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Product Folder Order Now Technical Documents Tools & Software Support & Community bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 适用于电池组集成的 bq27545-G1 单节锂离子电池电量计 1 特性 •1 适用于 1 节 (1sXp) 锂离子电池的电池电量计 应用 支持高达 14500mAh 的容量 • 微控制器外设提供: – 用于电池温度报告的内部或者外部温度传感器 – 安全哈希算法 (SHA)-1 / 哈希消息认证码 (HMAC) 认证 – 使用寿命的数据记录 – 64 字节非易失性暂用闪存 • 基于已获专利的 Impedance Track™技术的电池电 量计量 – 用于电池续航能力精确预测的电池放电模拟曲线 – 针对电池老化、电池自放电以及温度和速率低效 情况进行自动调节 – 低值感应电阻器(5mΩ 至 20mΩ) • 先进的电量计量 特性 – 内部短路检测 – 电池端子断开侦测 • 高速 1 线 (HDQ) 和 I2C™接口格式,用于与主机系 统通信 • 小型 15 焊球 Nano-Free™芯片尺寸球状引脚栅格 阵列 (DSBGA) 封装 2 应用 • 智能手机 • 平板电脑 • 数码相机与视频摄像机 • 手持式终端 • MP3 或多媒体播放器 3 说明 bq27545-G1 锂离子电池电量计是一款微控制器外设, 此外设能够提供针对单节锂离子电池组的电量计量。此 器件只需开发较少的系统微控制器固件即可实现精确的 电池电量计量。bq27545-G1 安装于电池组内或者带有 一个嵌入式电池(不可拆卸)的系统主板上。 bq27545-G1 使用已经获得专利的 Impedance Track™ 算法来进行电量计量,并提供诸如剩余电量 (mAh)、 充电状态 (%)、续航时间(最小值)、电池电压 (mV) 和温度 (°C) 等信息。该器件还提供针对内部短路或电 池端子断开事件的检测功能。 bq27545-G1 还 具有 针对安全电池组认证(使用 SHA-1/HMAC 认证算法)的集成支持功能。 该器件还采用 15 焊球 Nano-Free™ DSBGA 封装 (2.61 mm × 1.96 mm),非常适合空间受限的 应用。 器件信息(1) 器件型号 bq27545-G1 封装 YZF (15) 封装尺寸(标称值) 2.61 mm × 1.96 mm (1) 要了解所有可用封装,请参见数据表末尾的可订购产品附录。 4 简化电路原理图 PACK+ HDQ SDA SCL PROTECTION IC CHG DSG PACK– FET Single Cell Li-Ion Battery Pack REGIN BAT VCC HDQ SDA SCL SE CE TS SRP SRN 1 An IMPORTANT NOTICE at the end of this data sheet addresses availability, warranty, changes, use in safety-critical applications, intellectual property matters and other important disclaimers. PRODUCTION DATA. English Data Sheet: SLUSAT0 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn 目录 1 特性.......................................................................... 1 2 应用.......................................................................... 1 3 说明.......................................................................... 1 4 简化电路原理图........................................................ 1 5 修订历史记录 ........................................................... 2 6 Device Comparison Table..................................... 3 7 Pin Configuration and Functions ......................... 3 8 Specifications......................................................... 4 8.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings ...................................... 4 8.2 ESD Ratings.............................................................. 4 8.3 Recommended Operating Conditions....................... 4 8.4 Thermal Information .................................................. 4 8.5 Electrical Characteristics: Supply Current................. 5 8.6 Electrical Characteristics: Digital Input and Output DC .............................................................................. 5 8.7 Electrical Characteristics: Power-On Reset .............. 5 8.8 Electrical Characteristics: 2.5-V LDO Regulator ....... 5 8.9 Electrical Characteristics: Internal Clock Oscillators. 6 8.10 Electrical Characteristics: Integrating ADC (Coulomb Counter) Characteristics............................ 6 8.11 Electrical Characteristics: ADC (Temperature and Cell Voltage) .............................................................. 6 8.12 Electrical Characteristics: Data Flash Memory ....... 6 8.13 HDQ Communication Timing Characteristics ......... 7 8.14 I2C-Compatible Interface Timing Characteristics .... 7 8.15 Typical Characteristics ............................................ 9 9 Detailed Description ............................................ 10 9.1 Overview ................................................................. 10 9.2 Functional Block Diagram ....................................... 11 9.3 Feature Description................................................. 11 9.4 Device Functional Modes........................................ 16 9.5 Programming........................................................... 24 9.6 Register Maps ......................................................... 39 10 Application and Implementation........................ 41 10.1 Application Information.......................................... 41 10.2 Typical Application ............................................... 41 11 Power Supply Recommendations ..................... 45 11.1 Power Supply Decoupling ..................................... 45 12 Layout................................................................... 45 12.1 Layout Guidelines ................................................. 45 12.2 Layout Example .................................................... 46 13 器件和文档支持 ..................................................... 47 13.1 文档支持................................................................ 47 13.2 社区资源................................................................ 47 13.3 商标 ....................................................................... 47 13.4 静电放电警告......................................................... 47 13.5 Glossary ................................................................ 47 14 机械、封装和可订购信息....................................... 47 5 修订历史记录 注:之前版本的页码可能与当前版本有所不同。 Changes from Revision C (September 2015) to Revision D Page • 已更改 “典型应用图表”更改为“简化原理图”............................................................................................................................. 1 • 已更改 封装尺寸...................................................................................................................................................................... 1 • Changed "Device Options" to "Device Comparison Table" ................................................................................................... 3 • Changed the descriptions for the SRP and SRN pins............................................................................................................ 3 • Changed Electrical Characteristics: Power-On Reset ........................................................................................................... 5 • Changed all instances of "relaxation mode" to "RELAX mode" .......................................................................................... 13 • Added "FULLSLEEP mode" to the introduction in Power Modes ....................................................................................... 19 Changes from Revision B (October 2012) to Revision C Page • 已更改 将 32Ahr 更改为 14,500mAh ...................................................................................................................................... 1 • 已添加 ESD 额定值表,特性 说明 部分,器件功能模式,应用和实施部分,电源相关建议部分,布局部分,器件和文 档支持部分以及机械、封装和可订购信息部分........................................................................................................................ 1 2 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn 6 Device Comparison Table bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 PART NUMBER (1) BQ27545-G1 FIRMWARE VERSION 2.24 PACKAGE (2) CSP–15 TA –40°C to 85°C COMMUNICATION FORMAT I2C, HDQ(1) (1) bq27545-G1 is shipped in I2C mode. (2) For the most current package and ordering information, see the Package Option Addendum at the end of this document, or see the TI website at www.ti.com. 7 Pin Configuration and Functions YZF Package 15-Pin DSBGA Top View YZF Package 15-Pin DSBGA Bottom View PIN NAME NO. SRP A1 SRN VSS SE VCC REGIN HDQ TS CE BAT SCL B1 C1, C2 C3 D1 E1 A2 B2 D2 E2 A3 SDA B3 NC/GPIO D3, E3 TYPE (1) Pin Functions DESCRIPTION IA Analog input pin connected to the internal coulomb counter where SRP is nearest the VSS connection. Connect to 5-mΩ to 20-mΩ sense resistor. IA Analog input pin connected to the internal coulomb counter where SRN is nearest the PACK– connection. Connect to the 5-mΩ to 20-mΩ sense resistor. P Device ground O Shutdown Enable output. Push-pull output. P Regulator output and processor power. Decouple with 1-µF ceramic capacitor to VSS. P Regulator input. Decouple with 0.1-µF ceramic capacitor to VSS. I/O HDQ serial communications line (Slave). Open drain. IA Pack thermistor voltage sense (use 103AT-type thermistor). ADC input. I Chip Enable. Internal LDO is disconnected from REGIN when driven low. IA Cell-voltage measurement input. ADC input. Recommend 4.8-V maximum for conversion accuracy. I Slave I2C serial communications clock input line for communication with system (Master). Use with 10-kΩ pullup resistor (typical). I/O Slave I2C serial communications data line for communication with system (Master). Open-drain I/O. Use with 10-kΩ pullup resistor (typical). NC Do not connect for proper operation; reserved for future GPIO. (1) IA = Analog input, I/O = Digital input/output, P = Power connection, NC = No connect Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 3 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 8 Specifications www.ti.com.cn 8.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)(1) VI VCC VIOD VBAT VI TA TF Tstg Regulator input, REGIN Supply voltage Open-drain I/O pins (SDA, SCL, HDQ) BAT input, (pin E2) Input voltage range to all others (pins GPIO, SRP, SRN, TS) Operating free-air temperature Functional temperature Storage temperature MIN MAX UNIT –0.3 5.5 V –0.3 2.75 V –0.3 5.5 V –0.3 5.5 V –0.3 –40 VCC + 0.3 V 85 °C –40 100 °C –65 150 °C (1) Stresses beyond those listed under absolute maximum ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under recommended operating conditions is not implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. 8.2 ESD Ratings V(ESD) Electrostatic discharge Human-body model (HBM), per ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS001 (1) BAT pin all pins Charged-device model (CDM), per JEDEC specification JESD22-C101(2) VALUE ±1500 ±2000 ±500 (1) JEDEC document JEP155 states that 500-V HBM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process. (2) JEDEC document JEP157 states that 250-V CDM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process. UNIT V 8.3 Recommended Operating Conditions TA = –40°C to 85°C; typical values at TA = 25°C and VREGIN = VBAT = 3.6 V (unless otherwise noted) MIN NOM No operating restrictions 2.8 VI Supply voltage, REGIN No FLASH writes 2.45 CREGIN CLDO25 tPUCD External input capacitor for internal LDO between REGIN and VSS Nominal capacitor values specified. Recommend a 5% ceramic X5R type capacitor External output capacitor for internal located close to the device. LDO between VCC an VSS Power-up communication delay 0.1 0.47 1 250 MAX 4.5 2.8 UNIT V µF µF ms 8.4 Thermal Information THERMAL METRIC(1) bq27545-G1 YZF (DSBGA) UNIT 15 PINS RθJA RθJC(top) RθJB ψJT ψJB RθJC(bot) Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance Junction-to-case (top) thermal resistance Junction-to-board thermal resistance Junction-to-top characterization parameter Junction-to-board characterization parameter Junction-to-case (bottom) thermal resistance 70 °C/W 17 °C/W 20 °C/W 1 °C/W 18 °C/W N/A °C/W (1) For more information about traditional and new thermal metrics, see the Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics application report, SPRA953. 4 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 8.5 Electrical Characteristics: Supply Current TA = 25°C and VREGIN = VBAT = 3.6 V (unless otherwise noted) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS ICC I(SLP) I(FULLSLP) I(HIB) Normal operating mode current (1) Low-power operating mode current (1) Low-power operating mode current (1) HIBERNATE operating mode current (1) Fuel gauge in NORMAL mode ILOAD > Sleep Current Fuel gauge in SLEEP mode ILOAD < Sleep Current Fuel gauge in FULLSLEEP mode ILOAD < Sleep Current Fuel gauge in HIBERNATE mode ILOAD < Hibernate Current (1) Specified by design. Not tested in production. MIN TYP 118 62 23 8 MAX UNIT μA μA μA μA 8.6 Electrical Characteristics: Digital Input and Output DC TA = -40°C to 85°C; typical values at TA = 25°C and VREGIN = VBAT = 3.6 V (unless otherwise noted) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP VOL Output voltage low (HDQ, SDA, SCL, SE) IOL = 3 mA VOH(PP) VOH(OD) Output high voltage (SE) Output high voltage (HDQ, SDA, SCL) IOH = –1 mA External pullup resistor connected to VCC VCC–0.5 VCC–0.5 VIL Input voltage low (HDQ, SDA, SCL) –0.3 VIH Input voltage high (HDQ, SDA, SCL) 1.2 VIL(CE) VIH(CE) Ilkg CE Low-level input voltage CE High-level input voltage Input leakage current (I/O pins) VREGIN = 2.8 V to 4.5 V 2.65 VREGIN–0.5 MAX 0.4 0.6 5.5 0.8 0.8 0.3 UNIT V V V V V V μA 8.7 Electrical Characteristics: Power-On Reset TA = –40°C to 85°C, C(REG) = 0.47 μF, 2.45 V < V(REGIN) = VBAT < 5.5 V; typical values at TA = 25°C and V(REGIN) = VBAT = 3.6 V (unless otherwise noted) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT VIT+ VHYS Positive-going battery voltage input at VCC Power-on reset hysteresis 2.05 2.15 115 2.2 V mV 8.8 Electrical Characteristics: 2.5-V LDO Regulator TA = –40°C to 85°C, C(REG) = 0.47 μF, 2.45 V < V(REGIN) = VBAT < 5.5 V; typical values at TA = 25°C and V(REGIN) = VBAT = 3.6 V (unless otherwise noted) PARAMETER TEST CONDITION MIN TYP MAX UNIT 2.8 V ≤ V(REGIN) ≤ 4.5 V, VCC Regulator output voltage, VCC IOUT ≤ 16 mA 2.45 V ≤ V(REGIN) < 2.8 V (low battery), IOUT ≤ 3 mA 2.3 2.5 2.6 V 2.3 V Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 5 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn 8.9 Electrical Characteristics: Internal Clock Oscillators TA = –40°C to 85°C, 2.4 V < VCC < 2.6 V; typical values at TA = 25°C and VCC = 2.5 V (unless otherwise noted) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX f(OSC) f(LOSC) Operating frequency Operating frequency 2.097 32.768 UNIT MHz kHz 8.10 Electrical Characteristics: Integrating ADC (Coulomb Counter) Characteristics TA = –40°C to 85°C, C(REG) = 0.47 μF, 2.45 V < V(REGIN) = VBAT < 5.5 V; typical values at TA = 25°C and V(REGIN) = VBAT = 3.6 V (unless otherwise noted) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT VSR tCONV(SR) Input voltage range, V(SRN) and V(SRP) Conversion time Resolution VSR = V(SRN) – V(SRP) Single conversion –0.125 14 0.125 V 1 s 15 bits VOS(SR) INL ZIN(SR) Ilkg(SR) Input offset Integral nonlinearity error Effective input resistance(1) Input leakage current(1) 10 μV ±0.007 ±0.034 FSR 2.5 MΩ 0.3 μA (1) Specified by design. Not production tested. 8.11 Electrical Characteristics: ADC (Temperature and Cell Voltage) TA = –40°C to 85°C, C(REG) = 0.47 μF, 2.45 V < V(REGIN) = VBAT < 5.5 V; typical values at TA = 25°C and V(REGIN) = VBAT = 3.6 V (unless otherwise noted) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNIT VIN(TS) VIN(BAT) VIN(ADC) G(TEMP) tCONV(ADC) Input voltage range (TS) Input voltage range (BAT) Input voltage range to ADC Temperature sensor voltage gain Conversion time Resolution VSS – 0.125 VSS – 0.125 0.05 14 VCC V 5V 1V –2 mV/°C 125 ms 15 bits VOS(ADC) Z(TS) Input offset Effective input resistance (TS) (1) bq27545-G1 not measuring external temperature 1 mV 8 MΩ Z(BAT) Effective input resistance (BAT)(1) bq27545-G1 not measuring cell voltage bq27545-G1 measuring cell voltage 8 MΩ 100 kΩ Ilkg(ADC) Input leakage current 0.3 μA (1) Specified by design. Not production tested. 8.12 Electrical Characteristics: Data Flash Memory TA = –40°C to 85°C, C(REG) = 0.47 μF, 2.45 V < V(REGIN) = VBAT < 5.5 V; typical values at TA = 25°C and V(REGIN) = VBAT = 3.6 V (unless otherwise noted) tDR tWORDPROG ICCPROG tDFERASE tPGERASE PARAMETER Data retention(1) Flash programming write-cycles (1) Word programming time(1) Flash-write supply current(1) Data flash master erase time(1) Flash page erase time(1) TEST CONDITIONS MIN 10 20,000 200 20 TYP MAX UNIT Years Cycles 2 ms 5 10 mA ms ms (1) Specified by design. Not production tested. 6 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 8.13 HDQ Communication Timing Characteristics TA = –40°C to 85°C, CREG = 0.47 μF, 2.45 V < VREGIN = VBAT < 5.5 V; typical values at TA = 25°C and VREGIN = VBAT = 3.6 V (unless otherwise noted) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN NOM MAX UNIT t(CYCH) t(CYCD) t(HW1) t(DW1) t(HW0) t(DW0) t(RSPS) t(B) t(BR) t(RISE) Cycle time, host to bq27545-G1 Cycle time, bq27545-G1 to host Host sends 1 to bq27545-G1 bq27545-G1 sends 1 to host Host sends 0 to bq27545-G1 bq27545-G1 sends 0 to host Response time, bq27545-G1 to host Break time Break recovery time HDQ line rising time to logic 1 (1.2 V) 190 μs 190 205 250 μs 0.5 50 μs 32 50 μs 86 145 μs 80 145 μs 190 950 μs 190 μs 40 μs 950 ns 8.14 I2C-Compatible Interface Timing Characteristics TA = –40°C to 85°C, CREG = 0.47 μF, 2.45 V < VREGIN = VBAT < 5.5 V; typical values at TA = 25°C and VREGIN = VBAT = 3.6 V (unless otherwise noted) PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS MIN NOM MAX UNIT tr tf tw(H) tw(L) tsu(STA) td(STA) tsu(DAT) th(DAT) tsu(STOP) tBUF fSCL SCL/SDA rise time SCL/SDA fall time SCL pulse width (high) SCL pulse width (low) Setup for repeated start Start to first falling edge of SCL Data setup time Data hold time Setup time for stop Bus free time between stop and start Clock frequency (1) 600 1.3 600 600 1000 0 600 66 300 ns 300 ns ns μs ns ns ns ns ns μs 400 kHz (1) If the clock frequency (fSCL) is > 100 kHz, use 1-byte write commands for proper operation. All other transactions types are supported at 400 kHz. (Refer to I2C Interface.) Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 7 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn t(B) t(BR) (a) Break and Break Recovery t(RISE) 1.2V (b) HDQ line rise time t(HW1) t(HW0) t(CYCH) (c) Host Transmitted Bit t(DW1) t(DW0) t(CYCD) (d) Gauge Transmitted Bit Break 7-bit address 1-bit R/W 8-bit data tSU(STA) SCL t(RSPS) (e) Gauge to Host Response Figure 1. HDQ Timing Diagrams tw(H) tw(L) tf tr t(BUF) SDA td(STA) tf tr th(DAT) tsu(DAT) tsu(STOP) REPEATED START STOP START Figure 2. I2C-Compatible Interface Timing Diagrams 8 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn 8.15 Typical Characteristics VCC - Regulator Output Voltage (V) 2.65 2.60 2.55 2.50 2.45 2.40 2.35 ±40 ±20 VREGIN = 2.7 V VREGIN = 4.5 V 0 20 40 60 Temperature (ƒC) 80 100 C001 fOSC - High Frequency Oscillator (MHz) bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.4 8.3 8.2 8.1 8 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 Temperature (qC) 80 100 D002 fLOSC - Low Frequency Oscillator (kHz) 34 33.5 33 32.5 32 31.5 31 30.5 30 -40 Figure 3. Regulator Output Voltage Vs. Temperature -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Temperature (qC) D003 Reported Temperature Error (qC) Figure 4. High-Frequency Oscillator Frequency Vs. Temperature 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Temperature (qC) D004 Figure 5. Low-Frequency Oscillator Frequency Vs. Temperature Figure 6. Reported Internal Temperature Measurement Vs. Temperature Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 9 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 9 Detailed Description www.ti.com.cn 9.1 Overview The bq27545-G1 accurately predicts the battery capacity and other operational characteristics of a single Libased rechargeable cell. It can be interrogated by a system processor to provide cell information, such as stateof-charge (SOC) and time-to-empty (TTE). Information is accessed through a series of commands, called Standard Commands. Further capabilities are provided by the additional Extended Commands set. Both sets of commands, indicated by the general format Command(), are used to read and write information in the bq27545-G1 control and status registers, as well as its data flash locations. Commands are sent from the system to the gauge using the bq27545-G1 serial communications engine, and can be executed during application development, pack manufacture, or endequipment operation. Cell information is stored in the bq27545-G1 in non-volatile flash memory. Many of these data flash locations are accessible during application development. They cannot, generally, be accessed directly during end-equipment operation. To access to these locations, use the bq27546-G1 companion evaluation software, individual commands, or a sequence of data-flash-access commands. To access a desired data flash location, the correct data flash Subclass and offset must be known. The bq27545-G1 provides 64 bytes of user-programmable data flash memory, partitioned into two (2) 32-byte blocks: Manufacturer Info Block A and Manufacturer Info Block B. This data space is accessed through a data flash interface. For specific details on accessing the data flash, see Manufacturer Information Blocks. The key to the bq27545-G1 high-accuracy gas gauging prediction is Texas Instrument’s proprietary Impedance Track algorithm. This algorithm uses cell measurements, characteristics, and properties to create state-of-charge predictions that can achieve less than 1% error across a wide variety of operating conditions and over the lifetime of the battery. The bq27545-G1 measures charge/discharge activity by monitoring the voltage across a small-value series sense resistor (5 mΩ to 20 mΩ typical) located between the CELL– and the battery’s PACK– terminal. When a cell is attached to the bq27545-G1, cell impedance is learned based on cell current, cell open-circuit voltage (OCV), and cell voltage under loading conditions. The bq27545-G1 external temperature sensing is optimized with the use of a high accuracy negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor with R25 = 10 kΩ ± 1% and B25/85 = 3435 K ± 1% (such as Semitec 103AT) for measurement. The bq27545-G1 can also be configured to use its internal temperature sensor. The bq27545-G1 uses temperature to monitor the battery-pack environment, which is used for fuel gauging and cell protection functionality. To minimize power consumption, the bq27545-G1 has different power modes: NORMAL, SLEEP, FULLSLEEP, and HIBERNATE. The bq27545-G1 passes automatically between these modes, depending upon the occurrence of specific events, though a system processor can initiate some of these modes directly. Power Modes has more details. NOTE FORMATTING CONVENTIONS IN THIS DOCUMENT: Commands: italics with parentheses() and no breaking spaces. e.g., RemainingCapacity() Data Flash: italics, bold, and breaking spaces. e.g., Design Capacity Register bits and flags: italics with brackets[ ]. e.g., [TDA] Data flash bits: italics, bold, and brackets[ ]. e.g., [LED1] Modes and states: ALL CAPITALS. e.g., UNSEALED mode 10 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn 9.2 Functional Block Diagram REGIN CE VCC HDQ SCL SDA 2.5-V LDO + Power Mgt Communications HDQ/I2C Oscillator System Clock Impedance Track Engine bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 ADC Divider Temp Sensor Co-ulomb Counter BAT TS SRP SRN Peripherals SE Program Memory Data Memory VSS 9.3 Feature Description 9.3.1 Fuel Gauging The bq27545-G1 measures the cell voltage, temperature, and current to determine battery SOC based on Impedance Track algorithm (see the Theory and Implementation of Impedance Track Battery Fuel-Gauging Algorithm Application Report [SLUA450] for more information). The bq27545-G1 monitors charge and discharge activity by sensing the voltage across a small-value resistor (5 mΩ to 20 mΩ typical) between the SRP and SRN pins and in series with the cell. By integrating charge passing through the battery, the battery’s SOC is adjusted during battery charge or discharge. The total battery capacity is found by comparing states of charge before and after applying the load with the amount of charge passed. When an application load is applied, the impedance of the cell is measured by comparing the OCV obtained from a predefined function for present SOC with the measured voltage under load. Measurements of OCV and charge integration determine chemical state of charge and chemical capacity (Qmax). The initial Qmax values are taken from a cell manufacturers' data sheet multiplied by the number of parallel cells. It is also used for the value in Design Capacity. The bq27545-G1 acquires and updates the battery-impedance profile during normal battery usage. It uses this profile, along with SOC and the Qmax value, to determine FullChargeCapacity() and StateOfCharge(), specifically for the present load and temperature. FullChargeCapacity() is reported as capacity available from a fully charged battery under the present load and temperature until Voltage() reaches the Terminate Voltage. NominalAvailableCapacity() and FullAvailableCapacity() are the uncompensated (no or light load) versions of RemainingCapacity() and FullChargeCapacity() respectively. The bq27545-G1 has two flags accessed by the Flags() function that warns when the battery’s SOC has fallen to critical levels. When RemainingCapacity() falls below the first capacity threshold, specified in SOC1 Set Threshold, the [SOC1] (State of Charge Initial) flag is set. The flag is cleared once RemainingCapacity() rises above SOC1 Clear Threshold. All units are in mAh. Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 11 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn Feature Description (continued) When RemainingCapacity() falls below the second capacity threshold, SOCF Set Threshold, the [SOCF] (State of Charge Final) flag is set, serving as a final discharge warning. If SOCF Set Threshold = –1, the flag is inoperative during discharge. Similarly, when RemainingCapacity() rises above SOCF Clear Threshold and the [SOCF] flag has already been set, the [SOCF] flag is cleared. All units are in mAh. The bq27545-G1 has two additional flags accessed by the Flags() function that warns of internal battery conditions. The fuel gauge monitors the cell voltage during relaxed conditions to determine if an internal short has been detected. When this condition occurs, [ISD] will be set. The bq27545-G1 also has the capability of detecting when a tab has been disconnected in a 2-cell parallel system by actively monitoring the SOH. When this conditions occurs, [TDD] will be set. 9.3.2 Impedance Track Variables The bq27545-G1 has several data flash variables that permit the user to customize the Impedance Track algorithm for optimized performance. These variables are dependent upon the power characteristics of the application as well as the cell itself. 9.3.2.1 Load Mode Load Mode is used to select either the constant-current or constant-power model for the Impedance Track algorithm as used in Load Select (see Load Select). When Load Mode is 0, the Constant Current Model is used (default). When Load Mode is 1, the Constant Power Model is used. The [LDMD] bit of CONTROL_STATUS reflects the status of Load Mode. 9.3.2.2 Load Select Load Select defines the type of power or current model to be used to compute load-compensated capacity in the Impedance Track algorithm. If Load Mode = 0 (Constant Current), then the options presented in Table 1 are available. Load Select Value 0 1 (default) 2 3 4 5 6 Table 1. Constant-Current Model Used When Load Mode = 0 CURRENT MODEL USED Average discharge current from previous cycle: There is an internal register that records the average discharge current through each entire discharge cycle. The previous average is stored in this register. Present average discharge current: This is the average discharge current from the beginning of this discharge cycle until present time. Average current: based off the AverageCurrent() Current: based off of a low-pass-filtered version of AverageCurrent() (τ = 14 s) Design capacity/5: C Rate based off of Design Capacity /5 or a C/5 rate in mA. Use the value specified by AtRate() Use the value in User_Rate-mA: This gives a completely user-configurable method. If Load Mode = 1 (Constant Power) then the following options are available: Load Select Value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Table 2. Constant-Power Model Used When Load Mode = 1 POWER MODEL USED Average discharge power from previous cycle: There is an internal register that records the average discharge power through each entire discharge cycle. The previous average is stored in this register. Present average discharge power: This is the average discharge power from the beginning of this discharge cycle until present time. Average current × voltage: based off the AverageCurrent() and Voltage(). Current × voltage: based off of a low-pass-filtered version of AverageCurrent() (τ = 14 s) and Voltage() Design energy/5: C Rate based off of Design Energy /5 or a C/5 rate in mA. Use the value specified by AtRate() Use the value in User_Rate-Pwr. This gives a completely user-configurable method. 12 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 9.3.2.3 Reserve Cap-mAh Reserve Cap-mAh determines how much actual remaining capacity exists after reaching 0 RemainingCapacity(), before Terminate Voltage is reached when Load Mode = 0 is selected. A loaded rate or no-load rate of compensation can be selected for Reserve Cap by setting the [RESCAP] bit in Pack Configuration data flash register. 9.3.2.4 Reserve Energy Reserve Energy determines how much actual remaining capacity exists after reaching 0 RemainingCapacity() which is equivalent to 0 remaining power, before Terminate Voltage is reached when Load Mode = 1 is selected. A loaded rate or no-load rate of compensation can be selected for Reserve Cap by setting the [RESCAP] bit in Pack Configuration data flash register.. 9.3.2.5 Design Energy Scale Design Energy Scale is used to select the scale/unit of a set of data flash parameters. The value of Design Energy Scale can be either 1 or 10 only, other values are not supported. For battery capacities larger than 6 AHr, Design Energy Scale = 10 is recommended. Table 3. Data Flash Parameter Scale/Unit Based On Design Energy Scale DATA FLASH Design Energy Reserve Energy Avg Power Last Run User Rate-Pwr T Rise DESIGN ENERGY SCALE = 1 (default) mWh mWh mW mWh No Scale DESIGN ENERGY SCALE = 10 cWh cWh cW cWh Scaled by ×10 9.3.2.6 Dsg Current Threshold This register is used as a threshold by many functions in the bq27545-G1 to determine if actual discharge current is flowing into or out of the cell. The default for this register should be sufficient for most applications. This threshold should be set low enough to be below any normal application load current but high enough to prevent noise or drift from affecting the measurement. 9.3.2.7 Chg Current Threshold This register is used as a threshold by many functions in the bq27545-G1 to determine if actual charge current is flowing into or out of the cell. The default for this register should be sufficient for most applications. This threshold should be set low enough to be below any normal charge current but high enough to prevent noise or drift from affecting the measurement. 9.3.2.8 Quit Current, Dsg Relax Time, Chg Relax Time, and Quit Relax Time The Quit Current is used as part of the Impedance Track algorithm to determine when the bq27545-G1 enters RELAX mode from a current flowing mode in either the charge direction or the discharge direction. The value of Quit Current is set to a default value that should be above the standby current of the system. Either of the following criteria must be met to enter RELAX mode: 1. | AverageCurrent() | < | Quit Current | for Dsg Relax Time. 2. | AverageCurrent() | < | Quit Current | for Chg Relax Time. After about 6 minutes in RELAX mode, the bq27545-G1 attempts to take accurate OCV readings. An additional requirement of dV/dt < 1 µV/s is required for the bq27545-G1 to perform Qmax updates. These updates are used in the Impedance Track algorithms. It is critical that the battery voltage be relaxed during OCV readings and that the current is not higher than C/20 when attempting to go into RELAX mode. Quit Relax Time specifies the minimum time required for AverageCurrent() to remain above the QuitCurrent threshold before exiting RELAX mode. Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 13 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn 9.3.2.9 Qmax Qmax contains the maximum chemical capacity of the active cell profiles, and is determined by comparing states of charge before and after applying the load with the amount of charge passed. They also correspond to capacity at low rate of discharge, such as C/20 rate. For high accuracy, this value is periodically updated by the bq27545G1 during operation. Based on the battery cell capacity information, the initial value of chemical capacity should be entered in Qmax field. The Impedance Track algorithm will update this value and maintain it in the Pack profile. 9.3.2.10 Update Status The Update Status register indicates the status of the Impedance Track algorithm. UPDATE STATUS 0x02 0x04 0x05 0x06 Table 4. Update Status Definitions STATUS Qmax and Ra data are learned, but Impedance Track is not enabled. This should be the standard setting for a golden image. Impedance Track is enabled but Qmax and Ra data are not learned. Impedance Track is enabled and only Qmax has been updated during a learning cycle. Impedance Track is enabled. Qmax and Ra data are learned after a successful learning cycle. This should be the operation setting for end equipment. This register should only be updated by the bq27545-G1 during a learning cycle or when IT_ENABLE subcommand is received. Refer to the How to Generate Golden Image for Single-Cell Impedance Track Device Application Note (SLUA544) for learning cycle details. 9.3.2.11 Avg I Last Run The bq27545-G1 logs the current averaged from the beginning to the end of each discharge cycle. It stores this average current from the previous discharge cycle in this register. This register should never be modified. It is only updated by the bq27545-G1 when required. 9.3.2.12 Avg P Last Run The bq27545-G1 logs the power averaged from the beginning to the end of each discharge cycle. It stores this average power from the previous discharge cycle in this register. To get a correct average power reading the bq27545-G1 continuously multiplies instantaneous current times Voltage() to get power. It then logs this data to derive the average power. This register should never require modification. It is only updated by the bq27545-G1 when required. 9.3.2.13 Delta Voltage The bq27545-G1 stores the maximum difference of Voltage() during short load spikes and normal load, so the Impedance Track algorithm can calculate remaining capacity for pulsed loads. It is not recommended to change this value. 9.3.2.14 Ra Tables and Ra Filtering Related Parameters These tables contain encoded data and are automatically updated during device operation. The bq27545-G1 has a filtering process to eliminate unexpected fluctuations in Ra values while the Ra values are being updated. The DF parameters RaFilter, RaMaxDelta, MaxResfactor, and MinResfactor control the Filtering process of Ra values. RaMaxDelta Limits the change in Ra values to an absolute magnitude. MinResFactor and MaxResFactor parameters are cumulative filters which limit the change in Ra values to a scale on a per discharge cycle basis. These values are data flash configurable. No further user changes should be made to Ra values except for reading/writing the values from a pre-learned pack (part of the process for creating golden image files). 9.3.2.15 MaxScaleBackGrid MaxScaleBackGrid parameter limits the resistance grid point after which back scaling will not be performed. This variable ensures that the resistance values in the lower resistance grid points remain accurate while the battery is at a higher DoD state. 14 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 9.3.2.16 Max DeltaV, Min DeltaV Maximal/Minimal value allowed for delta V, which will be subtracted from simulated voltage during remaining capacity simulation. 9.3.2.17 Qmax Max Delta % Maximal change of Qmax during one update, as percentage of Design Capacity. If the gauges attempts to change Qmax exceeds this limit, changed value will be capped to old value ± DesignCapacity × QmaxMaxDelta/100. 9.3.2.18 Fast Resistance Scaling When Fast Resistance Scaling is enabled by setting the [FConvEn] bit in Pack Configuration B, the algorithm improves accuracy at the end of discharge. The RemainingCapacity() and StateOfCharge() should smoothly converge to 0. The algorithm starts convergence improvements when cell voltage goes below (Terminate Voltage + Term V Delta) or StateofCharge() goes below Fast Scale Start SOC. For most applications, the default value of Term V Delta and Fast Scale Start SOC are recommended. Also TI recommends keeping (Terminate Voltage + Term V Delta) below 3.6 V for most battery applications. 9.3.2.19 StateOfCharge() Smoothing When operating conditions change (such as temperature, discharge current, and resistance, for example), it can lead to large changes of compensated battery capacity and battery capacity remaining. These changes can result in large changes of StateOfCharge(). When [SmoothEn] is enabled in Pack Configuration C, the smoothing algorithm injects gradual changes of battery capacity when conditions vary. This results in a gradual change of StateOfCharge() and can provide a better end-user experience for StateOfCharge() reporting. The RemainingCapacity(), FullChargeCapacity(), and StateOfCharge() are modified depending on [SmoothEn] as below. [SmoothEn] 0 1 RemainingCapacity() UnfilteredRM() FilteredRM() FullChargeCapacity() UnfilteredFCC() FilteredFCC() StateOfCharge() UnfilteredRM()/UnfilteredFCC() FilteredRM()/FilteredFCC() 9.3.2.20 DeltaV Max Delta Maximal change of Delta V value. If attempted change of the value exceeds this limit, change value will be capped to old value ±DeltaV Max Delta. 9.3.2.21 Lifetime Data Logging Parameters The Lifetime Data logging function helps development and diagnosis with the bq27545-G1. IT_ENABLE must be enabled (Command 0x0021) for lifetime data logging functions to be active. bq27545-G1 logs the lifetime data as specified in the Lifetime Data and Lifetime Temp Samples data Flash Subclasses. The data log recordings are controlled by the Lifetime Resolution data flash subclass. The Lifetime Data Logging can be started by setting the IT_ENABLE bit and setting the Update Time register to a non-zero value. Once the Lifetime Data Logging function is enabled, the measured values are compared to what is already stored in the data flash. If the measured value is higher than the maximum or lower than the minimum value stored in the data flash by more than the Resolution set for at least one parameter, the entire Data Flash Lifetime Registers are updated after at least LTUpdateTime. LTUpdateTime sets the minimum update time between DF writes. When a new maximum or minimum is detected, a LT Update window of [update time] second is enabled and the DF writes occur at the end of this window. Any additional max/min value detected within this window will also be updated. The first new maximum or minimum value detected after this window will trigger the next LT Update window. Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 15 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn Internal to bq27545-G1, there exists a RAM maximum or minimum table in addition to the DF maximum or minimum table. The RAM table is updated independent of the resolution parameters. The DF table is updated only if at least one of the RAM parameters exceeds the DF value by more than resolution associated with it. When DF is updated, the entire RAM table is written to DF. Consequently, it is possible to see a new maximum or minimum value for a certain parameter even if the value of this parameter never exceeds the maximum or minimum value stored in the data flash for this parameter value by the resolution amount. The Life Time Data Logging of one or more parameters can be reset or restarted by writing new default (or starting) values to the corresponding data flash registers through sealed or unsealed access as described below. However, when using unsealed access, new values will only take effect after device reset The logged data can be accessed as R/W in UNSEALED mode from Lifetime Data Subclass (Subclass ID = 59) of data flash. Lifetime data may be accessed (R/W) when sealed using a process identical Manufacturer Info Block B. The DataFlashBlock command code is 4. Note only the first 32 bytes of lifetime data (not resolution parameters) can be R/W when sealed. See Manufacturer Information Blocks for sealed access. The logging settings such as Temperature Resolution, Voltage Resolution, Current Resolution, and Update Time can be configured only in UNSEALED mode by writing to the Lifetime Resolution Subclass (SubclassID = 66) of the data flash. The Lifetime resolution registers contain the parameters that set the limits related to how much a data parameter must exceed the previously logged maximum or minimum value to be updated in the lifetime log. For example, V must exceed MaxV by more than Voltage Resolution to update MaxV in the data flash. 9.4 Device Functional Modes 9.4.1 System Control Function The bq27545-G1 provides system control functions which allows the fuel gauge to enter SHUTDOWN mode to power-off with the assistance of external circuit or provides interrupt function to the system. Table 5 shows the configurations for SE and HDQ pins. Table 5. SE and HDQ Pin Function [INTSEL] 0 (default) 1 COMMUNICATION MODE I2C HDQ I2C HDQ SE PIN FUNCTION INTERRUPT Mode (1) SHUTDOWN Mode HDQ PIN FUNCTION Not Used HDQ Mode(2) INTERRUPT mode HDQ Mode(2) (1) [SE_EN] bit in Pack Configuration can be enabled to use [SE] and [SHUTDWN] bits in CONTROL_STATUS() function. The SE pin shutdown function is disabled. (2) HDQ pin is used for communication and HDQ Host Interrupt Feature is available. 9.4.1.1 SHUTDOWN Mode In the SHUTDOWN mode, the SE pin is used to signal external circuit to power-off the fuel gauge. This feature is useful to shutdown the fuel gauge in a deeply discharged battery to protect the battery. By default, the SHUTDOWN mode is in normal state. By sending the SET_SHUTDOWN subcommand or setting the [SE_EN] bit in Pack Configuration register, the [SHUTDWN] bit is set and enables the shutdown feature. When this feature is enabled and [INTSEL] is set, the SE pin can be in normal state or SHUTDOWN state. The SHUTDOWN state can be entered in HIBERNATE mode (ONLY if HIBERNATE mode is enabled due to low cell voltage), all other power modes will default SE pin to NORMAL state. Table 6 shows the SE pin state in NORMAL or SHUTDOWN mode. The CLEAR_SHUTDOWN subcommand or clearing [SE_EN] bit in the Pack Configuration register can be used to disable SHUTDOWN mode. The bq27545 SE pin will be high impedance at power on reset (POR), the [SE_POL] does not affect the state of SE pin at POR. Also [SE_PU] configuration changes will only take effect after POR. In addition, the [INTSEL] only controls the behavior of the SE pin; it does not affect the function of [SE] and [SHUTDWN] bits. 16 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 [SE_PU] 0 0 1 1 Table 6. SE Pin State [SE_POL] 0 1 0 1 SHUTDOWN Mode [INTSEL] = 1 and ([SE_EN] or [SHUTDOWN] = 1) NORMAL state SHUTDOWN state High Impedance 0 0 High Impedance 1 0 0 1 9.4.1.2 INTERRUPT Mode By utilizing the INTERRUPT mode, the system can be interrupted based on detected fault conditions as specified in Table 9. The SE or HDQ pin can be selected as the interrupt pin by configuring the [INTSel] bit based on . In addition, the pin polarity and pullup (SE pin only) can be configured according to the system needs as described in Table 7 or Table 8. [SE_PU] 0 0 1 1 Table 7. SE Pin in INTERRUPT Mode ([INTSEL] = 0) [INTPOL] 0 1 0 1 INTERRUPT CLEAR High Impedance 0 1 0 INTERRUPT SET 0 High Impedance 0 1 Table 8. HDQ Pin in INTERRUPT Mode ([INTSEL] = 1) [INTPOL] 0 1 INTERRUPT CLEAR High Impedance 0 INTERRUPT SET 0 High Impedance INTERRUPT CONDITION SOC1 Set/Clear Over Temperature Charge Over Temperature Discharge Battery High Battery Low Internal Short Detection Tab disconnection detection Table 9. INTERRUPT Mode Fault Conditions Flags() STATUS BIT [SOC1] [OTC] [OTD] [BATHI] [BATLOW] [ISD] [TDD] ENABLE CONDITION COMMENT Always OT Chg Time ≠ 0 OT Dsg Time ≠ 0 Always Always [SE_ISD] = 1 in Pack Configuration B [SE_TDD] = 1 in Pack Configuration B The SOC1 Set/Clear interrupt is based on the[SOC1] Flag condition when RemainingCapacity() reaches the SOC1 Set or Clear threshold in the data flash. The [OTC] Flag is set/clear based on conditions specified in Over-Temperature: Charge. The [OTD] Flag is set/clear based on conditions specified in Over-Temperature: Discharge. The [BATHI] Flag is set/clear based on conditions specified in Battery Level Indication. The [BATLOW] Flag is set/clear based on conditions specified in Battery Level Indication. The [SE_ISD] Flag is set/clear based on conditions specified in Internal Short Detection. The [TDD] Flag is set/clear based on conditions specified in Tab Disconnection Detection. 9.4.1.3 Battery Level Indication The bq27545 can indicate when battery voltage has fallen below or risen above predefined thresholds. The [BATHI] of Flags() is set high to indicate Voltage() is above the BH Set Volt Threshold for a predefined duration set in the BH Volt Time. This flag returns to low once battery voltage is below or equal the BH Clear Volt threshold. TI recommends configuring the BH Set Volt Threshold higher than the BH Clear Volt threshold to provide proper voltage hysteresis. Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 17 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn The [BATLOW] of Flags() is set high to indicate Voltage() is below the BL Set Volt Threshold for predefined duration set in the BL Volt Time. This flag returns to low once battery voltage is above or equal the BL Clear Volt threshold. TI recommends configuring the BL Set Volt Threshold lower than the BL Clear Volt threshold to provide proper voltage hysteresis. The [BATHI] and [BATLOW] flags can be configured to control the interrupt pin (SE or HDQ) by enabling INTERRUPT mode. Refer to INTERRUPT Mode for details. 9.4.1.4 Internal Short Detection The bq27545-G1 can indicate detection of an internal battery short by setting the [SE_ISD] bit in Pack Configuration B. The device compares the self-discharge current calculated based StateOfCharge() in RELAX mode and AverageCurrent() measured in the system. The self-discharge rate is measured at 1 hour interval. When battery SelfDischargeCurrent() is less than the predefined (–Design Capacity/ISD Current threshold), the [ISD] of Flags() is set high. The [ISD] of Flags() can be configured to control interrupt pin (SE or HDQ) by enabling INTERRUPT mode. Refer to INTERRUPT Mode for details. 9.4.1.5 Tab Disconnection Detection The bq27545-G1 can indicate tab disconnection by detecting change of StateOfHealth(). This feature is enabled by setting [SE_TDD] bit in Pack Configuration B. The [TDD] of Flags() is set when the ratio of current StateOfHealth() divided by the previous StateOfHealth() reported is less than TDD SOH Percent. The [TDD] of Flags() can be configured to control an interrupt pin (SE or HDQ) by enabling INTERRUPT mode. Refer to INTERRUPT Mode for details. 9.4.2 Temperature Measurement and the TS Input The bq27545-G1 measures battery temperature through the TS input to supply battery temperature status information to the fuel gauging algorithm and charger-control sections of the gauge. Alternatively, the gauge can also measure internal temperature through its on-chip temperature sensor, but only if the [TEMPS] bit of Pack Configuration register is cleared. Regardless of which sensor is used for measurement, a system processor can request the current battery temperature by calling the Temperature() function (see Authentication for specific information). The thermistor circuit requires the use of an external 10-kΩ thermistor with negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor with R25 = 10 kΩ ± 1% and B25/85 = 3435 kΩ ± 1% (such as Semitec 103AT) that connects between the VCC and TS pins. Additional circuit information for connecting the thermistor to the bq27545 is shown in the 图 9. 9.4.3 Over-Temperature Indication 9.4.3.1 Over-Temperature: Charge If during charging, Temperature() reaches the threshold of OT Chg for a period of OT Chg Time and AverageCurrent() ≥ Chg Current Threshold, then the [OTC] bit of Flags() is set. When Temperature() falls to OT Chg Recovery, the [OTC] of Flags() is reset. If OT Chg Time = 0, the feature is disabled. 9.4.3.2 Over-Temperature: Discharge If during discharging, Temperature() reaches the threshold of OT Dsg for a period of OT Dsg Time, and AverageCurrent() ≤ –Dsg Current Threshold, then the [OTD] bit of Flags() is set. When Temperature() falls to OT Dsg Recovery, the [OTD] bit of Flags() is reset. If OT Dsg Time = 0, the feature is disabled. 9.4.4 Charging and Charge Termination Indication 9.4.4.1 Detection Charge Termination For proper bq27545-G1 operation, the cell charging voltage must be specified by the user. The default value for this variable is in the data flash Charging Voltage. 18 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 The bq27545-G1 detects charge termination when (1) during 2 consecutive periods of Current Taper Window, the AverageCurrent() is < Taper Current, (2) during the same periods, the accumulated change in capacity > 0.25mAh/Current Taper Window, and (3) Voltage() > Charging Voltage – Taper Voltage. When this occurs, the [CHG] bit of Flags() is cleared. Also, if the [RMFCC] bit of Pack Configuration is set, RemainingCapacity() is set equal to FullChargeCapacity(). When TCA_Set is set to –1, it disables the use of the charger alarm threshold. In that case, Terminate Charge is set when the taper condition is detected. When FC_Set is set to –1, it disables the use of the full charge detection threshold. In that case, the [FC] bit is not set until the taper condition is met. 9.4.4.2 Charge Inhibit The bq27545-G1 can indicate when battery temperature has fallen below or risen above predefined thresholds (Charge Inhibit Temp Low and Charge Inhibit Temp High, respectively). In this mode, the [CHG_INH] of Flags() is made high to indicate this condition, and is returned to its low state, once battery temperature returns to the range [Charge Inhibit Temp Low + Temp Hys, Charge Inhibit Temp High – Temp Hys]. 9.4.5 Power Modes The bq27545-G1 has four power modes: NORMAL, SLEEP, FULLSLEEP, and HIBERNATE. • In NORMAL mode, the bq27545-G1 is fully powered and can execute any allowable task. • In SLEEP mode, the fuel gauge exists in a reduced-power state, periodically taking measurements and performing calculations. • During FULLSLEEP mode, the bq27545-G1 periodically takes data measurements and updates its data set. However, a majority of its time is spent in an idle condition. • In HIBERNATE mode, the fuel gauge is in a very low-power state, but can be awoken by communication or certain I/O activity. The relationship between these modes is shown in Figure 7. Details are described in the sections that follow. Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 19 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn Exit From HIBERNATE VCELL < POR threshold Exit From HIBERNATE Communication Activity OR The device clears Control Status [HIBERNATE] = 0 Recommend Host also set Control Status [HIBERNATE] = 0 POR NORMAL Fuel gauging and data updated every 1s Exit From SLEEP Pack Configuration [SLEEP] = 0 OR | AverageCurrent( ) | > Sleep Current OR Current is Detected above IWAKE HIBERNATE Disable all device subcircuits except GPIO. Wakeup From HIBERNATE Communication Activity AND Comm address is NOT for the device Entry to SLEEP Pack Configuration [SLEEP] = 1 AND | AverageCurrent( ) |≤ Sleep Current SLEEP Fuel gauging and data updated every 20 seconds Exit From WAIT_HIBERNATE Host must set Control Status [HIBERNATE] = 0 AND VCELL > Hibernate Voltage Entry to WAITFULLSLEEP Entry to FULLSLEEP If Full Sleep Wait Time = 0, Host must set Control Status [FULLSLEEP]=1 If Full Sleep Wait Time > 0, Exit From WAITFULLSLEEP Guage ignores Control Status Any Communication Cmd [FULLSLEEP] WAITFULLSLEEP FULLSLEEP Count Down Exit From WAIT_HIBERNATE Cell relaxed AND | AverageCurrent() | < Hibernate Current OR Cell relaxed AND VCELL < Hibernate Voltage WAIT_HIBERNATE Fuel gauging and data updated every 20 seconds System Shutdown Exit From SLEEP (Host has set Control Status [HIBERNATE] = 1 OR VCELL < Hibernate Voltage Entry to FULLSLEEP Count <1 FULLSLEEP Exit From FULLSLEEP Any Communication Cmd In low power state of SLEEP mode. Gas gauging and data updated every 20 seconds System Sleep Figure 7. Power Mode Diagram 9.4.5.1 NORMAL Mode The fuel gauge is in NORMAL mode when not in any other power mode. During this mode, AverageCurrent(), Voltage(), and Temperature() measurements are taken, and the interface data set is updated. Decisions to change states are also made. This mode is exited by activating a different power mode. Because the gauge consumes the most power in NORMAL mode, the Impedance Track algorithm minimizes the time the fuel gauge remains in this mode. 9.4.5.2 SLEEP Mode SLEEP mode is entered automatically if the feature is enabled (Pack Configuration [SLEEP]) = 1) and AverageCurrent() is below the programmable level Sleep Current. Once entry into SLEEP mode has been qualified, but before entering it, the bq27545-G1 performs an ADC autocalibration to minimize offset. While in SLEEP mode, the fuel gauge can suspend serial communications as much as 4 ms by holding the comm line(s) low. This delay is necessary to correctly process host communication, because the fuel gauge processor is mostly halted in SLEEP mode. During the SLEEP mode, the bq27545-G1 periodically takes data measurements and updates its data set. However, a majority of its time is spent in an idle condition. 20 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 The bq27545-G1 exits SLEEP if any entry condition is broken, specifically when (1) AverageCurrent() rises above Sleep Current, or (2) a current in excess of IWAKE through RSENSE is detected when the Iwake comparator is enabled. 9.4.5.3 FULLSLEEP Mode FULLSLEEP mode is entered automatically when the bq27545-G1 is in SLEEP mode and the timer counts down to 0 (Full Sleep Wait Time > 0). FULLSLEEP mode is entered immediately after entry to SLEEP if Full Sleep Wait Time is set to 0 and the host sets the [FULLSLEEP] bit in the CONTROL_STATUS register using the SET_FULLSLEEP subcommand. The gauge exits the FULLSLEEP mode when there is any communication activity. The [FULLSLEEP] bit can remain set (Full Sleep Wait Time > 0) or be cleared (Full Sleep Wait Time ≤ 0) after exit of FULLSLEEP mode. Therefore, EVSW communication activity might cause the gauge to exit FULLSLEEP MODE and display the [FULLSLEEP] bit as clear. The execution of SET_FULLSLEEP to set [FULLSLEEP] bit is required when Full Sleep Wait Time ≤ 0 to re-enter FULLSLEEP mode. The FULLSLEEP mode can be verified by measuring the current consumption of the gauge. In this mode, the high frequency oscillator is turned off. The power consumption is further reduced in this mode compared to the SLEEP mode. While in FULLSLEEP mode, the fuel gauge can suspend serial communications as much as 4 ms by holding the comm line(s) low. This delay is necessary to correctly process host communication, because the fuel gauge processor is mostly halted in SLEEP mode. The bq27545-G1 exits FULLSLEEP if any entry condition is broken, specifically when (1) AverageCurrent() rises above Sleep Current, or (2) a current in excess of IWAKE through RSENSE is detected when the Iwake comparator is enabled. 9.4.5.4 HIBERNATE Mode HIBERNATE mode should be used for long-term pack storage or when the host system must enter a low-power state, and minimal gauge power consumption is required. This mode is ideal when the host is set to its own HIBERNATE, SHUTDOWN, or OFF mode. The gauge waits to enter HIBERNATE mode until it has taken a valid OCV measurement (cell relaxed) and the magnitude of the average cell current has fallen below Hibernate Current. When the conditions are met, the fuel gauge can enter HIBERNATE due to either low cell voltage or by having the [HIBERNATE] bit of the CONTROL_STATUS register set. The gauge will remain in HIBERNATE mode until any communication activity appears on the communication lines and the address is for bq27545. In addition, the SE pin SHUTDOWN mode function is supported only when the fuel gauge enters HIBERNATE due to low cell voltage. When the gauge wakes up from HIBERNATE mode, the [HIBERNATE] bit of the CONTROL_STATUS register is cleared. The host is required to set the bit to allow the gauge to re-enter HIBERNATE mode if desired. Because the fuel gauge is dormant in HIBERNATE mode, the battery should not be charged or discharged in this mode, because any changes in battery charge status will not be measured. If necessary, the host equipment can draw a small current (generally infrequent and less than 1 mA, for purposes of low-level monitoring and updating); however, the corresponding charge drawn from the battery will not be logged by the gauge. Once the gauge exits to NORMAL mode, the IT algorithm will take about 3 seconds to re-establish the correct battery capacity and measurements, regardless of the total charge drawn in HIBERNATE mode. During this period of reestablishment, the gauge reports values previously calculated before entering HIBERNATE mode. The host can identify exit from HIBERNATE mode by checking if Voltage() < Hibernate Voltage or [HIBERNATE] bit is cleared by the gauge. If a charger is attached, the host should immediately take the fuel gauge out of HIBERNATE mode before beginning to charge the battery. Charging the battery in HIBERNATE mode will result in a notable gauging error that will take several hours to correct. It is also recommended to minimize discharge current during exit from Hibernate. 9.4.6 Power Control 9.4.6.1 Reset Functions When the bq27545-G1 detects a software reset by sending [RESET] Control() subcommand, it determines the type of reset and increments the corresponding counter. This information is accessible by issuing the command Control() function with the RESET_DATA subcommand. Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 21 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn 9.4.6.2 Wake-Up Comparator The wake-up comparator is used to indicate a change in cell current while the bq27545-G1 is in SLEEP mode. Pack Configuration uses bits [RSNS1]–[RSNS0] to set the sense resistor selection. Pack Configuration also uses the [IWAKE] bit to select one of two possible voltage threshold ranges for the given sense resistor selection. An internal interrupt is generated when the threshold is breached in either charge or discharge directions. Setting both [RSNS1] and [RSNS0] to 0 disables this feature. IWAKE 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Table 10. IWAKE Threshold Settings(1) RSNS1 RSNS0 Vth(SRP-SRN) 0 0 Disabled 0 0 Disabled 0 1 1 mV or –1 mV 0 1 +2.2 mV or –2.2 mV 1 0 +2.2 mV or –2.2 mV 1 0 +4.6 mV or –4.6 mV 1 1 +4.6 mV or –4.6 mV 1 1 +9.8 mV or –9.8 mV (1) The actual resistance value vs the setting of the sense resistor is not important just the actual voltage threshold when calculating the configuration. The voltage thresholds are typical values under room temperature. 9.4.6.3 Flash Updates Data flash can only be updated if Voltage() ≥ Flash Update OK Voltage. Flash programming current can cause an increase in LDO dropout. The value of Flash Update OK Voltage should be selected such that the bq27545G1 VCC voltage does not fall below its minimum of 2.4 V during Flash write operations. 9.4.7 Autocalibration The bq27545-G1 provides an autocalibration feature that will measure the voltage offset error across SRP and SRN from time-to-time as operating conditions change. It subtracts the resulting offset error from normal sense resistor voltage, VSR, for maximum measurement accuracy. Autocalibration of the ADC begins on entry to SLEEP mode, except if Temperature() is ≤ 5°C or Temperature() ≥ 45°C. The fuel gauge also performs a single offset calibration when (1) the condition of AverageCurrent() ≤ 100 mA and (2) {voltage change because last offset calibration ≥ 256 mV} or {temperature change because last offset calibration is greater than 8°C for ≥ 60 seconds}. Capacity and current measurements will continue at the last measured rate during the offset calibration when these measurements cannot be performed. If the battery voltage drops more than 32 mV during the offset calibration, the load current has likely increased considerably; hence, the offset calibration will be aborted. 9.4.8 Communications 9.4.8.1 Authentication The bq27545-G1 can act as a SHA-1/HMAC authentication slave by using its internal engine. Sending a 160-bit SHA-1 challenge message to the bq27545-G1 will cause the gauge to return a 160-bit digest, based upon the challenge message and a hidden, 128-bit plain-text authentication key. If this digest matches an identical one generated by a host or dedicated authentication master, and when operating on the same challenge message and using the same plain text keys, the authentication process is successful. 9.4.8.2 Key Programming (Data Flash Key) By default, the bq27545-G1 contains a default plain-text authentication key of 0x0123456789ABCDEFFEDCBA9876543210. This default key is intended for development purposes. It should be changed to a secret key and the part immediately sealed, before putting a pack into operation. Once written, a new plain-text key cannot be read again from the fuel gauge while in SEALED mode. 22 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 Once the bq27545-G1 is UNSEALED, the authentication key can be changed from its default value by writing to the Authenticate() Extended Data Command locations. A 0x00 is written to BlockDataControl() to enable the authentication data commands. The DataFlashClass() is issued 112 (0x70) to set the Security class. Up to 32 bytes of data can be read directly from the BlockData() (0x40...0x5F) and the authentication key is located at 0x48 (0x40 + 0x08 offset) to 0x57 (0x40 + 0x17 offset). The new authentication key can be written to the corresponding locations (0x48 to 0x57) using the BlockData() command. The data is transferred to the data flash when the correct checksum for the whole block (0x40 to 0x5F) is written to BlockDataChecksum() (0x60). The checksum is (255 – x) where x is the 8-bit summation of the BlockData() (0x40 to 0x5F) on a byte-by-byte basis. Once the authentication key is written, the gauge can then be SEALED again. 9.4.8.3 Key Programming (Secure Memory Key) As the name suggests, the bq27545-G1 secure-memory authentication key is stored in the secure memory of the bq27545-G1. If a secure-memory key has been established, only this key can be used for authentication challenges (the programmable data flash key is not available). The selected key can only be established/programmed by special arrangements with TI, using the TI’s Secure B-to-B Protocol. The securememory key can never be changed or read from the bq27545-G1. 9.4.8.4 Executing An Authentication Query To execute an authentication query in UNSEALED mode, a host must first write 0x01 to the BlockDataControl() command, to enable the authentication data commands. If in SEALED mode, 0x00 must be written to DataFlashBlock(), instead. Next, the host writes a 20-byte authentication challenge to the Authenticate() address locations (0x40 through 0x53). After a valid checksum for the challenge is written to AuthenticateChecksum(), the bq27545 uses the challenge to perform the SHA-1/HMAC computation, in conjunction with the programmed key. The bq27545-G1 completes the SHA-1/HMAC computation and write the resulting digest to Authenticate(), overwriting the preexisting challenge. The host should wait at least 45 ms to read the resulting digest. The host may then read this response and compare it against the result created by its own parallel computation. 9.4.9 HDQ Single-Pin Serial Interface The HDQ interface is an asynchronous return-to-one protocol where a processor sends the command code to the bq27545-G1. With HDQ, the least significant bit (LSB) of a data byte (command) or word (data) is transmitted first. The DATA signal on pin 12 is open drain and requires an external pullup resistor. The 8-bit command code consists of two fields: the 7-bit HDQ command code (bits 0–6) and the 1-bit R/W field (MSB bit 7). The R/W field directs the bq27545-G1 either to • Store the next 8 or 16 bits of data to a specified register or • Output 8 bits of data from the specified register The HDQ peripheral can transmit and receive data as either an HDQ master or slave. HDQ serial communication is normally initiated by the host processor sending a break command to the bq27545G1. A break is detected when the DATA pin is driven to a logic-low state for a time t(B) or greater. The DATA pin should then be returned to its normal ready high logic state for a time t(BR). The bq27545-G1 is now ready to receive information from the host processor. The bq27545-G1 is shipped in the I2C mode. TI provides tools to enable the HDQ peripheral. The HDQ Communication Basics Application Report (SLUA408A) provides details of HDQ communication basics. 9.4.10 HDQ Host Interruption Feature The default bq27545-G1 behaves as an HDQ slave only device when HDQ mode is enabled. If the HDQ interrupt function is enabled, the bq27545-G1 is capable of mastering and also communicating to a HDQ device. There is no mechanism for negotiating who is to function as the HDQ master and take care to avoid message collisions. The interrupt is signaled to the host processor with the bq27545-G1 mastering an HDQ message. This message is a fixed message that will be used to signal the interrupt condition. The message itself is 0x80 (slave write to register 0x00) with no data byte being sent as the command is not intended to convey any status of the interrupt condition. The HDQ interrupt function is disabled by default and must be enabled by command. Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 23 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn When the SET_HDQINTEN subcommand is received, the bq27545-G1 will detect any of the interrupt conditions and assert the interrupt at one second intervals until the CLEAR_HDQINTEN command is received or the count of HDQHostIntrTries has lapsed. The number of tries for interrupting the host is determined by the data flash parameter named HDQHostIntrTries. 9.4.10.1 Low Battery Capacity This feature will work identically to SOC1. It will use the same data flash entries as SOC1 and will trigger interrupts as long as SOC1 = 1 and HDQIntEN=1. 9.4.10.2 Temperature This feature will trigger an interrupt based on the OTC (Over-Temperature in Charge) or OTD (Over-Temperature in Discharge) condition being met. It uses the same data flash entries as OTC or OTD and will trigger interrupts as long as either the OTD or OTC condition is met and HDQIntEN=1. 9.5 Programming 9.5.1 I2C Interface The fuel gauge supports the standard I2C read, incremental read, one-byte write quick read, and functions. The 7-bit device address (ADDR) is the most significant 7 bits of the hex address and is fixed as 1010101. The 8-bit device address is therefore 0xAA or 0xAB for write or read, respectively. Host Generated Fuel Gauge Generated S ADDR[6:0] 0 A CMD[7:0] (a) A DATA[7:0] AP S ADDR[6:0] 1 A DATA[7:0] N P (b) S ADDR[6:0] 0 A CMD[7:0] A Sr ADDR[6:0] (c) 1A DATA[7:0] NP S ADDR[6:0] 0 A CMD[7:0] A Sr ADDR[6:0] (d) 1A DATA[7:0] A . . . DATA[7:0] N P Figure 8. Supported I2C Formats: (A) 1-Byte Write, (B) Quick Read, (C) 1 Byte-Read, And (D) Incremental Read (S = Start, Sr = Repeated Start, A = Acknowledge, N = No Acknowledge, And P = Stop). The quick read returns data at the address indicated by the address pointer. The address pointer, a register internal to the I2C communication engine, increments whenever data is acknowledged by the bq27545-G1 or the I2C master. Quick writes function in the same manner and are a convenient means of sending multiple bytes to consecutive command locations (such as two-byte commands that require two bytes of data). Attempt to write a read-only address (NACK after data sent by master): S ADDR[6:0] 0 A CMD[7:0] A DATA[7:0] AP Attempt to read an address above 0x7F (NACK command): S ADDR[6:0] 0 A CMD[7:0] N P Attempt at incremental writes (NACK all extra data bytes sent): S ADDR[6:0] 0 A CMD[7:0] A DATA[7:0] A DATA[7:0] N . . . N P Incremental read at the maximum allowed read address: 24 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn Programming (continued) bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 S ADDR[6:0] 0 A CMD[7:0] A Sr ADDR[6:0] 1 A DATA[7:0] A . . . DATA[7:0] N P Address 0x7F Data From addr 0x7F Data From addr 0x00 The I2C engine releases both SDA and SCL if the I2C bus is held low for t(BUSERR). If the fuel gauge was holding the lines, releasing them frees the master to drive the lines. If an external condition is holding either of the lines low, the I2C engine enters the low-power sleep mode. 9.5.1.1 I2C Time-Out The I2C engine will release both SDA and SCL if the I2C bus is held low for about 2 seconds. If the bq27545-G1 was holding the lines, releasing them will free for the master to drive the lines. 9.5.1.2 I2C Command Waiting Time To make sure the correct results of a command with the 400-KHz I2C operation, a proper waiting time should be added between issuing command and reading results. For subcommands, the following diagram shows the waiting time required between issuing the control command the reading the status with the exception of the checksum command. A 100-ms waiting time is required between the checksum command and reading result. For read-write standard commands, a minimum of 2 seconds is required to get the result updated. For read-only standard commands, there is no waiting time required, but the host should not issue all standard commands more than two times per second. Otherwise, the gauge could result in a reset issue due to the expiration of the watchdog timer. S ADDR[6:0] 0 A S ADDR[6:0] 0 A CMD[7:0] CMD[7:0] A DATA [7:0] A DATA [7:0] A P 66ms A Sr ADDR[6:0] 1 A DATA [7:0] A DATA [7:0] Waiting time between control subcommand and reading results N P 66ms S ADDR[6:0] 0 A CMD[7:0] A Sr ADDR[6:0] 1 A DATA [7:0] A DATA [7:0] A DATA [7:0] A DATA [7:0] N P 66ms Waiting time between continuous reading results 9.5.1.3 I2C Clock Stretching I2C clock stretches can occur during all modes of fuel gauge operation. In the SLEEP and HIBERNATE modes, a short clock stretch will occur on all I2C traffic as the device must wake up to process the packet. In NORMAL and SLEEP+ modes, clock stretching will only occur for packets addressed for the fuel gauge. The timing of stretches will vary as interactions between the communicating host and the gauge are asynchronous. The I2C clock stretches may occur after start bits, the ACK/NAK bit and first data bit transmit on a host read cycle. The majority of clock stretch periods are small (≤ 4 ms) as the I2C interface peripheral and CPU firmware perform normal data flow control. However, less frequent but more significant clock stretch periods may occur when data flash (DF) is being written by the CPU to update the resistance (Ra) tables and other DF parameters such as Qmax. Due to the organization of DF, updates must be written in data blocks consisting of multiple data bytes. An Ra table update requires erasing a single page of DF, programming the updated Ra table and a flag. The potential I2C clock stretching time is 24-ms max. This includes 20-ms page erase and 2-ms row programming time (×2 rows). The Ra table updates occur during the discharge cycle and at up to 15 resistance grid points that occur during the discharge cycle. Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 25 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn Programming (continued) A DF block write typically requires a maximum of 72 ms. This includes copying data to a temporary buffer and updating DF. This temporary buffer mechanism is used to protect from power failure during a DF update. The first part of the update requires 20 ms time to erase the copy buffer page, 6 ms to write the data into the copy buffer and the program progress indicator (2 ms for each individual write). The second part of the update is writing to the DF and requires 44-ms DF block update time. This includes a 20 ms each page erase for two pages and 2 ms each row write for two rows. In the event that a previous DF write was interrupted by a power failure or reset during the DF write, an additional 44-ms max DF restore time is required to recover the data from a previously interrupted DF write. In this power failure recovery case, the total I2C clock stretching is 116-ms max. Another case where I2C clock stretches is at the end of discharge. The update to the last discharge data will go through the DF block update twice because two pages are used for the data storage. The clock stretching in this case is 144-ms max. This occurs if there has been a Ra table update during the discharge. 9.5.2 Data Commands 9.5.2.1 Standard Data Commands The bq27545-G1 uses a series of 2-byte standard commands to enable system reading and writing of battery information. Each standard command has an associated command-code pair, as indicated in Table 11. Each protocol has specific means to access the data at each Command Code. DataRAM is updated and read by the gauge only once per second. Standard commands are accessible in NORMAL operation mode. Control() AtRate() UnfilteredSOC() Temperature() Voltage() Flags() NomAvailableCapacity() FullAvailableCapacity() RemainingCapacity() FullChargeCapacity() AverageCurrent() TimeToEmpty() FilteredFCC() StandbyCurrent() UnfilteredFCC() MaxLoadCurrent() UnfilteredRM() FilteredRM() AveragePower() InternalTemperature() CycleCount() StateOfCharge() StateOfHealth() PassedCharge() DOD0() SelfDischargeCurrent() NAME Table 11. Standard Commands CNTL AR UFSOC TEMP VOLT FLAGS NAC FAC RM FCC AI TTE FFCC SI UFFCC MLI UFRM FRM AP INTTEMP CC SOC SOH PCHG DOD0 SDSG COMMAND CODE 0x00/0x01 0x02/0x03 0x04/0x05 0x06/0x07 0x08/0x09 0x0A/0x0B 0x0C/0x0D 0x0E/0x0F 0x10/0x11 0x12/0x13 0x14/0x15 0x16/0x17 0x18/0x19 0x1A/0x1B 0x1C/0x1D 0x1E/0x1F 0x20/0x21 0x22/0x23 0x24/0x25 0x28/0x29 0x2A/0x2B 0x2C/0x2D 0x2E/0x2F 0x34/0x35 0x36/0x37 0x38/0x39 UNIT N/A mA % 0.1K mV N/A mAh mAh mAh mAh mA Minutes mAh mA mAh mA mAh mAh mW/cW 0.1°K Counts % %/num mAh HEX# mA SEALED ACCESS R/W R/W R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R 26 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 9.5.2.1.1 Control(): 0x00 and 0x01 Issuing a Control() command requires a subsequent 2-byte subcommand. These additional bytes specify the particular control function desired. The Control() command allows the system to control specific features of the bq27545-G1 during normal operation and additional features when the bq27545-G1 is in different access modes, as described in Table 12. CNTL FUNCTION CONTROL_STATUS DEVICE_TYPE FW_VERSION HW_VERSION Reserved RESET_DATA Reserved PREV_MACWRITE CHEM_ID BOARD_OFFSET CC_OFFSET CC_OFFSET_SAVE DF_VERSION SET_FULLSLEEP SET_HIBERNATE CLEAR_HIBERNATE SET_SHUTDOWN CLEAR_SHUTDOWN SET_HDQINTEN CLEAR_HDQINTEN STATIC_CHEM_CHKSUM SEALED IT_ENABLE CAL_ENABLE RESET EXIT_CAL ENTER_CAL OFFSET_CAL Table 12. Control() Subcommands CNTL DATA 0x0000 0x0001 0x0002 0x0003 0x0004 0x0005 0x0006 0x0007 0x0008 0x0009 0x000A 0x000B 0x000C 0x0010 0x0011 0x0012 0x0013 0x0014 0x0015 0x0016 0x0017 0x0020 0x0021 0x002d 0x0041 0x0080 0x0081 0x0082 SEALED ACCESS Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No DESCRIPTION Reports the status of DF Checksum, Hibernate, IT, and so on Reports the device type of 0x0545 (indicating bq27545-G1) Reports the firmware version on the device type Reports the hardware version of the device type Not to be used Returns reset data Not to be used Returns previous Control() subcommand code Reports the chemical identifier of the Impedance Track configuration Forces the device to measure and store the board offset Forces the device to measure internal CC offset Forces the device to store the internal CC offset Reports the data flash version on the device Sets the [FullSleep] bit in Control Status register to 1 Forces CONTROL_STATUS [HIBERNATE] to 1 Forces CONTROL_STATUS [HIBERNATE] to 0 Enables the SE pin to change state Disables the SE pin from changing state Forces CONTROL_STATUS [HDQIntEn] to 1 Forces CONTROL_STATUS [HDQIntEn] to 0 Calculates chemistry checksum Places the bq27545-G1 in SEALED access mode Enables the Impedance Track algorithm Toggle bq27545-G1 CALIBRATION mode Forces a full reset of the bq27545-G1 Exit bq27545-G1 CALIBRATION mode Enter bq27545-G1 CALIBRATION mode Reports internal CC offset in CALIBRATION mode Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 27 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn 9.5.2.1.1.1 CONTROL_STATUS: 0x0000 Instructs the fuel gauge to return status information to Control addresses 0x00 and 0x01. The status word includes the following information. High Byte Low Byte bit7 SE SHUTDWN Table 13. CONTROL_STATUS Flags bit6 FAS HIBERNATE bit5 SS FULLSLEEP bit4 CALMODE SLEEP bit3 CCA LDMD bit2 BCA RUP_DIS bit1 RSVD VOK bit0 HDQHOSTIN QEN SE = Status bit indicating the SE pin is active. True when set. Default is 0. FAS = Status bit indicating the bq27545-G1 is in FULL ACCESS SEALED state. Active when set. SS = Status bit indicating the bq27545-G1 is in the SEALED State. Active when set. CALMODE = Status bit indicating the calibration function is active. True when set. Default is 0. CCA = Status bit indicating the bq27545-G1 Coulomb Counter Calibration routine is active. The CCA routine will take place approximately 1 minute after the initialization and periodically as gauging conditions change. Active when set. BCA = Status bit indicating the bq27545-G1 Board Calibration routine is active. Active when set. RSVD = Reserved HDQHOSTIN = Status bit indicating the HDQ interrupt function is active. True when set. Default is 0. SHUTDWN = Control bit indicating that the SET_SHUTDOWN command has been sent and the state of the SE pin can change to signal an external shutdown of the fuel gauge when conditions permit. (See the SHUTDOWN Mode section.) HIBERNATE = Status bit indicating a request for entry into HIBERNATE from SLEEP mode has been issued. True when set. Default is 0. FULLSLEEP = Status bit indicating the bq27545-G1 is in FULLSLEEP mode. True when set. The state can be detected by monitoring the power used by the bq27545-G1 because any communication will automatically clear it. SLEEP = Status bit indicating the bq27545-G1 is in SLEEP mode. True when set. LDMD = Status bit indicating the bq27545-G1 Impedance Track algorithm is using CONSTANT-POWER mode. True when set. Default is 0 (CONSTANT-CURRENT mode). RUP_DIS = Status bit indicating the bq27545-G1 Ra table updates are disabled. True when set. VOK = Status bit indicating cell voltages are OK for Qmax updates. True when set. QEN = Status bit indicating the bq27545-G1 Qmax updates are enabled. True when set. 9.5.2.1.1.2 DEVICE_TYPE: 0x0001 Instructs the fuel gauge to return the device type to addresses 0x00 and 0x01. The bq27545-G1 device type returns 0x0545. 9.5.2.1.1.3 FW_VERSION: 0x0002 Instructs the fuel gauge to return the firmware version to addresses 0x00 and 0x01. The bq27545-G1 firmware version returns 0x0224. 9.5.2.1.1.4 HW_VERSION: 0x0003 Instructs the fuel gauge to return the hardware version to addresses 0x00 and 0x01. For bq27545-G1 0x0020 is returned. 9.5.2.1.1.5 RESET_DATA: 0x0005 Instructs the fuel gauge to return the number of resets performed to addresses 0x00 and 0x01. 9.5.2.1.1.6 PREV_MACWRITE: 0x0007 Instructs the fuel gauge to return the previous Control() subcommand written to addresses 0x00 and 0x01. The value returned is limited to less than 0x0020. 9.5.2.1.1.7 CHEM_ID: 0x0008 Instructs the fuel gauge to return the chemical identifier for the Impedance Track configuration to addresses 0x00 and 0x01. 28 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 9.5.2.1.1.8 BOARD_OFFSET: 0x0009 Instructs the fuel gauge to perform board offset calibration. During board offset calibration the [BCA] bit is set 9.5.2.1.1.9 CC_OFFSET: 0x000a Instructs the fuel gauge to perform coulomb counter offset calibration. During calibration the [CCA] bit is set 9.5.2.1.1.10 CC_OFFSET_SAVE: 0x000b Instructs the fuel gauge to save calibration coulomb counter offset after calibration. 9.5.2.1.1.11 DF_VERSION: 0x000c Instructs the gas gauge to return the data flash version stored in DF Config Version to addresses 0x00 and 0x01. 9.5.2.1.1.12 SET_FULLSLEEP: 0x0010 Instructs the gas gauge to set the FullSleep bit in Control Status register to 1. This will allow the gauge to enter the FULLSLEEP power mode after the transition to SLEEP power state is detected. In FULLSLEEP mode, less power is consumed by disabling an oscillator circuit used by the communication engines. For HDQ communication one host message will be dropped. For I2C communications the first I2C message will incur a 6–8 ms clock stretch while the oscillator is started and stabilized. A communication to the device in FULLSLEEP will force the part back to the SLEEP mode. 9.5.2.1.1.13 SET_HIBERNATE: 0x0011 Instructs the fuel gauge to force the CONTROL_STATUS [HIBERNATE] bit to 1. This will allow the gauge to enter the HIBERNATE power mode after the transition to SLEEP power state is detected and the required conditions are met. The [HIBERNATE] bit is automatically cleared upon exiting from HIBERNATE mode. 9.5.2.1.1.14 CLEAR_HIBERNATE: 0x0012 Instructs the fuel gauge to force the CONTROL_STATUS [HIBERNATE] bit to 0. This will prevent the gauge from entering the HIBERNATE power mode after the transition to SLEEP power state is detected unless Voltage() is less than Hibernate V. It can also be used to force the gauge out of HIBERNATE mode. 9.5.2.1.1.15 SET_SHUTDOWN: 0x0013 Sets the CONTROL_STATUS [SHUTDWN] bit to 1, thereby enabling the SE pin to change state. The Impedance Track algorithm controls the setting of the SE pin, depending on whether the conditions are met for fuel gauge shutdown or not. 9.5.2.1.1.16 CLEAR_SHUTDOWN: 0x0014 Disables the SE pin from changing state. The SE pin is left in a high-impedance state. 9.5.2.1.1.17 SET_HDQINTEN: 0x0015 Instructs the fuel gauge to set the CONTROL_STATUS [HDQIntEn] bit to 1. This will enable the HDQ Interrupt function. When this subcommand is received, the device will detect any of the interrupt conditions and assert the interrupt at one second intervals until the CLEAR_HDQINTEN command is received or the count of HDQHostIntrTries has lapsed (default 3). 9.5.2.1.1.18 CLEAR_HDQINTEN: 0x0016 Instructs the fuel gauge to set the CONTROL_STATUS [HDQIntEn] bit to 0. This will disable the HDQ Interrupt function. Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 29 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn 9.5.2.1.1.19 STATIC_CHEM_DF_CHKSUM: 0x0017 Instructs the fuel gauge to calculate chemistry checksum as a 16-bit unsigned integer sum of all static chemistry data. The most significant bit (MSB) of the checksum is masked yielding a 15-bit checksum. This checksum is compared with value stored in the data flash Static Chem DF Checksum. If the value matches, the MSB will be cleared to indicate pass. If it does not match, the MSB will be set to indicate failure. The checksum can be used to verify the integrity of the chemistry data stored internally. 9.5.2.1.1.20 SEALED: 0x0020 Instructs the gas gauge to transition from UNSEALED state to SEALED state. The gas gauge should always be set to SEALED state for use in customer’s end equipment as it prevents spurious writes to most Standard Commands and blocks access to most data flash. 9.5.2.1.1.21 IT ENABLE: 0x0021 This command forces the fuel gauge to begin the Impedance Track algorithm, sets bit 2 of UpdateStatus and causes the [VOK] and [QEN] flags to be set in the CONTROL_STATUS register. [VOK] is cleared if the voltages are not suitable for a Qmax update. Once set, [QEN] cannot be cleared. This command is only available when the fuel gauge is UNSEALED and is typically enabled at the last step of production after system test is completed. 9.5.2.1.1.22 RESET: 0x0041 This command instructs the gas gauge to perform a full reset. This command is only available when the gas gauge is UNSEALED. 9.5.2.1.1.23 EXIT_CAL: 0x0080 This command instructs the gas gauge to exit CALIBRATION mode. 9.5.2.1.1.24 Enter_cal: 0x0081 This command instructs the gas gauge to enter CALIBRATION mode. 9.5.2.1.1.25 OFFSET_CAL: 0x0082 This command instructs the gas gauge to perform offset calibration. 9.5.2.1.2 AtRate(): 0x02 and 0x03 The AtRate() read-/write-word function is the first half of a two-function command call-set used to set the AtRate value used in calculations made by the AtRateTimeToEmpty() function. The AtRate() units are in mA. The AtRate() value is a signed integer, with negative values interpreted as a discharge current value. The AtRateTimeToEmpty() function returns the predicted operating time at the AtRate value of discharge. The default value for AtRate() is zero and will force AtRateTimeToEmpty() to return 65,535. Both the AtRate() and AtRateTimeToEmpty() commands should only be used in NORMAL mode. 9.5.2.1.3 UnfilteredSOC(): 0x04 And 0x05 This read-only function returns an unsigned integer value of the predicted remaining battery capacity expressed as a percentage of UnfilteredFCC(), with a range of 0 to 100%. 9.5.2.1.4 Temperature(): 0x06 And 0x07 This read-only function returns an unsigned integer value of the battery temperature in units of 0.1K measured by the fuel gauge and is used for fuel gauging algorithm. It reports either the InternalTemperature() or the external thermistor temperature depending on the setting of [TEMPS] bit in Pack Configuration. 9.5.2.1.5 Voltage(): 0x08 And 0x09 This read-only function returns an unsigned integer value of the measured cell-pack voltage in mV with a range of 0 to 6000 mV. 30 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 9.5.2.1.6 Flags(): 0x0a And 0x0b This read-only function returns the contents of the gas-gauge status register, depicting the current operating status. High Byte Low Byte bit7 OTC OCVTAKEN Table 14. Flags Bit Definitions bit6 OTD ISD bit5 BATHI TDD bit4 BATLOW HW1 bit3 CHG_INH HW0 bit2 RSVD SOC1 bit1 FC SOCF bit0 CHG DSG OTC = Over-Temperature in Charge condition is detected. True when set. Refer to the Data Flash Safety Subclass parameters for threshold settings. OTD = Over-Temperature in Discharge condition is detected. True when set. Refer to the Data Flash Safety Subclass parameters for threshold settings. BATHI = Battery High bit indicating a high battery voltage condition. Refer to the Data Flash BATTERY HIGH parameters for threshold settings. BATLOW = Battery Low bit indicating a low battery voltage condition. Refer to the Data Flash BATTERY LOW parameters for threshold settings. CHG_INH = Charge Inhibit indicates the temperature is outside the range [Charge Inhibit Temp Low, Charge Inhibit Temp High]. True when set. RSVD = Reserved. FC = Full-charged is detected. FC is set when charge termination is reached and FC Set% = –1 (see Charging and Charge Termination Indication) or State of Charge is larger than FC Set% and FC Set% is not –1. True when set. CHG = (Fast) charging allowed. True when set. OCVTAKEN = Cleared on entry to RELAX mode and set to 1 when OCV measurement is performed in RELAX. ISD = Internal Short is detected. True when set. TDD = Tab Disconnect is detected. True when set. HW[1:0] Device Identification. Default is 1/0 SOC1 = State-of-Charge-Threshold 1 (SOC1 Set) reached. True when set. SOCF = State-of-Charge-Threshold Final (SOCF Set %) reached. True when set. DSG = Discharging detected. True when set. 9.5.2.1.7 NominalAvailableCapacity(): 0x0c and 0x0d This read-only command pair returns the uncompensated (less than C/20 load) battery capacity remaining. Units are mAh. 9.5.2.1.8 FullAvailableCapacity(): 0x0e and 0x0f This read-only command pair returns the uncompensated (less than C/20 load) capacity of the battery when fully charged. Units are mAh. FullAvailableCapacity() is updated at regular intervals, as specified by the IT algorithm. 9.5.2.1.9 RemainingCapacity(): 0x10 and 0x11 This read-only command pair returns the compensated battery capacity remaining (UnfilteredRM()) when the [SmoothEn] bit in Operating Configuration C is cleared or filtered compensated battery capacity remaining (FilteredRM()) when [SmoothEn] is set. Units are mAh. 9.5.2.1.10 FullChargeCapacity(): 0x12 and 0x13 This read-only command pair returns the compensated capacity of fully charged battery (UnfilteredFCC()) when the [SmoothEn] bit in Operating Configuration C is cleared or filtered compensated capacity of fully charged battery (FilteredFCC()) when [SmoothEn] is set. Units are mAh. FullChargeCapacity() is updated at regular intervals, as specified by the IT algorithm. 9.5.2.1.11 AverageCurrent(): 0x14 and 0x15 This read-only command pair returns a signed integer value that is the average current flow through the sense resistor. It is updated every 1 second. Units are mA. Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 31 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn 9.5.2.1.12 TimeToEmpty(): 0x16 And 0x17 This read-only function returns an unsigned integer value of the predicted remaining battery life at the present rate of discharge, in minutes. A value of 65,535 indicates battery is not being discharged. 9.5.2.1.13 FilteredFCC(): 0x18 And 0x19 This read-only command pair returns the filtered compensated capacity of the battery when fully charged when the [SmoothEn] bit in Operating Configuration C is set. Units are mAh. FilteredFCC() is updated at regular intervals, as specified by the IT algorithm. 9.5.2.1.14 StandbyCurrent(): 0x1a And 0x1b This read-only function returns a signed integer value of the measured system standby current through the sense resistor. The StandbyCurrent() is an adaptive measurement. Initially it reports the standby current programmed in Initial Standby, and after spending some time in standby, reports the measured standby current. The register value is updated every 1 second when the measured current is above the Deadband and is less than or equal to 2 × Initial Standby. The first and last values that meet this criteria are not averaged in, because they may not be stable values. To approximate a 1 minute time constant, each new StandbyCurrent() value is computed by taking approximate 93% weight of the last standby current and approximate 7% of the current measured average current. 9.5.2.1.15 UnfilteredFCC(): 0x1c And 0x1d This read-only command pair returns the compensated capacity of the battery when fully charged. Units are mAh. UnFilteredFCC() is updated at regular intervals, as specified by the IT algorithm. 9.5.2.1.16 MaxLoadCurrent(): 0x1e And 0x1f This read-only function returns a signed integer value, in units of mA, of the maximum load conditions of the system. The MaxLoadCurrent() is an adaptive measurement which is initially reported as the maximum load current programmed in Initial Max Load Current. If the measured current is ever greater than Initial Max Load Current, then MaxLoadCurrent() updates to the new current. MaxLoadCurrent() is reduced to the average of the previous value and Initial Max Load Current whenever the battery is charged to full after a previous discharge to an SOC less than 50%. This prevents the reported value from maintaining an unusually high value. 9.5.2.1.17 UnfilteredRM(): 0x20 And 0x21 This read-only command pair returns the compensated battery capacity remaining. Units are mAh. 9.5.2.1.18 FilteredRM(): 0x22 And 0x23 This read-only command pair returns the filtered compensated battery capacity remaining when [SmoothEn] bit in Operating Configuration C is set. Units are mAh. 9.5.2.1.19 AveragePower(): 0x24 And 0x25 This read-word function returns an unsigned integer value of the average power of the current discharge. It is negative during discharge and positive during charge. A value of 0 indicates that the battery is not being discharged. The value is reported in units of mW (Design Energy Scale = 1) or cW (Design Energy Scale = 10). 9.5.2.1.20 InternalTemperature(): 0x28 And 0x29 This read-only function returns an unsigned integer value of the measured internal temperature of the device in units of 0.1K measured by the fuel gauge. 9.5.2.1.21 CycleCount(): 0x2a And 0x2b This read-only function returns an unsigned integer value of the number of cycles the battery has experienced with a range of 0 to 65,535. One cycle occurs when accumulated discharge ≥ CC Threshold. 32 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 9.5.2.1.22 StateOfCharge(): 0x2c And 0x2d This read-only function returns an unsigned integer value of the predicted RemainingCapacity() expressed as a percentage of FullChargeCapacity(), with a range of 0 to 100%. The StateOfCharge() can be filtered or unfiltered because RemainingCapacity() and FullChargeCapacity() can be filtered or unfiltered based on [SmoothEn] bit selection. 9.5.2.1.23 StateOfHealth(): 0x2e And 0x2f 0x2e SOH percentage: this read-only function returns an unsigned integer value, expressed as a percentage of the ratio of predicted FCC(25°C, SOH Load I) over the DesignCapacity(). The FCC(25°C, SOH Load I) is the calculated full charge capacity at 25°C and the SOH current rate which is specified by SOH Load I. The range of the returned SOH percentage is 0x00 to 0x64, indicating 0 to 100% correspondingly. 9.5.2.1.24 PassedCharge(): 0x34 And 0x35 This signed integer indicates the amount of charge passed through the sense resistor because the last IT simulation in mAh. 9.5.2.1.25 Dod0(): 0x36 And 0x37 This unsigned integer indicates the depth of discharge during the most recent OCV reading. 9.5.2.1.26 SelfDischargeCurrent(): 0x38 And 0x39 This read-only command pair returns the signed integer value that estimates the battery self-discharge current. 9.5.3 Extended Data Commands Extended commands offer additional functionality beyond the standard set of commands. They are used in the same manner; however unlike standard commands, extended commands are not limited to 2-byte words. The number of command bytes for a given extended command ranges in size from single to multiple bytes, as specified in Table 15. For details on the SEALED and UNSEALED states, see Access Modes. Table 15. Extended Commands NAME Reserved PackConfig() DesignCapacity() DataFlashClass() (2) DataFlashBlock() (2) BlockData()/Authenticate() (3) BlockData()/AuthenticateCheckSum() (3) BlockData() BlockDataCheckSum() BlockDataControl() DeviceNameLength() DeviceName() Reserved COMMAND CODE RSVD PCR DCAP DFCLS DFBLK A/DF ACKS/DFD DFD DFDCKS DFDCNTL DNAMELEN DNAME RSVD 0x38…0x39 0x3a/0x3b 0x3c/0x3d 0x3e 0x3f 0x40…0x53 0x54 0x55…0x5f 0x60 0x61 0x62 0x63...0x6c 0x6d...0x7f UNIT N/A Hex mAh N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A SEALED ACCESS(1) (2) R R R N/A R/W R/W R/W R R/W N/A R R R UNSEALED ACCESS(1) (2) R R R R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R R R (1) SEALED and UNSEALED states are entered through commands to Control() 0x00 and 0x01. (2) In SEALED mode, data flash CANNOT be accessed through commands 0x3E and 0x3F. (3) The BlockData() command area shares functionality for accessing general data flash and for using Authentication. See Authentication for more details. Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 33 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn 9.5.3.1 PackConfig(): 0x3a and 0x3b SEALED and UNSEALED Access: This command returns the value stored in Pack Configuration and is expressed in hex value. 9.5.3.2 DesignCapacity(): 0x3c And 0x3d SEALED and UNSEALED Access: This command returns the value stored in Design Capacity and is expressed in mAh. This is intended to be the theoretical or nominal capacity of a new pack, but has no bearing on the operation of the fuel gauge functionality. 9.5.3.3 DataFlashClass(): 0x3e This command sets the data flash class to be accessed. The Subclass ID to be accessed should be entered in hexadecimal. SEALED Access: This command is not available in SEALED mode. 9.5.3.4 DataFlashBlock(): 0x3f UNSEALED Access: This command sets the data flash block to be accessed. When 0x00 is written to BlockDataControl(), DataFlashBlock() holds the block number of the data flash to be read or written. Example: writing a 0x00 to DataFlashBlock() specifies access to the first 32 byte block and a 0x01 specifies access to the second 32 byte block, and so on. SEALED Access: This command directs which data flash block is accessed by the BlockData() command. Writing a 0x00 to DataFlashBlock() specifies the BlockData() command transfers authentication data. Issuing a 0x01 or 0x02 instructs the BlockData() command to transfer Manufacturer Info Block A or B respectively. 9.5.3.5 BlockData(): 0x40 Through 0x5f This command range is used to transfer data for data flash class access. This command range is the 32-byte data block used to access Manufacturer Info Block A or B. Manufacturer Info Block A is read only for the sealed access. UNSEALED access is read/write. 9.5.3.6 BlockDataChecksum(): 0x60 The host system should write this value to inform the device that new data is ready for programming into the specified data flash class and block. UNSEALED Access: This byte contains the checksum on the 32 bytes of block data read or written to data flash. The least-significant byte of the sum of the data bytes written must be complemented ( [255 – x], for x the 8-bit summation of the BlockData() (0x40 to 0x5F) on a byte-by-byte basis.) before being written to 0x60. SEALED Access: This byte contains the checksum for the 32 bytes of block data written to Manufacturer Info Block A. The least-significant byte of the sum of the data bytes written must be complemented ( [255 – x], for x the 8-bit summation of the BlockData() (0x40 to 0x5F) on a byte-by-byte basis.) before being written to 0x60. 9.5.3.7 BlockDataControl(): 0x61 UNSEALED Access: This command is used to control data flash access mode. The value determines the data flash to be accessed. Writing 0x00 to this command enables BlockData() to access general data flash. SEALED Access: This command is not available in SEALED mode. 9.5.3.8 DeviceNameLength(): 0x62 UNSEALED and SEALED Access: This byte contains the length of the Device Name. 9.5.3.9 DeviceName(): 0x63 Through 0x6c UNSEALED and SEALED Access: This block contains the device name that is programmed in Device Name. 9.5.3.10 Reserved: 0x6a Through 0x7f Reserved Area. Not available for customer access. 34 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 9.5.4 Data Flash Interface 9.5.4.1 Accessing the Data Flash The bq27545-G1 data flash is a non-volatile memory that contains initialization, default, cell status, calibration, configuration, and user information. The data flash can be accessed in several different ways, depending on what mode the bq27545-G1 is operating in and what data is being accessed. Commonly accessed data flash memory locations, frequently read by a system, are conveniently accessed through specific instructions, already described in Data Commands. These commands are available when the bq27545-G1 is either in UNSEALED or SEALED modes. Most data flash locations, however, are only accessible in UNSEALED mode by use of the bq27545-G1 evaluation software or by data flash block transfers. These locations should be optimized and/or fixed during the development and manufacture processes. They become part of a golden image file and can then be written to multiple battery packs. Once established, the values generally remain unchanged during end-equipment operation. To access data flash locations individually, the block containing the desired data flash location(s) must be transferred to the command register locations, where they can be read to the system or changed directly. This is accomplished by sending the set-up command BlockDataControl() (0x61) with data 0x00. Up to 32 bytes of data can be read directly from the BlockData() (0x40…0x5f), externally altered, then rewritten to the BlockData() command space. Alternatively, specific locations can be read, altered, and rewritten if their corresponding offsets are used to index into the BlockData() command space. Finally, the data residing in the command space is transferred to data flash, once the correct checksum for the whole block is written to BlockDataChecksum() (0x60). Occasionally, a data flash CLASS will be larger than the 32-byte block size. In this case, the DataFlashBlock() command is used to designate which 32-byte block the desired locations reside in. The correct command address is then given by 0x40 + offset modulo 32. For example, to access Terminate Voltage in the Gas Gauging class, DataFlashClass() is issued 80 (0x50) to set the class. Because the offset is 67, it must reside in the third 32-byte block. Hence, DataFlashBlock() is issued 0x02 to set the block offset, and the offset used to index into the BlockData() memory area is 0x40 + 67 modulo 32 = 0x40 + 16 = 0x40 + 0x03 = 0x43. Reading and writing subclass data are block operations up to 32 bytes in length. If during a write the data length exceeds the maximum block size, then the data is ignored. None of the data written to memory are bounded by the bq27545-G1—the values are not rejected by the fuel gauge. Writing an incorrect value may result in hardware failure due to firmware program interpretation of the invalid data. The written data is persistent, so a power-on reset does not resolve the fault. 9.5.4.2 Manufacturer Information Blocks The bq27545-G1 contains 64 bytes of user programmable data flash storage: Manufacturer Info Block A and Manufacturer Info Block B, . The method for accessing these memory locations is slightly different, depending on whether the device is in UNSEALED or SEALED modes. When in UNSEALED mode and when 0x00 has been written to BlockDataControl(), accessing the Manufacturer Info Blocks is identical to accessing general data flash locations. First, a DataFlashClass() command is used to set the subclass, then a DataFlashBlock() command sets the offset for the first data flash address within the subclass. The BlockData() command codes contain the referenced data flash data. When writing the data flash, a checksum is expected to be received by BlockDataChecksum(). Only when the checksum is received and verified is the data actually written to data flash. As an example, the data flash location for Manufacturer Info Block B is defined as having a subclass = 58 and an Offset = 32 through 63 (32 byte block). The specification of Class = System Data is not needed to address Manufacturer Info Block B, but is used instead for grouping purposes when viewing data flash info in the bq27545-G1 evaluation software. Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 35 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn When in SEALED mode or when 0x01 BlockDataControl() does not contain 0x00, data flash is no longer available in the manner used in UNSEALED mode. Rather than issuing subclass information, a designated Manufacturer Information Block is selected with the DataFlashBlock() command. Issuing a 0x01 or 0x02 with this command causes the corresponding information block (A or B respectively) to be transferred to the command space 0x40…0x5f for editing or reading by the system. Upon successful writing of checksum information to BlockDataChecksum(), the modified block is returned to data flash. Note: Manufacturer Info Block A is readonly when in SEALED mode. 9.5.5 Access Modes The bq27545-G1 provides three security modes (FULL ACCESS, UNSEALED, and SEALED) that control data flash access permissions. Data Flash refers to those data flash locations, Table 16, that are accessible to the user. Manufacture Information refers to the two 32-byte blocks. SECURITY MODE FULL ACCESS UNSEALED SEALED Table 16. Data Flash Access DATA FLASH R/W R/W None MANUFACTURER INFORMATION R/W R/W R (A); R/W (B) Although FULL ACCESS and UNSEALED modes appear identical, only FULL ACCESS mode allows the bq27545-G1 to write access-mode transition keys stored in the Security class. 9.5.6 Sealing and Unsealing Data Flash The bq27545-G1 implements a key-access scheme to transition between SEALED, UNSEALED, and FULLACCESS modes. Each transition requires that a unique set of two keys be sent to the bq27545-G1 through the Control() control command. The keys must be sent consecutively, with no other data being written to the Control() register in between. To avoid conflict, the keys must be different from the codes presented in the CNTL DATA column of Table 12 subcommands. When in SEALED mode the [SS] bit of CONTROL_STATUS is set, but when the UNSEAL keys are correctly received by the bq27545-G1, the [SS] bit is cleared. When the full-access keys are correctly received the CONTROL_STATUS [FAS] bit is cleared. Both Unseal Key and Full-Access Key have two words and are stored in data flash. The first word is Key 0 and the second word is Key 1. The order of the keys sent to bq27545-G1 are Key 1 followed by Key 0. The order of the bytes for each key entered through the Control() command is the reverse of what is read from the part. For an example, if the Unseal Key is 0x56781234, key 1 is 0x1234 and key 0 is 0x5678. Then Control() should supply 0x3412 and 0x7856 to unseal the part. The Unseal Key and the Full-Access Key can only be updated when in FULL-ACCESS mode. 9.5.7 Data Flash Summary 表 18 summarizes the data flash locations available to the user, including their default, minimum, and maximum values. Class Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Subclass ID 2 2 2 2 2 2 32 32 32 34 Subclass Safety Safety Safety Safety Safety Safety Charge Inhibit Cfg Charge Inhibit Cfg Charge Inhibit Cfg Charge Table 17. Data Flash Summary Offset 0 2 3 5 7 8 0 2 4 0 Name OT Chg OT Chg Time OT Chg Recovery OT Dsg OT Dsg Time OT Dsg Recovery Chg Inhibit Temp Low Chg Inhibit Temp High Temp Hys Charging Voltage Data Type I2 U1 I2 I2 U1 I2 I2 I2 I2 I2 Min Value Max Value Default Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 –400 –400 0 0 1200 60 1200 1200 60 1200 1200 1200 100 4600 550 2 500 600 2 550 0 450 50 4200 Units (EVSW Units)* 0.1°C s 0.1°C 0.1°C s 0.1°C 0.1°C 0.1°C 0.1°C mV 36 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 Class Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration Subclass ID 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 56 56 56 56 56 56 57 59 59 59 59 59 59 60 64 64 64 66 66 66 66 68 Table 17. Data Flash Summary (continued) Subclass Charge Termination Charge Termination Charge Termination Charge Termination Charge Termination Charge Termination Charge Termination Charge Termination Charge Termination Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Discharge Discharge Discharge Discharge Discharge Discharge Discharge Discharge Discharge Discharge Manufacturer Data Manufacturer Data Manufacturer Data Manufacturer Data Manufacturer Data Manufacturer Data Integrity Data Lifetime Data Lifetime Data Lifetime Data Lifetime Data Lifetime Data Lifetime Data Lifetime Temp Samples Registers Registers Registers Lifetime Resolution Lifetime Resolution Lifetime Resolution Lifetime Resolution Power Offset 0 2 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 8 9 17 19 23 25 27 29 40 42 43 44 45 0 2 4 6 9 11 12 14 16 17 0 2 4 6 8 10 6 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 0 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 Name Taper Current Min Taper Capacity Taper Voltage Current Taper Window TCA Set % TCA Clear % FC Set % FC Clear % DODatEOC Delta T Rem Cap Alarm Initial Standby Initial MaxLoad Cycle Count CC Threshold Design Capacity Design Energy SOH Load I TDD SOH Percent ISD Current ISD I Filter Min ISD Time Design Energy Scale Device Name SOC1 Set Threshold SOC1 Clear Threshold SOCF Set Threshold SOCF Clear Threshold BL Set Volt Threshold BL Set Volt Time BL Clear Volt Threshold BH Set Volt Threshold BH Volt Time BH Clear Volt Threshold Pack Lot Code PCB Lot Code Firmware Version Hardware Revision Cell Revision DF Config Version Static Chem DF Checksum Lifetime Max Temp Lifetime Min Temp Lifetime Max Pack Voltage Lifetime Min Pack Voltage Lifetime Max Chg Current Lifetime Max Dsg Current LT Flash Cnt Pack Configuration Pack Configuration B Pack Configuration C LT Temp Res LT V Res LT Cur Res LT Update Time Flash Update OK Voltage Data Type I2 I2 I2 U1 I1 I1 I1 I1 I2 I2 I1 I2 U2 I2 I2 I2 I2 I1 I2 U1 U1 U1 S11 U2 U2 U2 U2 I2 U1 I2 I2 U1 I2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 I2 I2 I2 I2 I2 I2 U2 H2 H1 H1 U1 U1 U1 U2 I2 Min Value Max Value Default Value 0 0 0 0 –1 –1 –1 –1 0 0 –256 –32767 0 100 0 0 –32767 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 0 0 0 0 0000 0 0 0000 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0 –600 0 0 –32767 –32767 0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0 0 0 0 0 1000 1000 1000 60 100 100 100 100 1000 700 0 0 65535 32767 32767 32767 0 100 32767 255 255 255 x 65535 65535 65535 65535 16800 60 16800 16800 60 16800 0xffff 0xffff 0xffff 0xffff 0xffff 0xffff 0x7fff 1400 1400 32767 32767 32767 32767 65535 0xffff 0xff 0xff 255 255 255 65535 4200 100 25 100 40 99 95 –1 98 50 100 –10 –500 0 900 1000 5400 –400 80 10 127 7 1 bq27545-G1 150 175 75 100 2500 2 2600 4500 2 4400 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0 500 2800 4200 0 0 0 0x1177 0xa7 0x18 10 25 100 60 2800 Units (EVSW Units)* mA mAh mV s % % % % 0.1°C mA mA mA mAh mAh mWh mA % HourRate Hour — mAh mAh mAh mAh mV s mV mV s mV — — — — — — 0.1°C 0.1°C mV mV mA mA Num Num Num Num mV Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 37 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn Class Configuration Configuration Configuration Configuration System Data System Data Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging Gas Gauging OCV Table Ra Table Ra Table Ra Table Ra Table Calibration Calibration Subclass ID 68 68 68 68 58 58 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 83 88 88 89 89 104 104 Calibration 104 Calibration 104 Calibration 104 Table 17. Data Flash Summary (continued) Subclass Power Power Power Power Manufacturer Info Manufacturer Info IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg IT Cfg Current Thresholds Current Thresholds Current Thresholds Current Thresholds Current Thresholds Current Thresholds Current Thresholds State State State State State State State State State OCV Table R_a0 R_a0 R_a0x R_a0x Data Data Data Data Data Offset 2 11 13 15 0–31 32–63 0 1 21 22 25 67 69 72 76 78 80 82 86 87 89 91 92 93 95 96 102 103 0 2 4 6 8 9 10 0 2 4 5 7 9 11 15 17 0 0 2–31 0 2–31 0 4 8 10 11 Name Sleep Current Hibernate I Hibernate V FS Wait Block A 0–31 Block B 0–31 Load Select Load Mode Max Res Factor Min Res Factor Ra Filter Terminate Voltage Term V Delta ResRelax Time User Rate-mA User Rate-Pwr Reserve Cap-mAh Reserve Energy Max Scale Back Grid Max DeltaV Min DeltaV Max Sim Rate Min Sim Rate Ra Max Delta Qmax Max Delta % DeltaV Max Delta Fast Scale Start SOC Charge Hys V Shift Dsg Current Threshold Chg Current Threshold Quit Current Dsg Relax Time Chg Relax Time Quit Relax Time Max IR Correct Qmax Cell 0 Cycle Count Update Status V at Chg Term Avg I Last Run Avg P Last Run Delta Voltage T Rise T Time Constant Chem ID Cell0 R_a flag Cell0 R_a 0–14 xCell0 R_a flag xCell0 R_a 0–14 CC Gain CC Delta CC Offset Board Offset Int Temp Offset Data Type I2 U2 U2 U1 H1 H1 U1 U1 U1 U1 U2 I2 I2 U2 I2 I2 I2 I2 U1 U2 U2 U1 U1 U2 U1 U2 U1 I2 I2 I2 I2 U2 U1 U1 U2 I2 U2 H1 I2 I2 I2 I2 I2 I2 H2 H2 I2 H2 I2 F4 F4 I2 I1 I1 Min Value 0 0 2400 0 0x0 0x0 0 0 0 0 0 2800 0 0 2000 3000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0x0 0 –32768 –32768 –32768 0 0 0 0x0 183 0xffff 183 1.0e–1 2.9826e+4 –32768 –128 –128 Max Value 100 700 3000 255 0xff 0xff 255 255 255 255 1000 3700 4200 65534 9000 14000 9000 14000 15 65535 65535 255 255 65535 100 65535 100 2000 2000 2000 1000 8191 255 63 1000 32767 65535 0x6 5000 32767 32767 32767 32767 32767 FFFF 0x0 183 0xffff 183 4.0e+1 1.193046e+ 6 32767 127 127 Default Value 10 8 2550 0 0x0 0x0 1 0 15 5 800 3000 200 500 0 0 0 0 4 200 0 1 20 43 5 10 10 40 60 75 40 60 60 1 400 1000 0 0x0 4200 –299 –1131 2 20 1000 0128 0xff55 407 0xffff 407 0.4768 567744.56 –1200 0 0 Units (EVSW Units)* mA mA mV s — — mV mV s mA mW/cW mA mWh/cWh mV mV C/rate C/rate mΩ mAmpHour mV % mV mA mA mA s s s mV mAh mV mA mA mV Num Num num — 2–10 Ω — 2–10 Ω mA µAmp 38 Copyright © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn Class Calibration Calibration Calibration Security Security Security Security Security Security Subclass ID 104 104 107 112 112 112 112 112 112 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 Table 17. Data Flash Summary (continued) Subclass Data Data Current Codes Codes Codes Codes Codes Codes Offset 12 13 1 0 4 8 12 16 20 Name Ext Temp Offset Pack V Offset Deadband Sealed to Unsealed Unsealed to Full Authen Key3 Authen Key2 Authen Key1 Authen Key0 Data Type I1 I1 U1 H4 H4 H4 H4 H4 H4 Min Value Max Value Default Value –128 –128 0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 127 127 255 0xffffffff 0xffffffff 0xffffffff 0xffffffff 0xffffffff 0xffffffff 0 0 5 0x36720414 0xffffffff 0x01234567 0x89abcdef 0xfedcba98 0x76543210 Units (EVSW Units)* mA — — — — — — 表 18. Data Flash to EVSW Conversion Class Subclass ID Gas Gauging 80 Gas Gauging 80 Calibration 104 Calibration 104 Calibration 104 Calibration 104 Subclass IT Cfg IT Cfg Data Data Data Data Offset 78 82 0 4 8 10 Name User Rate-Pwr Reserve Energy CC Gain CC Delta CC Offset Board Offset Data Data Flash Data Flash Type Default Unit I2 0 cW/10W I2 0 cWh/10cWh F4 0.47095 Num F4 5.595e5 Num I2 –1200 Num I1 0 Num EVSW Default 0 0 10.124 10.147 –0.576 0 EVSW Unit mW/cW mWh/cW mΩ mΩ mV µV Data Flash (DF) to EVSW Conversion DF × 10 DF × 10 4.768/DF 5677445/DF DF × 0.0048 DF × 0.0075 9.6 Register Maps 9.6.1 Pack Configuration Register Some bq27545-G1 pins are configured through the Pack Configuration data flash register, as indicated in 表 19. This register is programmed/read through the methods described in Accessing the Data Flash. The register is located at Subclass = 64, offset = 0. High Byte Default = bit7 RESCAP 0 Low Byte GNDSEL Default = 0 表 19. Pack Configuration Bit Definition bit6 CALEN 0 RFACTSTEP 1 bit5 INTPOL 0 SLEEP 1 bit4 bit3 INTSEL RSVD 1 0 0x11 RMFCC SE_PU 1 0 0x77 bit2 IWAKE 0 SE_POL 1 bit1 RSNS1 0 SE_EN 1 bit0 RSNS0 1 TEMPS 1 RESCAP = No-load rate of compensation is applied to the reserve capacity calculation. True when set. CALEN = Calibration mode is enabled. INTPOL = Polarity for Interrupt pin. (See INTERRUPT Mode.) INTSEL = Interrupt Pin select: 0 = SE pin, 1 = HDQ pin. (See INTERRUPT Mode.) RSVD = Reserved. Must be 0. IWAKE/RSNS1/RSNS0 = These bits configure the current wake function (See Wake-Up Comparator). GNDSEL = The ADC ground select control. The VSS (pins C1, C2) is selected as ground reference when the bit is clear. Pin A1 is selected when the bit is set. RFACTSTEP = Enables Ra step up/down to Max/Min Res Factor before disabling Ra updates. SLEEP = The fuel gauge can enter sleep, if operating conditions allow. True when set. (See SLEEP Mode.) RMFCC = RM is updated with the value from FCC, on valid charge termination. True when set. (See Detection Charge Termination.) SE_PU = pullup enable for SE pin. True when set (push-pull). (See SHUTDOWN Mode.) 版权 © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 39 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn SE_POL = Polarity bit for SE pin. SE is active high when set (makes SE high when gauge is ready for shutdown). (See SHUTDOWN Mode.) SE_EN = Indicates if set the shutdown feature is enabled. True when set. (See SHUTDOWN Mode.) TEMPS = Selects external thermistor for Temperature() measurements. True when set. (See Temperature Measurement and the TS Input.) 9.6.2 Pack Configuration B Register Some bq27545-G1 pins are configured through the Pack Configuration B data flash register, as indicated in 表 20. This register is programmed/read through the methods described in Accessing the Data Flash. The register is located at Subclass = 64, offset = 2. Default = bit7 ChgDoD EoC 1 表 20. Pack Configuration B Bit Definition bit6 SE_TDD bit5 VconsEN bit4 SE_ISD bit3 RSVD bit2 LFPRelax 0 1 0 0 1 0x67 bit1 DoDWT 1 bit0 FConvEn 1 ChgDoDEoC = Enable DoD at EoC recalculation during charging only. True when set. Default setting is recommended. SE_TDD = Enable Tab Disconnection Detection. True when set. (See Tab Disconnection Detection.) VconsEN = Enable voltage consistency check. True when set. Default setting is recommended. SE_ISD = Enable Internal Short Detection. True when set. (See Internal Short Detection.) RSVD = Reserved. Must be 0 LFPRelax = Enable LiFePO4 long RELAX mode. True when set. DoDWT = Enable DoD weighting feature of gauging algorithm. This feature can improve accuracy during RELAX in a flat portion of the voltage profile, especially when using LiFePO4 chemistry. True when set. FConvEn = Enable fast convergence algorithm. Default setting is recommended. (See Fast Resistance Scaling.) 9.6.3 Pack Configuration C Register Some bq27545-G1 algorithm settings are configured through the Pack Configuration C data flash register, as indicated in 表 21. This register is programmed/read through the methods described in Accessing the Data Flash. The register is located at Subclass = 64, offset = 3. bit7 RSVD Default = 0 表 21. Pack Configuration C Bit Definition bit6 RSVD 0 bit5 RelaxRC JumpOK 0 bit4 bit3 SmoothEn SleepWk Chg 1 1 0x18 bit2 RSVD 0 bit1 RSVD 0 bit0 RSVD 0 RSVD = Reserved. Must be 0. RelaxRCJumpOK = Allow SOC to change due to temperature change during relaxation when SOC smoothing algorithm is enabled. True when set. SmoothEn = Enable SOC smoothing algorithm. True when set. (See StateOfCharge() Smoothing.) SleepWkChg = Enables compensation for the passed charge missed when waking from SLEEP mode. 40 版权 © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn 10 Application and Implementation bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 注 Information in the following applications sections is not part of the TI component specification, and TI does not warrant its accuracy or completeness. TI’s customers are responsible for determining suitability of components for their purposes. Customers should validate and test their design implementation to confirm system functionality. 10.1 Application Information The bq27545-G1 measures the cell voltage, temperature, and current to determine battery SOC based on Impedance Track algorithm (see the Theory and Implementation of Impedance Track Battery Fuel-Gauging Algorithm Application Note [SLUA450] for more information). The bq27545-G1 monitors charge and discharge activity by sensing the voltage across a small-value resistor (5 mΩ to 20 mΩ typical.) between the SRP and SRN pins and in series with the cell. By integrating charge passing through the battery, the battery’s SOC is adjusted during battery charge or discharge. 10.2 Typical Application C1 0.1 µF C2 0.1 µF Vin Max: 4.2 V Current Max: 3 A TP2 CELL + Place C1 close to BAT pin Place C2 close to REGIN pin TB1 CELL + 1 2 CELL – TP1 CELL – J3 1 ON CE 2 3 OFF Ext Thermistor RT1 10 kΩ VCC TP7 C4 .47 µf TP8 VCC U1 bq27545YZFR TS E3 NC/GPIO E2 BAT E1 SRP A1 HDQ A2 VCC REGIN D3 NC/GPIO D2 CE D1 VCC C3 SE SE C2 VSS SCL A3 SRN B1 TS B2 SDA B3 VSS C1 C3 TP5 1 µF 0.1 µF C6 R6 R9 100 100 AZ23C5V6-7 D1 R7 R4 100 100 R10 R8 100 100 AZ23C5V6-7 D2 VCC J6 1 2 R12 4.7 k 4 3 2 1 J8 HDQ VSS VCC J7 1 2 J9 1 2 R14 10 k R15 10 k 4 3 2 1 J10 SDA SCL VSS 0.1 µF C5 0.1 µF C7 Place R1, R3, C5, C6, C7 R1 Close to GG R3 100 100 TP6 Low-pass filter for coulomb counter input should be placed as close as possible to gas gauge IC. Connection to sense resistor must be of Kelvin connection type. R15 330 C13 0.1 µF U2 MM3511 3 6 DOUT V– 5 2 VDD COUT 4 VSS 1 DS R17 1 k U2/Q1A/Q1B TP9 PACK+ 2 PACK+/Load+ 1 PACK–/Load– TB2 TP10 PACK– R2 0.01 R7, R8, and R9 are optional pulldown resistors if pullup resistors are applied. 图 9. Reference Schematic TP5 Q1:A Q1:B SI6926DQ C14 0.1 µF SI6926DQ C15 0.1 µF 版权 © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 41 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn Typical Application (接下页) 10.2.1 Design Requirements Several key parameters must be updated to align with a given application's battery characteristics. For highest accuracy gauging, it is important to follow-up this initial configuration with a learning cycle to optimize resistance and maximum chemical capacity (Qmax) values before sealing and shipping systems to the field. Successful and accurate configuration of the fuel gauge for a target application can be used as the basis for creating a golden file that can be written to all gauges, assuming identical pack design and Li-Ion cell origin (chemistry, lot, and so on). Calibration data is included as part of this golden file to cut down on system production time. If using this method, TI recommends averaging the voltage and current measurement calibration data from a large sample size and use these in the golden file. 表 22 shows the items that should be configured to achieve reliable protection and accurate gauging with minimal initial configuration. NAME Design Capacity Design Energy Scale CC Threshold Chem ID Load Mode Load Select Qmax Cell 0 Terminate Voltage Ra Max Delta Charging Voltage Taper Current Taper Voltage Dsg Current Threshold Chg Current Threshold Quit Current Avg I Last Run Avg P Last Run Sleep Current 表 22. Key Data Flash Parameters for Configuration DEFAULT 1000 1 900 0100 1 1 1000 3200 44 4200 100 100 60 75 40 –299 –1131 15 UNIT mAh — mAh hex — — mAh mV mΩ mV mA mV mA mA mA mA mW mA RECOMMENDED SETTING Set based on the nominal pack capacity as interpreted from the cell manufacturer's data sheet. If multiple parallel cells are used, should be set to N × Cell Capacity. Set to 10 to convert all power values to cWh or to 1 for mWh. Design Energy is divided by this value. Set to 90% of configured Design Capacity. Should be configured using TI-supplied Battery Management Studio (bqStudio) software. Default open-circuit voltage and resistance tables are also updated in conjunction with this step. Do not attempt to manually update reported Device Chemistry as this does not change all chemistry information. Always update chemistry using the bqStudio software tool. Set to applicable load model, 0 for constant current or 1 for constant power. Set to load profile which most closely matches typical system load. Set to initial configured value for Design Capacity. The gauge will update this parameter automatically after the optimization cycle and for every regular Qmax update thereafter. Set to empty point reference of battery based on system needs. Typical is from 3000 mV to 3200 mV. Set to 15% of Cell0 R_a 4 resistance after an optimization cycle is completed. Set based on nominal charge voltage for the battery in normal conditions (25°C, and so on). Used as the reference point for offsetting by Taper Voltage for full charge termination detection. Set to the nominal taper current of the charger + taper current tolerance to ensure that the gauge will reliably detect charge termination. Sets the voltage window for qualifying full charge termination. Can be set tighter to avoid or wider to ensure possibility of reporting 100% SOC in outer JEITA temperature ranges that use derated charging voltage. Sets threshold for gauge detecting battery discharge. Should be set lower than minimal system load expected in the application and higher than Quit Current. Sets the threshold for detecting battery charge. Can be set higher or lower depending on typical trickle charge current used. Also should be set higher than Quit Current. Sets threshold for gauge detecting battery relaxation. Can be set higher or lower depending on typical standby current and exhibited in the end system. Current profile used in capacity simulations at onset of discharge or at all times if Load Select = 0. Should be set to nominal system load. Is automatically updated by the gauge every cycle. Power profile used in capacity simulations at onset of discharge or at all times if Load Select = 0. Should be set to nominal system power. Is automatically updated by the gauge every cycle. Sets the threshold at which the fuel gauge enters SLEEP mode. Take care in setting above typical standby currents else entry to SLEEP may be unintentionally blocked. 42 版权 © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 Typical Application (接下页) NAME CC Gain CC Delta CC Offset Board Offset 表 22. Key Data Flash Parameters for Configuration (接下页) DEFAULT 10 10 –1418 0 UNIT mΩ mΩ Counts Counts RECOMMENDED SETTING Calibrate this parameter using TI-supplied bqStudio software and calibration procedure in the TRM. Determines conversion of coulomb counter measured sense resistor voltage to current. Calibrate this parameter using TI-supplied bqStudio software and calibration procedure in the TRM. Determines conversion of coulomb counter measured sense resistor voltage to passed charge. Calibrate this parameter using TI-supplied bqStudio software and calibration procedure in the TRM. Determines native offset of coulomb counter hardware that should be removed from conversions. Calibrate this parameter using TI-supplied bqStudio software and calibration procedure in the TRM. Determines native offset of the printed-circuit-board parasitics that should be removed from conversions. 10.2.2 Detailed Design Procedure 10.2.2.1 BAT Voltage Sense Input A ceramic capacitor at the input to the BAT pin is used to bypass AC voltage ripple to ground, greatly reducing its influence on battery voltage measurements. It proves most effective in applications with load profiles that exhibit high-frequency current pulses (that is, cell phones), but is recommended for use in all applications to reduce noise on this sensitive high-impedance measurement node. 10.2.2.2 SRP and SRN Current Sense Inputs The filter network at the input to the coulomb counter is intended to improve differential mode rejection of voltage measured across the sense resistor. These components should be placed as close as possible to the coulomb counter inputs and the routing of the differential traces length-matched to best minimize impedance mismatchinduced measurement errors. 10.2.2.3 Sense Resistor Selection Any variation encountered in the resistance present between the SRP and SRN pins of the fuel gauge will affect the resulting differential voltage and derived current it senses. As such, TI recommends selecting a sense resistor with minimal tolerance and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) characteristics. The standard recommendation based on best compromise between performance and price is a 1% tolerance, 100-ppm drift sense resistor with a 1-W power rating. 10.2.2.4 TS Temperature Sense Input Similar to the BAT pin, a ceramic decoupling capacitor for the TS pin is used to bypass AC voltage ripple away from the high-impedance ADC input, minimizing measurement error. Another helpful advantage is that the capacitor provides additional ESD protection because the TS input to system may be accessible in systems that use removable battery packs. It should be placed as close as possible to the respective input pin for optimal filtering performance. 10.2.2.5 Thermistor Selection The fuel gauge temperature sensing circuitry is designed to work with a negative temperature coefficient-type (NTC) thermistor with a characteristic 10-kΩ resistance at room temperature (25°C). The default curve-fitting coefficients configured in the fuel gauge specifically assume a 103AT-2 type thermistor profile and so that is the default recommendation for thermistor selection purposes. Moving to a separate thermistor resistance profile (for example, JT-2 or others) requires an update to the default thermistor coefficients in data flash to ensure highest accuracy temperature measurement performance. 10.2.2.6 REGIN Power Supply Input Filtering A ceramic capacitor is placed at the input to the fuel gauge internal LDO to increase power supply rejection (PSR) and improve effective line regulation. It ensures that voltage ripple is rejected to ground instead of coupling into the internal supply rails of the fuel gauge. 版权 © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 43 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 www.ti.com.cn 10.2.2.7 VCC LDO Output Filtering A ceramic capacitor is also needed at the output of the internal LDO to provide a current reservoir for fuel gauge load peaks during high peripheral utilization. It acts to stabilize the regulator output and reduce core voltage ripple inside of the fuel gauge. 10.2.3 Application Curves VCC - Regulator Output Voltage (V) 2.65 2.60 2.55 2.50 2.45 2.40 2.35 ±40 ±20 VREGIN = 2.7 V VREGIN = 4.5 V 0 20 40 60 Temperature (ƒC) 80 100 C001 fOSC - High Frequency Oscillator (MHz) 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.4 8.3 8.2 8.1 8 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 Temperature (qC) 80 100 D002 fLOSC - Low Frequency Oscillator (kHz) 34 33.5 33 32.5 32 31.5 31 30.5 30 -40 图 10. Regulator Output Voltage vs Temperature -20 0 20 40 60 80 Temperature (qC) 100 D003 Reported Temperature Error (qC) 图 11. High-Frequency Oscillator Frequency vs Temperature 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Temperature (qC) D004 图 12. Low-Frequency Oscillator Frequency vs Temperature 图 13. Reported Internal Temperature Measurement vs Temperature 44 版权 © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn 11 Power Supply Recommendations bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 11.1 Power Supply Decoupling Both the REGIN input pin and the VCC output pin require low equivalent series resistance (ESR) ceramic capacitors placed as close as possible to the respective pins to optimize ripple rejection and provide a stable and dependable power rail that is resilient to line transients. A 0.1-µF capacitor at the REGIN and a 1-µF capacitor at VCC will suffice for satisfactory device performance. 12 Layout 12.1 Layout Guidelines 12.1.1 Sense Resistor Connections Kelvin connections at the sense resistor are as critical as those for the battery terminals. The differential traces should be connected at the inside of the sense resistor pads and not along the high-current trace path to prevent false increases to measured current that could result when measuring between the sum of the sense resistor and trace resistance between the tap points. In addition, the routing of these leads from the sense resistor to the input filter network and finally into the SRP and SRN pins must be as closely matched in length as possible or else additional measurement offset could occur. It is further recommended to add copper trace or pour-based "guard rings" around the perimeter of the filter network and coulomb counter inputs to shield these sensitive pins from radiated EMI into the sense nodes. This prevents differential voltage shifts that could be interpreted as real current change to the fuel gauge. All of the filter components must be placed as close as possible to the coulomb counter input pins. 12.1.2 Thermistor Connections The thermistor sense input should include a ceramic bypass capacitor placed as close to the TS input pin as possible. The capacitor helps to filter measurements of any stray transients as the voltage bias circuit pulses periodically during temperature sensing windows. 12.1.3 High-Current and Low-Current Path Separation 注 For best possible noise performance, it is important to separate the low-current and highcurrent loops to different areas of the board layout. The fuel gauge and all support components should be situated on one side of the boards and tap off of the highcurrent loop (for measurement purposes) at the sense resistor. Routing the low-current ground around instead of under high-current traces will further help to improve noise rejection. 版权 © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 45 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 12.2 Layout Example Use copper pours for battery power path to minimize IR losses Kelvin connect the BAT sense line right at positive battery terminal REGIN BAT RTHERM NC NC SE Vcc CE VS S VS S SRN SDA TS SCL R7 R4 C1 C2 C3 R6 www.ti.com.cn PACK+ SCL R10 SDA R8 SE HDQ R9 SRP HDQ Via connects to Power Ground 10 mΩ 1% Kelvin connect SRP and SRN connections right at Rsense terminals 图 14. Layout Example PACK – Star ground right at PACK – for ESD return path 46 版权 © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated www.ti.com.cn 13 器件和文档支持 bq27545-G1 ZHCSAB6D – OCTOBER 2012 – REVISED DECEMBER 2015 13.1 文档支持 13.1.1 相关文档 请参阅如下相关文档: • 《bq27545EVM 单节电池 Impedance Track™ 技术评估模块》(SLUU984) • 《Impedance Track 电池电量计量算法的理论及实现》(SLUA450) 13.2 社区资源 The following links connect to TI community resources. Linked contents are provided "AS IS" by the respective contributors. They do not constitute TI specifications and do not necessarily reflect TI's views; see TI's Terms of Use. TI E2E™ Online Community TI's Engineer-to-Engineer (E2E) Community. Created to foster collaboration among engineers. At e2e.ti.com, you can ask questions, share knowledge, explore ideas and help solve problems with fellow engineers. Design Support TI's Design Support Quickly find helpful E2E forums along with design support tools and contact information for technical support. 13.3 商标 Impedance Track, Nano-Free, E2E are trademarks of Texas Instruments. I2C is a trademark of NXP Semiconductors, N.V. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 13.4 静电放电警告 这些装置包含有限的内置 ESD 保护。 存储或装卸时,应将导线一起截短或将装置放置于导电泡棉中,以防止 MOS 门极遭受静电损 伤。 13.5 Glossary SLYZ022 — TI Glossary. This glossary lists and explains terms, acronyms, and definitions. 14 机械、封装和可订购信息 以下页面包括机械、封装和可订购信息。这些信息是指定器件的最新可用数据。这些数据发生变化时,我们可能不 会另行通知或修订此文档。如欲获取此产品说明书的浏览器版本,请参见左侧的导航栏。 版权 © 2012–2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated 47 PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www.ti.com 14-Jun-2017 PACKAGING INFORMATION Orderable Device BQ27545YZFR-G1 BQ27545YZFT-G1 Status (1) NRND NRND Package Type Package Pins Package Eco Plan Drawing Qty (2) DSBGA YZF 15 3000 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) DSBGA YZF 15 250 Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Lead/Ball Finish (6) SNAGCU SNAGCU MSL Peak Temp Op Temp (°C) (3) Level-1-260C-UNLIM -40 to 85 Level-1-260C-UNLIM -40 to 85 (1) The marketing status values are defined as follows: ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs. LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect. NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design. PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available. OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device. Device Marking (4/5) BQ27545 BQ27545 (2) RoHS: TI defines "RoHS" to mean semiconductor products that are compliant with the current EU RoHS requirements for all 10 RoHS substances, including the requirement that RoHS substance do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, "RoHS" products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. TI may reference these types of products as "Pb-Free". RoHS Exempt: TI defines "RoHS Exempt" to mean products that contain lead but are compliant with EU RoHS pursuant to a specific EU RoHS exemption. Green: TI defines "Green" to mean the content of Chlorine (Cl) and Bromine (Br) based flame retardants meet JS709B low halogen requirements of <=1000ppm threshold. Antimony trioxide based flame retardants must also meet the <=1000ppm threshold requirement. (3) MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature. (4) There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device. (5) Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device. (6) Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish value exceeds the maximum column width. Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals. TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release. In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis. Samples Addendum-Page 1 www.ti.com PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM 14-Jun-2017 Addendum-Page 2 www.ti.com TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION 14-Jun-2017 *All dimensions are nominal Device Package Package Pins Type Drawing BQ27545YZFR-G1 DSBGA YZF 15 BQ27545YZFT-G1 DSBGA YZF 15 SPQ 3000 250 Reel Reel A0 Diameter Width (mm) (mm) W1 (mm) 180.0 8.4 2.1 180.0 8.4 2.1 B0 (mm) 2.76 2.76 K0 (mm) 0.81 0.81 P1 (mm) 4.0 4.0 W Pin1 (mm) Quadrant 8.0 Q1 8.0 Q1 Pack Materials-Page 1 www.ti.com PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION 14-Jun-2017 *All dimensions are nominal Device BQ27545YZFR-G1 BQ27545YZFT-G1 Package Type DSBGA DSBGA Package Drawing Pins YZF 15 YZF 15 SPQ 3000 250 Length (mm) 182.0 182.0 Width (mm) 182.0 182.0 Height (mm) 20.0 20.0 Pack Materials-Page 2 YZF0015 PACKAGE OUTLINE DSBGA - 0.625 mm max height SCALE 6.500 DIE SIZE BALL GRID ARRAY B E A BALL A1 CORNER D 0.625 MAX 0.35 0.15 E BALL TYP 1 TYP SYMM C SEATING PLANE 0.05 C D 2 TYP C B 0.5 TYP A 15X 0.35 0.25 1 0.015 C A B SYMM 2 3 0.5 TYP NOTES: 4219381/A 02/2017 NanoFree Is a trademark of Texas Instruments. 1. All linear dimensions are in millimeters. Any dimensions in parenthesis are for reference only. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ASME Y14.5M. 2. This drawing is subject to change without notice. 3. NanoFreeTM package configuration. www.ti.com YZF0015 EXAMPLE BOARD LAYOUT DSBGA - 0.625 mm max height DIE SIZE BALL GRID ARRAY (0.5) TYP 15X ( 0.245) 1 2 A (0.5) TYP B C 3 SYMM D ( 0.245) METAL E SYMM LAND PATTERN EXAMPLE EXPOSED METAL SHOWN SCALE:30X 0.05 MAX 0.05 MIN METAL UNDER SOLDER MASK SOLDER MASK OPENING EXPOSED METAL NON-SOLDER MASK DEFINED (PREFERRED) EXPOSED METAL SOLDER MASK DEFINED ( 0.245) SOLDER MASK OPENING SOLDER MASK DETAILS NOT TO SCALE NOTES: (continued) 4. Final dimensions may vary due to manufacturing tolerance considerations and also routing constraints. For more information, see Texas Instruments literature number SNVA009 (www.ti.com/lit/snva009). 4219381/A 02/2017 www.ti.com YZF0015 EXAMPLE STENCIL DESIGN DSBGA - 0.625 mm max height DIE SIZE BALL GRID ARRAY 15X ( 0.25) (0.5) TYP 1 2 A (0.5) TYP B METAL TYP C (R0.05) TYP 3 SYMM D E SYMM SOLDER PASTE EXAMPLE BASED ON 0.1 mm THICK STENCIL SCALE:40X NOTES: (continued) 5. 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