBER ACCESS The figure below shows the allowed signalling flow in the successful case: TLO GW (UNPARK) ----------------------------------------> LISTEN REQUEST ========================> LISTEN ACCEPT <======================= (L2CAP CHANNEL RELEASE) --------------------------------------> (DETACH) --------------------------------------> Figure 10.11: Signalling diagram for Fast inter-member access, originating side Annex A (Informative): Signalling flows 1 December 1999 133 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile page 134 of 440 The figure below shows the valid sub-procedure sequence between the TLT and GW: TLT GW (UNPARK) <---------------------------------------- LISTEN SUGGEST <======================= (as soon as possible after sending the LISTEN ACCEPT, the TLT starts page scanning) LISTEN ACCEPT =======================> (L2CAP CHANNEL RELEASE) --------------------------------------> (DETACH) --------------------------------------> Figure 10.12: Signalling diagram for Fast inter-member access, terminating side 134 1 December 1999 Annex A (Informative): Signalling flows BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 11 TIMERS AND COUNTERS page 135 of 440 Timer name TCTP400 Proposed value 1 week Table 11.1: Defined timers Description Comment Time between periodic key updates, depending on the required security level Timers and counters 1 December 1999 135 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 12 REFERENCES page 136 of 440 [1] Bluetooth Baseband Specification [2] Bluetooth Link Manager Protocol [3] Bluetooth Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol Specification [4] Bluetooth Telephony Control Protocol Specification [5] Bluetooth Service Discovery Protocol [6] Bluetooth Intercom Profile [7] Bluetooth Assigned Numbers [8] Thomas Müller, Security Architecture Whitepaper, version 0.5 136 1 December 1999 References BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 13 LIST OF FIGURES page 137 of 440 Figure 1.1: Bluetooth Profiles .....................................................................101 Figure 2.1: Protocol model .........................................................................103 Figure 2.2: System configuration example .................................................105 Figure 10.1: TL-originated call when overlap sending is not used ...............128 Figure 10.2: Outgoing external call with post-dialling...................................129 Figure 10.3: Incoming external call, SETUP delivered on connectionless channel ....................................................................................130 Figure 10.4: Incoming external call, SETUP delivered on connection-oriented channel ....................................................................................130 Figure 10.5: Call Clearing signalling flow, successful case ..........................131 Figure 10.6: DTMF signalling, successful case............................................131 Figure 10.7: DTMF signalling, unsuccessful case........................................131 Figure 10.8: Signalling diagram for Access Rights Request ........................132 Figure 10.9: Signalling diagram for Configuration distribution......................132 Figure 10.10:Signalling diagram for periodic key update ..............................133 Figure 10.11:Signalling diagram for Fast inter-member access, originating side .........................................................................133 Figure 10.12:Signalling diagram for Fast inter-member access, terminating side........................................................................134 List of Figures 1 December 1999 137 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Cordless Telephony Profile 14 LIST OF TABLES page 138 of 440 Table 3.1: Table 3.2: Table 4.1: Table 4.2: Table 4.3: Table 4.4: Table 5.1: Table 7.1: Table 8.1: Table 9.1: Table 9.2: Table 9.3: Table 11.1: Application layer features ........................................................ 108 Application layer feature to procedure mapping ...................... 108 TCS-BIN messages ................................................................. 116 TCS-BIN information elements ................................................ 117 Restrictions to contents of Bearer capability information element .................................................................................... 118 Restrictions to contents of Cause information element ........... 119 SDP entry for GW service........................................................ 120 LMP procedures ...................................................................... 122 LC features .............................................................................. 124 Modes ...................................................................................... 126 Security aspects ...................................................................... 126 Idle mode procedures .............................................................. 127 Defined timers.......................................................................... 135 138 1 December 1999 List of Tables Part K:4 INTERCOM PROFILE This profile defines the requirements for Bluetooth devices necessary for the support of the intercom functionality within the 3-in-1 phone use case. The requirements are expressed in terms of end-user services, and by defining the features and procedures that are required for interoperability between Bluetooth devices in the 3-in-1 phone use case. BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 140 of 440 140 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile CONTENTS page 141 of 440 1 Introduction ......................................................................................143 1.1 Scope.......................................................................................143 1.2 Profile Dependencies ...............................................................143 1.3 Symbols and conventions ........................................................144 1.3.1 Requirement status symbols .......................................144 1.3.2 Signalling diagram conventions...................................144 2 Profile Overview ...............................................................................145 2.1 Profile stack .............................................................................145 2.2 Configuration and roles ............................................................146 2.3 User requirements and scenarios ............................................146 2.4 Profile fundamentals ................................................................147 2.5 Feature definitions ...................................................................147 2.6 Conformance ...........................................................................147 3 Application layer ..............................................................................148 4 TCS Binary ........................................................................................149 4.1 Call Control procedures ...........................................................149 4.1.1 Call request .................................................................149 4.1.2 Call confirmation..........................................................149 4.1.3 Call connection............................................................149 4.1.4 Failure of call establishment........................................149 4.1.5 Call clearing.................................................................150 4.1.6 Call information ...........................................................150 4.2 TCS Binary Message overview ................................................150 4.3 Information Element overview..................................................151 4.3.1 Bearer capability..........................................................152 4.3.2 Call class .....................................................................152 4.3.3 Cause ..........................................................................152 4.4 Link loss ...................................................................................152 5 SDP Interoperability Requirements ................................................153 6 L2CAP Interoperability Requirements............................................154 6.1 Channel types ..........................................................................154 6.2 Configuration options ...............................................................154 6.2.1 Maximum Transmission unit........................................154 6.2.2 Flush timeout option ....................................................154 6.2.3 Quality of Service ........................................................154 1 December 1999 141 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 142 of 440 7 Link Manager (LM) Interoperability Requirements ....................... 155 7.1 Capability overview .................................................................. 155 8 Link Control (LC) Interoperability Requirements.......................... 156 8.1 Capability overview .................................................................. 156 8.2 Class of Device ........................................................................ 157 9 Generic Access Profile.................................................................... 158 9.1 Modes ...................................................................................... 158 9.2 Security aspects ...................................................................... 158 9.3 Idle mode procedures .............................................................. 158 10 Annex A (Informative): Signalling flows ........................................ 159 10.1 Call establishment ................................................................... 159 10.2 Call Clearing ............................................................................ 160 11 Timers and counters........................................................................ 161 12 List of Figures .................................................................................. 162 13 List of Tables .................................................................................... 163 142 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile 1 INTRODUCTION page 143 of 440 1.1 SCOPE This Intercom profile defines the protocols and procedures that shall be used by devices implementing the intercom part of the usage model called ‘3-in-1 phone’. More popularly, this is often referred to as the ‘walkie-talkie’ usage of Bluetooth. 1.2 PROFILE DEPENDENCIES In Figure 1.1, the Bluetooth profile structure and the dependencies of the profiles are depicted. A profile is dependent upon another profile if it re-uses parts of that profile, by implicitly or explicitly referencing it. Dependency is illustrated in the figure: a profile has dependencies on the profile(s) in which it is contained – directly and indirectly. As indicated in the figure, the Intercom profile is dependent only upon the Generic Access Profile – details are provided in Section 9. Generic Access Profile TCS Binary based profiles Service Discovery Application Profile Cordless Intercom Profile Telephony Profile Serial Port Profile Dial-up Networking Profile Fax Profile Headset Profile LAN Access Profile Generic Object Exchange Profile File Transfer Profile Object Push Profile Synchronization Profile Figure 1.1: Bluetooth Profiles Introduction 1 December 1999 143 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile 1.3 SYMBOLS AND CONVENTIONS page 144 of 440 1.3.1 Requirement status symbols In this document, the following symbols are used: • ‘M’ for mandatory to support • ‘O’ for optional to support • ‘X’ for excluded (used for capabilities that may be supported by the unit but shall never be used in the use case) • ‘C’ for conditional to support • ‘N/A’ for not applicable (in the given context it is impossible to use this capability) Some excluded capabilities are capabilities that, according to the relevant Bluetooth specification, are mandatory. These are features that may degrade operation of devices in this use case. Therefore, these features shall never be activated while a unit is operating as a unit within this use case. 1.3.2 Signalling diagram conventions The following arrows are used in diagrams describing procedures: A B Mandatory signal sent by A Optional signal sent by B Mandatory procedure initiated by B Optional procedure initiated by A Mandatory procedure initiated by either A or B Optional procedure initiated by either A or B Figure 1.2: Arrows used in signalling diagrams 144 1 December 1999 Introduction BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile 2 PROFILE OVERVIEW page 145 of 440 2.1 PROFILE STACK Figure 2.1 below shows the protocols as used within this profile: Telephony Application A CC Speech Synchronisation S Control D P Protocol Discrimination TCS Binary Speech B CO CL L2CAP C LMP ACL BaseBand SCO Figure 2.1: Intercom Profile Stack This profile will define the requirements for each of the layers in the model above. Profile Overview 1 December 1999 145 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 146 of 440 In the profile, the interfaces in Figure 2.1 above are used for the following purposes: A) The Call Control entity uses this interface to the speech synchronization control to connect and disconnect the internal speech paths; B) Used to deliver TCS messages on the connection-oriented (point-to-point) L2CAP channel; C) Used by the Call Control entity to control the Link Manager directly for the purpose of establishing and releasing SCO links; Note that, for initialization purposes, it is additionally required to control the LC/Baseband directly, to enable inquiry, paging, inquiry scan, page scan. 2.2 CONFIGURATION AND ROLES The figure below shows a typical configuration of devices for which the Intercom profile is applicable: ellular phone Speech ellular phone Figure 2.2: Intercom profile, example As the intercom usage is completely symmetrical, there are no specific roles defined. A device supporting the Intercom profile will generally be denoted as Terminal (TL). 2.3 USER REQUIREMENTS AND SCENARIOS The Intercom profile defines the protocols and procedures that shall be used by devices implementing the intercom part of the use case called ‘3-in-1 phone’. The scenarios targeted by this use case are typically those where a direct speech link is required between two devices (phone, computer, …), established using telephony-based signalling. A typical scenario is the following: • Two (cellular) phone users engaged in a speech call, on a direct phone-to- phone connection using Bluetooth only. 146 1 December 1999 Profile Overview BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 147 of 440 2.4 PROFILE FUNDAMENTALS Here is a brief summary of the interactions that take place when a terminal wants to establish an intercom call towards another terminal. In the description below, the term initiator (A-party) and acceptor (B-party) will be used to designate the direction of the call. 1. If the initiator of the intercom call does not have the Bluetooth Address of the acceptor, it has to obtain this; e.g. using the Device discovery procedure – see Section 6.4 of Generic Access profile. 2. The profile does not mandate a particular security mode. If users of either device (initiator/acceptor) want to enforce security in the execution of this profile, the authentication procedure (see Section 5.1 of Generic Access profile) has to be performed to create a secure connection. 3. The initiator establishes the link and channel as indicated in Section 7 of the Generic Access profile. Based on the security requirements enforced by users of either device, authentication may be performed and encryption may be enabled. 4. The intercom call is established. 5. After the intercom call has been cleared, the channel and link will be released as well. 2.5 FEATURE DEFINITIONS Call information – The ability to provide additional information during the active phase of a call. Intercom call – A speech call between two terminals. On hook – The ability to indicate the action of going on-hook (e.g. to terminate a call) and release of all radio resources related to that call. 2.6 CONFORMANCE When conformance to this profile is claimed, all capabilities indicated mandatory for this profile shall be supported in the specified manner (processmandatory). This also applies for all optional and conditional capabilities for which support is indicated. All mandatory capabilities, and optional and conditional capabilities, for which support is indicated are subject to verification as part of the Bluetooth certification program. Profile Overview 1 December 1999 147 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile 3 APPLICATION LAYER page 148 of 440 The following text together with the associated sub-clauses defines the feature requirements with regard to this profile. Table 3.1 below shows the feature requirements made by this profile. Item no. Feature 1. Intercom call 2. On hook 3. Call information Table 3.1: Application layer features Support M M O Table 3.2 below maps each feature to the TCS Binary procedures used for that feature and shows whether the procedure is optional, mandatory or conditional for that feature. Item no. Feature Procedure 1. Intercom call Call request Call confirmation Call connection 2. On hook Call clearing 3. Call information Call information Table 3.2: Application layer feature to procedure mapping Ref. 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.5 4.1.6 Support M M M M M 148 1 December 1999 Application layer BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile 4 TCS BINARY page 149 of 440 The following text together with the associated sub-clauses defines the mandatory requirements with regard to this profile. When describing TCS Binary procedures, this chapter provides additional information concerning lower layer handling. The normative reference for TCS Binary procedures is TCS Binary. Annex A contains signalling flows that illustrate the procedures in this chapter. 4.1 CALL CONTROL PROCEDURES 4.1.1 Call request This procedure shall be performed as defined in Section 2.2.1 of TCS Binary. In addition, the following applies: before a call request can be made, a connection-oriented L2CAP channel needs to be established between the two devices, using the procedures as indicated in Section 6. When the L2CAP channel has been established, the terminating side will start timer Tic(100). When, at expiry of timer Tic(100), the terminating side has not received the SETUP message initiating the call request, it may terminate the L2CAP channel. Receiving the SETUP message before expiry of TIC(100) will cancel the timer. 4.1.2 Call confirmation This procedure shall be performed as defined in Section 2.2.5 of TCS Binary. 4.1.3 Call connection This procedure shall be performed as defined in Section 2.2.6 of TCS Binary. The following text defines the mandatory requirements with regard to this profile. The SCO link establishment sub-procedure (see LMP, Section 3.21) shall be initiated before sending a CONNECT. The speech path shall be connected by a unit when it receives a CONNECT or CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE. 4.1.4 Failure of call establishment This procedure shall be performed as defined in Section 2.2.10 of TCS Binary. Additionally, the text in Section 4.1.5 defines the mandatory requirements with regard to this profile concerning call clearing. TCS Binary 1 December 1999 149 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 150 of 440 4.1.5 Call clearing All call-clearing and call-collision procedures as defined in Section 2.3 of TCS Binary shall be supported by the TL. In addition, the following applies: after the last call-clearing message has been sent, a unit shall: • release the SCO link by invoking the appropriate LMP sub-procedure (see LMP, Section 3.21.5), if not already released. • terminate the L2CAP channel used for TCS Call-control signalling (if not already terminated) and detach the other unit. 4.1.6 Call information This procedure shall be performed as defined in Section 2.2.7 of TCS Binary. 4.2 TCS BINARY MESSAGE OVERVIEW This section defines the allowed TCS Binary messages in the Intercom profile. Messages not mentioned are not applicable. Message Alerting Connect Connect Acknowledge Disconnect Information Release Release Complete Setup Table 4.1: TCS Binary messages Support M M M M O M M M 150 1 December 1999 TCS Binary BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 151 of 440 4.3 INFORMATION ELEMENT OVERVIEW This section together with the associated sub-clauses defines the allowed information elements used in TCS Binary messages in the Cordless Telephony profile. Information element Support Message type M Audio control O Bearer capability M Call class M Called party number O Calling party number O Cause M Clock offset N/A Company-specific O Configuration data N/A Destination CID N/A Keypad facility O Progress indicator N/A SCO handle M Sending complete O Signal O Table 4.2: TCS Binary information elements The following subsections define restrictions that apply to the contents of the TCS Binary information elements in the Intercom profile. Note that, in the tables, only fields where restrictions apply are shown. If a field is not shown in a table, it means that all values defined in Section 7 of TCS Binary for that field are allowed. For those information elements not listed below, no restrictions apply. TCS Binary 1 December 1999 151 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 152 of 440 4.3.1 Bearer capability The following restrictions apply to the contents of the Bearer capability information element: Field Values allowed Link type SCO, None User information layer 1 CVSD Table 4.3: Restrictions to contents of Bearer capability information element 4.3.2 Call class The following restrictions apply to the contents of the Call class information element: Field Values allowed Call class Intercom call Table 4.4: Restrictions to contents of Call class information element 4.3.3 Cause The following restrictions apply to the contents of the Cause information element: Field Values allowed Cause value #16 – “Normal call clearing” #17 – “User busy”, #18 – “No user responding”, #19 – “No answer from user (user alerted)”, #21 – “Call rejected by user” #34 – “No circuit/channel available”, #41 – “Temporary failure”, #44 – “Requested circuit/channel not available”, #58 – “Bearer capability not presently available”, #65 – “Bearer capability not implemented”, #69 – “Requested facility not implemented”, #102 – “Recovery on timer expiry” Table 4.5: Restrictions to contents of Cause information element 4.4 LINK LOSS If a unit in a CC state other than Null detects loss of link, it shall immediately go to the Null state. Call clearing procedures shall in this case not be performed. 152 1 December 1999 TCS Binary BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 153 of 440 5 SDP INTEROPERABILITY REQUIREMENTS Table 5.1 lists all intercom-related entries in the SDP database. For each field, the Status column indicates whether the presence of this field is mandatory or optional. The codes assigned to the mnemonic’s used in the Value column as well as the codes assigned to the attribute identifiers (if not specifically mentioned in the AttrID column) can be found in the Bluetooth Assigned Numbers section. Item Definition Type Value AttrID Status Default ServiceClassIDList M ServiceClass0 UUID Generic M Telephony ServiceClass1 UUID Intercom M Protocol Descriptor List M Protocol0 UUID L2CAP M Protocol1 UUID TCS-BIN M BluetoothProfileDe- O scriptorList Profile0 Supported Profiles UUID Intercom M Intercom Param0 Profile Version Uint16 0x0100* M 0x0100 Service Name Displayable Text name String Serviceprovider defined O “Intercom” Table 5.1: Service Record *. Indicating version 1.0 SDP Interoperability Requirements 1 December 1999 153 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 154 of 440 6 L2CAP INTEROPERABILITY REQUIREMENTS The following text together with the associated sub-clauses define the mandatory requirements with regard to this profile. 6.1 CHANNEL TYPES In this profile, only connection-oriented channels are used. In the PSM field of the Connection Request packet, the default value for TCS-BIN, 0x0005 (see Section 3.2 of Assigned Numbers) shall be used. 6.2 CONFIGURATION OPTIONS This section describes the usage of configuration options. 6.2.1 Maximum Transmission unit The minimum MTU that a L2CAP implementation used for this profile should support is 3 octets. 6.2.2 Flush timeout option The flush timeout value used for both the GW and the TL shall be the default value of 0xFFFF. 6.2.3 Quality of Service Negotiation of Quality of Service is optional. 154 1 December 1999 L2CAP Interoperability Requirements BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 155 of 440 7 LINK MANAGER (LM) INTEROPERABILITY REQUIREMENTS 7.1 CAPABILITY OVERVIEW In the table below, all LM capabilities are listed. In the table it is shown what LMP features are mandatory to support with respect to this profile and which are optional. Procedure 1. Authentication 2. Pairing 3. Change link key 4. Change the current link key 5. Encryption 6. Clock offset request 7. Slot offset information 8. Timing accuracy information request 9. LMP version 10. Supported features 11. Switch of master slave role 12. Name request 13. Detach 14. Hold mode 15. Sniff mode 16. Park mode 17. Power control 18. Channel quality driven DM/DH 19. Quality of service 20. SCO links 21. Control of multi-slot packets 22. Paging scheme 23. Link supervision 24. Connection establishment Table 7.1: LMP procedures Support in LMP M M M M O M O O M M O M M O O O O O M O O O M M Support M Link Manager (LM) Interoperability Requirements 1 December 1999 155 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 156 of 440 8 LINK CONTROL (LC) INTEROPERABILITY REQUIREMENTS 8.1 CAPABILITY OVERVIEW The following table lists all capabilities on the LC level. Capabilities 1. Inquiry 2. Inquiry scan 3. Paging 4. Page scan A Type R0 B Type R1 C Type R2 5. Packet types A ID packet B NULL packet C POLL packet D FHS packet E DM1 packet F DH1 packet G DM3 packet H DH3 packet I DM5 packet J DH5 packet K AUX packet L HV1 packet M HV2 packet N HV3 packet O DV packet 6. Inter-piconet capabilities Support X Table 8.1: Baseband/LC capabilities 156 1 December 1999 Link Control (LC) Interoperability Requirements BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 157 of 440 Capabilities 7. Voice codec A A-law B µ-law C CVSD Table 8.1: Baseband/LC capabilities Support M 8.2 CLASS OF DEVICE The Class of Device field shall be set to the following: 1. Set the ‘Generic Telephony’ bit in the Service Class field 2. Indicate ‘Phone’ as Major Device class Link Control (LC) Interoperability Requirements 1 December 1999 157 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile 9 GENERIC ACCESS PROFILE page 158 of 440 This section defines the support requirements for the capabilities as defined in Generic Access Profile. 9.1 MODES The table shows the support status for Modes within this profile. Procedure Support 1 Discoverability modes Non-discoverable mode M Limited discoverable mode O General discoverable mode M 2 Connectability modes Non-connectable mode N/A Connectable mode M 3 Pairing modes Non-pairable mode O Pairable mode C3 C3: If the bonding procedure is supported, support for pairable mode is mandatory, otherwise optional Table 9.1: Modes 9.2 SECURITY ASPECTS No changes to the requirements as stated in the Generic Access Profile. 9.3 IDLE MODE PROCEDURES The table shows the support status for Idle mode procedures within this profile. Procedure 1 General inquiry 2 Limited inquiry 3 Name discovery 4 Device discovery 5 Bonding Table 9.2: Idle mode procedures Support M O O O O 158 1 December 1999 Generic Access Profile BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 159 of 440 10 ANNEX A (INFORMATIVE): SIGNALLING FLOWS This annex contains signalling diagrams that are used to clarify the interworking between units. This annex is informative only. The diagrams do not represent all possible signalling flows as defined by this profile. 10.1 CALL ESTABLISHMENT The figure below shows the allowed signalling flow in the successful case: TL CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT SETAUP ALERTING TL SCO LINK ESTABLISHMENT CONNECT CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE Figure 10.1: Call establishment Annex A (Informative): Signalling flows 1 December 1999 159 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 160 of 440 10.2 CALL CLEARING The figure below shows the allowed signalling flow for the call clearing: TL TL DISCONNECT RELEASE SCO LINK RELEASE RELEASE COMPLETE CONNECTION RELEASE Figure 10.2: Call Clearing signalling flow, successful case 160 1 December 1999 Annex A (Informative): Signalling flows BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile 11 TIMERS AND COUNTERS page 161 of 440 Timer name TIC(100) Proposed value 10s Description Comment Time between L2CAP connection establishment and call request initiation Timers and counters 1 December 1999 161 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile 12 LIST OF FIGURES page 162 of 440 Figure 1.1: Bluetooth Profiles..................................................................... 143 Figure 1.2: Arrows used in signalling diagrams ......................................... 144 Figure 2.1: Intercom Profile Stack.............................................................. 145 Figure 2.2: Intercom profile, example ........................................................ 146 Figure 10.1: Call establishment ................................................................... 159 Figure 10.2: Call Clearing signalling flow, successful case.......................... 160 162 1 December 1999 List of Figures BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile 13 LIST OF TABLES page 163 of 440 Table 3.1: Table 3.2: Table 4.1: Table 4.2: Table 4.3: Table 4.4: Table 4.5: Table 5.1: Table 7.1: Table 8.1: Table 9.1: Table 9.2: Application layer features.........................................................148 Application layer feature to procedure mapping.......................148 TCS Binary messages .............................................................150 TCS Binary information elements ............................................151 Restrictions to contents of Bearer capability information element ....................................................................................152 Restrictions to contents of Call class information element.......152 Restrictions to contents of Cause information element............152 Service Record.........................................................................153 LMP procedures.......................................................................155 Baseband/LC capabilities.........................................................156 Modes ......................................................................................158 Idle mode procedures ..............................................................158 List of Tables 1 December 1999 163 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Intercom Profile page 164 of 440 164 1 December 1999 List of Tables Part K:5 SERIAL PORT PROFILE This profile defines the requirements for Bluetooth devices necessary for setting up emulated serial cable connections using RFCOMM between two peer devices. The requirements are expressed in terms of services provided to applications, and by defining the features and procedures that are required for interoperability between Bluetooth devices. BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 166 of 440 166 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile CONTENTS page 167 of 440 1 Introduction ......................................................................................170 1.1 Scope.......................................................................................170 1.2 Bluetooth Profile Structure .......................................................170 1.3 Symbols and conventions ........................................................170 2 Profile overview................................................................................171 2.1 Profile stack .............................................................................171 2.2 Configurations and roles ..........................................................172 2.3 User requirements and scenarios ............................................172 2.4 Profile fundamentals ................................................................173 2.5 Conformance ...........................................................................173 3 Application layer ..............................................................................174 3.1 Procedure overview .................................................................174 3.1.1 Establish link and set up virtual serial connection .......174 3.1.2 Accept link and establish virtual serial connection ......175 3.1.3 Register Service record in local SDP database ..........175 3.2 Power mode and link loss handling..........................................175 4 RFCOMM Interoperability Requirements .......................................177 4.1 RS232 control signals ..............................................................178 4.2 Remote Line Status indication .................................................178 4.3 Remote Port Negotiation..........................................................178 5 L2CAP Interoperability Requirements............................................179 5.1 Channel types ..........................................................................179 5.2 Signalling .................................................................................179 5.3 Configuration options ...............................................................180 5.3.1 Maximum Transmission unit........................................180 5.3.2 Flush Timeout..............................................................180 5.3.3 Quality of Service ........................................................180 6 SDP Interoperability Requirements ................................................181 6.1 SDP Service Records for Serial Port Profile ............................181 6.2 SDP Procedures ......................................................................182 7 Link Manager (LM) Interoperability Requirements........................183 7.1 Capability overview ..................................................................183 7.2 Error behavior ..........................................................................183 7.3 Link policy ................................................................................183 1 December 1999 167 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 168 of 440 8 Link Control (LC) Interoperability Requirements.......................... 184 8.1 Capability overview .................................................................. 184 8.2 Inquiry ...................................................................................... 185 8.3 Inquiry scan ............................................................................. 185 8.4 Paging...................................................................................... 185 8.5 Error behavior .......................................................................... 185 9 References........................................................................................ 186 10 List of Figures .................................................................................. 187 11 List of Tables .................................................................................... 188 168 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile FOREWORD page 169 of 440 Interoperability between devices from different manufacturers is provided for a specific service and use case, if the devices conform to a Bluetooth SIGdefined profile specification. A profile defines a selection of messages and procedures (generally termed capabilities) from the Bluetooth SIG specifications, and gives an unambiguous description of the air interface for specified service(s) and use case(s). All defined features are process-mandatory. This means that if a feature is used, it is used in a specified manner. Whether the provision of a feature is mandatory or optional is stated separately for both sides of the Bluetooth air interface. 1 December 1999 169 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile 1 INTRODUCTION page 170 of 440 1.1 SCOPE The Serial Port Profile defines the protocols and procedures that shall be used by devices using Bluetooth for RS232 (or similar) serial cable emulation. The scenario covered by this profile deals with legacy applications using Bluetooth as a cable replacement, through a virtual serial port abstraction (which in itself is operating system-dependent). 1.2 BLUETOOTH PROFILE STRUCTURE In Figure 1.1, the Bluetooth profile structure and the dependencies of the profiles are depicted. A profile is dependent upon another profile if it re-uses parts of that profile, by implicitly or explicitly referencing it. Dependency is illustrated in the figure: a profile has dependencies on the profile(s) in which it is contained – directly and indirectly. Generic Access Profile TCS-BIN-based Profiles Service Discovery Profile Cordless Telephony Profile Intercom Profile Serial Port Profile Dial-up Networking Profile Fax Profile Headset Profile LAN Access Profile Generic Object Exchange Profile File Transfer Profile Object Push Profile Synchronization Profile Figure 1.1: Bluetooth Profiles 1.3 SYMBOLS AND CONVENTIONS This profile uses the symbols and conventions specified in Section 1.2 of the Generic Access Profile [9]. 170 1 December 1999 Introduction BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile 2 PROFILE OVERVIEW page 171 of 440 2.1 PROFILE STACK The figure below shows the protocols and entities used in this profile. Application A (Serial port emulation or other API) Application B (Serial port emulation or other API) RFCOMM SDP LMP L2CAP Baseband RFCOMM SDP LMP L2CAP Baseband DevA DevB Figure 2.1: Protocol model The Baseband [1], LMP [2] and L2CAP [3] are the OSI layer 1 and 2 Bluetooth protocols. RFCOMM [4] is the Bluetooth adaptation of GSM TS 07.10 [5], providing a transport protocol for serial port emulation. SDP is the Bluetooth Service Discovery Protocol [6]. The port emulation layer shown in Figure 2.1 is the entity emulating the serial port, or providing an API to applications. The applications on both sides are typically legacy applications, able and wanting to communicate over a serial cable (which in this case is emulated). But legacy applications cannot know about Bluetooth procedures for setting up emulated serial cables, which is why they need help from some sort of Bluetooth-aware helper application on both sides. (These issues are not explicitly addressed in this profile; the major concern here is for Bluetooth interoperability.) Profile overview 1 December 1999 171 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 172 of 440 2.2 CONFIGURATIONS AND ROLES The figure below shows one possible configuration of devices for this profile: Notebook or PC Figure 2.2: Serial Port profile, example with two notebooks. Notebook or PC The following roles are defined for this profile: Device A (DevA) – This is the device that takes initiative to form a connection to another device (DevA is the Initiator according to Section 2.2 in GAP [9]). Device B (DevB) – This is the device that waits for another device to take initiative to connect. (DevB is the Acceptor according to Section 2.2 in GAP [9]). Note that the order of connection (from DevA to DevB) does not necessarily have to have anything to do with the order in which the legacy applications are started on each side respectively. Informational note: For purposes of mapping the Serial Port profile to the conventional serial port architecture, both DevA and DevB can be either a Data Circuit Endpoint (DCE) or a Data Terminal Endpoint (DTE). (The RFCOMM protocol is designed to be independent of DTE-DCE or DTE-DTE relationships.) 2.3 USER REQUIREMENTS AND SCENARIOS The scenario covered by this profile is the following: • Setting up virtual serial ports (or equivalent) on two devices (e.g. PCs) and connecting these with Bluetooth, to emulate a serial cable between the two devices. Any legacy application may be run on either device, using the virtual serial port as if there were a real serial cable connecting the two devices (with RS232 control signalling). This profile requires support for one-slot packets only. This means that this profile ensures that data rates up to 128 kbps can be used. Support for higher rates is optional. 172 1 December 1999 Profile overview BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 173 of 440 Only one connection at a time is dealt with in this profile. Consequently, only point-to-point configurations are considered. However, this should not be construed as imposing any limitation on concurrence; multiple executions of this profile should be able to run concurrently in the same device. This also includes taking on the two different roles (as DevA and DevB) concurrently. 2.4 PROFILE FUNDAMENTALS For the execution of this profile, use of security features such as authorization, authentication and encryption is optional. Support for authentication and encryption is mandatory, such that the device can take part in the corresponding procedures if requested from a peer device. If use of security features is desired, the two devices are paired during the connection establishment phase (if not earlier), see GAP, Section 7. Bonding is not explicitly used in this profile, and thus, support for bonding is optional. Link establishment is initiated by DevA. Service discovery procedures have to be performed to set up an emulated serial cable connection. There are no fixed master slave roles. RFCOMM is used to transport the user data, modem control signals and configuration commands. 2.5 CONFORMANCE When conformance to this profile is claimed, all capabilities indicated mandatory for this profile shall be supported in the specified manner (processmandatory). This also applies for all optional and conditional capabilities for which support is indicated. All mandatory capabilities and optional and conditional capabilities, for which support is indicated, are subject to verification as part of the Bluetooth certification program. Profile overview 1 December 1999 173 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile 3 APPLICATION LAYER page 174 of 440 This section describes the feature requirements on units complying with the Serial Port profile. This profile is built upon the Generic Access Profile [9]. • When reading [9], the A-party (the connection initiator) is equivalent to DevA and the B-party is equivalent to the DevB. • All the mandatory requirements defined in [9] are mandatory for this profile. • Unless otherwise stated below, all the optional requirements defined in [9] are optional for this profile. 3.1 PROCEDURE OVERVIEW Table 3.1 shows the required procedures: Procedure 1. Establish link and set up virtual serial connection. 2. Accept link and establish virtual serial connection. 3. Register Service record for application in local SDP database. Table 3.1: Application layer procedures Support in DevA M X X Support in DevB X M M 3.1.1 Establish link and set up virtual serial connection This procedure refers to performing the steps necessary to establish a connection to an emulated serial port (or equivalent) in a remote device. The steps in this procedure are: 1. Submit a query using SDP to find out the RFCOMM Server channel number of the desired application in the remote device. This might include a browsing capability to let the user select among available ports (or services) in the peer device. Or, if it is known exactly which service to contact, it is sufficient look up the necessary parameters using the Service Class ID associated with the desired service. 2. Optionally, require authentication of the remote device to be performed. Also optionally, require encryption to be turned on. 3. Request a new L2CAP channel to the remote RFCOMM entity. 4. Initiate an RFCOMM session on the L2CAP channel. 174 1 December 1999 Application layer BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 175 of 440 5. Start a new data link connection on the RFCOMM session, using the aforementioned server channel number. After step 5, the virtual serial cable connection is ready to be used for communication between applications on both sides. Note: If there already exists an RFCOMM session between the devices when setting up a new data link connection, the new connection must be established on the existing RFCOMM session. (This is equivalent to skipping over steps 3 and 4 above.) Note: The order between steps 1 and 2 is not critical (may be the other way round). 3.1.2 Accept link and establish virtual serial connection This procedure refers to taking part in the following steps: 1. If requested by the remote device, take part in authentication procedure and, upon further request, turn on encryption. 2. Accept a new channel establishment indication from L2CAP. 3. Accept an RFCOMM session establishment on that channel. 4. Accept a new data link connection on the RFCOMM session. This may trigger a local request to authenticate the remote device and turn on encryption, if the user has required that for the emulated serial port being connected to (and authentication/encryption procedures have not already been carried out ). Note: steps 1 and 4 may be experienced as isolated events when there already exists an RFCOMM session to the remote device. 3.1.3 Register Service record in local SDP database This procedure refers to registration of a service record for an emulated serial port (or equivalent) in the SDP database. This implies the existence of a Service Database, and the ability to respond to SDP queries. All services/applications reachable through RFCOMM need to provide an SDP service record that includes the parameters necessary to reach the corresponding service/application, see Section 6.1. In order to support legacy applications running on virtual serial ports, the service registration must be done by some helper-application, which is aiding the user in setting up the port. 3.2 POWER MODE AND LINK LOSS HANDLING Since the power requirements may be quite different for units active in the Serial Port profile, it is not required to use any of the power-saving modes. However, requests to use a low-power mode shall, if possible, not be denied. Application layer 1 December 1999 175 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 176 of 440 If sniff, park, or hold mode is used, neither RFCOMM DLCs nor the L2CAP channel are released. If a unit detects the loss of link, RFCOMM shall be considered having been shut down. The disconnect DLC and shutdown RFCOMM procedures referenced in Section 4 shall not be performed. Before communication on higher layers can be resumed, the Initialize RFCOMM session procedure has to be performed. 176 1 December 1999 Application layer BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 177 of 440 4 RFCOMM INTEROPERABILITY REQUIREMENTS This section describes the requirements on RFCOMM in units complying with the Serial Port profile. Procedure 1. Initialize RFCOMM session 2. Shutdown RFCOMM session 3. Establish DLC 4. Disconnect DLC 5. RS232 control signals 6. Transfer information 7. Test command 8. Aggregate flow control 9. Remote Line Status indication 10. DLC parameter negotiation 11. Remote port negotiation Table 4.1: RFCOMM capabilities Ability to initiate DevA M1 M M M C1 M X C1 O O O DevB X1 M X1 M C1 M X C1 O O O Ability to respond DevA X1 M X1 M M N/A1 M M M M M DevB M1 M M M M N/A1 M M M M M M1: The ability to have more than one RFCOMM session operational concurrently is optional in the RFCOMM protocol. Although support of concurrence is encouraged where it makes sense, this profile does not mandate support of concurrent RFCOMM sessions in either DevA or DevB. X1: Within the execution of the roles defined in this profile, these abilities will not be used. N/A1: Information transfer is unacknowledged in the RFCOMM protocol. C1: Which flow control mechanism to use (per-DLC, aggregate, or both) is an implementation issue. But, if an implementation cannot guarantee that there will always be buffers available for data received, the ability to send either perDLC flow control or aggregate flow control is mandatory. Some of the procedures are further commented in subsections below. RFCOMM Interoperability Requirements 1 December 1999 177 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 178 of 440 4.1 RS232 CONTROL SIGNALS According to TS 07.10 [5], section 5.4.6.3.7, all devices are required to send information on all changes in RS232 control signals with the Modem Status Command. However, since RFCOMM can be used with an adaptation layer implementing any kind of API (not only virtual serial ports), it is optional to use all RS232 control signals except flow control (the RTR signal in TS 07.10 [5]). This signal can be mapped on RTS/CTS or XON/XOFF or other API mechanisms, which is an implementation issue. Informative note: To provide interoperability between devices actually using all RS232 control signals, and devices not using them, the former type of implementation must set the states of the appropriate signals in APIs/connectors to suitable default values depending on RFCOMM DLC state. The implementation must not rely on receiving any RS232 control information from peer devices. The dependency on RFCOMM DLC state may mean that DSR/DTR as well as DCD are set to high level when an RFCOMM DLC has been established, and that the same signals are set to low level if the corresponding DLC is closed for any reason. 4.2 REMOTE LINE STATUS INDICATION It is required to inform the other device of any changes in RS232 line status with the Remote Line Status indication command, see [5], section 5.4.6.3.10, if the local device relays information from a physical serial port (or equivalent) where overrun-, parity- or framing-errors may occur. 4.3 REMOTE PORT NEGOTIATION DevA may inform DevB of RS232 port settings with the Remote Port Negotiation Command, directly before DLC establishment. See [5], section 5.4.6.3.9. There is a requirement to do so if the API to the RFCOMM adaptation layer exposes those settings (e.g. baud rate, parity). DevB is allowed to send the Remote Port Negotiation command. Informative note: the information conveyed in the remote port negotiation procedure is expected to be useful only in type II devices (with physical serial port) according to section 1.2 in RFCOMM [4], or if data pacing is done at an emulated serial port interface for any reason. RFCOMM as such will not artificially limit the throughput based on baud rate settings, see RFCOMM [4], chapter 2. 178 1 December 1999 RFCOMM Interoperability Requirements BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 179 of 440 5 L2CAP INTEROPERABILITY REQUIREMENTS The following text together with the associated sub-clauses defines the mandatory requirements with regard to this profile. Procedure 1. Channel types Connection-oriented channel Connectionless channel 2. Signalling Connection Establishment Configuration Connection Termination Echo Command Rejection 3. Configuration Parameter Options Maximum Transmission Unit Flush Timeout Quality of Service Table 5.1: L2CAP procedures Support in DevA/DevB M X1 M M M M M M M O X1: Connectionless channel is not used within the execution of this profile, but concurrent use by other profiles/applications is not excluded. 5.1 CHANNEL TYPES In this profile, only connection-oriented channels shall be used. This implies that broadcasts will not be used in this profile. In the PSM field of the Connection Request packet, the value for RFCOMM defined in the Assigned Numbers document [8], section 3.2 must be used. 5.2 SIGNALLING Only DevA may issue an L2CAP Connection Request within the execution of this profile. Other than that, the Serial Port Profile does not impose any additional restrictions or requirements on L2CAP signalling. L2CAP Interoperability Requirements 1 December 1999 179 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 180 of 440 5.3 CONFIGURATION OPTIONS This section describes the usage of configuration options in the Serial Port Profile. 5.3.1 Maximum Transmission unit This profile does not impose any restrictions on MTU sizes over the restrictions stated in L2CAP [3], section 6.1. 5.3.2 Flush Timeout Serial Port data is carried over a reliable L2CAP channel. The flush timeout value shall be set to its default value 0xffff. 5.3.3 Quality of Service Negotiation of Quality of Service is optional in this profile. Recommendation: Implementations should try to keep an upper limit of 500 milliseconds on the latency incurred when going back from a low power mode to active mode. 180 1 December 1999 L2CAP Interoperability Requirements BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 181 of 440 6 SDP INTEROPERABILITY REQUIREMENTS 6.1 SDP SERVICE RECORDS FOR SERIAL PORT PROFILE There are no SDP Service Records related to the Serial Port Profile in DevA. The following table is a description of the Serial Port related entries in the SDP database of DevB. It is allowed to add further attributes to this service record. Item ServiceClassIDList ServiceClass0 ProtocolDescriptorList Protocol0 Definition Type/Size SerialPort / UUID/32-bit Note3 L2CAP UUID/32-bit Protocol1 RFCOMM UUID/32-bit ProtocolSpecificParameter0 Server Channel Uint8 ServiceName Displayable DataElement/ text name String Table 6.1: SDP Service Record Value Note1 Note1 AttributeID 0x0001 0x0004 L2CAP /Note1 RFCOMM /Note1 N = server channel # “COM5” / Note2 Note4 Notes: 1. Defined in the Assigned Numbers document [8]. 2. For national language support for all “displayable” text string attributes, an offset has to be added to the LanguageBaseAttributeIDList value for the selected language (see the SDP Specification [6], section 5.1.14 for details). 3. The ‘SerialPort’ class of service is the most generic type of service. Addition of other, more specific services classes are not excluded by this profile. 4. The ServiceName attribute value suggested here is merely an example; a helper application setting up a serial port may give the port a more descriptive name. SDP Interoperability Requirements 1 December 1999 181 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 182 of 440 6.2 SDP PROCEDURES To retrieve the service records in support of this profile, the SDP client entity in DevA connects and interacts with the SDP server entity in DevB via the SDP and L2CAP procedures presented in sections 5 and 6 of SDAP [7]. In accordance to SDAP, DevA plays the role of the LocDev, while DevB plays the role of the RemDev. 182 1 December 1999 SDP Interoperability Requirements BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 183 of 440 7 LINK MANAGER (LM) INTEROPERABILITY REQUIREMENTS 7.1 CAPABILITY OVERVIEW In addition to the requirements on supported procedures stated in the Link Manager specification itself (see Section 3 in the Link Manager Protocol ), this profile also requires support for Encryption both in DevA and DevB. 7.2 ERROR BEHAVIOR If a unit tries to use a mandatory feature, and the other unit replies that it is not supported, the initiating unit shall send an LMP_detach with detach reason "unsupported LMP feature." A unit shall always be able to handle the rejection of the request for an optional feature. 7.3 LINK POLICY There are no fixed master-slave roles for the execution of this profile. This profile does not state any requirements on which low-power modes to use, or when to use them. That is up to the Link Manager of each device to decide and request as seen appropriate, within the limitations of the latency requirement stated in Section 5.3.3. Link Manager (LM) Interoperability Requirements 1 December 1999 183 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 184 of 440 8 LINK CONTROL (LC) INTEROPERABILITY REQUIREMENTS 8.1 CAPABILITY OVERVIEW The following table lists all capabilities on the LC level, and the extra requirements added to the ones in the baseband specification by this profile. Capabilities Support in DevA 1. Inquiry 2. Inquiry scan X1 3. Paging 4. Page scan A Type R0 X1 B Type R1 X1 C Type R2 X1 5. Packet types A ID packet B NULL packet C POLL packet D FHS packet E DM1 packet F DH1 packet G DM3 packet H DH3 packet I DM5 packet J DH5 packet K AUX packet X1 L HV1 packet M HV2 packet N HV3 packet O DV packet 6. Inter-piconet capabilities Table 8.1: Baseband/LC capabilities Support in DevB X1 X1 X1 184 1 December 1999 Link Control (LC) Interoperability Requirements BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile page 185 of 440 Capabilities Support in DevA Support in DevB 7. Voice codec A A-law B µ-law C CVSD Table 8.1: Baseband/LC capabilities X1: These capabilities are not used within the execution of this profile, but concurrent use by other profiles/applications is not excluded. 8.2 INQUIRY When inquiry is invoked in DevA, it shall use the General Inquiry procedure, see GAP [9], Section 6.1. Only DevA may inquire within the execution of this profile. 8.3 INQUIRY SCAN For inquiry scan, (at least) the GIAC shall be used, according to one of the discoverable modes defines in GAP [9], Section 4.1.2. and Section 4.1.3. That is, it is allowed to only use the Limited discoverable mode, if appropriate for the application(s) residing in DevB. In the DevB INQUIRY RESPONSE messages, the Class of Device field will not contain any hint as to whether DevB is engaged in the execution of the Serial Port Profile or not. (This is due to the fact the generalized Serial Port service for legacy applications delivered by this profile does not fit within any of the major Service Class bits in the Class Of Device field definition.) 8.4 PAGING Only DevA may page within the execution of this profile. The paging step will be skipped in DevA when execution of this profile begins when there already is a baseband connection between DevA and DevB. (In such a case the connection may have been set up as a result of previous paging by DevB.) 8.5 ERROR BEHAVIOR Since most features on the LC level have to be activated by LMP procedures, errors will mostly be caught at that layer. However, there are some LC procedures that are independent of the LMP layer, e.g. inquiry or paging. Misuse of such features is difficult or sometimes impossible to detect. There is no mechanism defined to detect or prevent such improper use. Link Control (LC) Interoperability Requirements 1 December 1999 185 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile 9 REFERENCES page 186 of 440 [1] Bluetooth Special Interest Group, Bluetooth baseband specification [2] Bluetooth Special Interest Group, Link Manager Protocol [3] Bluetooth Special Interest Group, L2CAP Specification [4] Bluetooth Special Interest Group, RFCOMM with TS 07.10 [5] ETSI, TS 101 369 (GSM 07.10) version 6.3.0 [6] Bluetooth Special Interest Group, Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) [7] Bluetooth Special Interest Group, Service Discovery Application Profile [8] Bluetooth Special Interest Group, Bluetooth Assigned Numbers [9] Bluetooth Special Interest Group, Generic Access Profile 186 1 December 1999 References BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile 10 LIST OF FIGURES page 187 of 440 Figure 1.1: Bluetooth Profiles .....................................................................170 Figure 2.1: Protocol model .........................................................................171 Figure 2.2: Serial Port profile, example with two notebooks. .....................172 List of Figures 1 December 1999 187 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Serial Port Profile 11 LIST OF TABLES page 188 of 440 Table 3.1: Table 4.1: Table 5.1: Table 6.1: Table 8.1: Application layer procedures ................................................... 174 RFCOMM capabilities .............................................................. 177 L2CAP procedures .................................................................. 179 SDP Service Record ................................................................ 181 Baseband/LC capabilities ........................................................ 184 188 1 December 1999 List of Tables Part K:6 HEADSET PROFILE This profile defines the requirements for Bluetooth devices necessary to support the Headset use case. The requirements are expressed in terms of end-user services, and by defining the features and procedures that are required for interoperability between Bluetooth devices in the Headset use case. BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile page 190 of 440 190 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile CONTENTS page 191 of 440 1 Introduction ......................................................................................193 1.1 Scope.......................................................................................193 1.2 Profile Dependencies ...............................................................193 1.3 Symbols and conventions ........................................................194 1.3.1 Requirement status symbols .......................................194 1.4 Signalling diagram conventions ...............................................195 2 Profile Overview ...............................................................................196 2.1 Profile stack .............................................................................196 2.2 Configuration and roles ............................................................197 2.3 User requirements and scenarios ............................................198 2.4 Profile fundamentals ................................................................198 2.5 Conformance ...........................................................................199 3 Application layer ..............................................................................200 4 Headset Control Interoperability Requirements............................201 4.1 Introduction ..............................................................................201 4.2 Incoming audio connection ......................................................201 4.3 Outgoing audio connection ......................................................202 4.4 Audio connection release.........................................................203 4.5 Audio connection transfer ........................................................204 4.5.1 Audio connection transfer from AG to HS ...................204 4.5.2 Audio connection transfer from HS to AG ...................205 4.6 Remote audio volume control ..................................................205 4.7 AT Commands and Result Codes............................................207 4.7.1 General........................................................................207 4.7.2 AT capabilities re-used from V.250 and GSM 07.07....207 4.7.3 Bluetooth-defined AT capabilities ................................207 4.8 Lower layer handling ................................................................208 4.8.1 Connection handling without PARK mode...................208 4.8.1.1 Connection establishment ............................208 4.8.1.2 Connection release.......................................208 4.8.2 Connection handling with PARK mode........................208 4.8.2.1 Connection establishment ............................208 4.8.2.2 Connection release.......................................209 1 December 1999 191 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile page 192 of 440 5 Serial Port Profile............................................................................. 210 5.1 RFCOMM Interoperability Requirements................................. 210 5.2 L2CAP Interoperability Requirements ..................................... 210 5.3 SDP Interoperability Requirements ......................................... 211 5.4 Link Manager (LM) Interoperability Requirements................... 212 5.5 Link Control (LC) Interoperability Requirements...................... 213 5.5.1 Class of Device ........................................................... 213 6 Generic Access Profile.................................................................... 214 6.1 Modes ...................................................................................... 214 6.2 Security aspects ...................................................................... 214 6.3 Idle mode procedures .............................................................. 214 7 References........................................................................................ 215 8 List of Figures .................................................................................. 216 9 List of Tables .................................................................................... 217 192 1 December 1999 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile 1 INTRODUCTION page 193 of 440 1.1 SCOPE This Headset profile defines the protocols and procedures that shall be used by devices implementing the usage model called ‘Ultimate Headset’. The most common examples of such devices are headsets, personal computers, and cellular phones. The headset can be wirelessly connected for the purposes of acting as the device’s audio input and output mechanism, providing full duplex audio. The headset increases the user’s mobility while maintaining call privacy. 1.2 PROFILE DEPENDENCIES In Figure 1.1, the Bluetooth profile structure and the dependencies of the profiles are depicted. A profile is dependent upon another profile if it re-uses parts of that profile, by implicitly or explicitly referencing it. Dependency is illustrated in the figure: a profile has dependencies on the profile(s) in which it is contained – directly and indirectly. Generic Access Profile Service Discovery Application Profile TCS Binary based profiles Cordless Intercom Profile Telephony Profile Serial Port Profile Dial-up Networking Profile Fax Profile Headset Profile LAN Access Profile Generic Object Exchange Profile File Transfer Profile Object Push Profile Synchronization Profile Figure 1.1: Bluetooth Profiles As indicated in the figure, the Headset profile is dependent upon both the Serial Port Profile and the Generic access profile – details are provided in Introduction 1 December 1999 193 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile page 194 of 440 Section 5, “Serial Port Profile,” on page 210 and Section 6, “Generic Access Profile,” on page 214. 1.3 SYMBOLS AND CONVENTIONS 1.3.1 Requirement status symbols In this document, the following symbols are used: • ‘M’ for mandatory to support • ‘O’ for optional to support • ‘X’ for excluded (used for capabilities that may be supported by the unit but shall never be used in this use case) • ‘C’ for conditional to support • ‘N/A’ for not applicable (in the given context it is impossible to use this capability) Some excluded capabilities are capabilities that, according to the relevant Bluetooth specification, are mandatory. These are features that may degrade operation of devices in this use case. Therefore, these features shall never be activated while a unit is operating as a unit within this use case. 194 1 December 1999 Introduction BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile page 195 of 440 1.4 SIGNALLING DIAGRAM CONVENTIONS The following arrows are used in diagrams describing procedures: A B Mandatory signal sent by A Optional signal sent by B Mandatory procedure initiated by B Optional procedure initiated by A Mandatory procedure initiated by either A or B Optional procedure initiated by either A or B Figure 1.2: Arrows used in signalling diagrams Introduction 1 December 1999 195 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile 2 PROFILE OVERVIEW page 196 of 440 2.1 PROFILE STACK The figure below shows the protocols and entities used in this profile. Application (Audio port emulation) eadset Control Application (Audio driver) Headset Control RFCOMM SDP LMP L2CAP RFCOMM SDP LMP L2CAP Baseband Baseband Audio Gateway side Figure 2.1: Protocol model Headset side The Baseband, LMP and L2CAP are the OSI layer 1 and 2 Bluetooth protocols. RFCOMM is the Bluetooth adaptation of GSM TS 07.10 [5]. SDP is the Bluetooth Service Discovery Protocol. Headset Control is the entity responsible for headset specific control signalling; this signalling is AT command based. Note: although not shown in the model above, it is assumed by this profile that Headset Control has access to some lower layer procedures (for example SCO link establishment). The audio port emulation layer shown in Figure 2.1 is the entity emulating the audio port on the cellular phone or PC, and the audio driver is the driver software in the headset. For the shaded protocols/entities in Figure 2.1, the Serial Port Profile is used as base standard. For these protocols, all requirements stated in the Serial Port Profile apply except in those cases where this profile explicitly states deviations. 196 1 December 1999 Profile Overview BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile page 197 of 440 2.2 CONFIGURATION AND ROLES The figures below show two typical configurations of devices for which the Headset profile is applicable: Cellular phone Headset Figure 2.2: Headset profile, example with cellular phone Laptop or PC Headset Figure 2.3: Headset profile, example with personal computer The following roles are defined for this profile: Audio Gateway (AG) – This is the device that is the gateway of the audio, both for input and output. Typical devices acting as Audio Gateways are cellular phones and personal computer. Headset (HS) – This is the device acting as the Audio Gateway’s remote audio input and output mechanism. These terms are in the rest of this document only used to designate these roles. Profile Overview 1 December 1999 197 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile page 198 of 440 2.3 USER REQUIREMENTS AND SCENARIOS The Headset profile defines the protocols and procedures that shall be used by devices implementing the use case called ‘Ultimate Headset’. The following restrictions apply to this profile: a) For this profile, it is assumed that the ultimate headset use case is the only use case active between the two devices; b) The profile mandates the usage of CVSD for transmission of audio (for the Bluetooth part). The resulting audio is monophonic, with a quality that – under normal circumstances – will not have perceived audio degradation. c) Between headset and audio gateway, only one audio connection at a time is supported; d) The audio gateway controls the SCO link establishment and release. The headset directly connects (disconnects) the internal audio streams upon SCO link establishment (release). Valid speech exists on the SCO link in both directions, once established; e) The profile offers only basic interoperability – for example, handling of multiple calls at the audio gateway is not included; f) The only assumption on the headset’s user interface is the possibility to detect a user initiated action (e.g. pressing a button). 2.4 PROFILE FUNDAMENTALS A headset may be able to use the services of audio gateway without the creation of a secure connection. It is up to the user, if he/she wants to enforce security on devices that support authentication and/or encryption in the execution of this profile. If baseband authentication and/or encryption is desired, the two devices have to create a secure connection, using the GAP authentication procedure as described in Section 5.1 of the Generic Access profile. This procedure may then include entering a PIN code, and will include creation of link keys. In most cases, the headset will be a device with a limited user interface, so the (fixed) pin code of the headset will be used during the GAP authentication procedure. A link has to be established when a call is initiated or received. Normally, this requires paging of the other device but, optionally, it may require unparking. There are no fixed master/slave roles. The audio gateway and headset provide serial port emulation. For the serial port emulation, RFCOMM is used. The serial port emulation is used to transport the user data including modem control signals and AT commands from the headset to the audio gateway. AT commands are parsed by the audio gateway and responses are sent to the headset. 198 1 December 1999 Profile Overview BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile page 199 of 440 2.5 CONFORMANCE If conformance to this profile is claimed, all capabilities indicated as mandatory for this profile shall be supported in the specified manner (process-mandatory). This also applies for all optional and conditional capabilities for which support is indicated. All mandatory capabilities, and optional and conditional capabilities for which support is indicated, are subject to verification as part of the Bluetooth certification program. Profile Overview 1 December 1999 199 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile 3 APPLICATION LAYER page 200 of 440 This section describes the feature requirements on units complying with the Headset profile. Table 3.1 shows the feature requirements made by this profile. Feature 1. Incoming audio connection 2. Outgoing audio connection 3. Audio connection transfer 4. Remote audio volume control Table 3.1: Application layer procedures Support in HS M M M O Support in AG M O M O In the table above, incoming and outgoing shall be interpreted from the headset (HS) point of view. Table 3.2 maps each feature to the procedures used for that feature. All procedures are mandatory if the feature is supported. Feature Procedure Ref. 1. Incoming audio connection Incoming audio connection establishment 4.2 Audio connection release 4.4 2. Outgoing audio connection Outgoing audio connection establishment 4.3 Audio connection release 4.4 3. Audio connection transfer Audio connection transfer 4.5 4. Remote audio volume control Remote audio volume control 4.6 Table 3.2: Application layer feature to procedure mapping 200 1 December 1999 Application layer BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile page 201 of 440 4 HEADSET CONTROL INTEROPERABILITY REQUIREMENTS 4.1 INTRODUCTION The interoperability requirements for the Headset Control entity are completely contained in this chapter. Section 4.2 until 4.6 specify the requirements for the procedures directly relating to the application layer features. Section 4.7 specifies the AT commands and results codes used for signalling purposes. Section 4.8 specifies how the layers beneath the Headset Control entity are used to establish and release a connection. 4.2 INCOMING AUDIO CONNECTION Upon an internal or user generated event, the AG will initiate connection establishment (see Section 4.8), and once the connection is established, will send an unsolicited result code RING to alert the user. The RING may be repeated for as long as the connection establishment is pending. Optionally, the AG may provide an in-band ringing tone1. In this case, first SCO link establishment takes place. 1. The in-band ringing tone is used to alert the user in the headset earpiece when the user is wearing the headset on his head. Headset Control Interoperability Requirements 1 December 1999 201 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile page 202 of 440 HS Connection establishment AG RING SCO link establishment In band ring tone User initiated action RING In band ring tone AT+CKPD Repeated Alerting SCO link establishment SCO link establishment will at least be established at this point Figure 4.1: Incoming audio connection establishment The user accepts the incoming audio connection by pressing the button on the headset. By doing this, the HS will send the AT+CKPD command (see Section 4.7) to the AG, whereupon the AG establishes the SCO link (if not already established). 4.3 OUTGOING AUDIO CONNECTION An outgoing audio connection is initiated on the HS by pushing the button. The HS will initiate connection establishment (see Section 4.8), and will send the AT+CKPD command to the AG. Further internal actions may be needed on the AG to internally establish and/or route an audio stream to the HS2. The AG is responsible for establishing the SCO link. 2. For a cellular phone a cellular call may need to be established, e.g. using last dialled number, pre-programmed number. For a personal computer this e.g. relates to playing a wav file, or audio CD. 202 1 December 1999 Headset Control Interoperability Requirements BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile page 203 of 440 HS AG User initiated action Connection establishment AT+CKPD SCO link establishment Figure 4.2: Outgoing audio connection establishment 4.4 AUDIO CONNECTION RELEASE A call can be terminated either on the HS or on the AG. On the HS based upon the button being pushed, on the AG based upon internal actions or user intervention. User initiated action HS AT+CKPD SCO link release Connection release AG Figure 4.3: Audio connection release – HS initiated Headset Control Interoperability Requirements 1 December 1999 203 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile page 204 of 440 HS SCO link release Connection release AG Internal event/user initiated action Figure 4.4: Audio connection release – AG initiated Irrespective of the initiating side, the AG is responsible for releasing the connection (see Section 4.8). 4.5 AUDIO CONNECTION TRANSFER An audio connection can be transferred from AG to HS or from HS to AG. The connection is transferred to the device initiating the transfer. 4.5.1 Audio connection transfer from AG to HS The audio connection transfer from AG to HS is initiated by a user action on the HS side, which results in an AT+CKPD command being sent to the AG. HS AG User initiated action Connection establishment AT+CKPD SCO link establishment Figure 4.5: Audio connection transfer from AG to HS 204 1 December 1999 Headset Control Interoperability Requirements BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile page 205 of 440 4.5.2 Audio connection transfer from HS to AG The audio connection transfer from HS to AG is initiated by a user action on the AG. HS SCO link release Connection release AG User initiated action Figure 4.6: Audio connection transfer from HS to AG 4.6 REMOTE AUDIO VOLUME CONTROL The AG can control the gain of the microphone and speaker of the HS by sending unsolicited result codes +VGM and +VGS respectively. There is no limit to the amount and order of result codes, as long as there is an active audio connection ongoing. When supporting the remote audio volume control, an implementation is not mandated to support both the control of the microphone volume and speaker volume. HS Ongoing audio connection +VGM=13 +VGS=5 AG set microphone gain set speaker gain Figure 4.7: Audio volume control – example flow Headset Control Interoperability Requirements 1 December 1999 205 BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile page 206 of 440 Both the speaker and microphone gain are represented as parameter to the +VGS and +VGM, on a scale from 0 to 15. The values are absolute values, relating to a particular (implementation-dependent) volume level controlled by the HS. The HS may store the VGS and VGM settings at connection release, to restore the volume levels at the next connection establishment. At connection establishment, the HS shall inform the AG of the (restored) volume levels using the AT commands +VGS and +VGM. In case local means are implemented on the HS to control the volume levels, the HS shall also use the AT commands +VGS and +VGM to inform the AG of any changes in the volume levels. HS Connection establishment AG Local action to set speaker volume AT+VGS=6 AT+VGM=5 AT+VGS=7 Figure 4.8: Volume level synchronization – example flow 206 1 December 1999 Headset Control Interoperability Requirements BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION Version 1.0 B Headset Profile 4.7 AT COMMANDS AND RESULT CODES page 207 of 440 4.7.1 General For the exchange of the commands and unsolicited results codes, the format, syntax and procedures of V.250 [1] apply, with the exception that only one command (or unsolicited result code) per command line needs to be expected. The headset profile uses a subset of AT commands and result codes from existing standards. These are listed in Section 4.7.2. For those AT commands and result codes where no existing commands applied, Section 4.7.3 defines additional ones. 4.7.2 AT capabilities re-used from V.250 and GSM 07.07 The mandatory set of AT commands and unsolicited result codes are indicated in Table 4.1 below. AT capability Description RING The Incoming call indication of V.250 [1], Section 6.3.4. +CKPD The keypad control command of GSM TS 07.07 [2], Section 8.7. For , the value of 200 indicates the Button on the headset being pushed. The
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