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Lead-Acid BatterySimplified SPICE Behavioral Model

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This application note demonstrates how a Lead acid battery can be modeled using LTSpice.I hope it helps in simulation purposes especially who are dealing with spice.Enjoy guys

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Lead-Acid Battery Simplified SPICE Behavioral Model All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 1 Contents 1. Benefit of the Model 2. Model Feature 3. Concept of the Model 4. Parameter Settings 5. Lead-Acid Battery Specification (Example) 5.1 Charge Time Characteristic 5.2 Discharge Time Characteristic 5.3 Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic 6. Extend the number of Cell (Example) 6.1 Charge Time Characteristic, NS=3 6.2 Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=3 Library Files and Symbol Files Location Simulation Index All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 2 1. Benefit of the Model • The model enables circuit designer to predict and optimize LeadAcid battery runtime and circuit performance. • The model can be easily adjusted to your own Lead-Acid battery specifications by editing a few parameters that are provided in the datasheet. • The model is optimized to reduce the convergence error and the simulation time. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 3 2. Model Feature Equivalent circuit of Lead-Acid Battery model • This Lead-Acid Battery Simplified SPICE Behavioral Model is for users who require the model of a Lead-Acid Battery as a part of their system. • The model accounts for Battery Voltage(Vbat) vs. Battery Capacity Level (SOC) Characteristic, so it can perform battery charge and discharge time at various current rate conditions. • As a simplified model, the effects of cycle number and temperature are neglected. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 4 3. Concept of the Model + Lead-Acid battery Simplified SPICE Behavioral Model [Spec: C, NS] Adjustable SOC [ 0-1(100%) ] - Output Characteristics • The model is characterized by parameters: C which represent the battery capacity and SOC which represent the battery initial capacity level. • Open-circuit voltage (VOC) vs. SOC is included in the model as an analog behavioral model (ABM). • NS (Number of Cells in series) is used when the Lead-acid cells are in series to increase battery voltage level. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 5 4. Parameter Settings (Default values) Model Parameters: C is the amp-hour battery capacity [Ah] – e.g. C = 1, 50, or 100 [Ah] NS is the number of cells in series – e.g. NS=1 for 1 cell battery, NS=2 for 2 cells battery (battery voltage is double from 1 cell) SOC is the initial state of charge in percent – e.g. SOC=0 for a empty battery (0%), SOC=1 for a full charged battery (100%) TSCALE turns TSCALE seconds(in the real world) into a second(in simulation) – e.g. TSCALE=60 turns 60s or 1min (in the real world) into a second(in simulation), TSCALE=3600 turns 3600s or 1h into a second. • From the Lead-Acid Battery specification, the model is characterized by setting parameters C, NS, SOC and TSCALE. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 6 5. Lead-Acid Battery Specification (Example) Battery capacity [Typ.] is input as a model parameter Nominal Voltage Capacity Rated Charge Voltage Set Charging Time 2.0 [Vdc] /Cell 50Ah 0.1C10A 2.23 [Vdc] /Cell 24 [hours] @ 0.1C10A • The battery information refer to a battery part number MSE Series of GS YUASA. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 7 5.1 Charge Time Characteristic Measurement Simulation Voltage: 2.23V Current: 5A (0.1C10A) (hour) • Charging Time: 24 [hours] @ 0.1C10A SOC=0 means battery start from 0% of capacity (empty) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 8 5.1 Charge Time Characteristic  Simulation Circuit and Setting Charge Voltage A constant current charger at rate of capacity (e.g. 150A) .TRAN 0 24 0 25m .LIB lead-acid_battery.sub All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 1 hour into a second (in simulation) 9 5.2 Discharge Time Characteristic Measurement Simulation 0.1C10A 1.0C10A 0.23C10A 0.65C10A (hour) SOC=1 means battery start from 100% of capacity All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 10 5.2 Discharge Time Characteristic  Simulation Circuit and Setting A constant current discharger at rate of capacity (e.g. 150A) .TRAN 0 10 0 25m .STEP PARAM rate LIST 0.1, 0.23, 0.65, 1 .OPTIONS ABSTOL=1.0E-9 .LIB lead-acid_battery.sub TSCALE turns 1 hour into a second(in simulation), battery starts from 100% of capacity (fully charged) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 11 5.3 Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic Measurement Simulation @25C 1.0C10A 0.1C10A 0.25C10A 0.6C10A [0-100%] • Nominal Voltage: 2.0V • Capacity: 50Ah (% of Rated Capacity) Simulation 1.2 1.0 0.8 Mesurement Simulation 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 1 2 3 Discharge Rate (Multiples of C) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 12 5.3 Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic  Simulation Circuit and Setting A constant current discharger at rate of capacity (e.g. 150A) .TRAN 0 10 0 100m .STEP PARAM rate LIST 0.1, 0.25, 0.6, 1 .OPTIONS ABSTOL=1.0E-9 .LIB lead-acid_battery.sub All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 1 hour into a second (in simulation) 13 6. Extend the number of Cell (Example) The number of cells in series is input as a model parameter Basic Specification Voltage - Rated Capacity Rated Charge Voltage Set Charging Time Lead-Acid needs 3 cells to reach this voltage level 6.0 [Vdc] /Cell 100Ah 0.1C10A 2.23V*3 [Vdc] /Cell 24 [hours] @ 0.1C10A NS  Voltage  Rated 6 Lead - Acid NominalVoltage 2.0 • The battery information refer to a battery part number MSE-100-6 of GS YUASA. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 14 6.1 Charge Time Characteristic, NS=3 The battery needs 24 hours to be fully charged Charge Current: 10A (0.1C10A) Charge Voltage: 6.69V • Charging Current: 10A (0.1C10A) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 (hour) 15 6.1 Charge Time Characteristic, NS=3  Simulation Circuit and Setting Charge Voltage .TRAN 0 24 0 25m .LIB lead-acid_battery.sub All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 1 hour into a second (in simulation) 16 6.2 Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=3 0.6C10A 1.0C10A 0.1C10A 0.25C10A • Voltage - Rated: 6.0V • Discharging Current: 10A(0.1C), 23A(0.23C), 65A(0.65C), 100A(1.0C) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 (hour) 17 6.2 Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=3  Simulation Circuit and Setting Parametric sweep “rate” for multiple rate discharge simulation .TRAN 0 10 0 25m .STEP PARAM rate LIST 0.1, 0.23, 0.65, 1 .OPTIONS ABSTOL=1.0E-9 .LIB lead-acid_battery.sub All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 1 hour into a second (in simulation) 18 Library Files and Symbol Files Location …\Simulation Copy/ Paste into Copy/ Paste into C:\Program Files\LTC\LTspiceIV\lib\sub C:\Program Files\LTC\LTspiceIV\lib\sym 1. Copy the library files (.lib) from the folder …\Simulation\.sub\, then paste into the folder C:\Program Files\LTC\LTspiceIV\lib\sub 2. Copy the symbol files(.asy) from the folder …\Simulation\.asy\, then paste into the folder C:\Program Files\LTC\LTspiceIV\lib\sym All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 19 Simulation Index Simulations Folder name 1. Charge Time Characteristic................................. Charge_Time 2. Discharge Time Characteristic............................. Discharge_Time 3. Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic.................................. Discharge_SOC 4. Charge Time Characteristic, NS=3....................... Charge_Time(NS) 5. Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=3................... Discharge_Time(NS) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 20

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