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BS EN 12080-2007 铁道应用—轴箱用滚动轴承.pdf

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Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI BRITISH STANDARD BS EN 12080:2007 Railway applications — Axleboxes — Rolling bearings The European Standard EN 12080:2007 has the status of a British Standard ICS 45.040 12 &23<,1* :,7+287 %6, 3(50,66,21 (;&(37 $6 3(50,77(' %< &23<5,*+7 /$: Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI BS EN 12080:2007 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 National foreword This British Standard is the UK implementation of EN 12080:2007. It supersedes BS EN 12080:1998 which is withdrawn. The UK participation in its preparation was entrusted by Technical Committee RAE/3, Railway rolling stock material, to Panel RAE/3/-/2, Rolling bearings and lubricants. A list of organizations represented on this committee can be obtained on request to its secretary. “Normative” A (mandatory) requirement defined as an expression in the content of a document conveying criteria to be fulfilled if compliance with the document is to be claimed and from which no deviation is permitted [CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, Part 3: Rules for the Structure and Drafting of European Standards (PNE-Rules)]. “Informative” Information (not mandatory) intended to assist the understanding or use of the document. Informative annexes shall not contain requirements, except as optional requirements. (For example, a test method that is optional may contain requirements but there is no need to comply with these requirements to claim compliance with the document.) This publication does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users are responsible for its correct application. Compliance with a British Standard cannot confer immunity from legal obligations. This British Standard was published under the authority of the Standards Policy and Strategy Committee on 31 January 2008 Amendments/corrigenda issued since publication Date Comments © BSI 2008 ISBN 978 0 580 58355 1 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM ICS 21.100.20; 45.040 EN 12080 December 2007 Supersedes EN 12080:1998 English Version Railway applications - Axleboxes - Rolling bearings Applications ferroviaires - Boîtes d'essieux - Roulements Bahnanwendungen - Radsatzlager - Wälzlager This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 November 2007. CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member. This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the official versions. CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels © 2007 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 12080:2007: E EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI Contents Page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................4 Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................5 1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................6 2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................6 3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................6 4 Information and requirements to be agreed and documented .........................................................7 4.1 General....................................................................................................................................................7 4.2 Information to be supplied by customer .............................................................................................7 4.3 Optional requirements ..........................................................................................................................8 4.4 Requirements for agreement................................................................................................................8 5 Quality systems .....................................................................................................................................8 6 Manufacture............................................................................................................................................9 6.1 Steel manufacturing ..............................................................................................................................9 6.2 Heat treatment........................................................................................................................................9 6.3 Traceability .............................................................................................................................................9 7 Material properties.................................................................................................................................9 7.1 General....................................................................................................................................................9 7.2 Steel for rings and rolling elements.....................................................................................................9 7.3 Materials of other components (cages, spacers, seals etc.)...........................................................10 8 Geometry and dimensions..................................................................................................................10 8.1 Dimensions and tolerances ................................................................................................................10 8.2 Rolling bearing internal clearance before mounting .......................................................................10 9 Mechanical properties — inner ring expanding ability ....................................................................10 10 Physical properties..............................................................................................................................10 10.1 Visual aspect ........................................................................................................................................10 10.2 Soundness of rings and rolling elements .........................................................................................11 10.3 Case depth............................................................................................................................................11 10.4 Surface hardness.................................................................................................................................12 11 Marking .................................................................................................................................................12 12 Inspection .............................................................................................................................................12 12.1 Inspection plan.....................................................................................................................................12 12.2 Sampling ...............................................................................................................................................13 13 Quality records.....................................................................................................................................13 14 Approval ...............................................................................................................................................14 15 Delivery and packing ...........................................................................................................................14 15.1 Greasing of rolling bearings...............................................................................................................14 15.2 Rust protection ....................................................................................................................................14 15.3 Packaging .............................................................................................................................................14 Annex A (normative) Ultrasonic inspection of rolling bearing rings .........................................................15 A.1 Purpose.................................................................................................................................................15 A.2 Principle................................................................................................................................................15 A.3 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................15 A.4 Operating procedure ...........................................................................................................................15 2 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) Annex B (normative) Magnetic particle inspection of ring surfaces .........................................................20 B.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................20 B.2 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................20 B.3 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................20 B.4 Operation procedure ...........................................................................................................................20 Annex C (normative) Eddy current inspection of the raceways of the rollers..........................................22 C.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................22 C.2 Principle ...............................................................................................................................................22 C.3 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................22 C.4 Operating procedure ...........................................................................................................................22 Annex D (informative) Cages of polymeric material....................................................................................25 D.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................25 D.2 References ...........................................................................................................................................25 D.3 Material .................................................................................................................................................25 D.4 Cage requirement ................................................................................................................................26 D.5 Mechanical tests..................................................................................................................................27 D.5 Compatibility with lubricating greases .............................................................................................29 Annex E (normative) Approval procedures ..................................................................................................30 E.1 General .................................................................................................................................................30 E.2 Complete procedure, type C ..............................................................................................................30 E.3 Reduced procedure, type R................................................................................................................31 Annex F (informative) Criteria to determine the extent of approval procedures......................................32 Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 2001/16/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 March 2001 on the interoperability of the trans-European conventional rail system, as modified by EU Directive 2004/50/EC of 29 April 2004 ...............................................................34 Bibliography...................................................................................................................................................... 35 3 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 Foreword This document (EN 12080:2007) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2008, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by June 2008. This document supersedes EN 12080:1998. This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN/CENELEC/ETSI by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association to support Essential Requirements of EU Directive 2001/161), as modified by EU Directive 2004/502) of 29 April 2004. For relationship with EU Directives, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. 1) Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 110 of 20.4.01. 2) Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 220 of 21.6.04. 4 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) Introduction This European Standard has been drawn up with the purpose of aiming at optimum performance in rail transportation. Performance implies a certain quality level of the vehicle running gear, which every railway undertaking may require, notably by imposing procedures in approval and requesting the existence of a quality assurance system for the supply of rolling bearings intended for rolling stock operating on its network or other networks in Europe. 5 EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI 1 Scope This European Standard specifies the quality parameters of axlebox rolling bearings, required for reliable operation of trains on European networks. It covers metallurgical and material properties as well as geometric and dimensional characteristics. It also defines methods for quality assurance and conditions for approval of the products. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 12081, Railway applications — Axleboxes — Lubricating greases EN 12082, Railway applications — Axleboxes — Performance testing EN ISO 683-17, Heat treated steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 17: Ball and roller bearing steels (ISO 683-17:1999) EN ISO 2639, Steels — Determination and verification of the depth of carburized and hardened cases (ISO 2639:2002) EN ISO 6507-1, Metallic materials — Vickers hardness test — Part 1: Test method (ISO 6507-1:2005) EN ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method (scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, N, T) (ISO 6508-1:2005) EN ISO 6508-2, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 2: Verification and calibration of testing machines (scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, N, T) (ISO 6508-2:2005) EN ISO 6508-3, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 3: Calibration of reference blocks (scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, N, T) (ISO 6508-3:2005) ISO 281, Rolling bearings — Dynamic load ratings and rating life ISO 492, Rolling bearings — Radial bearings — Tolerances 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 customer railway undertaking, manufacturer or buyer of railway rolling stock or subassemblies, or their representative 3.2 railway undertaking organisation or its representative, whatever status it has, which is responsible for the registration of rolling stock 3.3 supplier supplier of axlebox rolling bearings manufactured under his responsibility 6 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 3.4 network infrastructure, on which any railway undertaking can operate rolling stock 3.5 axlebox assembly of box housing, rolling bearings, sealing and grease 3.6 rolling bearing bearing, operating with rolling motion between the parts supporting load and moving in relation to each other 3.7 cartridge bearing rolling bearing with two or more rows of rolling elements within a single outer ring, greased and equipped with integral seals 3.8 ring annular part of a rolling bearing incorporating one or more raceways 3.9 rolling elements cylindrical, tapered or convex rollers or balls 3.10 cage component, which partly surrounds the rolling elements and moves with them 3.11 grease semi-solid lubricant, which consists of a thickener and additives dispersed in a lubricating oil 3.12 sealing component that protects the bearings against ingress of water and dust and retains the grease in the rolling bearings 3.13 box housing structural component which contains rolling bearings, sealing and grease 4 Information and requirements to be agreed and documented 4.1 General The following information shall be fully documented by the supplier. Both the requirements specified throughout this European Standard and the following documented requirements shall be satisfied before a claim of compliance with this European Standard can be made and verified. 4.2 Information to be supplied by customer The following information is to be supplied by customer and shall be fully documented:  interface drawing showing mounting conditions; all dimensions of the space available for the rolling bearings; dimensions, tolerances and materials of shaft and box housing; 7 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载  load spectra;  ambient temperatures in operation;  if required special steel composition, cleanliness and soundness class (see 7.1 and 10.2);  approval procedure type and conditions to be applied (see Clause 14 and Annex E);  special conditions for quality records and traceability (see 6.3 and Clause 13). 4.3 Optional requirements If the customer wishes to take up any of the optional requirements given in 8.2, 10.2.1, 10.3, 10.4, Clause 11, Clause 12 and 15.2, such requirements shall be specified and documented. 4.4 Requirements for agreement The following requirements to be agreed between the contracting parties, which are specified in the clauses referred to, shall be fully documented:  boundary dimensions and interface tolerances of the rolling bearing (see Clause 8);  internal clearance values before and after mounting (see Clause 8);  references to standards and special requirements (see Clause 7 and 10.2);  use of steel of special composition, manufacture or metallurgical quality (see 7.1);  soundness Class, 1 or 2, and the test methods to be used (see 10.2);  type of heat treatment to be applied and methods of testing (see 6.2, 10.3, 10.4 and 12.2);  marking (see Clause 11);  inspection plan (see 12.1);  for cartridge bearings grease designation, quantity and distribution (see 15.1);  for non-sealed bearings, grease designation and compatibility with preservatives (see 15.2);  selection of mechanical testing method for cages of polymeric material (see D.5.1). 5 Quality systems The supplier shall operate a quality management system3). The personnel responsible for non destructive testing shall be qualified and certified4). 3) The system used should offer equivalence with EN ISO 9001. 4) The system used should offer equivalence with EN 473. 8 EN 12080:2007 (E) Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI 6 Manufacture 6.1 Steel manufacturing The process of steel manufacture in mass production shall be such that the metallurgical characteristics are the same as those of the rolling bearings submitted for the approval procedure. NOTE The choice of manufacturing procedures is left to the discretion of the supplier. 6.2 Heat treatment The heat treatment processes for the rolling bearing components shall be such that the hardness values specified in 10.3 and/or 10.4 are respected. The heat treatment processes shall be such that all the rolling bearings produced in a production batch are treated uniformly. The bearings shall be heat-treated to retain dimensional stability for operating temperatures up to + 150 °C, (designated S0 stabilisation in bearing catalogues). 6.3 Traceability At the customer's request, the supplier shall set up and maintain a system of identification and traceability of finished products (see Clause 4), which allows the detection, based on an identification mark, of the following elements:  material origin including the chemical analysis of every heat and steel manufacturing batch;  heat treatments;  inspection of boundary dimensions as well as inspection of soundness;  batch number. 7 Material properties 7.1 General The grades and qualities of materials used shall conform to the requirements in 7.2 and 7.3. 7.2 Steel for rings and rolling elements 7.2.1 Grades Steels should be selected from the grades specified in EN ISO 683-17. Alternative steel grades selected by bearing suppliers may be used by agreement between customer and supplier. For particular applications (high rotational speed, reliability etc.) it may be requested that the rolling bearings are made from steel with special composition, metallurgical quality or manufacturing processes (see Clause 4). 7.2.2 Inclusion content The methods for determining the inclusion content shall be agreed between customer and supplier. The applicable acceptance limits shall meet the requirements of EN ISO 683-17. For steel with special composition, metallurgical quality or manufacturing processes, the inclusion content shall be documented in accordance with Clause 4. 9 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 7.3 Materials of other components (cages, spacers, seals etc.) The materials of each one of these components shall be documented in accordance with Clause 4 and endorsed by the customer at the time of approval. For cages of polymeric material, if not otherwise specified, refer to Annex D. 8 Geometry and dimensions 8.1 Dimensions and tolerances The boundary dimensions shall be agreed and documented in accordance with 4.4. Applicable tolerances shall be those given in ISO 492, normal tolerance class, unless otherwise agreed and documented in 4.4. 8.2 Rolling bearing internal clearance before mounting Rolling bearing internal clearance, axial and/or radial, depending on the type of rolling bearing, shall conform to the values documented in accordance with 4.4. The methods for radial and/or axial clearance inspection can be agreed and documented in accordance with 4.3. 9 Mechanical properties — inner ring expanding ability With the exception of case-hardened rings and bainite hardened rings, an expansion test shall be performed to guarantee that the inner rings can withstand an increase of the bore diameter without causing fracture in service. This test shall be performed before the inspection for surface soundness. The value of this diameter increase shall not be less than 0,001 5 times the diameter. The rings shall neither rupture nor show any traces of cracks (see 10.2.3). This expansion test shall be made with an expandable mandrel that is inserted in the bore of the inner ring. The expansion shall be achieved progressively in a few seconds. 10 Physical properties 10.1 Visual aspect 10.1.1 Rings and rolling elements Rings and rolling elements shall be free of any defects, especially on working surfaces, which can be harmful to their function (such as burrs, scratches, rust stains, nicks and dents). 10.1.2 Cages Rolling bearing cages shall exhibit no defects that might affect their function (such as burrs, scratches, rust). To avoid crack initiation, the connection between the cage bars and the annular body shall be smooth and conform to the rounding-off shown on the detail drawing. If not otherwise documented in accordance with Clause 4, the requirements for cages of polymeric material shall be taken into account (see Annex D). 10 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 10.2 Soundness of rings and rolling elements 10.2.1 General rules Rings and rolling elements shall have no internal defects, nor any form of surface defect that may be harmful to their function. The soundness shall be inspected by the manufacturer. The methods are described in Annexes A, B and C. Any alternative methods to be used, which give equivalent results, shall be agreed and documented in accordance with 4.4. Two soundness classes are defined:  Class 1, with the highest demands;  Class 2. The classification only concerns the ring internal soundness (see Annex A). NOTE For vehicle speeds ≥ 200 km/h Class 1 is recommended. 10.2.2 Internal soundness of rings The reference method for the inspection of internal soundness of rings is described in Annex A. When tested, no ring shall exhibit defect indications on the raceway, or in a section of 4 mm depth below the raceway, with the amplitude equal to or greater than that observed with the master defect corresponding to the soundness class in question in accordance with Annex A. Larger defects are tolerated deeper than this section, though the defect indications shall not be more than twice the amplitude of that observed with the master defect. 10.2.3 Soundness of ring surfaces The reference method for the inspection of surface soundness of rings is described in Annex B. When tested, no evidence of defects shall be observed on any of the ring surfaces. NOTE Surface soundness inspection of rings can also be carried out with an approved equivalent standardized inspection method, e.g. a calibration and test procedure analogous to the eddy current testing of rollers in Annex C. 10.2.4 Soundness of roller raceway surfaces The reference method for the inspection of the raceway surface soundness of rollers is described in Annex C. When tested, no roller shall exhibit defect indications on its raceway with amplitude equal to or greater than that observed with the master defect as defined in Annex C. 10.2.5 Grinding burns There shall be no grinding burns during the different grinding operations. 10.3 Case depth For rolling bearings manufactured of case-hardening steel, the effective depth of the hardened case shall be documented in accordance with Clause 4. The depth of the hardened case is determined as a function of the change in hardness of the transversal cross section of a test piece or a prepared sample. The hardness shall be measured in accordance with EN ISO 6507-1 and EN ISO 2639 or another process agreed and documented in accordance with 4.4. At this depth, the Vickers hardness shall be at least 550 HV1. 11 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 10.4 Surface hardness Rings and rolling elements shall have a Rockwell hardness (HRC) between 57 HRC and 66 HRC. There shall be no more than 4 HRC difference between the values measured:  on all the rings of one rolling bearing;  on all the rolling elements in one rolling bearing. Surface hardness shall be inspected according to the Rockwell method, referred to in EN ISO 6508-1 to -3. For case-hardened steel rolling bearings, surface hardness may be measured by the Vickers HV 30 method, referred to in EN ISO 6507-1, or by another equivalent method agreed and documented in accordance with 4.4. 11 Marking The supplier shall mark rolling bearings visibly and indelibly outside of any surfaces in contact with spacers, thrust rings etc. Should this not be possible, the marking area shall be agreed and documented in accordance with 4.4. The supplier is responsible for selecting the marking process. Where marking punches are used, these shall not have any sharp edges. Marking by electric pencil (spark erosion) is prohibited. If no other indications are given, the following marking is compulsory:  supplier’s trade mark and country of origin;  production plant code, if there is more than one plant;  rolling bearing designation, including a reference to this European Standard and the soundness class;  date of manufacture in clear or coded form. When rolling bearing components or sub-assemblies are not allowed to be interchanged, they shall be marked with a unique identification number. 12 Inspection 12.1 Inspection plan If not otherwise documented in accordance with 4.4, the sampling plan and the number of inspections to be undertaken by the supplier shall be in accordance with Table 1. The results shall be documented. 12 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) Table 1 — Inspection plan Nature of inspections Number of inspections to be performed for a batch of N components or bearings N ≤10 10 < N ≤ 50 50 < N ≤ 100 100 < N ≤ 250 250 < N ≤ 500 N > 500 Visual aspect Functional dimensions a Surface soundness b Internal soundness c Case depth b Hardness b Internal clearance d Inner ring expansion ability e 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 1 1 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 1 2 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 2 3 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 3 5 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 4 7 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 5 10 100 % 100 % Marking 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % If a component or a bearing is found to be faulty: — whole batch shall be rejected, if inspection by sampling; — faulty component or rolling bearing shall be rejected, in case of 100 % inspection. a In accordance with 4.4. b On outer and inner rings, on rolling elements and on loose ribs and thrust collars. c On outer and inner rings. d Radial clearance for cylindrical and spherical roller bearings; axial clearance for cartridge bearings and matched pairs of tapered roller bearings. e Except case-hardened rings and bainite hardened rings. 12.2 Sampling A sample consists of rolling bearings or components taken from one batch and selected at random. When the heat treatment is continuous, the sampling plan shall be agreed and documented in accordance with 4.4. If the sampling is made by the customer, samples are taken at random from each batch of the rolling bearings chosen by the customer for inspection. For the checking of hardness and case depth of rings, one or more sectioned parts of rings from the same furnace batch may be used. Alternative samples may be used after agreement with the customer. 13 Quality records Independent of other regulations, the requirements for the archiving of all records of control of quality, providing proof of product conformity to this European Standard, and to the special terms of the order, shall be defined by the customer and documented in accordance with 4.2. 13 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 14 Approval Rolling bearings shall pass an approval procedure as agreed and documented in accordance with Clause 4. Every new type of rolling bearing or new application (see Annex F) shall be submitted to the customer for approval. This procedure shall be specified by the customer in accordance with the criteria presented in Annex E. After approval, the customer shall be notified of any changes of design and specification which may influence the function, as well as transfer to a different manufacturing plant. The customer may require a new approval procedure; guidelines are given in the Annexes E and F. 15 Delivery and packing 15.1 Greasing of rolling bearings When it is specified that the rolling bearings shall be delivered pre-lubricated with grease, this shall be with grease approved by the customer in accordance with EN 12081. The grease type, the quantity and its distribution shall be documented in accordance with Clause 4. 15.2 Rust protection All rolling bearings shall be delivered protected against corrosion with a product free from toxic or harmful substances. The compatibility of the preservative with the lubricating grease shall be guaranteed and documented in accordance with 4.4. 15.3 Packaging Whether delivered in bulk or singly, all rolling bearings shall be effectively protected by an appropriate packaging such that they can be transported, handled and stored without any damage. The following minimum marking will be made on the packaging:  supplier's trade mark;  rolling bearing designation. The packaging shall permit a minimum storage time of two years under normal storage conditions and provided that the original packing has not been opened. For rolling bearings delivered pre-lubricated, the storage time from manufacture to placing in service is limited to twelve months indoors between – 5 °C and + 30 °C. 14 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) Annex A (normative) Ultrasonic inspection of rolling bearing rings A.1 Purpose The purpose of this annex is to detail a reference method of ultrasonic inspection to verify the metallurgical soundness of rolling bearing rings for non-metallic inclusions, voids etc. A.2 Principle The ultrasonic inspection is carried out to accepted industrial practice, together with the requirements below. The test consists of the generation of pulses and reception of echoes in the form of longitudinal waves, so that the direction of propagation of waves through the rings is perpendicular to the raceway. Defects are indicated on the screen display:  either by attenuation of the “back echo” from the raceway;  or presence of “defect echoes” with attenuation of the “back echo” (see Figure A.2). A.3 Equipment The inspection equipment consists of an ultrasonic appliance allowing inspection by the “pulse-echo principle”, consisting in particular of a:  cathode-ray display screen with graduated dial;  monitoring system that trips an alarm whenever the defect indication is equal to or greater than the acceptance criterion;  transducer of minimum frequency 5 MHz ensuring the detection sensitivity specified in A.4.4.2;  "go/no go" ring sorting system. A.4 Operating procedure A.4.1 General rules Examination and detection of defects shall be carried out automatically. A.4.2 Preparation of rings The inspection shall be carried out on ground and thoroughly cleaned rings. 15 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 A.4.3 Examination The total volume under the raceways is scanned:  by relative rotation of the rings and the transducer;  by moving the transducer or the rings sideways, while continuously adjusting the orientation of the transducer when testing spherical roller bearings (see Figure A.1). The travelling speed of the ring in front of the transducer shall allow for the response time of the system. The axial step of every rotation of the ring shall be less than the diameter of the beam or of the focal spot when the beam is focused. A.4.4 Calibration A.4.4.1 Distance The distance, displayed as the dial abscissa, shall be sufficient to display at least one to-and-fro movement of the ring within the greatest thickness sensed, beyond its passage through the liquid. A.4.4.2 Sensitivity Sensitivity is set with calibration rings identical to the rings being tested (see Figure A.3), with reference defects in the form of holes drilled in the raceway:  0,5 mm in diameter and 0,5 mm deep for Class 1 rolling bearings;  1 mm in diameter and 1 mm deep for Class 2 rolling bearings. A.4.4.3 Automatic monitoring system The automatic monitoring system is set in all cases to trip the alarm and to reject parts, which cause any response of defect equal to or greater than the weakest response observed on the calibration ring (see Figure A.3). A.4.4.4 Verification To verify the operational stability, the equipment shall be regularly checked by means of the calibration ring under the same conditions as the rings being inspected (examples see Figure A.1). 16 EN 12080:2007 (E) Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI Key 1 probe 2 displacement 3 orientation A cylindrical roller bearing B tapered roller bearing C spherical roller bearing Figure A.1 — Examples of applications 17 EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI Key 1 pulse 2 time 3 initial pulse 4 input signal 5 back echo 6 defect echo A sound area B area with defects – attenuation of the back echo C area with defects – defect echo and attenuation of the back echo Figure A.2 — Indication of defects on the screen display 18 EN 12080:2007 (E) Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI Key 1 reference defect A cylindrical roller bearing B tapered roller bearing C spherical roller bearing Figure A.3 — Calibration rings 19 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 Annex B (normative) Magnetic particle inspection of ring surfaces B.1 Purpose The scope of this annex is to detail a reference method for magnetic particle inspection intended to detect ring surface defects such as grinding cracks, heat treatment or hardening cracks, rolling or forging shuts, scratches etc. B.2 Principle The magnetic particle inspection is to be carried out to accepted industrial practice together with the requirements below. The inspection is achieved by magnetisation — in the circumferential direction for the detection of defects parallel to the axis of the ring, called ”axial defects” (see Figure B.1) and — parallel to the axis of the ring for the detection of circumferential defects (see Figure B.2). B.3 Equipment The inspection equipment employed shall be capable of achieving magnetisation of the ring as specified above with a magnetic field strength of minimum 3 kA/m for each direction of magnetisation. The induction level is identified by the intensity of the magnetising current. Defects are detected using a magnetic solution containing fluorescent particles. Such liquid shall have no harmful effects on the parts being examined. The inspection is carried out under UV-light of at least 15 W/m2 light intensity, measured at a distance of 0,3 m. A verification of the system sensitivity shall be carried out on site. This includes measuring the field strength as well as the use of reference rings with real defects of known type, location, size and distribution. Where these are not available, fabricated reference rings with artificial defects may be used. B.4 Operation procedure B.4.1 Preparation of rings The inspection shall be carried out on ground and thoroughly cleaned rings. B.4.2 Examination All surfaces will be examined taking care not to remove any defect indications. All rings with defect indications shall be rejected. B.4.3 Demagnetisation After examination the rings will be demagnetised. The residual magnetism shall not exceed 0,5 mT. 20 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) Figure B.1 — Circumferential magnetisation to detect axial defects Figure B.2 — Axial magnetisation to detect circumferential defects 21 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 Annex C (normative) Eddy current inspection of the raceways of the rollers C.1 Purpose The scope of this annex is to detail a reference method of inspection using eddy currents for the detection of defects on the raceway surface of rollers such as grinding cracks, heat treatment or hardening cracks, lines and scores due to drawing, marks etc. C.2 Principle Eddy current inspection of rollers is to be carried out using an inductive sensor, in which a high frequency alternating current is passed (of at least 100 kHz). The raceway surface of the rollers is scanned by relative rotation and relative axial movement between the roller and the sensor, with the distance between them remaining constant (see Figure C.1). The inspection is carried out automatically. C.3 Equipment The equipment consists of a:  system designed to energize the sensor and detect variations of impedance due to defects to be detected;  sensor with a differential winding;  monitoring system which trips an alarm whenever the detected response is of a level equal to or greater than the acceptance criterion;  go / no go roller sorting system. C.4 Operating procedure C.4.1 Preparation of rollers The inspection shall be carried out on finished and thoroughly cleaned rollers. NOTE The inspection can also be carried out on rollers after final grinding in order to avoid the risk of handling marks after honing. C.4.2 Examination The speed at which the rollers pass in front of the sensor shall allow for the response time of the system. The axial displacement pitch for every rotation shall be less than the effective width of the probe. 22 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) C.4.3 Calibration C.4.3.1 Sensitivity The sensitivity is calibrated with reference rollers of the same type and geometry as the parts being tested, provided with a reference artificial defect in the form of a longitudinal slot (see Figure C.2) of the size — 0,05 mm ± 0,01 mm deep (p), 3 mm ± 0,1 mm long (L) and 0,05 mm ± 0,01 mm wide (l). C.4.3.2 Automatic monitoring system The automatic monitoring system is set in each test to trip an alarm, and to reject parts whenever the amplitude of the signal is equal to or greater than that generated by the reference defect. C.4.3.3 Verification To verify the operational stability, the equipment shall be regularly calibrated by means of the calibration rollers under the same conditions as the rollers being inspected. Key 1 probe with different winding 2 roller submitted to a relative rotating and axial movement with respect to the prove Figure C.1 — Eddy current inspection of roller raceway — Principle 23 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 Figure C.2 — Eddy current inspection of roller raceways — Calibrated reference roller 24 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI Annex D (informative) Cages of polymeric material EN 12080:2007 (E) D.1 Purpose This annex describes the material for polymeric cages and the requirements for the cages manufactured from this material by injection moulding and the procedure to test the mechanical properties of these cages. D.2 References EN ISO 3146, Plastics — Determination of melting behaviour (melting temperature or melting range) of semicrystalline polymers by capillary tube and polarising-microscope methods (ISO 3146:2000) EN ISO 307, Plastics — Polyamides — Determination of viscosity number (ISO 307:2003) EN ISO 1183-1, Plastics — Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics — Part 1: Immersion method, liquid pyknometer method and titration method (ISO 1183-1:2004) EN ISO 1183-2, Plastics — Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics — Part 2: Density gradient column method (ISO 1183-2:2004) D.3 Material Polyamide (PA), glass-fibre reinforced, heat resistant grade. The polyamide to be applied is preferably PA66 or PA6 with suitable additives to provide maximum ageing resistance. The PA polymer may contain specific elastomeric components to increase its toughness. Such compounds are known as "super tough" or "toughened" PA. The preferred level of glass-fibre reinforcement is approximately 25 %. Other materials as high temperature polymeric materials may be used after agreement. 25 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 D.4 Cage requirement D.4.1 Material properties Table D.1 — Requirements and test method for base polymers Characteristics Requirements a Test method Base polymer According to REF Infra-red analysis Melting point in °C REF ± 5 EN ISO 3146 Viscosity number in cm3/g REF ± 20 EN ISO 307 (solvent – formic acid 90 %) Fillers — type Glass fibres — content in % — length in mm REF ± 2,5 0,1 to 1,0 b — diameter in µm 10 Density in kg/dm3 REF ± 0,04 EN ISO 1183-1 or EN ISO 1183-2 a REF = Reference (spectrum, plot, value etc.) of cage material prototype accepted by the customer. b Applies for 95 % of all glass fibres within base material. D.4.2 Mechanical properties of cages The cage fracture strength shall be at least 90 % of REF strength according to D.5. D.4.3 Surface quality The surface finish shall fulfil the following requirements:  no mechanical damages (e.g. from improper handling);  uniform glossy or uniform matt appearance;  no severe flow marks;  no rough, porous surfaces;  no glass fibres protruding from the surface, no glass fibres visible in the top surface skin;  maximum allowed height of burrs shall not exceed 0,2 mm and shall not be present on any edges that can come into contact with the rolling elements. 26 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) D.4.4 Sub-surface quality The sub-surface shall fulfil the following requirements:  voids within a section 1 mm below the surface are not allowed, however, below this 1 mm surface zone, in cases where the cross section is high, voids of maximum 10 % of the wall thickness but not more than 1 mm are accepted;  severe voids in form of cracks as a result of flow marks are not allowed;  glass fibre agglomerations are not allowed, however, some fibre orientation as a consequence of the material flow is accepted in this connection. D.5 Mechanical tests D.5.1 Test conditions Selection of one or more of the testing methods in D.5.2 and D.5.3 is to be decided by agreement between customer and supplier according to 4.4. The following test conditions shall be respected:  water content of the cage < 0,1 %;  testing at ambient temperature, and/or at a lower temperature on customer demand;  cage not yet aged;  minimum of five cages needed for an acceptable test result;  loading of the cage should be positioned such that the most critical area or section is tested. D.5.2 Bending test procedures Figure D.1 — Test arrangements for bending test The test arrangements are shown in Figure D.1. 27 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) The cage is loaded till fracture at a deformation speed 5 mm/min to10 mm/min. The force F in newtons, leading to fracture is the cage fracture bending strength. D.5.3 Tension test procedures D.5.3.1 Force applied to cage body 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 Key 1 radius of tool (2) = radius of cage (3) 2 tool 3 cage (shown with hatched section) Figure D.2 — Test arrangements for tension test The test arrangements are shown in Figure D.2. The cage is loaded till fracture at a deformation speed 5 mm/min to10 mm/min. The force F in newtons, leading to fracture is the cage fracture tension strength. 28 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI D.5.3.2 Force applied to cage bar EN 12080:2007 (E) Key 1 self-aligning arrangement of pull device 2 support 3 pull device — with the dimensions – width 50 % to 60 % of cage pocket length (L) and height at least the same as the cage bar height at the pull device contact position Figure D.3 — Test arrangement for tension test The test arrangement is shown in Figure D.3 with the forces F applied by means of pull devices, which are positioned 1 mm from the inner left hand side face of the cage pocket as indicated in the figure. The cage bars are loaded till fracture. The force F in Newtons, leading to fracture is the cage fracture tension strength. D.6 Compatibility with lubricating greases On customer request, mechanical tests can be performed after ageing of the cage in the grease to be used. Recommended values for time and temperature are 1 000 h at 140 °C. The test conditions and acceptance criteria shall be established between customer and supplier. 29 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) Annex E (normative) Approval procedures 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 E.1 General The customer shall specify the type of approval applicable to the rolling bearings in question as a function of the design and the operating conditions as agreed and documented in accordance with Clause 4:  complete approval, type C; corresponding to a complete procedure as specified in E.2;  reduced approval, type R; corresponding to a reduced procedure as specified in E.3. E.2 Complete procedure, type C E.2.1 General The type C rolling bearing approval procedure consists of four successive stages. E.2.2 Stage 1 The supplier shall submit a set of detailed drawings based on the general assembly drawing supplied by the customer in accordance with Clause 4. The supplier shall also detail separately:  performance of the rolling bearing for a given application in accordance with ISO 281;  type of materials used (designation, manufacturing);  type of heat treatments. E.2.3 Stage 2 The customer shall verify the material characteristics, the steel metallurgical characteristics (cleanliness, heat treatment etc.) and the physical, mechanical and geometric properties of the rolling bearing. E.2.4 Stage 3 If the rolling bearings comply with the specifications above, a rig performance test representing service conditions shall be carried out in accordance with EN 12082. E.2.5 Stage 4 The customer shall carry out service tests on vehicles in service, using a representative sample of rolling bearings, produced according to mass production conditions. Before the test, the rolling bearings shall be inspected; results shall be recorded. Depending on the operating conditions of the vehicles for which the rolling bearings are intended, the test period shall be as defined in EN 12082. 30 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) E.2.6 Decision The approval of a rolling bearing shall be granted when:  technical documents have been approved;  characteristics conform to those laid down in this European Standard and those indicated on the various documents submitted;  rig performance tests have been satisfactory;  service tests reveal no abnormality, which can be directly attributed to the bearings tested. E.3 Reduced procedure, type R The type R rolling bearing approval procedure shall depend on the degree of novelty. Based on Annex F, the customer shall specify which stages are to be used. 31 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 Annex F (informative) Criteria to determine the extent of approval procedures The extent of the procedures to be used for the approval depends on the degree of novelty of the axlebox and its components with respect to proven operation performance. There are two procedures, type C (Complete), and type R (Reduced), for the rolling bearings described in this European Standard and for the lubricating greases described in EN 12081. The complete approval procedure, type C, complies with E.2 and follows the requirements of EN 12082. The reduced approval procedure, type R, is agreed between the customer and the supplier, as stated in E.3. For the rolling bearings, all new designs, significant changes of the internal design or of material, metallurgical process and heat treatment as well as significant changes of the application requires the type C procedure. Table F.1 describes in detail the criteria for the selection. The changes are classified in three risk groups. a) Risk group 1 — Any change beyond the operationally proven performance range will significantly affect operating temperature or life. In this case, a type C procedure is carried out. b) Risk group 2 — Any change beyond the operationally proven performance range may affect operating temperature and life, increasing with the extent of change. The selection of the type C or type R procedure is agreed between the customer and the supplier. c) Risk group 3 — Any change beyond the operationally proven performance range may affect operating temperature, but have little effect on life. Here, a type R procedure will be carried out with details to be agreed between the customer and the supplier. NOTE For rolling bearing performance, the box housing stiffness is of vital importance. In cases of doubt the distortion of the box housing is evaluated by a method agreed between customer and supplier. 32 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) Table F.1 — Criteria to determine the extent of approval procedures of axlebox rolling bearings Risk group Element of change Change requiring a new approval (in relation to proven operationally performance) Approval type Design Bearing design Design details: New bearing design or new basic bearing type Significant change to the parameters below: — Internal geometry — Modification of raceway and/or roller profiles C — Roller and cage guidance — Change of principle of guidance 1a — Material — Significant change of material, rings, rollers or cages Manufacture Steel processing Entirely new metallurgical process Heat treatment New process for rings or rollers C Supplier New supplier or producer Design Bearing size Rollers Cage design Sealed bearings 2 Manufacture Manufacturing process Metallurgy Factory Application ≥ 10 % change in size of bore diameter or outside diameter Different number and/or size Different geometry Change of grease and/or changes of seal type excluding holes for sensors C or R Major change of procedures for components Minor change of metallurgy or heat treatment Change of manufacturing plant C or R Mean load > + 10 % change of load in service C or R Design Bearing size Application < 10 % change in size of bore diameter or outside diameter 3 Interfaces Any change of tolerances / fits Internal clearance Any change of nominal clearance in service R Ambient temperature > ± 20 °C change of peak ambient temperature Maximum speed Any increase of maximum rotational speed Lubrication ± 20 % change of grease quantity a Where the effect of any product changes – without any influence on temperature or reduction of bearing life – can be demonstrated either by detailed component or material testing or by proven performance in other comparable bearing applications, then a type R approval procedure can be agreed between customer and supplier. 33 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI EN 12080:2007 (E) 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 2001/16/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 March 2001 on the interoperability of the transEuropean conventional rail system, as modified by EU Directive 2004/50/EC of 29 April 2004 This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN/CENELEC/ETSI by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association to provide a means of conforming to Essential Requirements of the New Approach Directive 2001/16/EC, as amended by Directive 2004/50/EC. Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has been implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the clauses of this standard given in Table ZA.1 confers, within the limits of the scope of this standard, a presumption of conformity with the corresponding Essential Requirements of that Directive and associated EFTA regulations. Table ZA.1 — Correspondence between this European standard and Directive 2001/16/EC Clauses/subclauses Chapter/§/points and annexes of the CR of this European TSI Rolling Stock WAG dated January Standard 2005 and approved by the Standing Committee on the Interoperability and Safety of the European Rail System Corresponding text, articles/§/annexes of the Directive 2001/16/EC The whole standard is 4.2.3.4.1 Vehicle dynamic behaviour, applicable. General 4.2.8: Maintenance: maintenance file 5.3.2: Vehicle track interaction and gauging 5.4.2: Vehicle track interaction and gauging 6.1.3.2: Vehicle track interaction and gauging Annex Y: Constituents, bogies and running gear Annex III, Essential Requirements, General Requirements – Clauses 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.1.3 Safety Annex III, Essential Requirements, General Requirements – Clause 1.2 Reliability and availability Annex III, Essential Requirements, General Requirements – Clauses 1.4.4, 1.4.5 Environmental protection Annex III, Essential requirements, General Requirements – Clause 1.5 Technical compatibility Annex III, Essential Requirements, Requirements Specific to control and Command and Signalling Subsystem – Clause 2.3.2 Compatibility of new infrastructure and rolling stock Annex III, Essential Requirements, Requirements Specific to Rolling Stock Subsystem – Clause 2.4.1 Safety Clause 2.4.2 Reliability and availability WARNING — Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling within the scope of this standard. 34 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI Bibliography EN 12080:2007 (E) [1] EN ISO 9001, Quality systems — Performance (ISO 9001:2000) [2] EN 473, Non destructive testing — Qualification and certification of NDT personnel — General principles 35 Licensed Copy: Gilbert Athens, University of Birmingham, 10/06/2008 18:04, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI BS EN 12080:2007 BSI 389 Chiswick High Road London W4 4AL 标准分享网 www.bzfxw.com 免费下载 BSI — British Standards Institution BSI is the independent national body responsible for preparing British Standards. It presents the UK view on standards in Europe and at the international level. It is incorporated by Royal Charter. Revisions British Standards are updated by amendment or revision. Users of British Standards should make sure that they possess the latest amendments or editions. It is the constant aim of BSI to improve the quality of our products and services. We would be grateful if anyone finding an inaccuracy or ambiguity while using this British Standard would inform the Secretary of the technical committee responsible, the identity of which can be found on the inside front cover. Tel: +44 (0)20 8996 9000. Fax: +44 (0)20 8996 7400. BSI offers members an individual updating service called PLUS which ensures that subscribers automatically receive the latest editions of standards. Buying standards Orders for all BSI, international and foreign standards publications should be addressed to Customer Services. Tel: +44 (0)20 8996 9001. Fax: +44 (0)20 8996 7001. 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