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E4991A用户手册

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E4991A用户手册

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Caution Do not exceed the operating input power, voltage, and current level and signal type appropriate for the instrument being used, refer to your instrument's Function Reference. Electrostatic discharge(ESD) can damage the highly sensitive microcircuits in your instrument. ESD damage is most likely to occur as the test fixtures are being connected or disconnected. Protect them from ESD damage by wearing a grounding strap that provides a high resistance path to ground. Alternatively, ground yourself to discharge any static charge built-up by touching the outer shell of any grounded instrument chassis before touching the test port connectors. Safety Summary When you notice any of the unusual conditions listed below, immediately terminate operation and disconnect the power cable. Contact your local Agilent Technologies sales representative or authorized service company for repair of the instrument. If you continue to operate without repairing the instrument, there is a potential fire or shock hazard for the operator. - Instrument operates abnormally. - Instrument emits abnormal noise, smell, smoke or a spark-like light during operation. - Instrument generates high temperature or electrical shock during operation. - Power cable, plug, or receptacle on instrument is damaged. - Foreign substance or liquid has fallen into the instrument. Herstellerbescheinigung GERA USCHEMISSION < LpA 70 dB am Arbeitsplatz normaler Betrieb nach DIN 45635 T. 19 Manufacturer's Declaration ACOUSTIC NOISE EMISSION < LpA 70 dB operator position normal operation per ISO 7779 Regulatory compliance information This product complies with the essential requirements of the following applicable European Directives, and carries the CE marking accordingly: The Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC, amended by 93/68/EEC The EMC Directive 89/336/EEC, amended by 93/68/EEC To obtain Declaration of Conformity, please contact your local Agilent Technologies sales office, agent or distributor. Safety notice supplement ・ This equipment complies with EN/IEC61010-1:2001. ・ This equipment is MEASUREMENT CATEGORY I (CAT I). Do not use for CAT II, III, or IV. ・ Do not connect the measuring terminals to mains. ・ This equipment is POLLUTION DEGREE 2, INDOOR USE product. ・ This equipment is tested with stand-alone condition or with the combination with the accessories supplied by Agilent Technologies against the requirement of the standards described in the Declaration of Conformity. If it is used as a system component, compliance of related regulations and safety requirements are to be confirmed by the builder of the system. Agilent E4991A RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Operation Manual Ninth Edition SERIAL NUMBERS This manual applies directly to instruments that have the firmware revision 2.1x and serial number prefix MY433. For additional important information about firmware revisions and serial numbers, see Appendix A. Manufacturing No. E4991-90090 June 2012 Notices The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. This document contains proprietary information that is protected by copyright. All rights are reserved. No part of this document may be photocopied, reproduced, or translated to another language without the prior written consent of the Agilent Technologies. MS-DOS, Windows, Visual C++, Visual Basic, VBA and Excel are U.S. registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries, licensed exclusively through X/Open Company Limited. Portions ©Copyright 2012, Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. © Copyright 2001, 2002 ,2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 , 2012 Agilent Technologies Manual Printing History The manual’s printing date and part number indicate its current edition. The printing date changes when a new edition is printed (minor corrections and updates that are incorporated at reprint do not cause the date to change). The manual part number changes when extensive technical changes are incorporated. March 2001 Preliminary (part number: E4991-90000) April 2001 First Edition (part number: E4991-90010) July 2001 Second Edition (part number: E4991-90020) September 2001 Third Edition (part number: E4991-90030) February 2002 Fourth Edition (part number: E4991-90040) March 2003 Fifth Edition (part number: E4991-90050) December 2004 Sixth Edition (part number: E4991-90060) December 2005 Seventh Edition (part number: E4991-90070) July 2006 Eighth Edition (part number: E4991-90080) June 2012 Ninth Edition (part number: E4991-90090) 2 NOTE NOTE WARNING Safety Summary The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of operation, service, and repair of this instrument. Failure to comply with these precautions or with specific WARNINGS elsewhere in this manual may impair the protection provided by the equipment. Such noncompliance would also violate safety standards of design, manufacture, and intended use of the instrument. Agilent Technologies assumes no liability for the customer’s failure to comply with these precautions. The E4991A complies with INSTALLATION CATEGORY II as well as POLLUTION DEGREE 2 in IEC61010-1. The E4991A is an INDOOR USE product. The LEDs in the E4991A are Class 1 in accordance with IEC60825-1, CLASS 1 LED PRODUCT • Ground the Instrument To avoid electric shock, the instrument chassis and cabinet must be grounded with the supplied power cable’s grounding prong. • DO NOT Operate in an Explosive Atmosphere Do not operate the instrument in the presence of inflammable gasses or fumes. Operation of any electrical instrument in such an environment clearly constitutes a safety hazard. • Keep Away from Live Circuits Operators must not remove instrument covers. Component replacement and internal adjustments must be made by qualified maintenance personnel. Do not replace components with the power cable connected. Under certain conditions, dangerous voltage levels may remain even after the power cable has been disconnected. To avoid injuries, always disconnect the power and discharge circuits before touching them. • DO NOT Service or Adjust the Instrument Alone Do not attempt internal service or adjustment unless another person, capable of rendering first aid and resuscitation, is present. • DO NOT Substitute Parts or Modify the Instrument To avoid the danger of introducing additional hazards, do not install substitute parts or perform unauthorized modifications to the instrument. Return the instrument to an Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Office for service and repair to ensure that safety features are maintained in operational condition. • Dangerous Procedure Warnings Warnings, such as the example below, precede potentially dangerous procedures throughout this manual. Instructions contained in the warnings must be followed. Dangerous voltage levels, capable of causing death, are present in this instrument. Use extreme caution when handling, testing, and adjusting this instrument. 3 WARNING CAUTION NOTE Safety Symbols General definitions of safety symbols used on the instrument or in manuals are listed below. Instruction Manual symbol: the product is marked with this symbol when it is necessary for the user to refer to the instrument manual. Alternating current. Direct current. On (Supply). Off (Supply). In-position of push-button switch. Out-position of push-button switch. A chassis terminal; a connection to the instrument’s chassis, which includes all exposed metal structure. Stand-by. This warning sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure, practice, or condition that, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in injury or death to personnel. This Caution sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure, practice, or condition that, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or destruction of part or all of the instrument. This Note sign denotes important information. It calls attention to a procedure, practice, or condition that is essential for the user to understand. Certification Agilent Technologies certifies that this product met its published specifications at the time of shipment from the factory. Agilent Technologies further certifies that its calibration measurements are traceable to the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology, to the extent allowed by the Institution’s calibration facility or by the calibration facilities of other International Standards Organization members. 4 Warranty This Agilent Technologies instrument product is warranted against defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year from the date of shipment, except that in the case of certain components listed in this manual, the warranty shall be for the specified period. During the warranty period, Agilent Technologies will, at its option, either repair or replace products that prove to be defective. For warranty service or repair, this product must be returned to a service facility designated by Agilent Technologies. Buyer shall prepay shipping charges to Agilent Technologies, and Agilent Technologies shall pay shipping charges to return the product to Buyer. However, Buyer shall pay all shipping charges, duties, and taxes for products returned to Agilent Technologies from another country. Agilent Technologies warrants that its software and firmware designated by Agilent Technologies for use with an instrument will execute its programming instruction when properly installed on that instrument. Agilent Technologies does not warrant that the operation of the instrument, or software, or firmware will be uninterrupted or error free. IMPORTANT Limitation of Warranty The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from improper or inadequate maintenance by Buyer, Buyer-supplied software or interfacing, unauthorized modification or misuse, operation outside the environmental specifications for the product, or improper site preparation or maintenance. No other warranty is expressed or implied. Agilent Technologies specifically disclaims the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Exclusive Remedies The remedies provided herein are Buyer’s sole and exclusive remedies. Agilent Technologies shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages, whether based on contract, tort, or any other legal theory. 5 Assistance Product maintenance agreements and other customer assistance agreements are available for Agilent Technologies products. For any assistance, contact your nearest Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Office. Addresses are provided at the back of this manual. Typeface Conventions Sample (bold) Sample (Italic) Boldface type is used when a term is defined or emphasis. Italic type is used for emphasis. key Sample menu/button/box Sample block/toolbar Sample 1 - Sample 2 - Sample 3 Indicates a hardkey (key on the front panel or external keyboard) labeled “Sample.” “key” may be omitted. Indicates a menu/button/box on the screen labeled “Sample” which can be selected/executed by clicking. “menu,” “button,” or “box” may be omitted. Indicates a block (group of hardkeys) or a toolbar (setup toolbar) labeled “Sample.” Indicates a sequential operation of Sample 1, Sample 2, and Sample 3 (menu, button, or box). “-” may be omitted. 6 NOTE Documentation Map The following manuals are available for the Agilent E4991A. • Operational Manual (Part Number E4991-900x0, attached to Option ABA) This manual describes most of the basic information needed to use the E4991A. It provides a function overview, detailed operation procedure for each function (from preparation for measurement to analysis of measurement results), measurement examples, specifications, and supplemental information. For programming guidance on performing automatic measurement with the E4991A, please see the Programming Manual. • Installation and Quick Start Guide (Part Number E4991-902x1, attached to Option ABA) This manual describes installation of the instrument after it is delivered and the basic procedures for applications and analysis. Refer to this manual when you use the E4991A for the first time. • Programming Manual (Part Number E4991-900x2, attached to Option ABA) This manual provides programming information for performing automatic measurement with the E4991A. It includes an outline of remote control, procedures for detecting measurement start (trigger) and end (sweep end), application programming examples, a command reference, and related information. The number position shown by “x” in the part numbers above indicates the edition number. This convention is applied to each manual, CD-ROM (for manuals), and sample programs disk issued. Here, “0” indicates the initial edition, and each time a revision is made this number is incremented by 1. The latest edition allows the customer to specify Option ABJ (Japanese) or Option ABA (English) of the product. Microsoft®, MS-DOS®, Windows®, and Visual Basic® for Applications are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in U.S. and other countries. 7 NOTE Software Installed The Windows operating system installed in this machine is customized for more effective operation, and has different functions that are not part of the Windows operating system for ordinary PCs (personal computers). Therefore, do not attempt to use the system in ways other than those described in this manual or to install Windows-based software (including anti-virus software) for ordinary PCs as doing so may cause malfunctions. Also note the followings. • Do not update the Windows operating system installed in this machine to the Windows operating system for ordinary PCs. Doing so will cause malfunctions. • Do not allow any computer virus to infect the system. This machine has no virus check function nor anti-virus software installed. Agilent Technologies will not be held liable for any failure or damage arising from negligence regarding these prohibitions and warnings. If the pre-installed software is damaged somehow, resulting in errant behavior by the machine, perform a "system recovery". 8 Contents 1. How to Use This Operation Manual Relationship of Operation Manual Contents to Using the E4991A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2. Function Overview Names and Functions of Front Panel Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1. Standby switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2. 3.5-inch built-in floppy disk drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3. Color LCD display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4. Measurement block (MEASUREMENT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5. Stimulus block (STIMULUS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 6. Entry/navigation block (ENTRY/NAVIGATION) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 7. System block (SYSTEM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 8. Utility key ( key) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 9. Test head interface (TEST HEAD INTERFACE). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Names and Functions of Rear Panel Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 1. Power cable receptacle (-LINE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2. LAN port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3. Printer parallel port (PRINTER, Parallel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4. External trigger input connector (Ext Trig). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5. External monitor output terminal (VIDEO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6. GPIB connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7. High stability frequency reference output connector (Ref Oven, Option 1D5 only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 8. External reference signal input terminal (Ext Ref In, 10 MHz 0 dBm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 9. Internal reference signal output connector (Int Ref Out) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10. Unused ports (Reserved) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 11. Rear USB port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 12. Mini-DIN mouse port (MOUSE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 13. Mini-Din keyboard port (KYBD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 14. Serial number plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 15. Unused ports (Reserved) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Names and Functions of LCD Display Areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 1. Title bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2. Menu bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3. Marker values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4. Setup toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5. Trace 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 6. Trace 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 7. Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 8. Scale reference line value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 9. Trace 1 axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 10. Sweep start value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 11. Sweep stop value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 12. Trace 2 axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 13. Status bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Initialization of E4991A (presetting) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Setting Material Measurement Parameter (Option 002 only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 9 Contents Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Selection and Confirmation of Target Trace (Active Trace) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Selecting Active Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Identifying Active Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Selecting Sweep Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Using Time as Sweep Parameter (Zero Span Sweep) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Selecting Sweep Type (Linear/Log/Segment) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Selecting Sweep Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Measurement Waiting Time/Sweep Time Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Setting Sweep Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Setting Sweep Area with Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Setting Number of Points (NOP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Oscillator Level Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Definition of Oscillator Level Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Setting and Applying dc Bias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Setting the Trigger Source To Start Sweep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Selecting Trigger Target (Trigger Event) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Single Sweep, Continuous Sweep and Sweep Stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Selecting Polarity of External Trigger Input Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 CW Frequency Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Sweeping a Plural Number of Sweep Areas under Different Conditions at One Time (Segment Sweep) . 66 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Averaging Measurement Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Averaging Plural Sweeps (Sweep-to-Sweep Averaging) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Averaging by Each Measurement Point (Point Averaging) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4. Calibration and Compensation Outline of Calibration and Compensation Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Types of Calibration and Compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Calibration Reference Plane and Calibration Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Calibration/Compensation measurement point mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Calibration and Compensation Using 7-mm Test Port as a Calibration Reference Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Calibration using DUT Connecting Terminal as a Calibration Reference Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Calibration of Open/Short/Load/Low-loss Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 10 Contents Port Extension Compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Electrical Length Compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Fixture Compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Measuring Fixture Compensation Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Switching Fixture Compensation On/Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Definition of Calibration/Compensation Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Definition of Calibration Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Definition of Calibration Kit in Permittivity Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Definition of Compensation Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Restoring Calibration/Compensation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 5. Display Setting Setting the Types and Numbers of Display Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Maximize a Display Window on the Screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Selecting Measurement Parameter (Impedance Measurement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Setting Measurement Parameter (Material Measurement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Selecting Graph Coordinate Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Autoscale Adjustment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Autoscale Adjustment for each Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Autoscale Adjustment for all Traces at Once . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Manual Scale Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Scale Setting in Rectangular Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Scale Setting on Complex Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Scale Setting in Polar Coordinate Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Setting of Reference Line Value by Using Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Zooming a Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Overlay Display and Split Display of Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Displaying Measurement Values in List Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Trace Comparison Using Memory Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Comparison with a stored reference trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Subtraction of Offset Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Offset Value Setting by Using the Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Selecting Sweep Area Display (Start/Stop or Center/Span) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Setting Frequency Display Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Confirm the Setting Status on the Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 11 Contents Continuous Phase Display Without Returning at ±180° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Selecting Phase Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Displaying Trace Title on Measurement Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Changing Display Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Reading Value on the Trace by Specifying Stimulus Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Displaying the Values of Plural Points on a Trace in a Value List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Reading Difference from Reference Point on a Graph (Delta Marker) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Delta Marker Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Reading Only the Actual Measurement Point/Reading the Distance between Measurement Points through Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Move the Marker for Each Trace Independently . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Selecting Marker Value Display for Plural Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Selecting Marker Analysis Target Trace (Data/Memory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Search for Max. and Min. Measurement Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Search for Target Point of Measurement Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Peak Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Maximal Point and Minimal Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Positive Peak and Negative Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Outline of Peak Search Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Define the Peaks Using Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Working Out Trace Average, Standard Deviation, and Peak to Peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Specify the Partial Search Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Execution of Automatic Search in Each Sweep (Search Tracking) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Changing Marker Stimulus Value Display to Time/Relaxation Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Calculation of Equivalent Circuit Parameter and Simulation of Frequency Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Calculation of Equivalent Circuit Parameter based on Measurement Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Frequency Characteristics Simulation based on Equivalent Circuit Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Setting a Limit to the Trace and Making a Pass/Fail Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 12 Contents 7. Saving and Recalling Internal Data Overview of Save and Recall Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Saving and Recalling Setting States (Save State) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 To save setting states: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 To recall setting states: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Saving and Recalling Measurement Data in Binary Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 To save measurement data in binary format:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 To recall measurement data: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Saving Measurement Data to Read in Spreadsheet Software (Saving in ASCII Format) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 To save measurement data in ASCII format: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 To import measurement data saved in ASCII format into Microsoft Excel™: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Saving Measurement Data in CITIfile Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Overview of CITIfile Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 How to Create a CITIfile on the E4991A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 CITIfile Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 To create a CITIfile: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Saving Display Information (Save Graphics) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 To save display information: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Recalling Saved Image File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 8. Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data Printing Measurement Graphs and Internal Data Lists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Supported Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 How to print data on the screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Installing Printer Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 How to install a printer driver: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 9. Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions Setting the GPIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Setting talker/listener GPIB address of E4991A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Setting system controller (USB/GPIB interface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Setting the Internal Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Procedure for setting the internal clock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Setting the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Setup Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Confirmation of Options and Firmware Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Operation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 System Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Types of system recoveries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Notes on executing system recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Procedure to execute system recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Procedure to create the user backup image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Procedure to execute the user recovery function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 10. Using LAN Configuring the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Enabling/disabling network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Setting IP address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 13 Contents Specifying computer name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 File Transfer Using FTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 FTP file transfer using MS-DOS™ prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 FTP file transfer using FTP application software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Stop/Abortion of process/Cut off from server by E4991A operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Using Remote User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Outline of Remote User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Installation of E4991A user interface software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Procedure to uninstall E4991A user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Starting up the E4991A user interface and connecting to the E4991A measurement server . . . . . . . . . 233 Disconnection of E4991A measurement server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Closing the E4991A user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Copying measurement plot and internal data to other application software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Measurement Parameters and Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Measurement Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Measurement Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Source Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Oscillator Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Output Impedance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 DC Bias (Option 001). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 DC Voltage Bias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 DC Current Bias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 DC Bias Monitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Oscillator Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Sweep Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Sweep Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Segment Sweep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Measurement Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Conditions for Defining Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Accuracy When Open/Short/Load Calibration is Performed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Accuracy When Open/Short/Load/Low-Loss Capacitor Calibration is Performed (point averaging factor ≥ 8, typical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Definition of Each Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Calculated Impedance Measurement Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Measurement Support Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Error Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Trigger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Marker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Equivalent Circuit Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Limit Marker Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Mass Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 14 Contents Measurement Terminal (at Test Head) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Rear Panel Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 General Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Environment Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Other Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Measurement Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Frequency Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Measurement Accuracy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Examples of Calculated Permittivity Measurement Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Examples of Calculated Permeability Measurement Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Option 007 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Operation Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Source Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Measurement Accuracy (at 23°C ± 5°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Typical Effects of Temperature Change on Measurement Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Measurement Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Typical Effects of Temperature Change on Permittivity Measurement Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 A. Manual Changes Manual Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Change 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Change 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Change 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Change 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Change 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Change 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 B. Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Option 010 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Recommended Probe Stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Recommended Probe Heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Mounting Test Head and Connecting Cables (using recommended probe station) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Mounting Test Head and Connecting Cables (using probe stations other than recommended models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Selecting Fixture Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Definition of Calibration Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Calibration/Compensation Measurement Point Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Calibration of Open/Short/Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Cautions for protecting cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Connection procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 15 Contents Calibration/compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Temperature compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Execution procedure of temperature compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Information to create program to execute temperature compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Acquiring temperature compensation data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Measuring temperature characteristic using Tctest.Start macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Temperature compensation for measurement result using Compensation.Start macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Modifying attached sample program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Changing limits when setting temperature change pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Changing GPIB address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Modifying other temperature chambers than recommended . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Recovery of the sample program furnished the option 007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 D. Menu References Menu References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Trace Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Meas/Format Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Scale Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Display Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Marker Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Stimulus Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Trigger Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Utility Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Save/Recall Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 System Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 E. Theory on Material Measurement Dielectric Material Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Definition of Permittivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Measurement Principle of Dielectric Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Error Components of 16453A Test Fixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 Magnetic Material Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Definition of Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Measurement Principle of Magnetic Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Structure of 16454A Test Fixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 F. Information on Maintenance Cleaning this Instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Cleaning an LCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Maintenance of Connectors/Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Cleaning a Display Other than an LCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 Cautions Applicable to Requesting Repair, Replacement, Regular Calibration, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Devices to be Sent Back for Repair or Regular Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Recommended Calibration Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 G. Initial Settings Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 16 Contents H. Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Major Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Channels and Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Calibration/Compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 Limit test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 Function Comparison List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 I. Messages Alphabetical Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 Messages indicating the internal status of the equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Messages indicating measurement failure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Messages indicating the results (or current status) of processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 17 Contents 18 1. How to Use This Operation Manual 1 How to Use This Operation Manual This chapter explains how to most efficiently use this Operation Manual. 19 How to Use This Operation Manual Relationship of Operation Manual Contents to Using the E4991A Table 1-1 Relationship of Operation Manual Contents to Using the E4991A The chapters of this Operation Manual cover the usage of this product from when it is delivered until when the user has obtained sufficient understanding of the instrument’s functions to use it efficiently. Table 1-1 lists the product’s operations along with the corresponding manuals and chapters. Operations of E4991A and Corresponding Manuals/Chapters Operation 1. Installation 2. Understanding functions and measurement flow Corresponding Manual Installation and Quick Start Guide Installation and Quick Start Guide 3. Performing measurements (manual operation) Operation Manual (this book) Operation Manual (this book) 4. Analyzing and handling measurement data (manual operation) Operation Manual (this book) 5. Using control and management facilities (manual operation) 6. Development of automatic measurement system Operation Manual (this book) Programming Manual Corresponding Chapter Chapter 2, “Installation Guide” Chapter 3, “Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement” Chapter 4, “Basic Operations for Dielectric Measurement” Chapter 5, “Basic Operations for Magnetic Measurement” Chapter 2, “Function Overview,” on page 21 Chapter 3, “Setting Measurement Conditions,” on page 41 Chapter 4, “Calibration and Compensation,” on page 75 Chapter 5, “Display Setting,” on page 95 Appendix B, “Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010),” on page 321 Appendix C, “Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007),” on page 333 Chapter 6, “Analysis of Measurement Results,” on page 127 Chapter 7, “Saving and Recalling Internal Data,” on page 165 Chapter 8, “Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data,” on page 185 Chapter 9, “Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions,” on page 193 Chapter 10, “Using LAN,” on page 215 All chapters 20 Chapter 1 2. Function Overview 2 Function Overview This chapter describes the functions of the Agilent E4991A Impedance/Material Analyzer available to the user from the front panel, rear panel, and LCD display blocks. 21 Function Overview Names and Functions of Front Panel Blocks Figure 2-1 Names and Functions of Front Panel Blocks The names and functions of the E4991A front panel blocks are shown below. E4991A front panel 2. 3.5" built-in floppy disk drive 3. Color LCD display 4. Measurement block 5. Stimulus block 6. Entry/navigation block 1. Standby switch 22 8. Utility 9. Test head interface 7. System block Chapter 2 NOTE NOTE Function Overview Names and Functions of Front Panel Blocks 1. Standby switch Used to turn on/off the power to the E4991A. To turn off the power to the E4991A, be sure to press this power supply switch. Alternatively, activate the E4991A shutdown process (i.e., software and hardware process required to turn off the power) by sending a shutdown command from the external controller. You must never directly shut off the power supply by removing the power cable from the receptacle on the rear panel. If the power supply is directly shut off by removing the power cable, the shutdown process is not activated, and this may damage the E4991A software and hardware, resulting in operational failures. If the E4991A shutdown process is not properly executed, the E4991A may restart in safe mode. If this happens, activate the shutdown process to turn off the power to the E4991A and then press the standby switch to turn the power on again. For turning on/off the power, also refer to Chapter 1, “Installation Guide” in the Installation and Quick Start Guide. 2. 3.5-inch built-in floppy disk drive This device is used to save the E4991A settings, measured data, calibration/compensation data, image data displayed on the LCD display, VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) programs, and other data to a floppy disk or to recall them. It works with 3.5-inch 1.44 MB DOS formatted floppy disks. The floppy disk access lamp is located to the left of the disk slot. It lights up in green when the floppy disk drive accesses the disk by either read or write operation. The disk eject button is located to the right of the disk slot. By pressing it, the currently inserted disk can be ejected. Insert the floppy disk into the slot in the direction of the arrow denoted on the disk, with the labeled side facing the LCD display. Do not press the disk eject button while the floppy disk access lamp is lit. If you attempt to forcibly eject the disk, the disk or drive may be destroyed. 3. Color LCD display This displays all of the information required to operate the E4991A (e.g., measurement trace, settings, menu and setup bars). It is an 8.4-inch TFT type display. For details on the information displayed on the LCD display, see “Names and Functions of LCD Display Areas” on page 32. 4. Measurement block (MEASUREMENT) This contains a set of keys that are used to set the basic measurement conditions, except for the test signal settings. Pressing one of these keys brings up the associated toolbar to the right of the display. Chapter 2 23 2. Function Overview Function Overview Names and Functions of Front Panel Blocks key key key key key key Used to select the desired trace to set (i.e., active trace). Each time you press this key, one of the active traces on the display is selected in order. When setting the measurement conditions, you must first use this key to select the active trace. Used to show the Meas/Format toolbar at the right of the display. By working with this toolbar, you can select measurement parameters, set the vertical-axis form (linear or log) of a measurement graph, and perform other related tasks. Used to show the Scale toolbar at the right of the display. By working with this toolbar, you can set the scale of a measurement graph (e.g. total width, position of reference line). Used to show the Display toolbar at the right of the display. By working with this toolbar, you can set the general settings of the view on the display, except for the vertical-axis form of a measurement graph and scale settings. Used to show the Marker toolbar at the right of the display. By working with this toolbar, you can set the basic settings of the marker, which is a small inverted delta symbol(∇). By using the marker, various measurement trace parameters can be read at specified values. Used to show the Marker Fctn (function) toolbar at the right of the display. By working with this toolbar, you can set the E4991A to run an analysis (search) with the marker. 5. Stimulus block (STIMULUS) This contains a set of keys that are used to set the signal source. Pressing one of these keys causes the associated toolbar to be recalled at the right of the display. key key key Used to show the Start/Stop toolbar at the right of the display. By working with this toolbar, you can define the sweep span by setting a pair consisting of either a sweep start and sweep stop value or of a sweep center and sweep span value. Used to show the Sweep Setup toolbar at the right of the display. By working with this toolbar, you can set the sweep conditions such as selection of sweep parameters and linear/log sweep. Used to show the Source toolbar at the right of the display. By working with this toolbar, you can set the oscillator level, CW frequency, DC bias level, and other values. 24 Chapter 2 2. Function Overview Function Overview Names and Functions of Front Panel Blocks key key key Used to show the Cal/Compen toolbar at the right of the display. By working with this toolbar, you can set up and execute calibration and compensation. Manual trigger key. If you press this in the manual trigger mode, the trigger is activated, initiating a measurement. Used to show the Trigger Setup toolbar at the right of the display. By working with this toolbar, you can set trigger settings such as the parameters for the trigger source (internal, external, manual, or GPIB). 6. Entry/navigation block (ENTRY/NAVIGATION) This contains a set of keys that are used to move the cursor across the display or enter numeric values. (rotary knob) key (arrow keys) key (click key) ... key (numeric keys) key key (unit keys) By turning the knob clockwise or counterclockwise, you can move the onscreen setting cursor. If you press this knob with the cursor placed over a feature, it is selected and executed. Used to move the onscreen setting cursor up, down, left, or right. By pressing this key, you can select and execute the feature that the cursor is placed over. It has the same function as pressing the rotary knob. Used to type numeric values, one by one, in the cursor position. By pressing a unit key after entering a value, the value and unit are set and executed. When you press this key in an area where numeric values are typed, the character to the left of the cursor (|) is deleted. If two or more characters are currently selected (i.e., highlighted) with the cursor, pressing this key clears all of them. If the numeric entry area contains no characters, input and deletion of ‘-’ repeats each time you press this key. By pressing one of these keys after entering a numeric value with the numeric keys, the entry is set and executed with the prefix indicating unit of measurement added to the value. Two unit prefixes are labeled on each key except ; however, the appropriate unit is determined automatically depending on the parameter being set. If you press the key, the entered value is executed without a unit prefix. Chapter 2 25 NOTE Function Overview Names and Functions of Front Panel Blocks key key key Used to close the setup toolbar at the right of the display. Also, by pressing this key when a dialog box is onscreen, you can cancel any entry mode and the box closes (i.e., this key can be used instead of pressing the Cancel or x button in a dialog box). When you press this key when a dialog box is onscreen, the entered setting is executed and the box closes. This key can also be used instead of pressing the OK button in a dialog box. By pressing this key, the leftmost menu opens in the menu bar at the top of the display. Then, the arrow keys ( ) can be used to move the cursor to other menus or to the desired item in a menu. Pressing the click key ( ) selects and executes the item. The key is used to work with the menu bar when a mouse is not available. To close an open menu, press the key again. 7. System block (SYSTEM) This contains a set of keys that are used to set the control and management of the entire E4991A unit and to save/recall and preset (initialize) files. key key key Used to show the System Setup toolbar. By working with this toolbar, you can make control and management settings for the entire E4991A unit. Used to show the Save/Recall toolbar. By working with this toolbar, you can save the E4991A settings, measured data, calibration/compensation data, image data displayed on the LCD display, and VBA programs in the E4991A storage devices (e.g., floppy disk, nonvolatile memory) or recall them from storage. Initializes the E4991A to the “Preset State” status. 8. Utility key ( key) Used to show the Utility toolbar. By working with this toolbar, you can edit and execute VBA programs or set the E4991A to run an equivalent circuit analysis. 9. Test head interface (TEST HEAD INTERFACE) This is the interface used to connect the test head. It contains three ports: RF OUT and PORTs 1 and 2, each of which is an N-type female connector. You must not apply either alternate or direct current to the test head interface. Doing this could cause operational failure. 26 Chapter 2 2. Function Overview Figure 2-2 Function Overview Names and Functions of Front Panel Blocks Test head The test head’s DUT port (Figure 2-2) is classified as IEC61010-1 Installation Category I. Test head connected to the E4991A and its DUT port CAUTION CAUTION You must not apply either alternate or direct current to the DUT port. Doing this could cause operational failure. Pay particular attention to whether the capacitor has been charged. Fully discharge the device under test before connecting it to the test head DUT port (or test fixture). Whenever you connect a DUT to or disconnect it from the DUT port for measurement, you must first turn off the dc bias or set the sweep to the hold state (in sweep hold state, dc bias is not applied to the DUT). If this step is not taken, the dc bias may destroy the DUT. Chapter 2 27 Figure 2-3 Function Overview Names and Functions of Rear Panel Blocks Names and Functions of Rear Panel Blocks The names and functions of the E4991A rear panel blocks are shown below. E4991A Rear Panel 28 Chapter 2 NOTE Function Overview Names and Functions of Rear Panel Blocks 1. Power cable receptacle (-LINE) This is the receptacle for connection of the power cable. For the requirements of the power supply, refer to Chapter 1, “Installation Guide” in the Installation and Quick Start Guide. For the power cable, use the attached 3-wire power cable with grounding prong. For details, refer to Chapter 1, “Installation Guide” in the Installation and Quick Start Guide. 2. LAN port Connector type: RJ-45J UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) LAN connector Using this port, the E4991A can be connected to a Local Area Network (LAN). For how to use the instrument in a LAN, refer to the Programming Manual. 3. Printer parallel port (PRINTER, Parallel) This is a 25-pin parallel port used for connecting a printer. With the specified printer connected to this port, you can print E4991A measurement graphs, measurement values list, settings list, and other data. For the printers that can be used with the E4991A, see “Supported Printers” on page 187. 4. External trigger input connector (Ext Trig) Connector type: BNC connector (female) This is the terminal through which a trigger signal is input to begin execution of measurement. It detects a trigger by the rising or falling edge following the Low or High level of a TTL-compatible signal. To trigger measurement with a signal input to this terminal, you must set the trigger source to EXTERNAL (external trigger input connector). For details of the input signal requirements of this terminal, see “External trigger input connector” on page 256. 5. External monitor output terminal (VIDEO) Connector type: 15-pin VGA connector This is the terminal used for connecting an external color monitor (display device). With a color monitor connected to this terminal, the same information that is displayed on the E4991A LCD display can be viewed on the monitor screen. 6. GPIB connector This is a General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB) connector. An auto-measurement system can be constructed by connecting an external controller or other equipment via this connector. For more details on auto-measurement systems that utilize a GPIB, refer to the Programming Manual. 7. High stability frequency reference output connector (Ref Oven, Option 1D5 only) Connector type: BNC connector (male) Chapter 2 29 2. Function Overview NOTE NOTE NOTE Function Overview Names and Functions of Rear Panel Blocks If Option 1D5 High Stability Frequency Reference is installed in the E4991A, this terminal outputs the reference signal. When Option 1D5 is installed, connect this terminal and “8. External reference signal input terminal (Ext Ref In, 10 MHz 0 dBm)” to the option by using the included BNC(m)-BNC(m) cable. 8. External reference signal input terminal (Ext Ref In, 10 MHz 0 dBm) Connector type: BNC connector (male) This is a signal input terminal used to phase-lock the E4991A test signal to an external frequency reference signal. The accuracy of test signal frequency can be improved by inputting the external frequency reference signal to this terminal. When the external frequency reference signal is input to this input terminal, the E4991A test signal is automatically phase-locked to its reference signal. When the signal input is no longer generated, the frequency reference signal in the E4991A is automatically used instead. If option 1D5 has been installed, connect this terminal and “7. High stability frequency reference output connector (Ref Oven, Option 1D5 only)” to the option by using the included BNC(m)-BNC(m) cable. 9. Internal reference signal output connector (Int Ref Out) Connector type: BNC connector (male) This is an output terminal for the E4991A internal reference signal. By connecting this terminal and the external reference signal input terminal of other equipment, it can be used by phase-locking it with the E4991A reference signal. 10. Unused ports (Reserved) These ports are not available. Do not connect any device here. 11. Rear USB port This is a USB (Universal Serial Bus) port (number of ports: 2) used to connect a mouse, a USB/GPIB interface, or a printer Using a mouse, you can efficiently make various settings by freely moving the cursor across the E4991A LCD display. With the specified printer connected to this port, you can print E4991A measurement graphs, measurement value lists, settings lists, and other data. For the printers that can be used with the E4991A, see ÅgPrinting Measurement Graphs and Internal Data ListsÅh on page xxx. Be sure to only use a mouse, a USB/GPIB interface, or a printer designated for use with the E4991A. Using a mouse other than those designated may cause incorrect actions to occur. 12. Mini-DIN mouse port (MOUSE) This is a port used to connect a mouse equipped with a Mini-Din connector. Using a 30 Chapter 2 2. Function Overview NOTE NOTE Function Overview Names and Functions of Rear Panel Blocks mouse, you can efficiently make various settings by freely moving the cursor across the E4991A LCD display. Use of a mouse other than the one specified for use with the E4991A may lead to operation error. Be sure to only use the mouse provided by Agilent Technologies. The mouse has two buttons: left and right, which operate in a different manner. As used in this manual, the term “clicking with the mouse” indicates pressing the left mouse button. 13. Mini-Din keyboard port (KYBD) This port is used to connect a Mini-DIN style keyboard. Because alphabetic characters and symbols directed to the E4991A can be input only through a keyboard, you will need it for such tasks as editing a VBA program or typing a file name. The arrow and numeric keys on the keyboard operate in the same manner as those on the E4991A front panel. Thus, you can use the keyboard for cursor navigation instead of operating the front panel or mouse. Use of a keyboard other than the one specified for use with the E4991A may lead to operation error. Be sure to only use the keyboard provided by Agilent Technologies. 14. Serial number plate This is a plate showing the serial number, i.e., the production number of the product. 15. Unused ports (Reserved) These two ports are not available. Chapter 2 31 Figure 2-4 Function Overview Names and Functions of LCD Display Areas Names and Functions of LCD Display Areas The names and functions of the areas of the LCD display are shown below. LCD display 1. Title bar This displays the title that the user defines and enters. This is useful when printing and saving the onscreen measurement results. 2. Menu bar You can make most settings for the E4991A by working with this menu bar in any or all of the following ways: o Using the mouse connected to the E4991A, click a menu name on the menu bar. In the menu that appears, select the desired menu item by clicking with the mouse. o Press the key in the “6. Entry/navigation block (ENTRY/NAVIGATION)” on page 25 on the front panel. The leftmost menu of the menu bar opens. Using the 32 Chapter 2 Function Overview Names and Functions of LCD Display Areas appropriate arrow keys ( menu item. Then press the click key ( ), move the cursor to the desired menu and ) to select and execute the item. To dismiss the currently open menu, press the key again. o While holding down the key on the keyboard connected to the E4991A, type the alphabetic character underlined in the desired menu name to open the menu. In the menu that appears, select the desired menu item by typing the underlined character in the same manner. You do not need to press the key after making a selection in this way. Once a menu opens, you can use the following operations instead of the above. First, use the appropriate arrow keys ( ) on the keyboard to move the cursor up, down, left, or right over the menus. Then press the key on the keyboard to select and execute the desired item. 2. Function Overview Chapter 2 33 Function Overview Names and Functions of LCD Display Areas Summary of working with the menu bar Operation Front panel External device Other keys Keyboard Mouse (Rotary knob) (Arrow keys) Open the menu on (Disabled) the menu bar (Disabled) Press (to open the menu at the far left) Press and an alphabetic character key*1 together Click the desired menu name on the menu bar (to open the menu) Dismiss the menu bar without execution (Disabled) (Disabled) Press Press Click the menu name on the currently open menu bar Move to the next menu on the left (Disabled) Press (Disabled) Press Move the pointer to the desired menu name on the menu bar Move to the next (Disabled) menu on the right Press (Disabled) Press Move the pointer to the desired menu name on the menu bar Move the cursor up in a menu (Disabled) Press (Disabled) Press or an alphabetic character key*1*2 Move the pointer to the desired menu name on the menu bar Move the cursor down in a menu (Disabled) Press (Disabled) Press or an alphabetic character key*1*2 Move the pointer to the desired menu name on the menu bar Select an execute the menu item in the cursor position (Disabled) Press (Disabled) Press Click the menu item name *1.The alphabetic character underlined in the menu or menu item name. *2.When you press an alphabetic character key, the menu or menu item is selected or executed without pressing . 3. Marker values This displays values at the marker position (∇) on the onscreen active trace. Marker sweep parameter value (in this example, 100 MHz) Displays the value of the sweep parameter in the marker position (in this example, frequency). In this example, displays the numeric value that represents the position on the horizontal axis. 34 Chapter 2 2. Function Overview Figure 2-5 Function Overview Names and Functions of LCD Display Areas Marker measurement parameter value (in this example, 11.4638 Ω) Displays the value of the measurement parameter in the marker position (in this example, |Z| value). In this example, displays the numeric value that represents the position on the vertical axis. 4. Setup toolbar This is a vertical toolbar used to make various settings for the E4991A. Recalling the desired setup toolbar You can recall the desired toolbar in any of the following ways: o Press one of the following hardkeys to show the setup toolbar associated with that key: • Keys in “4. Measurement block (MEASUREMENT)” on page 23 (except for ) • Keys in “5. Stimulus block (STIMULUS)” on page 24 (except for ) • Keys in “7. System block (SYSTEM)” on page 26 (except for ) • o Work with the “2. Menu bar” on page 32 to show the setup toolbar associated with a menu item. o Right-click to open the shortcut menu (Figure 2-5) and click the desired setup toolbar name. Shortcut menu Figure 2-6 You can also bring up the marker shortcut menu (Figure 2-6) by right-clicking a marker (∇) on the display. Marker shortcut menu Chapter 2 35 Function Overview Names and Functions of LCD Display Areas Working with the setup toolbar You can work with a displayed toolbar in any of the following ways: o Using the mouse connected to the E4991A, directly click the setting item on the setup toolbar. o Move the cursor to the desired block in the toolbar by using the Up and Down arrow keys ( ) in the entry/navigation block on the front panel. Then press the click key ( ) for selection and execution. Instead of pressing the and keys, you can turn the rotary knob ( ) counterclockwise or clockwise to achieve the same result. Instead of the click key ( ), you can press the rotary knob ( ) for selection and execution. To move the cursor over the blocks in a toolbar, use the keys. o Move the cursor down to the desired block in a toolbar by pressing (or move the cursor up by holding downç and pressing ) on the keyboard connected to the E4991A. Then press the key for selection and execution. To open a drop-down list box, hold down while pressing .and then choose an item from the drop-down list box by releasing and using and . Summary of working with the setup toolbar Operation Front panel (Rotary knob) Display the desired (Disabled) setup toolbar Other keys (Arrow keys) Work with the menu bar*1 in combination with the key (disabled alone) Press one of the following: External device Keyboard Mouse Work with the menu bar*1 Work with the menu bar*1 Dismiss the setup toolbar (Disabled) (Disabled) Press Press Right-click to open the shortcut menu and press Toolbar Off 36 Chapter 2 2. Function Overview Function Overview Names and Functions of LCD Display Areas Operation Front panel (Rotary knob) In the toolbar, move the cursor down the blocks In the toolbar, move the cursor up the blocks Turn counterclockwise Turn clockwise (Arrow keys) Press Press Other keys (Disabled) (Disabled) External device Keyboard Mouse Press Press and hold downç and then press Directly click the desired setting area in the toolbar Directly click the desired setting area in the toolbar Open a drop-down Press list box Press (Disabled) Press and hold down and then press Directly click the drop-down list box Move the cursor in a drop-down list box Enter numeric values Turn counterclockwise or clockwise (Disabled) Press or (Disabled) (Disabled) Press ... Execute numeric data entry with the unit added (Disabled) (Disabled) Press , , or (executed) Increase/Decrease the entered numeric values Enter characters Enter and select Press and turn clockwise or counterclockwise (Disabled) Press Press and then press or Work with the Keyboard dialog box displayed by the Keyboard... button (Disabled) (Disabled) Press Press *1.For working with the menu bar, see “2. Menu bar” on page 32. Press or Directly click the desired menu item (to select/execute) Press .. Right-click the . entry box to open the numeric entry dialog box and click the desired buttons Type the unit and press (executed) Right-click the entry box to open the numeric entry dialog box and click the desired buttons Press or Click s or t to the right of the entry box Press Press Work with the Keyboard dialog box displayed by the Keyboard... button Select/execute by clicking the setting area Chapter 2 37 Function Overview Names and Functions of LCD Display Areas 5. Trace 1 This is one of the traces that can be displayed simultaneously on the E4991A. The bar indicating the trace and scale colors of Trace 1 as well as the measurement parameter names and their units (in this example, |Z| [Ω]) are displayed in the upper-left corner of the graph. The asterisk (“*”) to the left of the trace number (1 for this trace) indicates that the trace is the active trace (target trace for setups). One of the traces on the screen must be the active trace, and any changes to the trace setup are executed for the active trace. The active trace is changed in sequential order by pressing the key of “4. Measurement block (MEASUREMENT)” on page 23. 6. Trace 2 This is one of the traces that can be displayed simultaneously on the E4991A. The bar indicating the trace and scale colors of Trace 2 as well as the measurement parameter names and their units (in this example, θz [°]) are displayed in the upper-middle area. 7. Markers These are used to read the values on a trace as numeric values. The value at each marker position is displayed in the “3. Marker values” on page 34. 8. Scale reference line value This displays the value of the scale reference line, which is a horizontal dotted line displayed in the same color as the corresponding trace. 9. Trace 1 axis This displays the axis and scale of Trace 1. 10. Sweep start value This displays the current sweep start value. 11. Sweep stop value This displays the current sweep stop value. 12. Trace 2 axis This displays the axis and scale of Trace 2. 38 Chapter 2 2. Function Overview Function Overview Names and Functions of LCD Display Areas 13. Status bar This displays the E4991A status information that is critical for the instrument’s operation. Indicator Bias OFF Bias ON Bias Lmt Uncal Cal Fix Cal FixR Cal User Comp OFF Comp ON Del xxx Avg xx Hold Manual External GPIB Bus ExtRef Svc Description dc bias is not being applied. dc bias is being applied. dc bias output is clamped to the current or voltage limit. Calibration is off. Calibration is on in fixed frequency/fixed power point mode. Calibration is on in fixed frequency/user-defined power point mode. Calibration is on in user-defined frequency/user-defined power point mode. Compensation is off. Compensation is on. Fixture electrical length compensation is applied. (A numeric value was set for the electrical length of the test fixture.) xxx represents the currently entered electrical length value in meters. For example, Del 10m indicates that the fixture’s electrical length is set to 10 millimeters. The point averaging factor is set to xx. The trigger is on hold. Waiting for manual trigger. Waiting for external trigger. Waiting for GPIB trigger (trigger command). The “8. External reference signal input terminal (Ext Ref In, 10 MHz 0 dBm)” on page 30, and the E4991A test signal are phase-locked to a reference signal. The E4991A is in the service mode. Because this mode is designed for use in self-diagnosis or repair of the E4991A, the measurement performance guaranteed in the specification is not obtained. If this indicator is on in the usual operation mode, the E4991A may have experienced at failure. After executing a diagnostic operation, Svc will appear on the display. You must shutdown and restart the E4991A before making measurements. Chapter 2 39 Function Overview Names and Functions of LCD Display Areas Indicator Ovld Description An overload occurred in the measurement circuit. One or more measurement values are invalid. This indicator goes on when the device under test is removed or installed during measurement. 40 Chapter 2 3. Setting Measurement Conditions 3 Setting Measurement Conditions This chapter describes the method used to set up the measurement conditions (test signal and sweep) for the Agilent E4991A impedance/material analyzer. 41 Setting Measurement Conditions Initialization of E4991A (presetting) Initialization of E4991A (presetting) The E4991A has an initialization state called the “Preset State.” It is always possible to return the E4991A to its preset state by taking one of the following actions: • Right-click to open the shortcut menu, and click Preset-Execute. • Click System-Preset from the menu bar. • Press in the SYSTEM block on the front panel. For more details on the E4991A’s initial settings, including the preset state, refer to Chapter G, “Initial Settings,” on page 439. 42 Chapter 3 Setting Measurement Conditions Setting Material Measurement Parameter (Option 002 only) Setting Material Measurement Parameter (Option 002 only) When you take a material measurement (permittivity or permeability measurement) with the E4991A and “Option 002 material measurement,” the following setups must first be completed. Procedure Step 1. Select the type of material measurement a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Utility (or press ). b. Click the Material Option Menu button. c. Click to open the Material Type box and click on the material measurement type. Material Type Box Impedance Permittivity Permeability Material Measurement Type Impedance measurement (measurement of general impedance parameters except for permittivity and permeability). Permittivity measurement Permeability measurement Step 2. Enter material dimensions Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the setting box described below (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block key of the front panel), enter the necessary material dimensions: Material Dimension Setting Box Thickness Height Inner Diameter Outer Diameter Value to Enter Thickness of dielectric material t [m] (see Figure 3-1) Height of magnetic material h [m] (see Figure 3-2) Inner diameter of magnetic material b [m] (see Figure 3-2) Outer diameter of magnetic material c [m] (see Figure 3-2) 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Chapter 3 43 Figure 3-1 Setting Measurement Conditions Setting Material Measurement Parameter (Option 002 only) Material shape parameter for dielectric material Figure 3-2 Material shape parameter for magnetic material 44 Chapter 3 NOTE Setting Measurement Conditions Selection and Confirmation of Target Trace (Active Trace) Selection and Confirmation of Target Trace (Active Trace) It is necessary to first select a target trace to set among the multiple traces shown on the display. This target trace is referred to as the “Active Trace.” Selecting Active Trace You can select the active trace by taking any of the following actions: • In the split display mode, click inside the window frame of the trace you want to activate. • In a overlay display mode, click the name area of the measurement parameter (e.g. 2: θz [°]) or click the measurement value axis (vertical axis) of the trace you want to activate. If you place the cursor in this area, it will change from to . • Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Trace-Scaler # or Trace-Complex # (# indicates trace number). • Click Trace-Scaler # or Trace-Complex # (# indicates trace number) from the menu bar. • Press in the MEASUREMENT-block on the front panel (each press changes the active trace in sequential order. Identifying Active Trace The selected active trace can be identified in the following ways: • An asterisk (“*”) appears to the left of the name area of the active trace’s measurement parameter (e.g. 2: θz [°]). • The active trace’s number is indicated in a window at the top of five setup toolbars: Meas/Format, Scale, Display, Marker, Marker Function. • The active trace is indicated together with its number in the title area (at the top of the display) in the preset state. An operation done in a setup tool bar where the active trace number is not displayed shall be executed not for a particular trace but commonly for all traces on the display. 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Chapter 3 45 Setting Measurement Conditions Selecting Sweep Parameter NOTE Selecting Sweep Parameter The sweep parameter of the source can be selected from among frequency, source power (level), dc bias voltage and current. Option 001 must be installed to sweep by dc bias voltage or current. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Sweep Setup (or press ). Step 2. Click and open the Sweep Parameter box and click to select the sweep parameter. Sweep Parameter box Frequency Power Bias Voltage Bias Current Sweep Parameter Frequency Source power (level) dc bias voltage (option 001 only) dc bias current (option 001 only) 46 Chapter 3 Setting Measurement Conditions Using Time as Sweep Parameter (Zero Span Sweep) NOTE Using Time as Sweep Parameter (Zero Span Sweep) Measurement using time as the sweep parameter can be executed by setting the sweep parameter to zero. This sweep is called Zero Span sweep. Procedure Step 1. Set the sweep span to zero: a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Start/Stop (or press ). b. Using the numeric entry dialog box by right-clicking inside the Span box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter zero as the sweep span value. Step 2. Set sweep time: a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu, and click Sweep Setup (or press ). b. Click the Sweep Time button. c. Using the numeric entry dialog box by right-clicking inside the Sweep Time box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter the sweep time (i.e., sweep span in the time sweep). If the number of measurement points is set to the maximum value (801), the sweep time can be set up to 16,080 second (approximately 4.5 hours). 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Chapter 3 47 Setting Measurement Conditions Selecting Sweep Type (Linear/Log/Segment) NOTE Selecting Sweep Type (Linear/Log/Segment) You can select the sweep type by following the procedure below. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Sweep Setup (or press ). Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click to select the Sweep Type box. Sweep Type Box Linear Log Segment Sweep Type Linear sweep Log sweep Segment sweep When the oscillator level (power) or dc bias has already been selected as a sweep parameter, the sweep type is fixed to linear sweep and cannot be changed. For more details on selecting the sweep parameter, see “Selecting Sweep Parameter” on page 46. If the segment sweep table has not been prepared, the segment sweep cannot be selected (when the segment sweep table has been not prepared, the Segment is not displayed, even if the Sweep Type box is opened). For more details on preparing the segment sweep table, see “Sweeping a Plural Number of Sweep Areas under Different Conditions at One Time (Segment Sweep)” on page 66. 48 Chapter 3 Setting Measurement Conditions Selecting Sweep Direction Selecting Sweep Direction The characteristics of a device under test (DUT) having the hysteresis feature for sweep parameter can be observed from the appropriate sweep direction. You can select the sweep direction by following the procedure below. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Sweep Setup (or press ). Step 2. Click the Sweep Direction button and select the Sweep Direction. Sweep Direction Button Sweep Direction [Up] Sweep Direction [Down] Sweep Direction Setup Upward (in the direction from sweep start value to sweep stop value) Downward (in the direction from sweep stop value to sweep start value) 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Chapter 3 49 Figure 3-3 Setting Measurement Conditions Measurement Waiting Time/Sweep Time Setting Measurement Waiting Time/Sweep Time Setting A time delay can be set for the period after the sweep is triggered but before the actual sweep starts (sweep delay). Furthermore, a time delay can also be set for the period after a signal is applied to a DUT but before actual measurement starts (point delay). This function is useful, for example, when a certain period is required before the characteristics of the DUT can become stable after a signal is applied. Another application of this function is to observe the changes in a DUT’s impedance over time for a long span. Figure 3-3 shows the definitions of sweep time, sweep delay time, point delay time, and segment delay time. Definition of measurement waiting time 50 Chapter 3 NOTE Setting Measurement Conditions Measurement Waiting Time/Sweep Time Setting Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click the Sweep Setup (or press ). Step 2. Click the Sweep Setup button. Step 3. Using the numeric entry dialog box by right-clicking inside the Sweep Time box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block key on the front panel), enter the sweep or delay time. Sweep Time Setting Box Sweep Time Point Delay Segment Delay Sweep Delay Input Value Sweep time (time period for an entire sweep) Point delay time (time delay for each measurement point) Segment delay time (time delay for each segment). Sweep delay time (time delay for each sweep). Setting the time period for an entire sweep (Sweep Time) makes it possible to automatically set equal time delays at a measurement point (Point Delay). When the measurement point delay time (Point Delay), segment delay time (Segment Delay), or sweep delay time (Sweep Delay) is changed, the sweep time (Sweep Time) setting is automatically changed. Segment delay time is only effective when the sweep type is set to segment sweep. For details on segment sweep, refer to “Sweeping a Plural Number of Sweep Areas under Different Conditions at One Time (Segment Sweep)” on page 66. 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Chapter 3 51 Figure 3-4 Setting Measurement Conditions Setting Sweep Range Setting Sweep Range There are two ways to set the sweep area. One is setting according to the start and stop values, and the other is setting according to the center and span values. Sweep Area Setting Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Start/Stop (or press ). Step 2. When setting the sweep area according to Start/Stop values, change the values in the Start box and Stop box in the tool bar. When setting the sweep area according to Center/Span values, change the values in the Center box and Span box in tool bar. Sweep Area Setting Box Start Stop Center Span Input Value Sweep start value. Sweep stop value. Sweep center value. Sweep span value. You can use any of the following methods to change the value in the box: • Right-click in the box and enter the set value by clicking the numerical and unit buttons that appear. • Click the up or down (s or t) button to increase or decease the sweep area setting value. • After all character strings in a box have been selected (displayed in reverse), press the keys in the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block to enter the sweep area setting value. To set up the sweep start value of 100 MHz, for example, press box one-by-one. in the Start 52 Chapter 3 NOTE Setting Measurement Conditions Setting Sweep Range • When all character strings in the box are selected (displayed in reverse), place the cursor at the top of the character string by pressing or and pressing the up and down buttons or turning the rotary knob sweep area setting value. to increase and decease the • When all character strings in the box are selected (displayed in reverse), enter the sweep area setting value with the external keyboard. To enter the sweep start value of 100 MHz, for example, press (“M” should be typed as a capital letter) in the Start box and finish the entry by pressing . If you enter the sweep start and sweep stop values, the sweep center and sweep span values will be automatically calculated based on those values and displayed in their respective boxes. On the other hand, if you enter the sweep center and sweep span values, the sweep start and sweep stop values will be automatically calculated based on the entered sweep center and sweep span values and displayed in their respective boxes. You cannot set up a sweep start value that is larger than the sweep stop value. If you want to sweep from a higher to a lower value, you should first set up the sweep area from a lower to a higher value and then set the sweep direction to “[Down].” For details on setting the sweep direction, see “Selecting Sweep Direction” on page 49. 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Chapter 3 53 Setting Measurement Conditions Setting Sweep Area with Marker Setting Sweep Area with Marker You can assign the position of the active marker on a trace (stimulus value) in the same way as setting sweep start value, sweep stop value, or sweep center value. It is also possible to assign the distance between Marker R and Marker 1 (or 2 - 8), which is the difference between stimulus values, in the same way as setting sweep span value (Figure 3-5). 54 Chapter 3 Figure 3-5 Sweep Area Setting with the Marker Setting Measurement Conditions Setting Sweep Area with Marker 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Chapter 3 55 NOTE Setting Measurement Conditions Setting Sweep Area with Marker Procedure Step 1. Place the active marker on the new sweep start, sweep stop, or sweep center. To set a sweep span, place Marker R and Marker 1 (or 2-8) on the trace points corresponding to the new sweep span and set the marker delta mode to delta or fixed delta. At this time, set Marker 1 (or 2-8) to active status (marker display: ∇). For details on how to use the marker, see Chapter 6, “Analysis of Measurement Results,” on page 127. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker (or press ). Step 3. Click the Marker To Menu button. Step 4. Set the position (distance) of markers on a new sweep area by clicking any of the following buttons for assigning marker values. Button Assigning Marker Value Start Stop Center Delta To Span Sweep Area Display Mode Assign the stimulus value of the active marker as the sweep start value. As a result, the position of the marker establishes a new sweep start point. Assign the stimulus value of the active marker as the sweep stop value. As a result, the position of the marker establishes a new sweep stop point. Assign the stimulus value of the active marker as the sweep center value. As a result, the position of the marker establishes a new sweep center point. For Marker R and the active marker (one of Markers 1 to 8), the smaller marker stimulus value is assigned as the sweep start value and the larger one is assigned as the sweep stop value. As a result, the sweep range between Marker R and the active marker establishes a new sweep span. After the sweep area is changed, no trace is displayed in the new sweep area until a new measurement is taken. 56 Chapter 3 Setting Measurement Conditions Setting Number of Points (NOP) NOTE Setting Number of Points (NOP) The number of points (NOP) per sweep is set by following the procedure below. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Sweep Setup (or press ). Step 2. Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the Number Of Points box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter the number of points. Number of points can be set as an integer from 2 to 801. Number of points is set by the segment sweep table when the sweep type is segment (segment sweep). For setting the segment sweep table, see “Sweeping a Plural Number of Sweep Areas under Different Conditions at One Time (Segment Sweep)” on page 66. 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Chapter 3 57 Setting Measurement Conditions Oscillator Level Setting Oscillator Level Setting Definition of Oscillator Level Setting When oscillator is not the sweep parameter (i.e., it’s a fixed parameter), the oscillator unit can be selected from power (dBm), voltage (V) or current (A) depending on the oscillator level setting. Oscillator level units and the definition of their setting values are given below. Oscillator Level Definition of Oscillator Level Setting Value Unit (Osc Unit) Power [dBm] Voltage [V] Power level Pset is equivalent to the power level P50 consumed in the 50 Ω resistor connected to the measurement terminal (Pset = P50). Voltage value Vset is twice the value of V50 when the measurement terminal is connected to the 50 Ω resistor (Vset = V50 × 2). This value is approximately equal to the voltage when the measurement terminal is open*1. Current [A] Current value Iset is twice the value of I50 when the measurement terminal is connected to the 50 Ω resistor (Iset = I50 × 2). This value is approximately equal to the voltage when the measurement terminal is shorted*2. *1.When measuring a DUT having a value of Zx [Ω], you can calculate the voltage Vx [V] actually applied to the DUT as follows. Vx = Vset × -Z---x---Z-+--x---5---0- (Vset: Setting value of the oscillator level [V]) *2.When measuring a DUT having a value of Zx [Ω], you can calculate the current Ix [A] actually flowing into the DUT as follows. Ix = Iset × Z----x--5--+-0---5----0- (Iset: Setting value of the oscillator level [A]) The accuracies of the levels calculated by Equations *1 and *2 are as follows. 58 Chapter 3 NOTE NOTE Setting Measurement Conditions Oscillator Level Setting ± 30 +   102--A-0-- – 1 × 100 + B [%] (Typical)   A: oscillator level accuracy [dB] B: impedance measurement accuracy [%] Procedure Follow the procedure below to specify a fixed oscillator level (AC level) when the sweep parameter is any item other than oscillator level (i.e., frequency or dc bias). Step 1. Selecting oscillator level unit a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu, and click Source (or press ). b. Click and open the Osc Unit box and select the desired oscillator level unit. Osc Unit Box Power Voltage Current Oscillator Level Unit Power (dBm) Voltage (V) Current (A) The oscillator level unit that you set is used for sweeping the oscillator level and also for setting the fixed oscillator level, which is used for sweeping any parameter other than oscillator level. Step 2. Oscillator Level Setting Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the Osc Level box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter the Osc level. For example, use the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys to enter the oscillator level of −10 dBm by pressing to delete the character string in the box and then pressing . For more details on the entry area for the oscillator level and resolution, see “Specification and Reference Data.” 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Chapter 3 59 Setting Measurement Conditions Setting and Applying dc Bias Setting and Applying dc Bias Follow the procedure below to apply dc bias to the DUT. Procedure CAUTION Whenever you connect a DUT to or disconnect it from the E4991A for measurement, you must first turn off the dc bias or set the sweep to the hold state (in sweep hold state, dc bias is not applied to the DUT). If this step is not taken, the dc bias may destroy the device. Step 1. Select the dc Bias Mode: a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Source (or press ). b. Click to open the Bias Source box and then click to select the dc Bias Mode: Bias Source Box Current Voltage dc Bias Mode Current Source Voltage Source Step 2. Set the dc Bias Level Use the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the Bias Level box (or the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel) to enter the dcBias level. Step 3. Set the dc Bias Limit Use the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the Bias Limit box (or the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel) to enter the dc Bias Limit value. Step 4. Apply dc Bias a. Click the dc Bias button and turn the dc Bias on. If this operation is made during a sweep measurement, the sweep mode will automatically stop the sweep. dc Bias will not be applied after the sweep is stopped. b. Execute sweep measurement according to the operating procedures described in “Single Sweep, Continuous Sweep and Sweep Stop” on page 63. Step 5. Monitor dc Bias Level The level of dc bias applied to the DUT can be displayed by the following procedure. a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Source (or press ). b. Click the Bias Monitor button and turn the dc bias level monitor on. c. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker. Marker 1 appears on the trace and the dc bias level monitor value at the marker point is displayed at the top of the screen area. For more details on setting and using markers, refer to Chapter 6, “Analysis of Measurement Results,” on page 127. 60 Chapter 3 Setting Measurement Conditions Setting the Trigger Source To Start Sweep NOTE Setting the Trigger Source To Start Sweep Set up the signal source to execute sweep start (i.e., the trigger source) by following the procedure below. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Trigger Setup (or press ). Step 2. Click to open the Trigger Source Box and select the desired trigger source. Trigger Source Box Trigger Source Internal Internal continuous trigger generated automatically by the E4991A. Manual Manual trigger generated by clicking the Manual Trigger button on the Trigger Setup toolbar or by pressing *1. External External trigger implemented upon detecting TTL signal coming into external trigger input connector of rear panel. GPIB Bus GPIB trigger implemented by trigger command to start measurement sent via GPIB. *1.The manual trigger can also be executed by clicking Trigger-Trigger from the menu bar or by clicking Trigger from the shortcut menu displayed by pressing the right button. For more details on the characteristics of the signal for an external trigger, see “Chapter 11, “Specifications and Supplemental Information,” on page 237.” For more details on using GPIB, see Programming Manual. 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Chapter 3 61 Setting Measurement Conditions Selecting Trigger Target (Trigger Event) NOTE NOTE Selecting Trigger Target (Trigger Event) You may select the target for trigger generation (trigger event) from single sweep (sweep trigger), one-point measurement (measurement point trigger), or one-segment measurement (segment trigger). The trigger event is fixed to On Sweep and cannot be changed when Internal is selected as the trigger source in “Setting the Trigger Source To Start Sweep” on page 61. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Trigger Setup (or press ). Step 2. Click and open the Trigger Event Box and click to select the desired Trigger Event. Trigger Event List On Sweep On Point On Segment Trigger Event Sweep trigger (single sweep is made with each trigger). Measurement point trigger (one point is measured with each trigger). Segment trigger (one segment is measured with each trigger). It is necessary to prepare a segment sweep table before using a segment trigger. For more details on preparing a segment sweep table, see “Sweeping a Plural Number of Sweep Areas under Different Conditions at One Time (Segment Sweep)” on page 66. 62 Chapter 3 Setting Measurement Conditions Single Sweep, Continuous Sweep and Sweep Stop NOTE Single Sweep, Continuous Sweep and Sweep Stop You may select the type of sweep execution upon trigger generation from single sweep, continuous sweep, and sweep stop. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Trigger Setup (or press ). Step 2. Select the sweep mode by clicking one of the three buttons for sweep mode selection. Sweep Mode Selection button Hold Single Continuous Sweep Mode Sweep stop (sweep is immediately stopped and not restarted even if a trigger is generated). Single sweep (single sweep is triggered and when the sweep finishes Sweep Stop mode is invoked; if you press this button during the sweep, this sweep is stopped and a new single sweep is executed). Continuous sweep (sweep is continuously repeated by trigger generation). A check mark (√) to the left of the sweep mode selection button indicates the mode that is currently selected and executed. 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Chapter 3 63 Setting Measurement Conditions Selecting Polarity of External Trigger Input Signal Selecting Polarity of External Trigger Input Signal You can select the polarity for trigger signal detection by the external trigger input connector on the rear panel by following the procedure below. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Trigger Setup (or press ). Step 2. Click the Trigger Polarity Button and select the external trigger signal polarity. Trigger Polarity Button Positive Negative External Trigger Signal Polarity Positive polarity (detects increasing TTL signal and triggers). Negative polarity (detects decreasing TTL signal and triggers). 64 Chapter 3 Setting Measurement Conditions CW Frequency Setting NOTE CW Frequency Setting When you set the sweep parameter to one other than frequency (source level, dc bias voltage, or dc bias current), set the fixed measurement frequency (CW frequency) by following the procedure below. When the sweep parameter is set to frequency, it is not possible to set CW frequency. In order to set CW frequency, you should preset the sweep parameter to one other than frequency according to “Selecting Sweep Parameter” on page 46. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Source (or press ). Step 2. Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the CW Freq box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter the CW frequency. For example, to set the CW frequency, click 100M in the numeric entry dialog box (or press panel). one-by-one with the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Chapter 3 65 Figure 3-6 Setting Measurement Conditions Sweeping a Plural Number of Sweep Areas under Different Conditions at One Time (Segment Sweep) Sweeping a Plural Number of Sweep Areas under Different Conditions at One Time (Segment Sweep) When linear sweep or log sweep is selected as the sweep type in frequency sweep, certain measurement conditions like the point averaging factor and the oscillator level are uniform over the entire single sweep. Consequently, it is not possible to change such settings for a particular area. In segment sweep, on the other hand, a plural number of frequency areas, which are called “segments,” can be individually set by users. In this case, certain measurement conditions (i.e., number of points, point averaging factor, source unit/oscillator level, DC bias mode/level/limit) can be set for each segment, and the entire series of such segment setups can be sequentially executed as a single sweep (Figure 3-6). By using this feature, it is possible to take a sweep measurement in only the desired area and to skip the frequency areas that you do not need to measure. It is also possible to set optimal measurement conditions for each designated segment. For example, you can increase the point averaging factor and number of points for segments that require measurements with higher stability and more accurate frequency resolution (as resonance point). For segments without such stringent measurement requirements, you can set the conditions to enable high-speed measurement. Concept of Segment Sweep 66 Chapter 3 Setting Measurement Conditions Sweeping a Plural Number of Sweep Areas under Different Conditions at One Time (Segment Sweep) Procedure Step 1. Preparation of segment table a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Sweep Setup (or press ). b. Click the Segment Table Menu button. The segment sweep setup table (Figure 3-7) is displayed. Figure 3-7 Segment Sweep Setup Table 3. Setting Measurement Conditions c. Click the Add Segment button to add a new segment in the Segment Sweep Table. The default values for the first segment are listed in the columns of Chapter G, “Initial Settings,” on page 439. When the table already has segments, the last segment in the table is copied to create a new segment. d. Edit the added segment using the following buttons and boxes. Segment Sweep Setting Button/Box Start spin box Stop spin box Number Of Points spin box Point Average spin box Delete Segment button Setting Function This sets sweep start frequency of segment. This sets sweep stop frequency of segment. This sets number of points of segment. This sets point averaging factor of segment. This deletes the segment designated in the Segment No. box from the table. Chapter 3 67 NOTE Setting Measurement Conditions Sweeping a Plural Number of Sweep Areas under Different Conditions at One Time (Segment Sweep) Segment Sweep Setting Button/Box Setting Function More button This opens the toolbar showing the buttons described below. << button This returns to the toolbar showing the buttons described above. Osc Level spin box This sets source level of segment. Osc Unit list box This selects source level unit in segment sweep from among Power, Voltage and Current.*1 Bias Level spin box This sets DC bias level of segment. Bias limit spin box This sets DC bias limit of segment. Bias Source list box This selects either Voltage or Current as DC bias mode in segment sweep.*1 *1.This is a setting common to all segments (cannot be set individually for each segment). To change the numeric value in a spin box, right-click in the box to open and use the numeric entry dialog box, or use the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel. To select an item in a box, click to open the box and then click to select the item. The maximum number of segments in a table is 16. The maximum number of measurement points in the entire table is 801. e. Repeat step c and step d to complete the required segments. To modify one of the created segments, enter the segment number in the Segment No. spin box and edit the segment in accordance with step d. You can directly call up the setup box for changing an item’s value by clicking the current value in the segment table on the screen (Figure 3-7). 68 Chapter 3 Figure 3-8 Setting Measurement Conditions Sweeping a Plural Number of Sweep Areas under Different Conditions at One Time (Segment Sweep) Area to Click and Call Setup Box (Inside the Frame) 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Step 2. Selecting segment as a sweep type a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Sweep Setup (or press ). b. Click to open the Sweep Type box and then select Segment (Segment Sweep). Step 3. Setting a graph’s horizontal axis in the segment sweep Click the Segment Display button and select the appropriate setting for the graph’s horizontal axis by referring to the table below (See Figure 3-9). Segment Display Button Segment Display [Order Base] Segment Display [Freq Base] Segment Display [Log Freq Base] Graphic Horizontal Axis Display Order base (defines the horizontal axis at equal intervals in order of measurement). Frequency base (defines the horizontal axis as a linear frequency axis with the minimum frequency at the left end and the maximum frequency at the right end of the sweep table). Log frequency base (defines the horizontal axis as a log frequency axis with the minimum frequency at the left end and the maximum frequency at the right end of the sweep table). Chapter 3 69 Figure 3-9 Setting Measurement Conditions Sweeping a Plural Number of Sweep Areas under Different Conditions at One Time (Segment Sweep) Order Base Display and Frequency Base Display 70 Chapter 3 Setting Measurement Conditions Averaging Measurement Results Averaging Measurement Results Equation 3-1 Averaging Plural Sweeps (Sweep-to-Sweep Averaging) Sweep-to-sweep averaging means to average the data (vector quantities) of all points based on the index average of a continuous sweep weighed with an averaging factor designated by the user. Sweep-to-sweep averaging is performed according to Equation 3-1: Sweep-to-sweep averaging calculation formula An = S-F---n +   1 – F-1-- × An – 1 where: An = Calculation result of sweep-to-sweep averaging from n-times sweeping at the measurement point (vector quantity). Sn = Measurement value from n-times sweeping at the measurement point (vector quantity). F = Sweep-to-sweep averaging n-times. Set the sweep-to-sweep averaging by following the procedure below. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Meas/Format (or press ). Step 2. Click the Sweep Average button to turn the sweep-to-sweep averaging on. Step 3. Enter the number of times for sweep-to-sweep averaging with the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the Swp Avg Count box or with the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel. For example, to set the sweep-to-sweep averaging number of times to 8, click 8 and Enter in the numeric entry dialog box (or press using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel). Figure 3-10 Displaying Sweep-to-Sweep Averaging Counter 3. Setting Measurement Conditions Chapter 3 71 NOTE Setting Measurement Conditions Averaging Measurement Results You may set the number of times for sweep-to-sweep averaging in integers from 1 to 999. If you click the Sweep Average Restart button while performing sweep-to-sweep averaging, n in Equation 3-1 will be reset to 1. 72 Chapter 3 Setting Measurement Conditions Averaging Measurement Results Averaging by Each Measurement Point (Point Averaging) With point averaging, each measurement point is measured the number of times designated by the user, and the average measured vector quantity sets the value for that point. Accordingly, sweep time becomes longer in proportion to an increased number of times set for averaging. Point averaging is performed according to Equation 3-2. Equation 3-2 Point Averaging Calculation Formula M = F-1-- F  Sn n=1 where; M = Calculation result of point averaging at the measurement point (vector quantity). Sn = Measurement value from n-times sweeping at the measurement point (vector quantity). F = Point averaging n-times. Set point averaging by following the procedure below. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Sweep Setup (or press ) Step 2. Enter the number of times for point averaging with the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the Point Avg box or with the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel. For example, to set the point averaging number of times to 8, click 8 and Enter in the numeric entry dialog box (or press using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel). Figure 3-11 Displaying Point Averaging Number 3. Setting Measurement Conditions NOTE You may set the number of times for point averaging in integers from 1 to 100. Chapter 3 73 Setting Measurement Conditions Averaging Measurement Results 74 Chapter 3 4. Calibration and Compensation 4 Calibration and Compensation It is necessary to perform calibration and compensation before using the Agilent E4991A to take measurements. 75 Calibration and Compensation Outline of Calibration and Compensation Functions Outline of Calibration and Compensation Functions Any measuring instrument, however sophisticated it may be, has a certain degree of error in actual use. The functions of calibration and compensation of the E4991A minimize possible errors and assure higher measurement accuracy. Table 4-1 Types of Calibration and Compensation The E4991A has five calibration/compensation functions as shown in Table 4-1. Calibration/Compensation Functions of E4991A Calibration/compensation functions Execution Method Effect Calibration of open/short/load All calibration data are measured by connecting three standards (open, short, and load) one-by-one to the desired reference plane (connector). This reference plane is called the calibration reference plane. The error factors within the area from the instrument body to the calibration reference plane are removed. If calibration is performed for the connector of the DUT, it is not necessary to execute any further calibration/compensation. Calibration of low-loss capacitor The calibration data are measured by connecting the low-loss capacitor to the calibration reference plane after completing the open/short/load calibration. This can only be executed when the 7-mm connector is used as the calibration reference plane. This decreases high Q (low-loss coefficient) above the frequency band near 1 GHz, which is difficult to decrease by only using open/short/load calibration. Port extension compensation*1 When the port is extended from the compensation reference plane by a coaxial cable, enter the delay time (sec.) of the extension as a numerical value and regard the corresponding extended portion as a distributed parameter circuit without loss. This compensates additional error caused by phase shift in the area of the port extended by the coaxial cable. Fixture electrical length compensation Electrical length is entered as a numerical value. Since the electrical length of an exclusive-use test fixture is registered in the E4991A, the necessary electrical length can be set by simply selecting the model number of the test fixture used. This compensates additional errors caused by phase shift at the test fixture. Compensation of open/short All compensation data are measured after bringing the tested device’s connecting terminal to the open and/or short state. This removes any additional measurement error caused by residual impedance in the test fixture. *1.Port extension compensation is not required when an Agilent text fixture is directly connected to the 7-mm terminal of the test head. 76 Chapter 4 Figure 4-1 Calibration and Compensation Outline of Calibration and Compensation Functions Calibration Reference Plane and Calibration Standard Before choosing which method of calibration and compensation to use, you must first decide where to set the calibration reference plane. The most common calibration reference plane is the 7-mm terminal plane in front of the test head. In this case, you may use open, short, load, and low-loss capacitor standards included in the calibration kit supplied with the E4991A. You may also use the terminal plane as a calibration reference plane for connecting the tested device. However, you need to use a calibration standard (working standard) that has a similar shape to the device under test. Calibration Reference Plane 4. Calibration and Compensation Chapter 4 77 Calibration and Compensation Outline of Calibration and Compensation Functions Table 4-2 Calibration Reference Plane and Necessary Calibration/Compensation Calibration Reference Plane Necessary Calibration/Compensation Place and Method of Execution 7-mm terminal for test head*1 1. Calibration for open/short/load (A) Connect the coaxial terminal calibration kit to the coaxial terminal of the test head (calibration reference plane). 2. Calibration of low-loss capacitor (This calibration is only used for such cases as high-Q measurement when high accuracy or consideration of low-loss factor is required at a frequency above approx. 1 GHz.) Connect the low-loss capacitor to the calibration reference plane.*2 3. Compensation for a fixture’s electrical length Enter this electrical length into the Agilent E4991A as data covering the area from the calibration reference plane to the tested device connecting plane.*3 4. Compensation of open/short Bring the tested device’s connecting terminal into the open and short states. Terminal for connecting to the DUT (B) Calibration of open/short/load Connect the working standard*4 to the tested device’s connecting terminal to make a calibration reference plane. *1.In extending the coaxial cable from the 7-mm terminal of test head to the test fixture, it is possible to compensate the port extension for the extended portion. For more on the port extension, see “Port Extension Compensation” on page 86. *2.Since the low-loss capacitor is the 7-mm type, this calibration can only be executed when the calibration reference plane is a 7-mm terminal. *3.When using an exclusive-use test fixture with a registered electrical length, you only need to select the model number of the fixture. *4.This is a reference device that has a similar shape to the device under test. Calibration/Compensation measurement point mode The E4991A has three modes for defining the measurement points when the calibration and compensation data are measured. User-defined frequency/User-defined power point mode Obtain calibration/compensation data at the same frequency and power points as used in actual device measurement, which are determined by the sweep setups. Each set of calibration/compensation data is applied to each measurement at the same points. Fixed frequency/fixed power point mode Obtain calibration/compensation data in a fixed frequency (Table 4-4) and power (Table 4-5) range of the E4991A. In device measurement, calibration or compensation is applied to each measurement point by using interpolation. Fixed frequency/user-defined power point mode Obtain calibration/compensation data at fixed frequency points (Table 4-4) covering the entire frequency range of the E4991A and at the same power points used in actual device 78 Chapter 4 Calibration and Compensation Outline of Calibration and Compensation Functions Table 4-3 measurement, which are determined by the sweep setups. Frequency interpolation is used to apply calibration or compensation to the device measurement. Calibration/Compensation Measurement Point Mode Calibration/Compensation Measurement Point Mode Calibration/Compensation Measurement Condition Frequency Power Number of measurement points Advantages Disadvantages User-defined frequency / User-defined power point mode (User Freq&Pwr) Frequency points determined by sweep setups Power points determined by sweep setups Same as the number of sweep measurement points (NOP) The most accurate DUT measurement can be performed. Fixed frequency / Fixed power point mode (Fixed Freq&Pwr) 372 Preset points (Table 4-4) 372 Preset points (Table 4-5) 372 × 3 = 1116 points Not necessary to retake the calibration/ compensation data even if the measurement points are changed. Fixed frequency / User-defined power point mode*1 (FixedFreq, UserPwr) 372 Preset points (Table 4-4) Power points determined by sweep setups 372 points Not necessary to retake the calibration/ compensation data if the frequency points are changed. *1.This mode can be selected only when the sweep parameter is set to frequency. Need to retake the calibration/ compensation data if measurement points (frequency and/or power) are changed. Takes longer time to complete calibration/ compensation data measurement due to large number of measurement points. 4. Calibration and Compensation Chapter 4 79 Table 4-4 Table 4-5 Calibration and Compensation Outline of Calibration and Compensation Functions Fixed Frequency Points for Calibration/Compensation Data Measurement (total 372 points) 1.00 MHz, 1.03 MHz, 1.06 MHz, 1.09 MHz, 1.12 MHz, 1.15 MHz, 1.18 MHz, 1.21 MHz, 1.24 MHz, 1.26 MHz, 1.29 MHz, 1.32 MHz, 1.35 MHz, 1.38 MHz, 1.41 MHz, 1.44 MHz, 1.47 MHz, 1.50 MHz, 1.55 MHz, 1.60 MHz, 1.65 MHz, 1.70 MHz, 1.75 MHz, 1.80 MHz, 1.85 MHz, 1.90 MHz, 1.95 MHz, 2.00 MHz, 2.10 MHz, 2.20 MHz, 2.30 MHz, 2.40 MHz, 2.50 MHz, 2.60 MHz, 2.80 MHz, 3.00 MHz, 3.20 MHz, 3.40 MHz, 3.60 MHz, 3.80 MHz, 4.00 MHz, 4.30 MHz, 4.60 MHz, 5.00 MHz, 5.50 MHz, 6.00 MHz, 6.50 MHz, 7.00 MHz, 7.50 MHz, 8.00 MHz, 9.00 MHz, 10.0 MHz, 11.0 MHz, 12.0 MHz, 13.0 MHz, 14.0 MHz, 15.0 MHz, 16.0 MHz, 18.0 MHz, 20.0 MHz, 22.0 MHz, 24.0 MHz, 26.0 MHz, 28.0 MHz, 30.0 MHz, 33.0 MHz, 36.0 MHz, 39.0 MHz, 42.0 MHz, 45.0 MHz, 48.0 MHz, 51.0 MHz, 55.0 MHz, 60.0 MHz, 65.0 MHz, 70.0 MHz, 75.0 MHz, 80.0 MHz, 85.0 MHz, 90.0 MHz, 95.0 MHz, 100 MHz, 110 MHz, 120 MHz, 130 MHz, 140 MHz, 150 MHz, 160 MHz, 170 MHz, 180 MHz, 190 MHz, 200 MHz, 210 MHz, 220 MHz, 230 MHz, 240 MHz, 250 MHz, 260 MHz, 270 MHz, 280 MHz, 290 MHz, 300 MHz, 310 MHz, 320 MHz, 330 MHz, 340 MHz, 350 MHz, 360 MHz, 370 MHz, 380 MHz, 390 MHz, 400 MHz, 410 MHz, 420 MHz, 430 MHz, 440 MHz, 450 MHz, 460 MHz, 470 MHz, 480 MHz, 490 MHz, 500 MHz, 510 MHz, 520 MHz, 530 MHz, 540 MHz, 550 MHz, 560 MHz, 570 MHz, 580 MHz, 590 MHz, 600 MHz, 610 MHz, 620 MHz, 630 MHz, 640 MHz, 650 MHz, 660 MHz, 670 MHz, 680 MHz, 690 MHz, 700 MHz, 710 MHz, 720 MHz, 730 MHz, 740 MHz, 750 MHz, 760 MHz, 770 MHz, 780 MHz, 790 MHz, 800 MHz, 810 MHz, 820 MHz, 830 MHz, 840 MHz, 850 MHz, 860 MHz, 870 MHz, 880 MHz, 890 MHz, 900 MHz, 910 MHz, 920 MHz, 930 MHz, 940 MHz, 950 MHz, 960 MHz, 970 MHz, 980 MHz, 990 MHz, 1.00 GHz, 1.01 GHz, 1.02 GHz, 1.03 GHz, 1.04 GHz, 1.05 GHz, 1.06 GHz, 1.07 GHz, 1.08 GHz, 1.09 GHz, 1.10 GHz, 1.11 GHz, 1.12 GHz, 1.13 GHz, 1.14 GHz, 1.15 GHz, 1.16 GHz, 1.17 GHz, 1.18 GHz, 1.19 GHz, 1.20 GHz, 1.21 GHz, 1.22 GHz, 1.23 GHz, 1.24 GHz, 1.25 GHz, 1.26 GHz, 1.27 GHz, 1.28 GHz, 1.29 GHz, 1.30 GHz, 1.31 GHz, 1.32 GHz, 1.33 GHz, 1.34 GHz, 1.35 GHz, 1.36 GHz, 1.37 GHz, 1.38 GHz, 1.39 GHz, 1.40 GHz, 1.41 GHz, 1.42 GHz, 1.43 GHz, 1.44 GHz, 1.45 GHz, 1.46 GHz, 1.47 GHz, 1.48 GHz, 1.49 GHz, 1.50 GHz, 1.51 GHz, 1.52 GHz, 1.53 GHz, 1.54 GHz, 1.55 GHz, 1.56 GHz, 1.57 GHz, 1.58 GHz, 1.59 GHz, 1.60 GHz, 1.61 GHz, 1.62 GHz, 1.63 GHz, 1.64 GHz, 1.65 GHz, 1.66 GHz, 1.67 GHz, 1.68 GHz, 1.69 GHz, 1.70 GHz, 1.71 GHz, 1.72 GHz, 1.73 GHz, 1.74 GHz, 1.75 GHz, 1.76 GHz, 1.77 GHz, 1.78 GHz, 1.79 GHz, 1.80 GHz, 1.81 GHz, 1.82 GHz, 1.83 GHz, 1.84 GHz, 1.85 GHz, 1.86 GHz, 1.87 GHz, 1.88 GHz, 1.89 GHz, 1.90 GHz, 1.91 GHz, 1.92 GHz, 1.93 GHz, 1.94 GHz, 1.95 GHz, 1.96 GHz, 1.97 GHz, 1.98 GHz, 1.99 GHz, 2.00 GHz, 2.01 GHz, 2.02 GHz, 2.03 GHz, 2.04 GHz, 2.05 GHz, 2.06 GHz, 2.07 GHz, 2.08 GHz, 2.09 GHz, 2.10 GHz, 2.11 GHz, 2.12 GHz, 2.13 GHz, 2.14 GHz, 2.15 GHz, 2.16 GHz, 2.17 GHz, 2.18 GHz, 2.19 GHz, 2.20 GHz, 2.21 GHz, 2.22 GHz, 2.23 GHz, 2.24 GHz, 2.25 GHz, 2.26 GHz, 2.27 GHz, 2.28 GHz, 2.29 GHz, 2.30 GHz, 2.31 GHz, 2.32 GHz, 2.33 GHz, 2.34 GHz, 2.35 GHz, 2.36 GHz, 2.37 GHz, 2.38 GHz, 2.39 GHz, 2.40 GHz, 2.41 GHz, 2.42 GHz, 2.43 GHz, 2.44 GHz, 2.45 GHz, 2.46 GHz, 2.47 GHz, 2.48 GHz, 2.49 GHz, 2.50 GHz, 2.51 GHz, 2.52 GHz, 2.53 GHz, 2.54 GHz, 2.55 GHz, 2.56 GHz, 2.57 GHz, 2.58 GHz, 2.59 GHz, 2.60 GHz, 2.61 GHz, 2.62 GHz, 2.63 GHz, 2.64 GHz, 2.65 GHz, 2.66 GHz, 2.67 GHz, 2.68 GHz, 2.69 GHz, 2.70 GHz, 2.71 GHz, 2.72 GHz, 2.73 GHz, 2.74 GHz, 2.75 GHz, 2.76 GHz, 2.77 GHz, 2.78 GHz, 2.79 GHz, 2.80 GHz, 2.81 GHz, 2.82 GHz, 2.83 GHz, 2.84 GHz, 2.85 GHz, 2.86 GHz, 2.87 GHz, 2.88 GHz, 2.89 GHz, 2.90 GHz, 2.91 GHz, 2.92 GHz, 2.93 GHz, 2.94 GHz, 2.95 GHz, 2.96 GHz, 2.97 GHz, 2.98 GHz, 2.99 GHz, 3.00 GHz Fixed Power Points for Calibration/Compensation Data Measurement (total 3 points) -23 dBm, -13 dBm, -3 dBm 80 Chapter 4 Figure 4-2 Calibration and Compensation Calibration and Compensation Using 7-mm Test Port as a Calibration Reference Plane Calibration and Compensation Using 7-mm Test Port as a Calibration Reference Plane In order to use the 7-mm test port as a calibration reference plane, the steps given in the procedure below need to be carried out in the order listed. Calibration and Compensation using 7-mm Test Port as Calibration Reference Plane 4. Calibration and Compensation Step 1. Definition of calibration/compensation The definitions of the calibration kit and compensation kit to be used should be changed as needed. For more on this procedure, see “Definition of Calibration/Compensation Kit” on page 91. Step 2. Open/short/load/low-loss capacitor calibration: Measure calibration data of open/short/load with the 7-mm terminal of the test head. To measure a device with high Q (low-loss factor) at a frequency higher than approx. 1 GHz, calibration of low-loss capacitor needs to be done. For more on this procedure, see “Calibration of Open/Short/Load/Low-loss Capacitor” on page 84. Step 3. Connection of test fixture Connect the test fixture in front of the 7-mm terminal. For more on the connecting method, see the fixture’s operation manual. Step 4. Fixture’s electrical length compensation The electrical length is set according to the kind of fixture used. For more on this procedure, see “Electrical Length Compensation” on page 87. Chapter 4 81 Calibration and Compensation Calibration and Compensation Using 7-mm Test Port as a Calibration Reference Plane Step 5. Open/short compensation Measure the compensation data of open/short according to the test fixture used. For more on this procedure, see “Fixture Compensation” on page 89. 82 Chapter 4 Figure 4-3 Calibration and Compensation Calibration using DUT Connecting Terminal as a Calibration Reference Plane Calibration using DUT Connecting Terminal as a Calibration Reference Plane To use the DUT connecting terminal as a calibration plane, you only need to execute calibration for open/short/load. Calibration using DUT Connecting Terminal as a Calibration Reference Plane 4. Calibration and Compensation Measure the calibration data according to the following procedure: Step 1. Definition of calibration kit The definition of the calibration kit used should be changed as needed. For more on this procedure, see “Definition of Calibration/Compensation Kit” on page 91. Step 2. Connection of test fixture Connect a test fixture in front of the 7-mm terminal. For more on the connecting method, see the fixture’s operation manual. Step 3. Open/short/load calibration Measure the calibration data of open/short/load at the DUT connection terminal (used as a calibration reference plane). For more on this procedure, see “Calibration of Open/Short/Load/Low-loss Capacitor” on page 84. (Note that low-loss capacitor calibration is not performed.) Chapter 4 83 Calibration and Compensation Calibration of Open/Short/Load/Low-loss Capacitor NOTE NOTE Calibration of Open/Short/Load/Low-loss Capacitor The calibration data of open/short/load/low-loss capacitor is measured according to the following procedure. Step 1. Selection of measurement point for calibration/compensation a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Cal/Comp (or press ). b. Click the Cal Menu button. c. Click to open the Cal Type box and select the desired calibration/ compensation measurement point mode. Cal Type Box Fixed Freq&Pwr FixedFreq, UserPwr User Freq&Pwr Calibration/Compensation Measurement Point Mode Fixed frequency/fixed power point Fixed frequency/user-defined power point User-defined frequency/user-defined power point Step 2. Measurement of open calibration data a. Connect the open standard (OS) to the terminal used as the calibration reference plane. When connecting a standard (open, short, load, low-loss capacitor) included in the E4991A calibration kit to the 7-mm terminal, firmly tighten it with the supplied torque wrench. If calibration data is measured when the standard is not adequately secured, this will degrade the repeatability of later measurements. b. Click the Meas Open button and measure the open calibration data. When you want to interrupt measurement of calibration data, click the Abort Cal Meas button shown during measurement. When the measurement of each type of calibration data is finished, a check mark (√) will appear to the left side of the corresponding calibration execution button. This mark indicates that the calibration data is stored. Step 3. Measurement of short calibration data. a. Connect the short standard (0 Ω) to the terminal used as the calibration reference plane. b. Click the Meas Short button and measure short calibration data. Step 4. Measurement of load calibration data. a. Connect the load standard (50 Ω) to the terminal used as the calibration reference plane. b. Click the Meas Load button and measure the load calibration data. Step 5. Measurement of low-loss capacitor calibration data. 84 Chapter 4 NOTE NOTE Calibration and Compensation Calibration of Open/Short/Load/Low-loss Capacitor If the 7-mm terminal is used as a calibration plane and low-loss capacitor calibration is required, execute the following procedure: a. Connect the low-loss capacitor to the 7-mm terminal used as the calibration reference plane. b. Click the Meas Low-Loss C (optional) button and measure the low-loss capacitor calibration data. Low-loss capacitor calibration can be performed only when the 7-mm terminal of the test head is used as the calibration reference plane. Step 6. Finishing calibration data measurement and confirmation of calibration state. a. Click the Done button to finish measuring the calibration data. To delete all measured calibration data, click the Cal Reset button. At the same time, all stored fixture compensation data are also deleted. b. Confirm the calibration state according to the display of the Cal Menu button as shown below. Display of Cal Menu button Cal Menu [Fix] Cal Menu [FixR] Cal Menu [User] Cal Menu [Uncal] Calibration State Calibration is on while in the fixed frequency/fixed power point mode. Calibration is on while in the fixed frequency/user-defined power point mode. Calibration is on while in the user-defined frequency/user-defined power point mode. Calibration is off 4. Calibration and Compensation Chapter 4 85 Calibration and Compensation Port Extension Compensation Port Extension Compensation Port extension compensation is done to compensate the phase shift when the port is extended by a cable connected from the calibration reference plane (generally 7-mm terminal of test head). This function regards the transmission line as a distributed parameter circuit without loss. Usually, port extension compensation is not necessary because the test fixture is connected directly to the front of 7-mm terminal of the test head. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click the Cal/Comp button (or press ) Step 2. By using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the Port Extension box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter the port extension compensation value (sec.) to be used. 86 Chapter 4 NOTE Calibration and Compensation Electrical Length Compensation Electrical Length Compensation The electrical lengths of the test fixtures shown in Table 4-6 have been registered in the E4991A in advance. To use these fixtures, you may set the needed electrical length by simply selecting the model number of the fixture to be used. If you use fixtures that are not registered, however, you must enter the electrical length as a numerical value. Table 4-6 Test fixtures with registered electrical lengths Model Number 16191A 16192A 16193A 16194A 16196A 16196B 16196C 16197A 16453A 16454A (Fixture size: S) 16454A (Fixture size: L) Electrical Length 14 mm 11 mm 14 mm 50 mm 26.2 mm 26.9 mm 27.1 mm 14 mm 0 mm 0 mm 0 mm The 16453A is automatically selected when the permittivity measurement (Permittivity) is selected as material type (Material Type). The 16454A (fixture size: S) or 16454A (fixture size: L) can be selected when the permeability measurement (Permeability) is selected as material type (Material Type). For selecting the material type, refer to “Setting Material Measurement Parameter (Option 002 only)” on page 43. 4. Calibration and Compensation Chapter 4 87 Calibration and Compensation Electrical Length Compensation Procedure Step 1. Selecting fixture a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Cal/Comp (or press ). b. Click and open the Fixture Type box and then click to select the test fixture to be used. To use a test fixture that is not registered, select User. Fixture Type box None 16191A 16192A 16193A 16194A 16196A 16196B 16196C 16197A 16453A 16454A (S) 16454A (L) User Test Fixture Electrical length compensation off 16191A 16192A 16193A 16194A 16196A 16196B 16196C 16197A 16453A 16454A (fixture size: Small) 16454A (fixture size: Large) Test fixture not registered (user fixture) Step 2. Setting electrical length of user fixture If User is selected in step 1-b, enter the electrical length of the fixture to be used by using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the Fixture Length box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel). 88 Chapter 4 Calibration and Compensation Fixture Compensation NOTE NOTE Fixture Compensation Fixture compensation is executed according to the following procedure. Fixture compensation should always be done after open/short/load calibration, port extension compensation, or electrical length compensation. Measuring Fixture Compensation Data Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click the Cal/Comp button (or press ). Step 2. Click the Comp Menu button. Step 3. Measurement of open compensation data Open compensation is executed according to the following procedure (if you do not need to execute this procedure, proceed to step 4). a. Bring the DUT measurement terminal of the test fixture to the open state. For how to bring it to the open state, see the manual of the test fixture used. b. Click the Meas Open button and measure the open compensation data. To stop measurement of fixture compensation data, click the Abort Comp Meas button that appears during compensation data measurement. When the measurement of each type of calibration data is finished, a check mark (√) will appear to the left side of the corresponding calibration execution button. This mark indicates that the calibration data is stored. Step 4. Measurement of short compensation data Short compensation is executed according to the following procedure (if you do not need to execute this procedure, proceed to step 5). a. Bring the DUT measurement terminal of the test fixture to the short state. For how to bring it to the short state, see the manual of the test fixture used. b. Click the Meas Short button and measure the short compensation data. Step 5. Finishing compensation data measurement and confirmation of compensation state. Click the Done button to finish measuring the compensation data. With this click, fixture compensation automatically turns on (error compensation is executed with compensation data for the measurement). Fixture Comp Menu Button Display Comp Menu: [ON] Comp Menu: [OFF] Fixture Compensation State On (error compensation is executed with compensation data for the measurement) Off (error compensation is not executed) Chapter 4 89 4. Calibration and Compensation NOTE NOTE Calibration and Compensation Fixture Compensation If you want to turn off the compensation data after they are measured and stored, turn off each fixture compensation individually according to “Switching Fixture Compensation On/Off” on page 90. Switching Fixture Compensation On/Off After measurement of fixture compensation data, you may switch On/Off the stored open compensation data and short compensation data. Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Cal/Comp (or press ). Step 2. Click the Comp Menu button. Step 3. Click the Comp Open button and Comp Short button to toggle their states On/Off. Display of Comp Open Button Comp Open: [On] Comp Open: [Off] State of Open Compensation On (open compensation is executed for the measurement) Off (open compensation is not executed for the measurement) Display of Comp Short Button Comp Short: [On] Comp Short: [Off] State of Short Compensation On (short compensation is executed for the measurement) Off (short compensation is not executed for the measurement) When either open compensation or short compensation should be on, the Comp Menu button is displayed as “On” (see step 5, Note in “Measuring Fixture Compensation Data” on page 89). If you click the Done button, all stored compensation data will be automatically turned on. 90 Chapter 4 Figure 4-4 Calibration and Compensation Definition of Calibration/Compensation Kit Definition of Calibration/Compensation Kit Definition of Calibration Kit Figure 4-4 shows a circuit model of the calibration kit supplied with the E4991A. Circuit Model of Calibration Kit. 4. Calibration and Compensation NOTE NOTE To define the calibration kit for permittivity measurement, refer to “Definition of Calibration Kit in Permittivity Measurement” on page 92. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click the Cal/Comp button (or press ). Step 2. Click the Cal Kit Menu button Step 3. Click and open the Cal Kit Type box and click to select User. Cal Kit Type Box 7 mm User Types of Calibration Kits 7-mm calibration kit (calibration kit supplied with the E4991A) User calibration kit (a calibration kit prepared by the user) If you select 7 mm, the definition prepared in advance is automatically applied (you cannot change the definition). If you use the 7-mm calibration kit supplied with the E4991A, please select 7 mm. Step 4. By using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the calibration kit definition box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), Chapter 4 91 Calibration and Compensation Definition of Calibration/Compensation Kit enter the definition of the calibration kit: Calibration Kit Definition Box Open G: (S) Open C: (F) Short R: (Ω) Short L: (H) Load R: (Ω) Load L: (H) Value to be defined Equivalent parallel conductance G of Open calibration standard (preset state: 0 S) Equivalent parallel capacitance C of Open Calibration standard (preset state: 82 fF) Equivalent series resistance R of Short Calibration standard (preset state: 0 Ω) Equivalent series inductance L of Short Calibration standard (preset state: 0 H) Equivalent series resistance R of Load Calibration standard (preset state: 50 Ω) Equivalent series inductance L of Load Calibration standard (preset state: 0 H) Definition of Calibration Kit in Permittivity Measurement When the permittivity measurement (Permittivity) is selected as the material measurement type (Material Type) in “Setting Material Measurement Parameter (Option 002 only)” on page 43, the definition of the calibration kit is different from impedance measurement. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click the Cal/Comp button (or press ). Step 2. Click the Cal Kit Menu button. When the permittivity measurement is selected, PTFE is selected as the load standard of the calibration kit in the Cal Kit Type box. Step 3. By using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the calibration kit definition box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter the definition of the compensation kit: Load Calibration Standard Definition Box εr Real εr Loss Thickness Load Calibration Standard to be defined Real part of permittivity of the load calibration standard (preset state: 2.1) Imaginary part of permittivity of the load calibration standard (preset state: 0) Thickness of the load calibration standard (preset state: 800 μm) Definition of Compensation Kit Figure 4-5 shows the circuit model of the compensation kit adopted in the E4991A. 92 Chapter 4 Figure 4-5 Calibration and Compensation Definition of Calibration/Compensation Kit Circuit model of compensation kit Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click the Cal/Comp button (or press ). Step 2. Click the Comp Kit Menu button. Step 3. By using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the compensation kit definition box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter the definition of the compensation kit: Calibration Kit Definition Box Open G: (S) Open C: (F) Short R: (Ω) Short L: (H) Value to be defined Equivalent parallel conductance G of Open compensation standard (preset state: 0 S) Equivalent parallel capacitance C of Open Compensation standard (preset state: 0 F) Equivalent series resistance R of Short Compensation standard (preset state: 0 Ω) Equivalent series inductance L of Short Compensation standard (preset state: 0 H) 4. Calibration and Compensation Chapter 4 93 Calibration and Compensation Restoring Calibration/Compensation Status NOTE Restoring Calibration/Compensation Status The E4991A has a function to restore the previously set calibration/compensation status (including calibration/compensation data) in the event that it becomes invalid due to erroneous entry after calibration/compensation measurement. The restored data arrays include calibration data arrays, calibration coefficient arrays, fixture compensation data arrays, and fixture compensation coefficient arrays (Figure 7-1 on page 168). For more information on restoring settings, refer to “Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up” on page 440. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and then click Cal/Comp (or press ). Step 2. Click the Recover Cal/Comp State button. After turning off the power, the calibration/compensation data become permanently lost and thus cannot be recovered. You can only restore calibration/compensation data that have been acquired since turning the power on. 94 Chapter 4 5 Display Setting This chapter describes the various ways of displaying the measurement results of the Agilent E4991A RF Impedance/Material Analyzer. 5. Display Setting 95 Display Setting Setting the Types and Numbers of Display Traces Setting the Types and Numbers of Display Traces The E4991A is able to simultaneously display a maximum of five traces: three scalar traces and two complex. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Display (or press the front panel). key on the Step 2. Click to open the Number of Traces drop-down box and select the desired types and numbers of traces to display. Number of Traces Box 1 Scalar 2 Scalar 3 Scalar 1 Complex 2 Complex 1 Sclr, 1 Cmplx 1 Sclr, 2 Cmplx 2 Sclr, 1 Cmplx 2 Sclr, 2 Cmplx 3 Sclr, 1 Cmplx 3 Sclr, 2 Cmplx Types and Numbers of Displayed Traces Scalar trace × 1 Scalar trace × 2 Scalar trace × 3 Complex traces × 1 Complex traces × 2 Scalar trace × 1 Complex traces × 1 Scalar trace × 1 Complex traces × 2 Scalar trace × 2 Complex traces × 1 Scalar trace × 2 Complex traces × 2 Scalar trace × 3 Complex traces × 1 Scalar trace × 3 Complex traces × 2 96 Chapter 5 Figure 5-1 Display Setting Setting the Types and Numbers of Display Traces Display of 3 Scalar Traces / 2 Complex Traces (3 Sclr, 2 Cmplx) NOTE In Figure 5-1, scalar traces are displayed in the split display mode. For details about overlay and split displays, refer to “Overlay Display and Split Display of Graphs” on page 114. 5. Display Setting Chapter 5 97 Figure 5-2 Display Setting Maximize a Display Window on the Screen Maximize a Display Window on the Screen When multiple windows are displayed on the screen after selecting the number of traces to display, the window that contains the active trace can be maximized on the screen (Figure 5-2). Maximize and Restore a Display Window 98 Chapter 5 Display Setting Maximize a Display Window on the Screen Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window you want to maximize (or press active. The frame of the selected window becomes red. ) to make the window Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and then select Display (or press ). Step 3. Click More (or press ). Step 4. Click Window Maximize to maximize the window. To go back to the original window size and configuration of windows showing all traces, click Window Restore 5. Display Setting Chapter 5 99 Display Setting Selecting Measurement Parameter (Impedance Measurement) Selecting Measurement Parameter (Impedance Measurement) The measurement parameter is selected with the Meas Parameter box in the Meas/Format toolbar (Table 5-1, Table 5-2). Table 5-1 Meas Parameter Box (for scalar traces) Meas Parameter Box |Z| θz R X |Y| θy G B Γ θγ Γx Γy Cp Cs Lp Ls Rp Rs D Q Measurement Parameter Impedance absolute value Impedance phase Resonance resistance Equivalent series reactance Absolute value of admittance Phase of admittance Equivalent parallel conductance Equivalent parallel susceptance Reflection parameter Phase of reflection parameter Real part of reflection coefficient (complex number) Imaginary part of reflection coefficient (complex number) Equivalent parallel capacitance Equivalent series capacitance Equivalent parallel inductance Equivalent series inductance Equivalent series resistance Equivalent parallel resistance Loss coefficient Q value Table 5-2 Meas Parameter Box (for complex traces) Meas Parameter Box Z Y Measurement Parameter Complex impedance Complex admittance 100 Chapter 5 NOTE Display Setting Selecting Measurement Parameter (Impedance Measurement) Table 5-2 Meas Parameter Box (for complex traces) Meas Parameter Box Γ Measurement Parameter Complex reflection coefficient Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace whose measurement parameter you want to select (or click the measurement parameter name (area e.g. 2: θz [°]) in an overlay display) (or press the key on the front panel), thus making the trace active. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Meas/Format (or press the key on the front panel). Step 3. Click on the Meas Parameter drop-down box and select the desired Meas Parameter (Table 5-2, Table 5-1). When using the E4991A with option 002 (material measurement function), it is possible to select dielectric material or magnetic material measurement parameters in addition to the measurement parameters listed above. See “Setting Measurement Parameter (Material Measurement)” on page 102. 5. Display Setting Chapter 5 101 Display Setting Setting Measurement Parameter (Material Measurement) Setting Measurement Parameter (Material Measurement) When using “Option 002 material measurement” with the E4991A for material measurement, select the parameters by following the procedure below. Table 5-3 Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace whose measurement parameter you want to select (or click the measurement parameter name (area e.g. 2: εr″ [MU]) in an overlay display) (or press the key on the front panel), thus making the trace active. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Meas/Format (or press ). Step 3. Click on the Meas Parameter drop-down box and select the desired measurement parameter. (In material measurement, parameters in Table 5-3 to Table 5-6 are added to the impedance measurement parameters). Meas Parameter Box (for dielectric material/scalar traces) Meas Parameter: εr’ εr” tanδ (ε) |εr| Measurement Parameter Real part of complex permittivity ( ε′r ) Imaginary part of complex permittivity ( ε″r ) Dielectric loss tangent ( tanδ ) Absolute value of complex permittivity ( εr ) Table 5-4 Meas Parameter Box (for dielectric material/complex traces) Meas Parameter: εr Measurement Parameter Complex permittivity ( εr ) Table 5-5 Meas Parameter Box (for magnetic material/scalar trace) Meas Parameter: μr’ μr” tanδ (μ) |μr| Measurement Parameter Real part of complex permeability (μ′r ) Imaginary part of complex permeability (μ″r ). Magnetic loss tangent ( tanδ ) Absolute value of complex permeability ( μr ) 102 Chapter 5 Table 5-6 Display Setting Setting Measurement Parameter (Material Measurement) Meas Parameter Box (for Magnetic Material / Complex Trace) Meas Parameter: μr Measurement Parameter Complex permeability ( μr ) 5. Display Setting Chapter 5 103 Display Setting Selecting Graph Coordinate Format Table 5-7 Selecting Graph Coordinate Format The Graph Coordinate Format differs according to the measurement parameter used (see Table 5-7, Figure 5-3, Figure 5-4). Types of Measurement Parameters and Available Graph Coordinate Formats (√: Available) Measurement Parameter Rectangular coordinate (y-axis linear) Scalar parameter (|Z|, θz, √ Ls, etc.) Complex Z, Y parameter Γ Rectangular coordinate (y-axis log) √ Complex plane √ √ Polar coordinate Smith chart Admittance chart √ √ √ √ Figure 5-3 Available Graph Coordinate Formats in Scalar Parameter Measurement 104 Chapter 5 Figure 5-4 Display Setting Selecting Graph Coordinate Format Optional Graph Coordinate Format in the Complex Parameter Measurement Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace whose coordinate format you want to select (or click the measurement parameter name (area e.g. 2: θz [°]) in an overlay display) (or press the key on the front panel), thus making the trace active. Step 2. Click and open the shortcut menu and select Meas/Format (or press the Step 3. Click on the Format drop-down box and select the desired coordinate format. key). Format Box (for scalar parameter measurement) Lin-Y-Axis Log Y-Axis Coordinate Format Rectangular coordinates of Y-axis linear (X-axis: Sweep parameter, Y-axis: Measurement parameter) Rectangular coordinates of Y-axis log (X-axis: Sweep parameter, Y-axis: Measurement parameter) Chapter 5 105 5. Display Setting Display Setting Selecting Graph Coordinate Format Format Box (for complex parameter measurement) Coordination Format Complex Complex plane (X-axis: Actual number, Y-axis: imaginary number) Polar Polar coordinate Smith*1 Smith chart Admittance*1 Admittance chart *1.Selection is only possible when the measurement parameter is Γ (complex reflection parameter). 106 Chapter 5 Display Setting Autoscale Adjustment Autoscale Adjustment Autoscale Adjustment for each Trace Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace whose autoscale adjustment you want to select (or click the measurement parameter name (area e.g. 2: θz [°]) in an overlay display) (or press the key on the front panel), thus making the trace active Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Scale (or press the Step 3. Click the Autoscale button to execute Autoscale Adjustment. key). Autoscale Adjustment for all Traces at Once Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Scale (or press the key). Step 2. Click the Autoscale All button to execute Autoscale adjustment for all of the traces on the display. 5. Display Setting Chapter 5 107 Display Setting Manual Scale Setting Table 5-8 Measurement parameter Scalar parameter (|Z|, θz, Ls, etc.) Complex parameter (Z, Y, Γ) Manual Scale Setting Scale setting differs according to the coordinate format of the target trace (Table 5-8, Figure 5-5). Method of setting scale for each coordination format Coordinate format to select Rectangular coordinates (Y-axis linear) Rectangular coordinates (Y-axis log) Complex plane Polar coordinate Smith chart (only Γ) Admittance chart (only Γ) Method of manually setting scale • Setting according to full-scale value (Full Scale), position of reference line (Ref Pos) and value of reference line (Ref Val). • Setting according to max. value (Top) and min. value (Bottom). Setting according to max. value (Top) and min.value (bottom) Setting according to 1 scale length (Scale), X-axis reference line (Ref X) and Y-axis reference line has (Ref Y) Setting according to the distance (scale) from origin to the outer most circle (not changeable, scale is always fixed) (not changeable, scale is always fixed) Scale Setting in Rectangular Coordinates When the Y-axis is set to linear in the rectangular coordinate format, it is possible to set the scale according to the position of the reference line (Ref Pos), value of reference line (Ref Val) and full-scale value (Full Scale), or according to the max. value (Top) and min. value (Bottom). However, when the Y-axis is set to log in the rectangular coordinate format, it is only possible to set the scale according to the max. value (Top) and min. value (Bottom). 108 Chapter 5 Figure 5-5 Scale setting according to the coordination format Display Setting Manual Scale Setting NOTE Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace whose scale setting you want to adjust (or click the measurement parameter name (area e.g. 2: θz [°]) in an overlay display) (or press the key on the front panel), thus making the trace inside the window active. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Scale (or press the Step 3. Click the Scale Entry Button and select the scale setting format. key). Scale Entry Button Display Scale Entry [Scale/Ref] Scale Entry [Top/Bottom] Scale setting format Setting according to full-scale value, position of reference line, value for reference line. Setting according to max. and min. values (max. and min. values can be changed by modifying the reference line position while keeping the corresponding full-scale value unchanged). When the y-axis is log scale, you cannot select Scale Entry [Scale/Ref]. Step 4. Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside each setting box below (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter the value of each scale setting. Scale Setting Box Full Scale Ref Val Ref Pos Top Entry Value Full-scale value Value for Y-axis reference line Position of reference line with the linear scale showing 10 as max. value and 0 as min. value. The value of the middle point on the Y-axis is 5. Max. value (highest value on y-axis scale) Chapter 5 109 5. Display Setting NOTE Display Setting Manual Scale Setting Scale Setting Box Bottom Entry Value Min. value (lowest value on y-axis scale) The display of the reference line and the value of the reference line on the graph can be switched On/Off with the Reference Line button. Instead of entering the value of the reference line as a numerical value into the Ref Val box, you can directly enter the position of the marker (measurement value) into the reference line value. See “Setting of Reference Line Value by Using Marker” on page 112. 110 Chapter 5 Figure 5-6 Display Setting Manual Scale Setting Scale Setting on Complex Plane When the coordinate format is the complex plane, the scale setting shall be made on the basis of the length per scale (Scale), X-axis reference value (Ref X), and Y-axis reference value (Ref Y). Scale Setting in complex plane display NOTE Procedure Step 1. Click inside the complex trace on which you want to set the Scale Setting (or press ) to make the trace active. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Scale (or press the key). Step 3. Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside each Scale Setting Box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter each value. Scale Setting Box Scale Ref X Ref Y Entry Value The length per scale (common to X-axis and Y-axis). Value of X-axis reference line (middle point). Value of Y-axis reference line (middle point). Instead of entering the value of the reference line as a numerical value into the Ref X box and Ref Y box, you can directly enter the actual number portion and imaginary number portion of the marker position’s measurement value into the value of the X-axis reference line and the value of the Y-axis reference line. See “Setting of Reference Line Value by Using Marker” on page 112. Chapter 5 111 5. Display Setting Figure 5-7 Display Setting Manual Scale Setting Scale Setting in Polar Coordinate Format When the coordinate format is polar, set the scale according to the distance (scale) from the origin to the outermost circle. Scale Setting in Polar Coordinate Format Procedure Step 1. Click inside the complex trace whose scale you want to set (or press the make the trace active. key) to Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Scale (or press the key). Step 3. Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the Scale box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter the distance from the origin to the outermost circle. Setting of Reference Line Value by Using Marker The reference line value can be set by using the position of marker when the coordinate format is rectangular (Y-axis linear) or a complex plane. Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace whose scale you want to set (or click the measurement parameter name area (e.g. 2: θz [°]) in overlay display) (or press the trace active. key) to make the Step 2. Move the marker to the position on the trace that you want to use as the value of the scale reference line and leave the marker active. Step 3. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Marker (or press the key). Step 4. Click the Marker To Menu button. Step 5. Press the Reference button and assign the measurement value of the active marker’s position as the reference value. When the coordinate format is a complex plane, the actual number portion and imaginary number portion of the measurement value of the marker position can be assigned into the value of the X-axis reference line and the value of the Y-axis reference line. 112 Chapter 5 Figure 5-8 Display Setting Zooming a Trace Zooming a Trace By using the mouse, a specified area of the trace on the display can be zoomed. Zooming a Trace NOTE Procedure Step 1. Imagine a rectangular area of the active trace that you would like to zoom and place the cursor at one corner (e.g. upper left) while holding down the left mouse button. Step 2. Drag the cursor along the diagonal line of the imaginary rectangular area while holding down the mouse button. Step 3. Release the left mouse button, when the cursor reaches to the opposite corner of the rectangle from where you started. To return the zoomed trace to the original size, simply click the cursor once in the display. It is not possible to continue zooming the trace more than once. The trace cannot be zoomed if the specified rectangular area is too small. While dragging, the cursor remains a icon until the specified area is large enough for zooming. Zooming of the trace is only possible by using the mouse. 5. Display Setting Chapter 5 113 Figure 5-9 Display Setting Overlay Display and Split Display of Graphs Overlay Display and Split Display of Graphs To display more than two scalar traces, you may select either the overlay display or the split display. Overlay display (left) and split display (right) of graphs NOTE Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Display (or press the key). Step 2. Click the Display Scalar Trace button to toggle between [Overlay] and [Split]. Display Scalar Trace Button Display Scalar Trace [Overlay] Display Scalar Trace [Split] Overlay/Split Display Overlay display Split display Complex traces are always viewed in split display and never in overlay display. 114 Chapter 5 Figure 5-10 Display Setting Displaying Measurement Values in List Form Displaying Measurement Values in List Form Instead of displaying the trace in graph form, the measured values can be displayed in a numerical list. Displaying the measured values in list “Off” (left) and “On” (right) Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Display (or press the key). Step 2. Click the List Values button to toggle display of list values [On] and [Off]. If multiple traces are displayed, this button toggles the state of the active trace (outlined in red). 5. Display Setting Chapter 5 115 Display Setting Trace Comparison Using Memory Trace NOTE Trace Comparison Using Memory Trace Comparison with a stored reference trace Procedure Step 1. Measure and display the reference trace. Step 2. Click inside the window of the reference trace (or click the measurement parameter name area (e.g. 2: θz [°]) in overlay display) (or press the key) to make the trace active. Step 3. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Display (or press the key). Step 4. Click the Copy Data → Memory button to store the reference trace’s data in the memory trace. When the Copy Data → Memory button is clicked, usually only the active trace’s data are stored in the memory trace. However, if the active trace is one of different overlaid traces in the same window, the data of all traces in the window are stored in memory traces. Step 5. Click on the Define Trace box and select the method of displaying the trace. Define Trace Box Data Memory Data & Memory Data − Memory Delta % Trace Display Method Data Trace: DATA Memory Trace: (No display) Data Trace: (No display) Memory Trace: MEM Data Trace: DATA Memory Trace: MEM Data Trace: DATA – MEM Memory Trace: (No display) Data Trace: D-----A----T---M-A----E-–---M--M-----E----M--- × 100 Memory Trace: (No display) where DATA is the measurement data and MEM is the data stored by the Copy Data → Memory button. Subtraction of Offset Value The result of subtracting an offset value from the measurement value can be displayed as a data trace. Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace from which the offset value will be subtracted (or 116 Chapter 5 Display Setting Trace Comparison Using Memory Trace click the measurement parameter name area (e.g. 2: θz [°]) in overlay display) (or press the key) to make the trace active. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Display (or press the key). Step 3. Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the Math Offset box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter the Offset value. Offset Value Setting by Using the Marker The measurement value of the marker’s position can be directly assigned as the offset value. Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace in which the offset value will be set (or click the measurement parameter name area (e.g. 2: θz [°]) in overlay display) (or press the key) to make the trace active. Step 2. Move the marker to the position on the trace to be set as the offset value and leave the marker active. Step 3. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Marker (or press the key). Step 4. Click the Marker To Menu button. Step 5. Press the Offset button to assign the measurement value of the active marker’s position as an offset value. 5. Display Setting Chapter 5 117 Display Setting Selecting Sweep Area Display (Start/Stop or Center/Span) Selecting Sweep Area Display (Start/Stop or Center/Span) The sweep area shown at the bottom of the measurement display can be set to display either the sweep’s start value and stop value or the sweep’s center value and span value. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Start/Stop (or press the Step 2. Click the Stimulus Display Button, and select the Sweep Area Display Mode. key). Stimulus Display Button Stimulus Display: [Start/Stop] Stimulus Display: [Center/Span] Sweep Area Display Mode The sweep start value and the sweep stop value. The sweep center value and the sweep span value. 118 Chapter 5 Display Setting Setting Frequency Display Resolution Setting Frequency Display Resolution Display resolution of the frequency data (sweep range, marker stimulus value, etc.) on the screen can be changed over the range from 1 mHz to 1 MHz. The actual setting value is not changed, but the indicated value is rounded in accordance with the display resolution. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Display (or press the key). Step 2. Click the More button (or press the key again). Step 3. Click on the Freq Disp Resolution box and select the desired frequency display resolution (1 mHz, 10 mHz, ..., 1 MHz). 5. Display Setting Chapter 5 119 Figure 5-11 Display Setting Confirm the Setting Status on the Screen Confirm the Setting Status on the Screen A summary of the E4991A setting status can be displayed on the screen (Figure 5-10 through Figure 5-12). Operation Parameters Display Figure 5-12 Calibration Status Display 120 Chapter 5 Figure 5-13 Compensation Status Display Display Setting Confirm the Setting Status on the Screen Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Display (or press the key). Step 2. Click the More button (or press the key again). Step 3. Click the Operation Param Menu button. Step 4. Click to select the desired setting status display from the following buttons. Setting status display selection button Operation Parameters Cal Status / Kit Comp Status / Kit Displayed setting status Operation parameters (Figure 5-10) Calibration status and calibration kit settings (Figure 5-11) Compensation status and compensation kit settings (Figure 5-12) Chapter 5 121 5. Display Setting Display Setting Continuous Phase Display Without Returning at ±180° Continuous Phase Display Without Returning at ±180° When the phase measurement value continuously increases or decreases, the trace becomes discontinuous at +180° or −180° of the phase point because at this point the measurement values are replaced by −180° and +180°, respectively. The phase extension display function was designed to prevent such discontinuity and display the phase trace continuously. The phase extension function can by set by following the procedure below. Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace for which the phase extension display is to be set (or click the measurement parameter name area (e.g. 2: θz [°]) in overlay display) (or press the key) to make the trace active. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Meas/Format (or press the key). Step 3. Click the Expand Phase button to toggle the phase extension display between [On] and [Off]. Expand Phase Button Display Expand Phase: [On] Expand Phase: [Off] Phase Expansion Display On (The phase is possible to display under −180° or over 180°.) Off (The phase is displayed within the area of −180° to 180°.) 122 Chapter 5 Display Setting Selecting Phase Unit Selecting Phase Unit You can set the phase unit used in setting the scale for phase measurement or in reading data with a marker by following the procedure below. Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace for which the phase unit is to be set (or click the measurement parameter name area (e.g. 2: θz [°]) in overlay display) (or press the key) to make the trace active. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Meas/Format (or press the key). Step 3. Click the Phase Unit Button to change the phase unit. Phase Unit Button Display Phase Unit: [Radian] Phase Unit: [Degree] Phase Unit Radian (rad) Degree (°) 5. Display Setting Chapter 5 123 Display Setting Displaying Trace Title on Measurement Display Displaying Trace Title on Measurement Display It is possible to title each trace and show it on the display. Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace you want to title (or click the measurement parameter name area (e.g. 2: θz [°]) in overlay display) (or press the active. key) to make the trace Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Display (or press the key). Step 3. Click the More button (or press the key again). Step 4. Click the Title button. The Edit Title dialog box will appear (Figure 5-14). Figure 5-14 Edit Title Dialog Box Step 5. Click the keyboard... button to open the Keyboard dialog box (Figure 5-15) and use this dialog box (or an external keyboard) to input a title in the Title box. Figure 5-15 Keyboard Dialog Box NOTE Step 6. Click the OK button in the Edit Title dialog box to enter the trace’s title. A trace’s title may be revised at any time by again following the above procedure. 124 Chapter 5 Figure 5-16 Title Display Display Setting Displaying Trace Title on Measurement Display 5. Display Setting Chapter 5 125 Display Setting Changing Display Colors Changing Display Colors The display colors of the characters and graphics on the display can be changed for each item. Procedure Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Display (or press the key). Step 2. Click the More Button (or press the key again). Step 3. Click the Color Setting Menu Button. Step 4. Click on the Item Box and select the item whose display color you want to change. Item Box Scalar 1 Data Scalar 1 Mem Scalar 2 Data Scalar 2 Mem Scalar 3 Data Scalar 3 Mem Complex 1 Data Complex 1 Mem Complex 2 Data Complex 2 Mem Background Grid Item to Change Display Color Data trace of scalar trace 1 Memory trace of scalar trace 1 Data trace of scalar trace 2 Memory trace of scalar trace 2 Data trace of scalar trace 3 Memory trace of scalar trace 3 Data trace of complex trace 1 Memory trace of complex trace 1 Data trace of complex trace 2 Memory trace of complex trace 2 Background of trace display Trace display grid Step 5. Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside each color level setting box of Red, Green and Blue (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter the color values for the selected item. Color Level Setting Box Red Green Blue Setting Value Value of red color level (0: black to 255: pure red) Value of green color level (0: black to 255: pure green) Value of blue color level (0: black to 255: pure blue) 126 Chapter 5 6. Analysis of Measurement Results 6 Analysis of Measurement Results This chapter explains how the measurement results of the E4991A are analyzed. 127 Figure 6-1 Analysis of Measurement Results Reading Value on the Trace by Specifying Stimulus Value Reading Value on the Trace by Specifying Stimulus Value By using a marker, it is possible to read the measurement data numerically on the display. Reading measurement data on the trace by using a marker. Figure 6-2 Display of marker value (stimulus value, measurement value) 128 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results NOTE Analysis of Measurement Results Reading Value on the Trace by Specifying Stimulus Value Procedure Step 1. Display a marker on the trace (turn the marker “On”) a. Click inside the window of the trace to read the measurement value (or click the measurement parameter name area e.g. 2: θz [°] in the case of overlay display) (or press ) to make the trace active. b. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker (or press ). c. Click and open the Select Marker box and click to select the marker to be used (Marker R, Marker 1 to Marker 8). After the above operation, the selected marker turns on. Step 2. Move the Marker A stimulus value indicating the marker position is displayed in the Stimulus box. A change in the stimulus value may move the marker. The following methods can be used to change the value in the Stimulus box: • Click the numeric box and unit box of the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the box and enter the values of marker and stimulus. • Click the s and t buttons in the upper-right part of the box to increase and decrease the marker stimulus value. • Place the cursor on the marker’s position on the trace (cursor icon changes from to ), move the cursor to the desired position on the trace while holding down the left mouse button, and then release the mouse button so that the marker moves to the desired position. • When all character strings in the box are already selected (displayed in reverse text), enter the marker stimulus value by pressing the ENTRY/NAVIGTION Block key. • When all character strings in the box are already selected (displayed in reverse), place the cursor [|] at the head of the character strings by pressing or and then press the and buttons or turn the stimulus value. rotary knob to increase or decrease the The marker value (stimulus value and measurement value) is displayed in the upper part of the measurement graph (Figure 6-2). Step 3. Deleting marker from trace (turn the marker “Off”) a. Click and open the Select Marker box and click to select the marker to turn off (Marker R, Marker 1 to Marker 8). b. Click Selected Marker and turn the marker off. Click the All Off button to turn off all of the markers on the display. Chapter 6 129 Figure 6-3 Analysis of Measurement Results Displaying the Values of Plural Points on a Trace in a Value List Displaying the Values of Plural Points on a Trace in a Value List It is possible to place plural markers on a trace and display their respective values (stimulus value and measurement value) in a list. Marker List Display “On” Procedure Step 1. Place plural markers on the trace according to “Reading Value on the Trace by Specifying Stimulus Value” on page 128. Step 2. Click inside the window of the trace to display the marker list (or click the measurement parameter name area e.g. 2: θz [°] in the case of overlay display) (or press the trace active. ) to make Step 3. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker Function (or press ). Step 4. Click the More button (or press ). Step 5. Click the Marker List button to turn the marker list display “on” (Figure 6-3). 130 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Figure 6-4 Analysis of Measurement Results Reading Difference from Reference Point on a Graph (Delta Marker) Reading Difference from Reference Point on a Graph (Delta Marker) Delta Marker Function Delta Marker Mode in Scalar Parameter Measurement Chapter 6 131 Figure 6-5 Analysis of Measurement Results Reading Difference from Reference Point on a Graph (Delta Marker) Delta Marker Mode in Plural Parameter Measurement 132 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Analysis of Measurement Results Reading Difference from Reference Point on a Graph (Delta Marker) Procedure Step 1. Delta Mode Selection a. Click inside the window of the trace using the Delta Marker function (or click the measurement parameter name area e.g. 2: θz [°] in the case of overlay display) (or press ) to make the trace active. b. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker (or press ). c. Click to select Marker R from the Select Marker box. d. Click Delta Marker Menu. e. Click and select Delta or Fixed Delta from the Delta Mode box. Delta Mode Box Normal Delta Fixed Delta Delta Mode Normal (Delta Mode “off”) Delta Mode Fixed Delta Mode Step 2. Placing Marker R on reference point Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking within the following box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block key on the front panel), enter the position of the reference point (Marker R) into each box: Reference Marker Value Setting Delta Mode Stimulus Box Stimulus value of Marker R Delta Value Box Measurement value of Marker R (Primary measurement parameter value)*1 Delta Aux Value Box Secondary measurement parameter value of Marker R*1*2 *1. Setting possible only when Fixed Delta is selected in step 1-e. *2. Setting possible only for complex parameter measurement. Step 3. Reading difference from reference point by using marker 1 to 8 a. Click the << button. b. Click and select a Marker for value reading from the Select Marker box (Marker 1 to Marker 8). c. Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking within the Stimulus box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block key on the front panel), enter the Stimulus value (DS) of the difference on the reference point of Marker R into the Stimulus box. d. Read the marker value displayed in the upper-part of the measurement graph (Figure 6-6). Chapter 6 133 Figure 6-6 Analysis of Measurement Results Reading Difference from Reference Point on a Graph (Delta Marker) Delta Marker (Fixed Mode) 134 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Figure 6-7 Analysis of Measurement Results Reading Only the Actual Measurement Point/Reading the Distance between Measurement Points through Interpolation Reading Only the Actual Measurement Point/Reading the Distance between Measurement Points through Interpolation By setting the marker to continuous mode, the marker on the trace can freely move not only to an actual measurement point but also to a position within the distance between measurement points. Such an intermediary position can be automatically determined by an interpolation calculation. Markers’ Continuous Mode and Discontinuous Mode Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace to set a marker to continuous mode or discrete mode (or click the measurement parameter name area, e.g. 2: θz [°] in the case of overlay display) (or press ) to make the trace active. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker (or press ). Step 3. Click the More button (or press ). Step 4. Click the Marker button to toggle the marker between continuous and discrete modes. Marker Button Display Marker: [Continuous] Marker: [Discrete] Marker Continuous/Discrete Mode Continuous mode (marker can move to any arbitrary point) Discrete mode (marker can move only to measurement points) Chapter 6 135 Figure 6-8 Analysis of Measurement Results Move the Marker for Each Trace Independently Move the Marker for Each Trace Independently You can move the marker either for each trace independently or while it’s interlocked with all of the traces. Marker Interlocking On/Off Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click the Marker (or press ). Step 2. Click the More button (or press ). Step 3. Click the Coupled Marker button to toggle marker interlocking “On/Off”. Coupled Marker Button Display Coupled Marker: [On] Coupled Marker: [Off] Marker Interlocking On (marker moves with all traces interlocked) Off (marker moves for each trace independently) 136 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Analysis of Measurement Results Selecting Marker Value Display for Plural Parameters Selecting Marker Value Display for Plural Parameters When using a marker for plural traces, the marker value is displayed in the form of two scalar parameters converted from two plural parameters (main and sub-parameters). This conversion method enables selection from six kinds of marker values (Table 6-1), irrespective of the coordination format set (polar coordination, plural planes, Smith chart, Admittance chart). Table 6-1 Marker Value Display Mode and Marker Value Displayed Marker Value Display Mode (selection in Smith/Polar box) Marker Value Main Parameter Sub-parameter Real Imag Actual number component Imaginary number component LinMag Phase LogMag Phase R+jX G+jB Swr Phase Amplitude (linear) Amplitude (log, dB unit) Resistance (actual number component of plural impedances*1) Conductance (actual number component of plural admittances*2) Standing wave ratio Phase Phase Reactance (Imaginary number component of plural impedances*1) Susceptance (Imaginary number component of plural admittances*2) Phase of reflection coefficient *1. In case of measuring plural impedances (Z), the same value is displayed as when Real Imag is selected. *2. In case of measuring plural admittances (Y), the same value is displayed as when Real Imag is selected. Chapter 6 137 Analysis of Measurement Results Selecting Marker Value Display for Plural Parameters The preset marker value display mode is set for each coordination format according to Table 6-2: Table 6-2 Preset marker value display modes Coordination Format (selected in Format box) Setting of preset marker value display mode Complex (Plural planes) Polar (Polar coordinate) Real Imag LinMag Phase Smith (Smith chart)*1 R+jX Admittance (Admittance chart)*1 G+jB *1. Can only be selected for measuring plural reflection coefficientΓ. Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace to change the marker value display mode (or press ) and make the trace active. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click the Marker Function (or press ). Step 3. Click the More button (or press ). Step 4. Click and select the Marker value display mode from the Smith/Polar box (see Table 6-1). 138 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Analysis of Measurement Results Selecting Marker Analysis Target Trace (Data/Memory) Selecting Marker Analysis Target Trace (Data/Memory) When the memory trace is used according to the procedures of “Trace Comparison Using Memory Trace” on page 116, it is necessary to select the memory trace as the target of analysis by the marker (data trace is the preset setting). Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace to select it as the target trace for marker analysis (or click the measurement parameter name area, e.g. 2: θz [°] in the case of overlay display) (or press ) and make the trace active. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker (or press ). Step 3. Click the Marker On button and select the marker analysis target trace. Marker On Button Display Marker On: [Data] Marker On: [Memory] Marker Analysis Target Trace Data trace Memory trace Chapter 6 139 Figure 6-9 Analysis of Measurement Results Search for Max. and Min. Measurement Value Search for Max. and Min. Measurement Value By using the functions of max. search and min. search, you can search for the maximum and minimum points of measurement value on the trace and move the marker to these points. Search for Max. and Min. Measurement Value Procedure Step 1. Activate the marker to be used. a. Click inside the window of the trace on which you want to search for maximum and minimum values (or click the measurement parameter name area, e.g. 2: θz [°] in the case of overlay display) (or press ) to make the trace active. b. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker (or press ). c. Click and open the Select Marker box and click to select the marker to be used (Marker R, Marker 1 to Marker 8). The above operation makes the selected marker active. Step 2. Move the marker to max. and min. a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click the Marker Function (or press ). b. Click the Search Type drop-down menu to select Maximum or Minimum. Search Type Menu Maximum Minimum Marker Search The point where the measurement value on the trace is maximum. The point where the measurement value on the trace is minimum. c. Click the Search button to execute the search for the maximum value or the minimum value. 140 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results NOTE Analysis of Measurement Results Search for Max. and Min. Measurement Value When a partial search area has been specified according to the procedure of “Specify the Partial Search Area” on page 153, the marker moves to the maximum value or the minimum value on the trace within this area. Chapter 6 141 Figure 6-10 Analysis of Measurement Results Search for Target Point of Measurement Value Search for Target Point of Measurement Value By using the target search function, you can search for a point that has a specified measurement value on the trace (target) and move the marker to that point. Target Search Function NOTE Procedure Step 1. Setting target (target measurement value) a. Click inside the window of the trace on which you want to execute a target search (or click the measurement parameter name area, e.g. 2: θz [°] in the case of overlay display) (or press ) to make the trace active. b. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker Function (or press ). c. Click the Search Def&Range Menu button d. Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the Target Value box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block key on the front panel), enter the measurement value of the search into the Target Value box. Step 2. Executing target search a. Click the << button. b. Click the Search Type drop-down menu to select Target. Search Type Menu Item Target Marker Search The point having the target set on the trace as a measurement value. c. Click the Search button to execute the target search. When a partial search area has been specified according to the procedure of “Specify the Partial Search Area” on page 153, the marker moves to the maximum or minimum value on the trace within this area. 142 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Analysis of Measurement Results Search for Target Point of Measurement Value When plural target points exist on a trace, the marker moves from its position before the search to the nearest target having the same measurement value (Figure 6-10). Step 3. Searching for other targets on a trace When plural target points exist on the trace, if you click on the Left or the Right button, you can move the marker from the present target to the next target in the designated direction. Button for moving to other target Left Right Function This button searches from the present marker position in the direction of smaller stimulus values and moves the marker to the first target found. This button searches from the present marker position in the direction of larger stimulus values and moves the marker to the first target found. Chapter 6 143 Figure 6-11 Analysis of Measurement Results Peak Search Peak Search By using the peak search function, you can search for a peak on a trace and move the marker to this peak. Maximal Point and Minimal Point Maximal points (minimal points) mean those measurement points having a larger (smaller) value than those of both their neighboring left and right measurement points (see Figure 6-11). Maximal Point and Minimal Point 144 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Figure 6-12 Analysis of Measurement Results Peak Search Positive Peak and Negative Peak To determine positive or negative peaks, we assume peak areas formed by three measurement points, i.e. one measurement point on each side of a maximal or minimal point. Among maximal (minimal) points (defined in Figure 6-11), a positive (negative) peak is defined as a point having absolute values of the left- and right-side linear inclinations that are larger than a certain predefined inclination ( Δ-Δ----XY-- ) (Figure 6-12). By predefining ( Δ-Δ---X-Y-- ) in the E4991A, you can search for positive and negative peaks corresponding to desired values while excluding maximal and minimal points that do meet the defined values. Positive Peak and Negative Peak Chapter 6 145 Figure 6-13 Analysis of Measurement Results Peak Search Outline of Peak Search Function According to the definition of the peak, the E4991A can execute the peak search as shown in Figure 6-13: Peak Search Function Procedure Step 1. Define Peak a. Click inside the window of the trace on which you want to execute peak search. (or click the measurement parameter name area, e.g. 2: θz [°] in the case of overlay display) (or press ) to make the trace active. b. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker Function (or press ). c. Click the Search Def&Range Menu button. d. Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the Peak Delta X and Peak Delta Y boxes (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block key), enter the 146 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results NOTE NOTE Analysis of Measurement Results Peak Search values to define the peak into the Peak Delta X and Peak Delta Y boxes. Peak Defining Box Peal Delta X Peak Delta Y *1. Preset setting, 10M (= 10.000.000) *2. Preset setting, 1 Definition of Peak ΔX (see Figure 6-11)*1 ΔY (see Figure 6-11)*2 Instead of directly entering numeric values for ΔX and ΔY, it is possible to define the peak by using the marker on the trace. See “Define the Peaks Using Marker” on page 148. Step 2. Specify the marker to be used a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker (or press ). b. From the Select Marker drop-down menu, select the Marker to use for the peak and activate it (Marker R, Marker 1 to Marker 8). To turn unnecessary markers off, press the Selected Marker button after selecting the marker in the Select Marker drop-down menu. Step 3. Execute peak search a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker Function (or press ). b. From the Search Type drop-down menu, select Positive Peak or Negative Peak. Search Type Drop-down Menu Positive Peak Negative Peak Marker Search Positive Peak (see Figure 6-11) Negative Peak (see Figure 6-11) c. Click one of the following Peak Search buttons to execute the peak search. Peak Search Button Search Next Function This moves the marker to the peak having the maximum measurement value among the peaks on the trace. In the case of positive peak: This moves the marker to the next maximum peak having a smaller measurement value than that in the position of the present active marker. In the case of negative peak: This moves the marker to the next minimum peak having a larger measurement value than that in the position of the present active marker. Chapter 6 147 NOTE Analysis of Measurement Results Peak Search Peak Search Button Left Right Function This executes peak search from the position of the present active marker to the left (toward smaller stimulus values) and moves the marker to the first detected peak. This executes peak search from the position of the present active marker to the right (toward larger stimulus values) and moves the marker to the first detected peak. When a partial search area has been specified according to the procedure of “Specify the Partial Search Area” on page 153, the marker moves to the peak existing within this area. Define the Peaks Using Marker You can set the peak definitions by placing the marker directly on the maximal and minimal points on the trace (Figure 6-14). In other words, the marker values at these points establish the peak definitions. Step 1. Place the marker (and the reference marker) on the desired position in accordance with Figure 6-14. Step 2. Click inside the window of the trace used to define the peak (or the measurement parameter name area, e.g. 2: qz [×] in the case of overlay display) (or press active. ) to make the trace Step 3. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker Function (or press ). Step 4. Click the Search Def&Range Menu button. Step 5. Click the Marker to Peak Delta button to define the peak according to the position of the present marker (and the reference marker). The defined results are assigned automatically into the Peak Delta X and the Peak Delta Y boxes. Name of Box Peak Delta X Box Peak Delta Y Box Value Assigned In the case of Delta Mode: Normal The absolute value of difference between the marker stimulus value and the stimulus value of the measurement point adjacent to the left of the marker (ΔX). In the case of Delta Mode: Delta or Fixed Delta The absolute value of the marker stimulus value (difference from the reference marker) (ΔX). In the case of Delta Mode: Normal The absolute value of difference between the marker measurement value and the measurement value of the measurement point to the immediate left of the marker (ΔY). In the case of Delta Mode: Delta or Fixed Delta The absolute value of the marker measurement value (difference from the reference marker) (ΔY). 148 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results NOTE Analysis of Measurement Results Peak Search If you do not place the marker on the maximal and minimal points, you may assign the marker value at this time as the definition of peak. Chapter 6 149 Figure 6-14 Analysis of Measurement Results Peak Search Definition of Peak by Using Marker 150 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Figure 6-15 Analysis of Measurement Results Working Out Trace Average, Standard Deviation, and Peak to Peak Working Out Trace Average, Standard Deviation, and Peak to Peak Based on the measurement value, you can work out statistical data such as average, standard deviation, and peak to peak. Parameters to Calculate Statistical Data Table 6-3 Definitions of Statistical Data Statistical Data Average (mean) Standard Deviation (s. dev) Peak to Peak (peak-peak) Definition n  xi -i--=---n--1----where n: number of measurement points, xi: measurement value of the number i of measurement points n   xi – mean2 i---=----1---------n----–-----1---------------where n: number of measurement points, xi: measurement value of the number i of measurement points, mean: average value Max – Min where Max: maximum measurement value, Min: minimum measurement value Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace whose statistical data you want to display (or the measurement parameter name area, e.g. 2: θz [°] in the case of overlay display) (or press ) to make the trace active. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker Function (or press ). Chapter 6 151 Analysis of Measurement Results Working Out Trace Average, Standard Deviation, and Peak to Peak Step 3. Click the More button (or press ). Step 4. Click the Statistics button to turn on the display of statistical data (Figure 6-16). Figure 6-16 Display of Statistical Data NOTE When a partial search area has been specified according to the procedure of “Specify the Partial Search Area” on page 153, the statistics data is worked out according to the measurement value within this area. 152 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Figure 6-17 Analysis of Measurement Results Specify the Partial Search Area Specify the Partial Search Area By specifying a partial search area, you can execute the search function within this area. Specify Partial Search Area and Search for Minimum Point Procedure Step 1. Setting the lower limit of partial search area: a. Click inside the window of the trace on which you want to set a partial search area (or click the measurement parameter name area, e.g. 2: θz [°] in the case of overlay display) (or press ) to make the trace active. b. Move the active marker to the lower limit of the partial search. c. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker Function (or press ). d. Click the Search Def & Range Menu button. e. Click the Partial Search button and turn the search function on. f. Click the Marker to Left Range button and set the position of the present active marker to the lower limit value of the partial search area. By completing the above operation, you can display on the graph the straight line showing the lower limit value of the partial search area. Step 2. Setting the upper limit of partial search area: a. Move the active marker to the upper limit of the partial search. Chapter 6 153 NOTE Analysis of Measurement Results Specify the Partial Search Area b. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker Function (or press ). c. Click the Search Def & Range Menu button. d. Click the Marker to Right Range button and set the position of the present active marker on the upper limit of the partial search area. By completing the above operation, you can display on the graph the straight line showing the upper limit of the partial search area. Click the Mkr Delta to Search Range button when marker R and marker 1 (or markers 2 to 8) are placed on the lower limit value and the upper limit value (or on the upper limit value and the lower limit value), respectively. This allows you to instantly set the partial search area. 154 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Analysis of Measurement Results Execution of Automatic Search in Each Sweep (Search Tracking) Execution of Automatic Search in Each Sweep (Search Tracking) By turning on Search Tracking before clicking the execution button, you can repeat the search every time a sweep is finished. Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace on which you want to set search tracking (or the measurement parameter name area, e.g. 2: θz [°] in the case of overlay display) (or press ) to make the trace active. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker Function (or press ). Step 3. Click the Search Track button to turn search tracking on. Chapter 6 155 Analysis of Measurement Results Changing Marker Stimulus Value Display to Time/Relaxation Time Changing Marker Stimulus Value Display to Time/Relaxation Time You can change the marker stimulus value shown on the display to time/relaxation time. Procedure Step 1. Click inside the window of the trace on which you want to change the marker stimulus value (or the measurement parameter name area, e.g. 2: θz [°] in the case of overlay display) (or press ) to make the trace active. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker Function (or press ). Step 3. Click the More button (or press ). Step 4. Select the marker stimulus value display from the Marker X Axis drop-down menu. Marker X Axis Drop-down Menu Stimulus Time 1/(2*Pi*F) Marker Stimulus Value Display Stimulus value (preset setting) Time (time from the sweep start until the finish of measurement of the marker position) Relaxation time = 2----π1---F--- (F = frequency [Hz]) 156 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Analysis of Measurement Results Calculation of Equivalent Circuit Parameter and Simulation of Frequency Characteristics Calculation of Equivalent Circuit Parameter and Simulation of Frequency Characteristics Calculation of Equivalent Circuit Parameter based on Measurement Results The E4991A is provided with four types of 3-element equivalent circuits and one type of 4-element equivalent circuit. It is possible to calculate the equivalent circuit parameter based on the sample measurement results as well as to display the frequency characteristics on the screen based on the input equivalent circuit parameter. Table 6-4 Selection of Equivalent Circuit Equivalent Circuit Model Typical Frequency Characteristics *1 DUT Example A Inductor with high core loss *1 Inductor B Resistor *1 C High-value resistor *1 D Capacitor *2 E Resonator *1. Measurement parameter: | Z | - θ, Sweep type: log, Vertical axis: | Z | is log and θ is linear Chapter 6 157 Analysis of Measurement Results Calculation of Equivalent Circuit Parameter and Simulation of Frequency Characteristics *2. Measurement parameter: | Z | - θ, Sweep type: linear (or log), Vertical axis: | Z | is log and θ is linear Procedure Step 1. Executing DUT measurement using frequency as sweep parameter Step 2. Selecting Equivalent Circuit a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Utility (or press ). b. Click the Equivalent Circuit Menu button. c. Click the Select Circuit button. d. Select the desired equivalent circuit model afrom mong the five equivalent circuit models. Equivalent Circuit Model Selection Button Marker Stimulus Value Display Equivalent circuit: A Equivalent circuit: B Equivalent circuit: C Equivalent circuit: D Equivalent circuit: E NOTE Step 3. Calculating equivalent circuit parameter a. Click the << button. b. Click the Calculate Parameters button to execute calculation of the equivalent circuit parameter. The calculated equivalent circuit parameters are displayed in each box of R1, C1, L1 and C0. Frequency Characteristics Simulation based on Equivalent Circuit Parameters Procedure When executing simulation of frequency characteristics based on the equivalent circuit parameter calculated according to the procedure of “Calculation of Equivalent Circuit Parameter based on Measurement Results” on page 157, only Step 4 needs to be executed. Step 1. Setting the measurement conditions 158 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results NOTE Analysis of Measurement Results Calculation of Equivalent Circuit Parameter and Simulation of Frequency Characteristics Set the frequency characteristics to the desired measurement conditions (measurement parameter, sweep conditions). Be sure to set the sweep parameter to frequency. Step 2. Selecting equivalent circuit a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Utility (or press ). b. Click the Equivalent Circuit Menu button. c. Click the Select Circuit button. d. Select the desired equivalent circuit model from among the five equivalent circuit models. Equivalent Circuit Model Selection Button Equivalent Circuit Equivalent circuit: A Equivalent circuit: B Equivalent circuit: C Equivalent circuit: D Equivalent circuit: E Step 3. Entering Equivalent Circuit Parameter value a. Click the << button. b. Enter the equivalent circuit parameter values into each box of R1, C1, L1, C0. Step 4. Executing frequency characteristics simulation Click the Simulate Freq-Char button or the Simulate Freq-Char of All Traces to execute frequency characteristics simulation. Frequency Characteristics Simulation Execution Button Simulate Freq-Char Simulate Freq-Char of All Traces Purpose of Simulation To display the simulation result for the present active trace by using its memory trace. To display the simulation result for all traces displayed on the display by using each memory trace. Chapter 6 159 Figure 6-18 Analysis of Measurement Results Setting a Limit to the Trace and Making a Pass/Fail Determination Setting a Limit to the Trace and Making a Pass/Fail Determination By using the marker limit test functions, you can set a limit to a trace and make a pass/fail determination on the measured results (Figure 6-18). Marker Limit Test Function 160 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Analysis of Measurement Results Setting a Limit to the Trace and Making a Pass/Fail Determination Procedure Step 1. Setting marker position and its upper limit and lower limit values a. Click inside the window of the trace on which you want to execute the marker limit test (or click the measurement parameter name area, e.g. 2: θz [°] in the case of overlay display) (or press ) to make the trace active. b. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Marker Function (or press ). c. Click the More button (or press ). d. Click the Limit Test Menu button to display the Limit Marker Test Setup Table (Figure 6-19). Figure 6-19 Limit Marker Test Setup Table NOTE e. Use the Select Marker drop-down menu to select the marker to be used for limit setting (Marker R, Marker 1 to Marker 8). If you first select the marker, the Test Marker button automatically turns on. When the Test Marker button is off, you should click this button to turn it on. f. For the markers selected in Step 1e. above, enter the values into the Stimulus box, Upper box, and Lower box. Limit Marker Setting Box Stimulus Setting Marker Position (stimulus value) Chapter 6 161 Analysis of Measurement Results Setting a Limit to the Trace and Making a Pass/Fail Determination Figure 6-20 Limit Marker Setting Box Upper Lower Setting Upper limit of measurement value Lower limit of measurement value g. Set the limit by repeating Steps 1e and 1f while using the necessary number of markers. Clickable Area for Moving Cursor to the Setup Box NOTE Step 2. Execution of Marker Limit Test The marker limit test is preset to the “on” state, so the test result (PASS or FAIL) is displayed in the lower-right area of the graph each time a sweep finishes at the completion of Step 1. Even after setting the limit, you can click the Limit Test button to freely toggle the ON-OFF function of the marker limit test. When this function is on, a line showing the limit area appears on the display. 162 Chapter 6 6. Analysis of Measurement Results Figure 6-21 Analysis of Measurement Results Setting a Limit to the Trace and Making a Pass/Fail Determination Example of Marker Limit Test (marker list display “ON”) Chapter 6 163 Analysis of Measurement Results Setting a Limit to the Trace and Making a Pass/Fail Determination 164 Chapter 6 7. Saving and Recalling Internal Data 7 Saving and Recalling Internal Data This chapter explains how to save and recall the E4991A’s internal data, which includes setting states, measurement data, and graphic images. 165 Saving and Recalling Internal Data Overview of Save and Recall Functions Table 7-1 Overview of Save and Recall Functions The E4991A has save and recall functions to save its internal data in storage devices, such as hard disks or floppy disks, and to recall the data for later use. Table 7-1 shows the save types and their functions. Table 7-2 shows the internal data saved with each save type. Save Types and Their Function Save Type Type Save State File format (Extension) Binary (.sta) Save Data Save Graphics Binary (.dat) ASCII (.txt) CITIfile (.txt) BMP (.bmp) JPG (.jpg) Function Saves E4991A’s setting states, calibration/compensation data, and measurement data.This data is later recalled by the E4991A to set the instrument to the same state as when the data was saved. Saves arrays of E4991A internal data. These arrays are later recalled by the E4991A and used in the same way as when they were saved. Saves arrays of E4991A internal data. This data can be imported into spreadsheet software on a PC. Converts E4991A measurement data into S parameter data for a specified circuit model. This data can be imported into design support software for design work. Saves E4991A graphic images. This data can be imported into image processing software on a PC. Saves E4991A graphic images. This data can be imported into image processing software on a PC. 166 Chapter 7 7. Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving and Recalling Internal Data Overview of Save and Recall Functions Table 7-2 Save Types and Saved Internal Data (√: Always saved; on/off: Can be switched.) E4991A Internal Data Save State Save Data Binary/ASCII format CITIfile format Setting States All setting states*1 √ Calibration and Compensation Data Calibration data arrays (see A in Figure 7-1) √ Fixture compensation data arrays (See B in Figure 7-1) √ Measurement Data Data arrays (see C in Figure 7-1) √ on/off Memory arrays (see D in Figure 7-1) √ on/off Data trace arrays (see E in Figure 7-1) √ on/off Data trace arrays (see F in Figure 7-1) √ on/off Converted Data S parameter, into which measurement data was converted √ for a specified circuit model Graphics Screen data *1.There are some exceptions. For more details, refer to Appendix G on page 439. Save Graphics (BMP/JPG) √ Figure 7-1 shows the E4991A’s internal data flow. Chapter 7 167 Figure 7-1 Saving and Recalling Internal Data Overview of Save and Recall Functions E4991A Internal Data Flow 168 Chapter 7 Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving and Recalling Setting States (Save State) Saving and Recalling Setting States (Save State) The “Save State” is used to save the E4991A’s setting states, calibration/compensation data, and measurement data (see Table 7-2) into storage devices, such as hard disks and floppy disks, and to recall the data for setting up the E4991A. It is impossible for software other than that of the E4991A to read this data since it is saved in binary format. Figure 7-2 To save setting states: Step 1. Set up the E4991A in the state you want to save. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Save/Recall. Alternatively, you can just press . Step 3. Click the Save State button to open the Save State dialog box (see Figure 7-2). Save State Dialog Box 7. Saving and Recalling Internal Data Step 4. If you want to save the data to a floppy disk, insert the disk into the floppy disk drive. NOTE Table 7-3 If you use the E4991A built-in floppy disk drive, use a 1.44 MB floppy disk in the DOS format. Step 5. The current directory, including the drive name, is displayed in the top box. As shown in Table 7-3, navigate to the drive and directory where you want to save the file. Operations in Save/Recall Dialog Box Operation Select a drive Move to a lower directory Move to an upper directory Create a new directory under the current directory Procedure Click to open the Drive drop-down list and select the desired storage device. In the Directory/File list box, double-click the desired directory enclosed by [ ] brackets. In the Directory/File list box, double-click [..]. In the File name box, type a new directory name and click the New Folder button. Alternatively, if you want to use the mouse to enter the directory name, use the Keyboard dialog box displayed when you click the Keyboard... button. Chapter 7 169 Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving and Recalling Setting States (Save State) Table 7-3 Operations in Save/Recall Dialog Box Operation Procedure Delete a directory or file Copy the existing file to floppy disk In the Directory/File list box, click to select a directory or a file (the selected one is shown in reversed text) and then click the Delete button. In the Directory/File list box, click to select a directory or a file (the selected one is shown in reversed text) and then click the Copy to FDD button. Step 6. In the File name box, type the name of the file you want to save. If you want to use the mouse to enter the file name, use the Keyboard dialog box displayed when you click the Keyboard... button. NOTE When you type the file name, you do not have to type a file extension. The extension “.sta” is automatically appended, indicating the file contains setting states. By naming this directory and file name “d\autorec.sta” when saving setting states, the file will be read automatically and used for setting up the instrument when it is turned on. If you want to overwrite a previously saved file, click to select the desired file in the Directory/File list box (the selected one is shown in reversed text). The selected file name is then displayed in the File name box. Step 7. Click OK to save the data. NOTE To cancel saving and close the dialog box, click the Cancel button or the X button instead of OK. Figure 7-3 To recall setting states: Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Save/Recall. Alternatively, you can just press . Step 2. Click the Recall State button to open the Recall State dialog box (see Figure 7-3). Recall State Dialog Box Step 3. When you recall the saved states from a floppy disk, insert the disk into the floppy disk drive. 170 Chapter 7 NOTE NOTE Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving and Recalling Setting States (Save State) Step 4. The current directory, including the drive name, is displayed in the top box. As shown in Table 7-3 on page 169, navigate to the directory where the file containing the states you want to recall resides. Step 5. In the Directory/File list box, click to select the desired file. The selected one is displayed in reversed text. A status file has the extension “.sta”. Step 6. Click OK to recall the data. To cancel recalling and close the dialog box, click the Cancel button or the X button instead of OK. 7. Saving and Recalling Internal Data Chapter 7 171 Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving and Recalling Measurement Data in Binary Format Saving and Recalling Measurement Data in Binary Format If you want to save measurement data for later recall and use by the E4991A, you must save it in binary format. Figure 7-4 To save measurement data in binary format: Step 1. Perform the measurement for which you want to save data. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Save/Recall. Alternatively, you can just press . Step 3. Click the Save Data button to open the Save Data dialog box (see Figure 7-4). Save Data Dialog Box NOTE Step 4. Select the Binary option button in the ASCII/Binary section. Step 5. Click the check box(es) next to the type(s) of array(s) in the Contents section to choose the data you want to save. Check Box in Contents section Data Memory Trace Data Trace Memory Type of Internal Array Data arrays (see C in Figure 7-1) Memory arrays (see D in Figure 7-1) Data trace arrays (see E in Figure 7-1) Memory trace arrays (see F in Figure 7-1) Step 6. If you want to save the data to a floppy disk, insert the disk into the floppy disk drive. If you use the E4991A built-in floppy disk drive, use a 1.44 MB floppy disk in the DOS format. Step 7. The current directory, including the drive name, is displayed in the top box. As shown in Table 7-3 on page 169, navigate to the drive and directory where you want to save the file. 172 Chapter 7 7. Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving and Recalling Measurement Data in Binary Format NOTE NOTE Step 8. In the File name box, type the name of the file you want to save. If you want to use the mouse to enter the file name, use the Keyboard dialog box displayed when you click the Keyboard... button. When you type the file name, you do not have to type a file extension. The extension “.dat” is automatically appended, indicating the file contains measurement data in binary format. If you want to overwrite a previously saved file, click to select the desired file in the Directory/File list box (the selected one is shown in reversed text). The selected file name is then displayed in the File name box. Step 9. Click OK to save the data. To cancel saving and close the dialog box, click the Cancel button or the X button instead of OK. Figure 7-5 To recall measurement data: Perform the following procedure to recall measurement data saved to the E4991A in binary format. Step 1. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Save/Recall. Alternatively, you can just press . Step 2. Click the Recall Data button to open the Recall Data dialog box (see Figure 7-5). Recall Data Dialog Box NOTE NOTE Step 3. When you recall the data from a floppy disk, insert the disk into the floppy disk drive. Step 4. The current directory, including the drive name, is displayed in the top box. As shown in Table 7-3 on page 169, navigate to the directory where the file containing the measurement data you want to recall resides. Step 5. In the Directory/File list box, click to select the desired file. The selected file is displayed in the reversed text. A file saved in binary format has the extension “.dat”. Step 6. Click OK to recall the data. To cancel recalling and close the dialog box, click the Cancel button or the X button Chapter 7 173 NOTE Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving and Recalling Measurement Data in Binary Format instead of OK. It is impossible to recall the data when the number of points of the saved data is different from the number of points in the E4991A’s set-up; in this case, an error occurs. 174 Chapter 7 Figure 7-6 Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving Measurement Data to Read in Spreadsheet Software (Saving in ASCII Format) Saving Measurement Data to Read in Spreadsheet Software (Saving in ASCII Format) Measurement data that has been saved in ASCII format can be imported into software on a PC such as Microsoft Notepad™ (a text editor) or Microsoft Excel™ (a spreadsheet application). Figure 7-6 shows an example of measurement data saved in ASCII format. This data was measured under the conditions shown in he Table 7-4, saved in an ASCII file, and then viewed with a text editor on a PC. Example of Measurement Data Saved in ASCII Format (using text editor to view data saved under conditions shown in Table 7-4) 7. Saving and Recalling Internal Data ↓ in Figure 7-6 indicates a return code, and ‰ indicates a tab. Numbers 1 to 11 indicate the following: 1. Trace 1 data (|Z|) 2. Trace 2 data (θz) 3. Trace 4 data (Z) 4. Measurement parameters for each trace (TRACE:) and axis format (FORMAT:) The axis format is displayed only when a measurement parameter is scalar. 5. Sweep parameters and their values 6. Real components of data arrays (see C in Figure 7-1) 7. Imaginary components of data arrays (see C in Figure 7-1) 8. Real components of memory arrays (see D in Figure 7-1) 9. Imaginary components of memory arrays (see D in Figure 7-1) 10. Data trace arrays (see E in Figure 7-1) If a measurement parameter represents a complex number, real and imaginary parts are displayed. 11. Memory trace arrays (see F in Figure 7-1) If a measurement parameter represents a complex number, real and imaginary parts are Chapter 7 175 Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving Measurement Data to Read in Spreadsheet Software (Saving in ASCII Format) displayed. Table 7-4 Measurement Conditions for Saving Data Measurement Condition Value Number of points Number of traces and trace types Measurement parameters Axis Format Define Trace 5 (for simplicity, the small number of points is used.) 2 × scalar traces and 1 × complex trace (2 Sclr,1 Complex) Trace 1: |Z|, Trace 2: θz, Trace 4: Z Trace 1: Linear Y-Axis (Lin Y-Axis) Trace 2: Linear Y-Axis (Lin Y-Axis) Trace 1: Data & Memory, Trace 2: Data & Memory, Trace 4: Data & Memory NOTE Data that has been saved in ASCII format cannot be recalled and used by the E4991A. To recall data to the E4991A, save it in binary format. For details, see the section “Saving and Recalling Measurement Data in Binary Format” on page 172. NOTE To save measurement data in ASCII format: Step 1. Perform the measurement for which you want to save data. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Save/Recall. Alternatively, you can just press . Step 3. Click the Save Data button to open the Save Data dialog box (see Figure 7-4). Step 4. Select the ASCII option button in the ASCII/Binary section. Step 5. Click the check box(es) next to the type(s) of array(s) in the Contents section to choose the data you want to save. Check Box in Contents Section Data Memory Trace Data Trace Memory Type of Internal Array Data arrays (see C in Figure 7-1) Memory arrays (see D in Figure 7-1) Data trace arrays (see E in Figure 7-1) Memory trace arrays (see F in Figure 7-1) Step 6. If you want to save the data to a floppy disk, insert the disk into the floppy disk drive. If you use the E4991A built-in floppy disk drive, use a 1.44 MB floppy disk in the DOS format. Step 7. The current directory, including the drive name, is displayed in the top box. As shown in Table 7-3 on page 169, navigate to the drive and directory where you want to save the file. Step 8. In the File name box, type the name of the file you want to save. If you want to use the 176 Chapter 7 7. Saving and Recalling Internal Data NOTE NOTE Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving Measurement Data to Read in Spreadsheet Software (Saving in ASCII Format) mouse to enter the file name, use the Keyboard dialog box displayed when you click the Keyboard... button. When you type the file name, you do not have to type a file extension. When the measurement data is saved in ASCII format, the extension “.txt” is automatically appended. If you want to overwrite a previously saved file, click to select the desired file in the Directory/File list box (the selected one is shown in reversed text). The selected file name is then displayed in the File name box. Step 9. Click OK to save the data. To cancel saving and close the dialog box, click the Cancel button or the X button instead of OK. To import measurement data saved in ASCII format into Microsoft Excel™: Measurement data that has been saved in ASCII format can be imported into spreadsheet software on a PC. This section shows an example of importing data into the popular Microsoft Excel 97™ program. Step 1. Start the Microsoft Excel™ application. Step 2. Click File/Open on the menu bar. Step 3. In the Open dialog box, click to select a text file (*.prn, *.csv, *txt) from the File Type dialog box. Step 4. Select the ASCII file (with the extension .txt) containing the E4991A measurement data, and click the Open button. Step 5. In the Text Input Wizard - Step 1 of 3 dialog box that appears, click the Delimited Characters Such As Commas or Tabs Separate Fields option button in the Original Data Type section and then click Next. Step 6. In the Text Input Wizard - Step 2 of 3 dialog box that appears, check the Tab check box in the Delimiter section and then click Next. Step 7. In the Text Input Wizard - Step 3 of 3 dialog box that appears, click the General option button of the Column Data Format section and then click Finish. Figure 7-7 shows an example of ASCII data imported into Excel™. Figure 7-8 shows an example of a data trace graph generated by one of the Excel™ chart functions (scatter diagram). This graph’s source data is different from the data shown in Figure 7-7. Chapter 7 177 Figure 7-7 Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving Measurement Data to Read in Spreadsheet Software (Saving in ASCII Format) Example of ASCII Measurement Data File Imported into Excel™ Figure 7-8 Example of Data Trace Graph Generated by Excel™ chart function (scatter diagram) 178 Chapter 7 7. Saving and Recalling Internal Data Figure 7-9 Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving Measurement Data in CITIfile Format Saving Measurement Data in CITIfile Format Overview of CITIfile Data Format A Common Instrumentation Transfer and Interchange file (CITIfile) uses a standard data format for exchanging data between a computer and an instrument. A CITIfile has some predefined rules for the data it contains. However, a CITIfile can be saved in any disk format (DOS, HFS, etc.), transferred by any method (via disk, LAN, GPIB, etc.), and reside under any operating system (DOS, UNIX, etc.) since its data format is ASCII. Any other instrument or computer can read a CITIfile created strictly in accord with the predefined rules. For example, measurement data from an impedance analyzer can be imported into Agilent’s Microwave Design System (MDS) and Advanced Design System (ADS), among others, for simulation. How to Create a CITIfile on the E4991A When a CITIfile is created on the E4991A, impedance measurement data (see C of Figure 7-1) is converted into S parameters for a specified device model. Figure 7-9 shows device models and conversion expressions. Creation of CITIfile on E4991A (circuit models and conversion expressions) Chapter 7 179 Figure 7-10 Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving Measurement Data in CITIfile Format CITIfile Structure Figure 7-10 shows an example of a CITIfile actually created and saved by the E4991A. Example of CITIfile Saved by E4991A ↓ in Figure 7-10 indicates a return code. A CITIfile consists of the Header and Data sections. The Header section contains status information and the Data section contains array data. Numbers 1-9 in Figure 7-10 indicate the following: 1. The keyword CITIFILE is always included at the top of this type of file to indicate that it is a CITIfile. Following this keyword is a version number (A.01.00 in this case). 2. Following the keyword NAME is the name of the CITIfile package. A CITIfile generated by the E4991A always has the name DATA. 3. Following the keyword VAR is the information on variables. FREQ indicates frequency, MAG amplitude format, and 5 the number of measurement points. 4. Following the keyword DATA are a data array name and a format, the details of which are described in the DATA section in the latter part of this CITIfile package. S[1,1], S[2,1], S[2,1], and S[2,2] represent the four S parameters S11, S21, S12, and S22, respectively. RI indicates that the data is described in the R1 format, which consists of real and imaginary parts. 5. Between the keywords SEG_LIST_BEGIN and SEG_LIST_END are segment lists. 180 Chapter 7 7. Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving Measurement Data in CITIfile Format Following the keyword SEG are start frequency (1 MHz in this case), stop frequency (3GHz in this case) and the number of measurement points (5 points in this case). 6. Between the keywords BEGIN and END are array data (S11) shown in 4. The real and imaginary parts are delimited with a comma. 7. Between the keywords BEGIN and END are array data (S21) shown in 4. The real and imaginary parts are delimited with a comma. 8. Between the keywords BEGIN and END are array data (S12) shown in 4. The real and imaginary parts are delimited with a comma. 9. Between the keywords BEGIN and END are array data (S22) shown in 4. The real and imaginary parts are delimited with a comma. To create a CITIfile: Step 1. Perform impedance measurement of a component under test while the instrument is set to the desired measurement conditions. NOTE Before measurement, perform necessary calibration and compensation. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Save/Recall. Alternatively, you can just press . Step 3. Click the Save Data button to open the Save Data dialog box (see Figure 7-11). Figure 7-11 Save Data Dialog Box Step 4. Click the CITIfile option button in the ASCII/Binary section. Step 5. Click the option button next to the desired circuit model in the Model section. Option Buttons in Model Section 1 port 2-port Series 2-port Shunt Circuit Model 1-port model (see 1 port in Figure 7-9) 2-port series model (see 2-port series in Figure 7-9) 2-port shunt model (see 2-port shunt in Figure 7-9) Chapter 7 181 NOTE NOTE NOTE Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving Measurement Data in CITIfile Format Step 6. If you want to save the data to a floppy disk, insert the disk into the floppy disk drive. If you use the E4991A built-in floppy disk drive, use a 1.44 MB floppy disk in the DOS format. Step 7. The current directory, including the drive name, is displayed in the top box. As shown in Table 7-3 on page 169, navigate to the drive and directory where you want to save the file. Step 8. In the File name box, type the name of the file you want to save. If you want to use the mouse to enter the file name, use the Keyboard dialog box displayed when you click the Keyboard... button. When you type the file name, you do not have to type a file extension. The extension “.txt” is automatically appended, indicating that the file is saved in ASCII format. If you want to overwrite a previously saved file, click to select the desired file in the Directory/File list box (the selected one is shown in reversed text). The selected file name is displayed in the File name box. Step 9. Click OK to save the data. To cancel saving and close the dialog box, click the Cancel button or the X button instead of OK. 182 Chapter 7 Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving Display Information (Save Graphics) Saving Display Information (Save Graphics) Graphic images on the E4991A LCD display that have been saved in a file in BMP (Windows or OS/2 Bitmap) or JPG (JPEG) format can be imported and used by image processing software. To save display information: Step 1. Display the graphic images you want to save. Step 2. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Save/Recall. Alternatively, you can just press . Step 3. Click the Save Graphics button to open the Save Graphics dialog box (see Figure 7-12). Figure 7-12 Save Graphics Dialog Box 7. Saving and Recalling Internal Data NOTE Step 4. Click the option button next to the desired file format of the Format section. Option Buttons in Format Section Jpeg BMP Saved File Format JPEG format Windows or OS/2 Bitmap format Step 5. If you want to save the data to a floppy disk, insert the disk into the floppy disk drive. If you use the E4991A built-in floppy disk drive, use a 1.44 MB floppy disk in the DOS format. Step 6. The current directory, including the drive name, is displayed in the top box. As shown in Table 7-3 on page 169, navigate to the drive and directory where you want to save the file. Step 7. In the File name box, type the name of the file you want to save. If you want to use the mouse to enter the file name, use the Keyboard dialog box displayed when you click the Keyboard... button. Chapter 7 183 NOTE NOTE NOTE Saving and Recalling Internal Data Saving Display Information (Save Graphics) When you type the file name, you do not have to type a file extension. The extension “.bmp” or “.jpg” is automatically appended, depending on the format selected in Step 4. If you want to overwrite a previously saved file, click to select the desired file in the Directory/File list box (the selected one is shown in reversed text). The selected file name is displayed in the File name box. Step 8. Click OK to save the data. To cancel saving and close the dialog box, click the Cancel button or the X button instead of OK. The graphic image is saved at the moment of clicking the OK button. The displayed setup toolbar is not included in the saved image. Recalling Saved Image File An image file that has been saved in the .bmp or jpg format can be imported into image processing software. For details on how to import an image file, refer to the manual of the application you are using. 184 Chapter 7 8. Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data 8 Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data This chapter explains how to print a measurement graph or an internal data list shown on the instrument’s display with a printer attached to the E4991A. 185 Figure 8-1 Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data Printing Measurement Graphs and Internal Data Lists Printing Measurement Graphs and Internal Data Lists To print measurement result graphs, measurement value lists (Figure 8-1), and measurement condition (operating parameter) lists (Figure 8-2), attach your printer to the printer parallel port (“3. Printer parallel port (PRINTER, Parallel)” on page 29), or the rear USB port (“11. Rear USB port” on page 30) on the rear panel of the E4991A. Example Printout of Measurement Value List (number of measurements: 5) Figure 8-2 Example Printout of Measurement Condition (Operating Parameter) List 186 Chapter 8 Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data Printing Measurement Graphs and Internal Data Lists Table 8-1 Supported Printers Table 8-1 shows the printers that can be attached to the E4991A, printer driver used, and corresponding port on the E4991A. For the latest information of the supported printers for the E4991A, contact Agilent Technologies. When contacting us, see the list of our customer centers at the end of this manual. Printers for Use with E4991A (as of April 2001) Printer Maker Model Name Printer Driver *1 Port DeskJet 930C Series Hewlett-Packard DeskJet 895C Series (895Cse, 895Cxi) HP DeskJet 550C Printer parallel port DeskJet 970C Series (970Cse, 970Cxi) *1. The drivers for all supported printers at the time of shipment are installed in the E4991A. NOTE If you want to use a printer that Agilent has announced support for other than those listed in Table 8-1, you must first install the appropriate printer driver software on the E4991A. For details on how to install a printer driver, see “Installing Printer Drivers” on page 191. Only the printers, printer drivers, and ports used for the local user interface (Table 8-1) can be used for the E4991A remote user interface software on an external PC. For details on the remote user interface, see “Using Remote User Interface” on page 228. NOTE Figure 8-3 How to print data on the screen When the Add New Hardware Wizard (Figure 8-3) dialog box pops up, you must press Cancel to quit the wizard. Add New Hardware Wizard 8. Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data Step 1. Prepare your printer. Chapter 8 187 Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data Printing Measurement Graphs and Internal Data Lists a. Attached your printer to the printer parallel port (see “3. Printer parallel port (PRINTER, Parallel)” on page 29) on the rear panel of the E4991A. For details on how to attach a printer to the port, see the appropriate instructions in your printer’s manual. NOTE Do not attach a printer until you have installed the corresponding driver on the E4991A. b. Turn on your printer’s power. Step 2. To print a measurement graph, click inside the window of the desired trace (or press ) to make its window active. The selected window’s frame will be red. Step 3. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Display, or just press . Step 4. Click the Print/Clipbd Menu button. Step 5. Click to select the desired print operation button. Print operation button Print Graph (Color) Print Graph (Mono) Printer List Values Print Operating Params Function Prints the graph in the active window in color. Prints the graph in the active window in black and white. Prints a list of measurement values (Figure 8-1). Prints a list of operating parameters (measurement conditions) (Figure 8-2). After clicking one of the above buttons, the Print dialog box (Figure 8-4) opens. Figure 8-4 Print Dialog Box Step 6. Confirm that HP DeskJet 550C Printer is selected in the Name box of the Printer section. Selection in Name drop-down list HP DeskJet 550C Printer Printer HP DeskJet 930C Series (Attached to printer parallel port) 188 Chapter 8 Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data Printing Measurement Graphs and Internal Data Lists Selection in Name drop-down list Printer HP DeskJet 895C Series (Attached to printer parallel port) HP DeskJet 970C Series (Attached to printer parallel port) NOTE Table 8-2 If you use a printer driver installed in accordance with “Installing Printer Drivers” on page 191, click the Name drop-down menu to select your printer’s name. Step 7. Perform print setting, as discussed in Table 8-2. Options in Print Dialog Box Option How to set Printer properties and Print to file Click the Properties button in the Printer section to display the printer driver’s property dialog box (Figure 8-5), where you can set up printing options such as portrait or landscape print orientation. You can create a printer file (.prn) instead of outputting to your printer by checking the Print to file check box (√) in the Printer section. Print range If the print range covers more than two pages, click to select the All (print all pages) or Pages (print specified pages) radio button in the Print range section. When you select the Pages radio button, enter the start and end pages in the from and to boxes, respectively*1. Number of copies*2 Enter the number of copies you want to print in the Number of copies box in the Copies section*3. Collate*2 To make collated sets of copies, check the Collate check box in the Copies section. *1. Use the front panel key or the keyboard to type the number. *2. Some printers do not support this function. *3. Use the front panel key or the keyboard to type the number, or use the st buttons to the right of the spin box to select the desired number. 8. Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data Chapter 8 189 Figure 8-5 Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data Printing Measurement Graphs and Internal Data Lists Properties Dialog Box for HP DeskJet 550C Printer Driver Step 8. Click OK to start printing. NOTE To close the dialog box without printing, click the Cancel or X button instead of OK. The Printer Folder dialog box (Figure 8-6) may pop up after turning on the E4991A if the instrument has print data. On the external keyboard, press and hold down and then press to again display the Printers Folder dialog box (Figure 8-6) and then click Cancel to delete the internal data. Figure 8-6 Printers Folder Dialog Box 190 Chapter 8 8. Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data Installing Printer Drivers Installing Printer Drivers If you want to use a different type of printer that Agilent has announced support for, perform the following procedure to install the corresponding printer driver in the E4991A. How to install a printer driver: NOTE Agilent Technologies does not support the use of any printer or printer driver that is not officially approved for use by Agilent Technologies. You must not physically attach the driver’s printer until you have completed Step 2. Be sure to install the printer driver’s American English version that can run under Windows 2000™. The printer driver can be installed from a 3.5 inch floppy disk or through the LAN port of the E4991A. When you install the printer driver via LAN, you need to connect an external computer to the E4991A’s FTP server, transfer the driver file to the hard disk drive of the E4991A, and access the driver file to install the driver; alternatively, you can connect an external hard disk drive to the E4991A via LAN and remotely access the driver file to install the driver. You must complete the LAN settings of the E4991A before you can install a printer driver via LAN. For more details about setting up and using a LAN, refer to “Configuring the Network” on page 216. Use the mouse or keyboard to perform the following procedure. Step 1. Obtain the printer driver. Obtain the English version of the printer driver that can run under Window 2000. In most cases, a printer driver can be downloaded from the Web site of the printer’s manufacturer. When you install the printer driver from a floppy disk, copy the downloaded printer driver file(s) into 3.5 inch floppy disks. When you install it over LAN, transfer the driver file into the hard disk drive of the E4991A using the FTP function or move it to a hard disk drive connected to the E4991A via LAN. NOTE When copying a printer driver to floppy disks, the file is typically divided into about three disks. Therefore, if you download a printer driver from a Web site, you must specify that the driver be divided into several files so that you can copy each file to a floppy disk. Step 2. Exit the E4991A system program. a. Select System - Exit from the menu bar. This opens the Enter Password to exit dialog box (see Figure 8-7). Figure 8-7 Enter Password to exit Dialog Box b. Use the character entry dialog box that appears when you click the Keyboard... button Chapter 8 191 Printing Measurement Results and Internal Data Installing Printer Drivers or your keyboard to type the password, e4991a, in the Password box. c. Click OK to exit the E4991A system. Step 3. Turn on the printer’s power and attach it to the E4991A. Step 4. Install the printer driver. Install the printer driver in the E4991A just as you would do in a computer running Windows 2000™. For details, see the installation procedure included with the printer driver. Step 5. Shutdown the E4991A and then restart it. a. Move the mouse pointer to the lower left part of the E4991A screen and click Start Shut Down.... b. Click to select Shut down and choose OK. c. After the E4991A’s power is turned off, press and immediately release the Standby switch (see “1. Standby switch” on page 23) and then press the switch again to turn the power on. 192 Chapter 8 9. Setup and Use of Control/ Management Functions 9 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions This chapter describes the setup and use of the E4991A Control/Management functions that are not directly related to measuring and analyzing DUTs. 193 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions Setting the GPIB Setting the GPIB This section describes how to set the interface necessary to use the GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus) of the E4991A. For information on the concept and concrete implementation of the auto measurement using GPIB, refer to “Programmers Guide.” Setting talker/listener GPIB address of E4991A When controlling the E4991A using GPIB commands from the external controller connected to the GPIB connector, you need to set the talker/listener GPIB address of the E4991A. Follow these steps to make this setting: Step 1. Open the shortcut menu by right-clicking and select System (Or press [System] ). Step 2. Click the GPIB Setup Menu button Step 3. Open the E4991A Address box by clicking it, and then select a new address by clicking one. Setting system controller (USB/GPIB interface) When controlling an external device from the E4991A, connect the USB port of the E4991A and the GPIB port of the external device through the USB/GPIB interface. Follow these steps to set the USB/GPIB interface: Step 1. Connect the USB port of the E4991A to the USB/GPIB interface. The USB/GPIB Interface Detected dialog box (Figure 9-1) appears. NOTE Do not connect two or more USB/GPIB interfaces. Figure 9-1 USB/GPIB Interface Detected dialog box Step 2. Confirm that VISA Interface Name is set to GPIB0 (1 in Figure 9-1) and SICL Interface Name is set to hpib7 (2 in Figure 9-1) and then click the Accept button (3 in Figure 9-1). If the setting is correct, the procedure is complete. If the setting is different, click the Edit button (4 in Figure 9-1). 194 Chapter 9 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions Setting the GPIB Figure 9-2 Step 3. The USB to GPIB Configuration dialog box (Figure 9-2) appears. Make the setting enclosed in the thick lines in Figure 9-2 (1 in Figure 9-2) according to the figure and then click the OK button (2 in Figure 9-2). USB to GPIB Configuration dialog box NOTE If you need to check/change the setting of the USB/GPIB interface after connecting the USB/GPIB interface, follow these steps: Step 1. Open the shortcut menu by right-clicking and select System (Or press [System] ). Step 2. Click the GPIB Setup Menu button. Step 3. Press System Controller Configuration. Step 4. The IO Config dialog box (Figure 9-3) appears. Select (highlight) GPIB0 hpib7 (1 in Figure 9-3) and then click the Edit button (2 in Figure 9-3). In the IO Config dialog box, do not click buttons other than specified here or do not change other settings because doing so may cause serious damage to the functions of the E4991A. 9. Setup and Use of Control/ Management Functions Chapter 9 195 Figure 9-3 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions Setting the GPIB IO Config dialog box Step 5. The USB to GPIB Configuration dialog box (Figure 9-2) appears. Check/change the setting of the USB/GPIB interface and then click the OK button (2 in Figure 9-2). Step 6. In the USB to GPIB Configuration dialog box, click the OK button (3 in Figure 9-3). 196 Chapter 9 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions Setting the Internal Clock Setting the Internal Clock The E4991A has a built-in clock for the date and time. This internal clock is used for recording the date and time of when internal data or a VBA program is saved as a file. Procedure for setting the internal clock NOTE Use the mouse or keyboard for the following operation. Step 1. Exiting the E4991A system program. a. Click System - Exit in the menu bar. The Enter Password to exit dialog box (Figure 9-4) opens. Figure 9-4 Enter Password to exit dialog box b. Click the Keyboard... button and use the displayed character entry dialog box or use an external keyboard to enter the password e4991a in the Password box. c. Click the OK button to exit the E4991A system. Step 2. Setting the date and time. a. Click the Start button in the lower-left corner of the screen and select Settings Control Panel (Figure 9-5). This operation will open the Control Panel window (Figure 9-6). Figure 9-5 Select Control Panel from the start menu. 9. Setup and Use of Control/ Management Functions Chapter 9 197 Figure 9-6 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions Setting the Internal Clock Control Panel window Figure 9-7 b. After double-clicking the Date/Time icon, the Date/Time Properties dialog box (Figure 9-7) will open. Date/Time Properties dialog box Figure 9-8 c. Set the date and time in the Date and Time areas, respectively. d. Click the Time Zone tab. Date/Time Properties dialog box (Time Zone tab) 198 Chapter 9 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions Setting the Internal Clock e. Click the t button to select the time zone. f. If you want to set daylight savings time automatically, enter a check mark (√) in the Automatically adjust clock for daylight saving changes check box. g. Click the OK button. NOTE When you want to execute a setting change for the mouse at the same time, proceed to Step 3 on page 200 for “Setting the Mouse” (doing both procedures at this time will require you to restart the E4991A only once). h. Click the x button in the Control Panel window to close the window. Step 3. Shutting down and restarting the E4991A. a. Click Start - Shut Down... (Figure 9-9). Figure 9-9 Click Start - Shut Down. Figure 9-10 b. Click the Shut down option button and then click the OK button (Figure 9-10). The E4991A will shut down. Shut down dialog box c. When the power of the E4991A is off, press the Standby switch once to activate the switch and then press it again to turn on the power. 9. Setup and Use of Control/ Management Functions Chapter 9 199 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions Setting the Mouse Setting the Mouse The user can change the setup for the mouse connected to the E4991A and the movement of the pointer. Setup Step NOTE Be sure to use a mouse and a keyboard for mouse setup operations. Step 1. Exiting the E4991A system program. a. Click System - Exit in the menu bar.The Enter Password to exit dialog box (Figure 9-2) opens. b. Click the Keyboard... button and use the displayed character entry dialog box or use an external keyboard to enter the password e4991a in the Password box. c. Click the OK button to exit the E4991A system. Step 2. Click the Start button in the lower-left corner of the screen and select Settings - Control Panel (Figure 9-5). This will open the Control Panel window (Figure 9-11). Figure 9-11 Control Panel Window NOTE Step 3. Double-click the Mouse icon (1 in Figure 9-11) in the Control Panel window. Do not click icons other than specified here or do not change other settings because doing so may cause serious damage to the functions of the E4991A. 200 Chapter 9 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions Setting the Mouse Step 4. The Mouse Properties dialog box (Figure 9-12) is displayed. Define the setup for a right-handed/left-handed person in the Buttons configuration area. Define also the setup for double-click speed in the Double-click speed area. Figure 9-12 Mouse Properties Dialog Box (Buttons tab) Step 5. Click the Pointers tab (Figure 9-13). Figure 9-13 Mouse Properties Dialog Box (Pointers tab) 9. Setup and Use of Control/ Management Functions Chapter 9 201 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions Setting the Mouse Step 6. Enter a registration name into the Scheme box and specify the shapes of pointers for the registration name in the box below. To create a registration name, click the Save As... button. Enter the registration name into the Save Scheme dialog box that appears, and click the OK button. Step 7. Click the Motion tab (Figure 9-14). Figure 9-14 Mouse Properties Dialog Box (Motion tab) NOTE Step 8. Specify the pointer speed in the Pointer speed area and the pointer trail in the Pointer trail area. Step 9. Click the OK button. Step 10. Click the × button (1 in Figure 9-11) at the corner in the Control Panel window. When you want to execute a setting change for the internal clock at the same time, proceed to Step 2-b for “Setting the Internal Clock” on page 197. (doing both procedures at this time will require you to restart the E4991A only once). Step 11. Shutting down and restarting the E4991A. a. Click Start - Shut Down... (Figure 9-7). b. Click the Shut down option button and then click the OK button (Figure 9-8). The E4991A will shut down. c. When the power of the E4991A is off, press the Standby switch once to activate the switch and then press it again to turn on the power. 202 Chapter 9 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions Confirmation of Options and Firmware Version Confirmation of Options and Firmware Version The options and the version of firmware installed in the E4991A can be confirmed by following the procedure below. Operation Procedure Step 1. Open the shortcut menu by right-clicking and select System (Or press ). Step 2. Click the About E4991A button. This opens the About E4991A dialog box (Figure 9-15), where you can confirm the installed options and firmware version. Figure 9-15 About E4991A dialog box Step 3. Close the About E4991A dialog box by clicking the OK button. 9. Setup and Use of Control/ Management Functions Chapter 9 203 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions System Recovery System Recovery By executing system recovery, you can return the system of the E4991A (the Windows operating system and the firmware) to the factory state (at the time of purchase*1). Types of system recoveries The following two types of system recoveries are available. o Factory recovery Returns the contents of the C drive to the factory state. o User recoveryñù Returns the contents of the C drive to a user-specified state. To use this function, you must prepare for recovery in advance. For information on preparation, see “Procedure to create the user backup image” on page 208 for information on the execution. Also, see “Procedure to execute the user recovery function” on page 211. Notes on executing system recovery Executing system recovery causes the following: o In addition to the Windows operating system and the firmware, the following settings of the E4991A are returned to the factory state. • Network setting • GPIB setting • Printer setting o The driver for the supported printer installed after purchase is deleted. o You need to execute initial registration again. Files you created using the save function (files in the D drive) are not affected, but we recommend backing them up before executing system recovery for precautionary purposes. *1.If the hard disk failed and has been replaced after purchase, the state when the replacement was performed is recovered. *2.This function is available when the volume label on the hard disk is IG201 or higher. 204 Chapter 9 NOTE Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions System Recovery Procedure to execute system recovery This section describes how to return the contents of the C drive to the factory state. You need the keyboard for this operation. Step 1. Shut down the E4991A. Step 2. Connect the keyboard to the E4991A. Step 3. Insert the disk for the system recovery into the floppy disk drive of the E4991A. Step 4. Press the standby switch of the E4991A to turn it on. Step 5. When the screen as shown in the figure below appears, press and hold keyboard until this screen disappears. of the 9. Setup and Use of Control/ Management Functions NOTE After several seconds, the next screen appears automatically even if you do not press any key, so do not miss it. If the above message does not appear, the instrument is at fault; contact your local Agilent customer center listed at the end of this manual or distributor. Chapter 9 205 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions System Recovery Step 6. The following screen appears. Select “+Removable Devices” with keyboard, and press of the keyboard. of the NOTE Step 7. The message as shown below appears. Press factory recovery, press here. of the keyboard. If you want to cancel the Agilent Technologies System Utilities Recovery & Backup Options Choose One of the following: _________________________________________________________________ 1. Recover Factory Backup Image 2. Create User Backup Image 3. Recover User Backup Image 4. Exit _________________________________________________________________ Enter a Choice: _ If the above message does not appear, the instrument or the disk for the system recovery is at fault; contact your local Agilent customer center listed at the end of this manual or distributor. 206 Chapter 9 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions System Recovery Step 8. The message as shown below appears. Press system recovery, press here. of the keyboard. If you want to cancel the You chose to Restore your system by installing the original factory installed OS and system software. WARNING: Press C to Continue only if you are sure that you want to proceed. The C: Drive will be completely overwritten with no chance of recovering any data. Use Option 1 to recover the system from a serious malfunction caused by corrupted or inadvertently deleted files on the system's primary C: partition. Press C to Continue or E to Exit: _ Step 9. The message as shown below appears. Press of the keyboard to start the factory recovery. If you want to cancel the factory recovery, press here. CAUTION! Interrupting this process may leave the system in an unstable state. Allow the software to complete the backup and recovery process. This may take up to 20 minutes depending on the system configuration. Press C to Continue or E to Exit: _ CAUTION Never turn off the power during the factory recovery because doing so may cause serious damage to the E4991A. Step 10. The factory recovery will be complete in about 5 minutes. When the factory recovery is complete, the message as shown below appears. Press , , and keyboard at the same time to restart. of the Remove the disk and Press CLT+ALT+DEL to restart your system. NOTE If the above message does not appear, the instrument is at fault; contact your local Agilent customer center listed at the end of this manual or distributor. Step 11. After restart, the screen for initial registration appears. Execute initial registration. For information on the execution procedure, refer to Installation/Quick Start Guide. 9. Setup and Use of Control/ Management Functions Chapter 9 207 NOTE NOTE Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions System Recovery Procedure to create the user backup image This section describes how to create the user backup image. The C drive contents saved in this creation are recalled when the user recovery function is executed. This function is available when the volume label on the hard disk is IG201 or higher. You need the keyboard for this operation. Step 1. Shut down the E4991A. Step 2. Connect the keyboard to the E4991A. Step 3. Insert the disk for the system recovery into the floppy disk drive of the E4991A. Step 4. Press the standby switch of the E4991A to turn it on. Step 5. When the screen as shown in the figure below appears, press and hold keyboard until this screen disappears. of the NOTE After several seconds, the next screen appears automatically even if you do not press any key, so do not miss it. If the above message does not appear, the instrument is at fault; contact your local Agilent customer center listed at the end of this manual or distributor. 208 Chapter 9 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions System Recovery Step 6. The following screen appears. Select “+Removable Devices” with keyboard, and press of the keyboard. of the 9. Setup and Use of Control/ Management Functions NOTE Step 7. The message as shown below appears. Press create user backup image, press here. of the keyboard. If you want to cancel the Agilent Technologies System Utilities Recovery & Backup Options Choose One of the following: _________________________________________________________________ 1. Recover Factory Backup Image 2. Create User Backup Image 3. Recover User Backup Image 4. Exit _________________________________________________________________ Enter a Choice: _ If the above message does not appear, the instrument or the disk for the system recovery is at fault; contact your local Agilent customer center listed at the end of this manual or distributor. Chapter 9 209 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions System Recovery Step 8. The message as shown below appears. Press create user backup image, press here. of the keyboard. If you want to cancel the You chose to create a backup image file of your system. The system will perform a quick integrity check of the file structure on the C: Drive. It will then copy the C: partition to an image file and store it on the System Recovery partition. Press C to Continue or E to Exit: _ Step 9. The message as shown below appears. Press of the keyboard to start the create user backup image. If you want to cancel the create user backup image, press here. CAUTION! Interrupting this process may leave the system in an unstable state. Allow the software to complete the backup and recovery process. This may take up to 20 minutes depending on the system configuration. Press C to Continue or E to Exit: _ CAUTION Never turn off the power during the create user backup image because doing so may cause serious damage to the E4991A. Step 10. The create user backup image will be complete in about 5 minutes. When the create user backup image is complete, the message as shown below appears. Press , , and of the keyboard at the same time to restart. Remove the disk and Press CLT+ALT+DEL to restart your system. NOTE If the above message does not appear, the instrument is at fault; contact your local Agilent customer center listed at the end of this manual or distributor. 210 Chapter 9 NOTE NOTE Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions System Recovery Procedure to execute the user recovery function Returns the contents of the C drive to a user-specified state. To use this function, you must create the user backup image in advance. For more information, see the description “Procedure to create the user backup image” on page 208. This function is available when the volume label on the hard disk is IG201 or higher. You need the keyboard for this operation. Step 1. Shut down the E4991A. Step 2. Connect the keyboard to the E4991A. Step 3. Insert the disk for the system recovery into the floppy disk drive of the E4991A. Step 4. Press the standby switch of the E4991A to turn it on. Step 5. When the screen as shown in the figure below appears, press and hold keyboard until this screen disappears. of the 9. Setup and Use of Control/ Management Functions NOTE After several seconds, the next screen appears automatically even if you do not press any key, so do not miss it. If the above message does not appear, the instrument is at fault; contact your local Agilent customer center listed at the end of this manual or distributor. Chapter 9 211 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions System Recovery Step 6. The following screen appears. Select “+Removable Devices” with keyboard, and press of the keyboard. of the NOTE Step 7. The message as shown below appears. Press user recovery, press here. of the keyboard. If you want to cancel the Agilent Technologies System Utilities Recovery & Backup Options Choose One of the following: _________________________________________________________________ 1. Recover Factory Backup Image 2. Create User Backup Image 3. Recover User Backup Image 4. Exit _________________________________________________________________ Enter a Choice: _ If the above message does not appear, the instrument or the disk for the system recovery is at fault; contact your local Agilent customer center listed at the end of this manual or distributor. 212 Chapter 9 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions System Recovery Step 8. The message as shown below appears. Press user recovery, press here. of the keyboard. If you want to cancel the You chose to recover your own system backup image file. WARNING: Press C to Continue only if you are sure that you want to proceed. The C: partition will be completely overwritten with no chance of recovering any data. Use Option 3 to recover the system from a serious malfunction caused by corrupted or inadvertently deleted files on the system's primary C: partition. Press C to Continue or E to Exit: _ Step 9. The message as shown below appears. Press of the keyboard to start the user recovery. If you want to cancel the user recovery, press here. CAUTION! Interrupting this process may leave the system in an unstable state. Allow the software to complete the backup and recovery process. This may take up to 20 minutes depending on the system configuration. Press C to Continue or E to Exit: _ CAUTION Never turn off the power during the system recovery because doing so may cause serious damage to the E4991A. Step 10. The user recovery will be complete in about 5 minutes. When the user recovery is complete, the message as shown below appears. Press , , and keyboard at the same time to restart. of the Remove the disk and Press CLT+ALT+DEL to restart your system. NOTE If the above message does not appear, the instrument is at fault; contact your local Agilent customer center listed at the end of this manual or distributor. 9. Setup and Use of Control/ Management Functions Chapter 9 213 Setup and Use of Control/Management Functions System Recovery 214 Chapter 9 10 Using LAN This chapter explains how to transfer files and perform remote operations from an external computer by connecting the E4991A to a Local Area Network (LAN). 10. Using LAN 215 Using LAN Configuring the Network NOTE Configuring the Network When you use the E4991A by connecting it to your LAN, consult your network administrator and make the setting of the LAN correctly. This section describes how to set the following basic items necessary to connect the E4991A to the LAN (Local Area Network). o “Enabling/disabling network” on page 216 o “Setting IP address” on page 218 o “Specifying computer name” on page 220 If you need detail network settings, consult your network administrator and perform operation in the same way as the Windows 2000® PC. Enabling/disabling network You can enable/disable the network connection function of the E4991A. Follow these steps to enable/disable the network connection function. Step 1. Use the LAN cable to connect the E4991A to the LAN. Step 2. Exit from the E4991A system program. a. Click System - Exit from the menu bar. This opens the Enter Password to exit dialog box (Figure 10-1). Figure 10-1 Enter Password to exit dialog box b. Enter the password: e4991a into the Password box by using the character input dialog box that appears by clicking the Keyboard... button or by using the external keyboard. c. Exit from the E4991A system by clicking the OK button. Step 3. Click the Start button at the lower left of the screen to select Settings - Network and Dial-up Connections (Figure 10-3). This opens Network and Dial-up Connections window (Figure 10-3). 216 Chapter 10 Figure 10-2 Seleect Network and Dial-up Connections Using LAN Configuring the Network Figure 10-3 Network and Dial-up Connections window 10. Using LAN Chapter 10 217 Using LAN Configuring the Network Step 4. When switching from disable to enable: Double-click the Local Area Connection icon (1 in Figure 10-3) in the Network and Dial-up connections window to enable the network connection function. When switching from enable to disable: Double-click the Local Area Connection icon (1 in Figure 10-3) in the Network and Dial-up Connections window. The Local Area Connection Status dialog box (Figure 10-4) appears. Click the Disable button (1 in Figure 10-4) to disable the network connection function. Figure 10-4 Local Area Connection Status dialog box Step 5. Click the × button (2 in Figure 10-3) in the upper right of the Network and Dial-up Connections window. Setting IP address Follow these steps to set the IP address: Step 1. Exit from the E4991A system program. a. Click System -Exit from the menu bar. The Enter Password to exit dialog box appears. b. Enter the password: e4991a into the Password box by using the character input dialog box that appears by clicking the Keyboard... button or by using the external keyboard. c. Click the OK button to exit the E4991A system. Step 2. Click the Start button at the lower left of the screen to select Settings - Network and Dial-up Connections (Figure 10-3). This opens Network and Dial-up Connections window (Figure 10-3). Step 3. Double-click the Local Area Connection icon (1 in Figure 10-3) in the Network and Dial-up Connections window. The Local Area Connection Status dialog box (Figure 10-4) appears. Click the Properties button (2 in Figure 10-4). 218 Chapter 10 Using LAN Configuring the Network Step 4. The Local Area Connection Properties dialog box (Figure 10-5) appears. Select (highlight) Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (1 in Figure 10-5) and then click the Properties button (2 in Figure 10-5). Figure 10-5 Local Area Connection Properties dialog box Step 5. The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box (Figure 10-6) appears. Click (select) Use the following IP address (1 in Figure 10-6) and then enter the IP address (2 in Figure 10-6), the subnet mask (3 in Figure 10-6), and the gateway address (4 in Figure 10-6). If the IP address can be obtained automatically (if the DHCP server can be used), click (select) Obtain an IP address automatically (5 in Figure 10-6). Figure 10-6 Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box 10. Using LAN Chapter 10 219 Using LAN Configuring the Network Step 6. In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box, click the OK button (6 in Figure 10-6). Step 7. In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, click the OK button (3 in Figure 10-5). Step 8. In the Local Area Connection Status dialog box, click the Close button (3 in Figure 10-4). Step 9. Click the × button (2 in Figure 10-3) in the upper right of the Network and Dial-up Connections window. Specifying computer name Follow these steps to specify the computer name: Step 1. Exit from the E4991A system program. a. Click System -Exit from the menu bar. The Enter Password to exit dialog box (Figure 10-1) appears. b. Enter the password: e4991a into the Password box by using the character input dialog box that appears by clicking the Keyboard... button or by using the external keyboard. c. Click the OK button to exit the E4991A system. Step 2. Click the Start button at the lower left of the screen to select Settings - Network and Dial-up Connections (Figure 10-3). This opens Network and Dial-up Connections window (Figure 10-3). Step 3. Click the Advanced? Network Identification...from the menu bar of the Network and Dial-up Connections window. Figure 10-7 Click the Advanced? Network Identification... from the menu bar Step 4. The System Properties dialog box (Figure 10-8) appears. Click the Properties button (1 in Figure 10-8). 220 Chapter 10 Figure 10-8 System Properties dialog box Using LAN Configuring the Network Step 5. The Identification Changes dialog box (Figure 10-9) appears. Enter the computer name in the Computer Name box (1 in Figure 10-9). Figure 10-9 Identification Changes dialog box Step 6. The Network Identification dialog box (Figure 10-10) appears. Click the OK button. Figure 10-10 Network Identification dialog box Chapter 10 221 10. Using LAN Using LAN Configuring the Network Step 7. In the Identification Changes dialog box, click the OK button (2 in Figure 10-9). Step 8. In the System Properties dialog box, click the OK button (2 in Figure 10-8). Step 9. The System Settings Change dialog box (Figure 10-11) appears. Click the Yes button to restart the E4991A. Figure 10-11 System Settings Change dialog box NOTE Until the E4991A is restarted, changed setting does not take effect. 222 Chapter 10 Using LAN File Transfer Using FTP Figure 10-12 File Transfer Using FTP Files can be transferred between the E4991A connected to a LAN and external computers by using the E4991A’s File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server function. File transfer using FTP NOTE NOTE No more than one FTP connection can be made to a single E4991A unit at the same time. Refer to “Configuring the Network” on page 216 for connecting the E4991A to a LAN. Refer to your computer’s user manuals for how to connect the computer to the LAN. The explanation given below assumes that you understand the basic computer operations under Windows™ and MS-DOS™ environments. FTP file transfer using MS-DOS™ prompt You can connect to the E4991A FTP server and carry out file transfer by accessing the MS-DOS™ prompt (the software interface needed to use the MS-DOS™ window) on your computer under the Windows™ environment while connected to a LAN. Operation Procedures Step 1. Make the E4991A FTP server valid. Validation of the E4991A’s FTP server is only available from the local user interface. For details on the local user interface and remote user interface, refer to “Using Remote User Interface” on page 228. a. Open the shortcut menu by right-clicking and select System (or press ). Chapter 10 223 10. Using LAN Using LAN File Transfer Using FTP b. Click the FTP Server Menu button. c. Click the FTP Server button to toggle it to On (Valid) if it is set to FTP Server: [Off]. Indication on FTP Server button FTP Server: [On] FTP Server: [Off] Condition of FTP server On (Valid) Off (Invalid) Step 2. Connect to the E4991A FTP server from an external computer a. Bring up the MS-DOS™ prompt on the external computer (Figure 10-13). Figure 10-13 MS-DOS™ prompt screen Figure 10-14 b. Input commands after the MS-DOS™ prompt to shift the current directory of the computer to the directory where files are sent and received (for example C:\transfer). c. Type: ftp ( is the IP address of the connected E4991A) or if the host name is specified, type: ftp ( is the hostname of the connected E4991A, for example e4991a_01) after the MS-DOS™ prompt and press (Figure 10-14). Connection to E4991A FTP server (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx is the IP address of the connected E4991A) Figure 10-15 d. Press without inputting anything, even though input of a user name is prompted by User(xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx: (none)): . The display then indicates that the connection is complete (Figure 10-15). After connection to E4991A FTP server. NOTE The E4991A FTP server connection is not provided with a security function based on user name and password. 224 Chapter 10 Using LAN File Transfer Using FTP Step 3. Using FTP commands FTP commands can be used after connection has been made to the FTP server. Common FTP commands are given in Table 10-1. Use the [Help] command in Table 10-1 to find out about other commands and their functions. Table 10-1 Common FTP commands (server: E4991A, client: external computer) FTP command ascii binary cd remote_directory delete remote_file dir [remote_directory] get remote_file [local_file] help help command lcd [local_directory] put local_file [remote_file] rmdir remote_directory quit Function Sets file transfer mode to ASCII Sets file transfer mode to binary Changes the server’s current directory to remote_directory. Deletes remote_file from the server Shows a file list of the directory named remote_directory in the server. The list of the entire current directory’s contents is indicated if remote_directory is not specified. Creates a copy of the server’s remote_file on the client as local_file. The file name remote_name is kept as the client-side file name if a new file name local_file is not specified. Shows the list of FTP commands. Gives a simple explanation of the command command. Changes the current directory of the client to local_directory. Creates a copy of the client’s local_file on the server as remote_file. The file name local_file is kept as the server-side file name if a new file name remote_file is not specified. Deletes remote_directory from the server. Disconnects from the server to terminate FTP. As an example, the following procedures would be followed for transferring (copying) a binary format data-saving file called sample.dat in the current directory of the E4991A (server) to the external computer (client) under the same file name. a. Type binary after the ftp> prompt and press binary (Figure 10-16). to set the file transfer mode to Figure 10-16 Setting in binary transfer mode 10. Using LAN b. Type get sample.dat after the ftp> prompt and press . The file sample.dat on the E4991A is transferred to the working directory of the external computer (a copy is Chapter 10 225 Figure 10-17 Using LAN File Transfer Using FTP created) (Figure 10-17). Transfer sample.dat file to PC FTP file transfer using FTP application software Performing the operations of “FTP file transfer using MS-DOS‘ prompt” on page 223 is complicated because users need to remember FTP commands. The user can easily achieve FTP transfers by using commercial FTP application software with a graphical user interface, eliminating the need to learn commands. Operation procedures Step 1. Start up the FTP application software (Figure 10-18). Figure 10-18 FTP application software (Example) Step 2. Input the IP address of the connected E4991A in the box provided for entering the server name (Server Name box in Figure 10-18). Step 3. Specify Anonymous FTP if this option is available (put a check mark √ in the Anonymous FTP check box in Figure 10-18). You can also input a user name in the box for user name input (Username box in Figure 10-18) instead of specifying Anonymous FTP. Step 4. Connect to the FTP server (click the Open button in Figure 10-18). 226 Chapter 10 Figure 10-19 Example of completed FTP server connection Using LAN File Transfer Using FTP The same operations as those used in Windows Explorer™, such as drag and drop, can be used with FTP application software after completion of a server connection (Figure 10-18). Refer to your FTP application software’s manual for further instructions. Stop/Abortion of process/Cut off from server by E4991A operation Abortion of transfer and disconnection from the server can be accomplished by E4991A operations. Step 1. Open the shortcut menu by right-clicking and select system (Or press ). Step 2. Click the FTP Server Menu button. Step 3. Click FTP Server button, Abort button, or Disconnect button to execute on-off switching of the server, abortion of process, or disconnection from the server, respectively. FTP server setup button FTP Server Abort Disconnect Function Switches FTP server on and off. Connections from external computers cannot be made in off condition. Aborts the process in execution. For example, aborts a file transfer. Disconnects from the FTP server. Even after the connection is disconnected, reconnection from an external computer is possible if the FTP Server is On. Chapter 10 227 10. Using LAN Using LAN Using Remote User Interface Figure 10-20 Using Remote User Interface Outline of Remote User Interface The E4991A LCD display’s indication and various operations are controlled by the User Interface Software already installed in the E4991A. Remote operation of the E4991A from an external PC through a LAN can be achieved by installing this E4991A User Interface Software in the external PC (Figure 10-20). Local user interface and remote user interface 228 Chapter 10 Table 10-2 NOTE Using LAN Using Remote User Interface Comparison of local U/I and remote U/I The local user interface and the remote user interface have the same functions except for the items listed in Table 10-2. Different functions between local user interface and remote user interface Ability to connect to (disconnect from) a measurement server (System - Remote Setup Dialog menu) GPIB function FTP server function Ability to copy E4991A internal data and display’s image as a graphic file onto the clipboard in the Windows™ OS Ability to minimize, change size of, and close application windows Local user interface (automatically connected) √ √ X X Remote user interface √ X X √ (Refer to “Copying measurement plot and internal data to other application software” on page 236) √ √: function is available X: function is not available For devices such as hard disks and printers, only those that can work with the operation hardware (E4991A main body for local mode, PC for remote mode) are accessible. For example, the E4991A’s internal hard disk (drive D) cannot be accessed from the remote user interface unless the E4991A’s internal hard disk is connected to the external PC as a network drive. Simultaneous operation of Local U/I and Remote U/I Only one remote user interface can be connected to a single E4991A at one time. Accordingly, the local user interface and remote user interface can be simultaneously operated. In performing a function that is common to both user interfaces, operation on one user interface is simultaneously reflected on the other user interface. On the other hand, in performing a function that can be independently carried out by one user interface, that interface can be individually set up without affecting the other one. Table 10-3 lists the 10. Using LAN Chapter 10 229 Table 10-3 NOTE Table 10-4 NOTE NOTE Using LAN Using Remote User Interface common and independent functions of the two types of user interfaces. Common and independent functions of the Local U/I and Remote U/I Common functions •Setup of Start/Stop (sweep range) •Setup of Sweep •Setup of Source •Setup of Cal/Compen •Execution of Trigger •Setup of Trigger Setup Independent functions •Selection of Active Trace •Setup of Meas/Format •Setup of Scale •Setup of Display •Setup of Marker •Setup of Marker Function •Setup of Utility •Operation of Save/Recall When you operate the local U/I and the remote U/I simultaneously, the response time (time between operation and actual execution of commands in the E4991A) may be excessively long due to conflicting processes in the internal operations. Required performance of external PC The performance requirements of the external PC used with the E4991A user interface software (including the E4991A VBA software) are listed in Table 10-4. Required Performance of External PC for Remote User Interface Processor Memory Operating System *1. English version is recommended. Intel® Pentium® MMX 233 MHz equivalent or higher performance 128 MB or more Windows® 2000*1 or Windows® XP, The E4991A user interface software and the E4991A VBA software will operate under both American English and Japanese versions of Microsoft Windows (Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000). Installation of E4991A user interface software Be sure to take the following precautions before installing the E4991A user interface software and the E4991A VBA software in your external PC. • First, back up your important files in the external PC to a CD-R or other backup medium. After installation, regularly back up your files. • When you program with the E4991A VBA software installed on the external PC, save the program periodically while programming. Agilent Technologies shall not be liable for any damages during installation and operation of the E4991A user interface software and the E4991A VBA software. Agilent Technologies does not warrant that the operation of this software will be uninterrupted or error-free under any environment. 230 Chapter 10 Using LAN Using Remote User Interface Before using the E4991A VBA software, you must carefully read and accept the License Agreement attached to the product. When using the E4991A user interface from an external PC, the version number of the connected E4991A main body measurement server program (program to control measurement) and that of the E4991A user interface on the external PC must be identical. Step 1. Install E4991A user interface software on the external PC a. Go http://www.agilent.com/ with your browser of PC. Enter “e4991a firmware” in the search field, then click search. b. Click “E4991A RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Firmware Update”. There is two firmware files depends on the serial number of your product. (refer to the site.) Download your desired file on the your PC ( e.g. Desktop) NOTE Figure 10-21 Update the E4991A firmware to the latest revision when E4991A Version Mismatch dialog box (Figure 10-26) appears. c. Click the downloaded file (.exe) on the desktop of your PC to extract it. d. Move each files under directories of DISK_2 and DISK_3 to DISK_1. e. Execute the file named E4991.msi in the DISK_1. f. Follow the instructions of the E4991A Setup Wizard (Figure 10-21) to complete installation of the E4991A user interface software. E4991A Setup Wizard 10. Using LAN NOTE The E4991A user interface software (E4991A.exe) start up icon is placed on the PC desktop after completion of E4991A user interface software installation. The installer creates a new folder named “Agilent\E4991” in the program folder of the PC (usually the C:\Program File folder) and copies the program files of the E4991A user interface into it. Chapter 10 231 Using LAN Using Remote User Interface Step 2. Install E4991A VBA software on the external PC To use the VBA function of the E4991A user interface from an external PC, install the E4991A VBA software by following the procedure below after completing Step 1 on page 231. NOTE Figure 10-22 The E4991A VBA software can be installed on only one PC for each E4991A purchased based on the licensing agreement. Installing this software on more than one PC per purchased E4991A violates the terms of this agreement. a. Execute the file named E4991A_vbs.msi on the CD-ROM. This opens the VBA Setup Wizard (Figure 10-22). E4991A VBA Setup Wizard b. Follow the instructions of the E4991A VBA Setup Wizard (Figure 10-22) to complete the E4991A VBA installation. Procedure to uninstall E4991A user interface Step 1. Uninstall the E4991A user interface software a. Open the folder that downloaded according to Step 1 of “Installation of E4991A user interface software” on page 230. b. Execute the file named e4991.msi on the DISK_1. This opens the E4991A Setup Wizard (Figure 10-21). 232 Chapter 10 Figure 10-23 E4991A Setup Wizard (uninstall) Using LAN Using Remote User Interface NOTE c. Click the Remove E4991A option button to select it and then click the Finish button. Select the Repair E4991A option button if you need to correct operational trouble of the installed E4991A user interface. With this option, only the necessary files are renewed, so this operation is simpler than executing a full uninstall and reinstall. d. Follow the instructions of the E4991A Setup Wizard (Figure 10-23) to complete uninstall of the E4991A user interface software. Step 2. Uninstall of E4991A VBA software a. Execute the file named e4991a_vba.msi on the CD-ROM. b. Follow the same procedure shown in Step 1 above to complete uninstall of the E4991A VBA software. Starting up the E4991A user interface and connecting to the E4991A measurement server After you complete installation of the E4991A user interface software on the external PC, start up the software and connect the external PC to the E4991A measurement server (Figure 10-24). Chapter 10 233 10. Using LAN Figure 10-24 Using LAN Using Remote User Interface Connecting to the E4991A Measurement Server Follow the instructions below. Step 1. Double-click the icon to start up the E4991A user interface The E4991A user interface screen appears and the E4991A Measurement Server connection dialog box (Figure 10-25) pops up after a short time. NOTE Remote operation from the remote user interface can be done by connecting the remote PC to the measurement server of the E4991A. Figure 10-25 Connect E4991A Measurement Server dialog box Step 2. Input the IP address or host name of the connecting E4991A measurement server in the Host Name box. Step 3. Input the timeout interval of connecting to a E4991A measurement server in the Timeout Interval box. Step 4. Click the Register button to set the Host Name and Timeout Interval you entered as the initial values for the next start-up of the E4991A user interface. Click the Default button to 234 Chapter 10 Using LAN Using Remote User Interface restore the settings to their factory default states. NOTE If you use the Windows NT 4.0 operating system on your PC, you need to log onto the PC as an administrator to enable the Register button. Step 5. Click the Connect button to execute connection to the E4991A measurement server. Click the Close button or X button to close the dialog box without making a connection. NOTE Update the E4991A firmware to the latest revision when E4991A Version Mismatch dialog box (Figure 10-26) appears. Figure 10-26 Version Mismatch dialog box Disconnection of E4991A measurement server Follow the procedures below to disconnect the E4991A measurement server. Step 1. Right-click on the E4991A user interface screen to open the shortcut menu and select System. Step 2. Click the Remote Setup Dialog button. This opens the E4991A Measurement Server Connection dialog box (Figure 10-25). Step 3. Click the Disconnect button. 10. Using LAN Chapter 10 235 Using LAN Using Remote User Interface Closing the E4991A user interface Click System - Exit from the menu bar (or click the X button) to close the E4991A user interface. Copying measurement plot and internal data to other application software Plots of measurement results and lists of measurement data and measurement conditions (operating parameters) can be copied onto the Windows operating system clipboard on the E4991A user interface. The contents of the clipboard can be pasted directly into various types of application software (image processing software, word processing software, spreadsheet software, etc.). This provides simplified operation compared with loading other application software after saving the information in a separate file. Operation Procedure Step 1. Right-click in the E4991A user interface to open the shortcut menu and select Display. Step 2. Click the Print/Clipbd Menu button. Step 3. Click the button indicating the content to be copied to the clipboard. Clipboard copy button Copy to Clipboard Graph (bmp) Copy to Clipboard Graph (jpg) Copy to Clipboard List Values Copy to Clipboard Operating Params Copy function Copies plots shown on the screen to the clipboard in bmp format. When more than one window is open, this button will only copy the window of the active trace. Copies plots shown on the screen to the clipboard in jpg format. When more than one window is open, this button will only copy the window of the active trace. Copies a data list (all measurement points) to the clipboard. Copies a list of operating parameters (measurement conditions) to the clipboard. Step 4. Paste the contents of the clipboard directly into other applications. 236 Chapter 10 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information 11 Specifications and Supplemental Information This chapter provides specifications and supplemental information for the Agilent E4991A RF Impedance/Material Analyzer. 237 Specifications and Supplemental Information Definitions Definitions All specifications apply over a 5°C to 40°C range (unless otherwise stated) and 30 minutes after the instrument has been turned on. Specification (spec.): Warranted performance. Specifications include guardbands to account for the expected statistical performance distribution, measurement uncertainties, and changes in performance due to environmental conditions. Supplemental information is intended to provide information that is helpful for using the instrument but that is not guaranteed by the product warranty. This information is denoted as either typical or nominal. Typical (typ.): Nominal (nom.): Expected performance of an average unit that does not include guardbands. It is not guaranteed by the product warranty. A general, descriptive term that does not imply a level of performance. It is not guaranteed by the product warranty. Measurement Parameters and Range Measurement Parameters Impedance parameters Material parameters (option 002) Permittivity parameters Permeability parameters |Z|, |Y|, Ls, Lp, Cs, Cp, Rs (R), Rp, X, G, B, D, Q, θz, θy, |Γ|, Γx, Γy, θγ (see “Option 002 Material Measurement (typical)” on page 263) εr , εr′ , εr″ , tan δ μr , μr′ , μr″ , tan δ Measurement Range Measurement range (|Z|) 130 mΩ to 20 kΩ (Frequency = 1 MHz, Point averaging factor ≥ 8, Oscillator level = −3 dBm; = −13 dBm; or = −23 dBm, Measurement Accuracy ≤ ±10%, Calibration is performed at 23°C ±5°C, Measurement is performed at calibration temperature ±5°C) 238 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Specifications and Supplemental Information Source Characteristics Source Characteristics Frequency Range Resolution Accuracy without Option 1D5 with Option 1D5 Stability with Option 1D5 1 MHz to 3 GHz 1 mHz ±10 ppm (23 ±5°C) ±20 ppm (5°C to 40°C) ±1 ppm (5°C to 40°C) ±0.5 ppm/year (5°C to 40°C) (Typical) Oscillator Level Range Power (when 50 Ω load is connected to test port) − 40 dBm to 1 dBm (Frequency ≤ 1 GHz) − 40 dBm to 0 dBm (Frequency > 1GHz*1) Current (when short is connected to test port) 0.0894 mArms to 10 mArms (Frequency ≤ 1 GHz) 0.0894 mArms to 8.94 mArms (Frequency > 1 GHz*1) Voltage (when open is connected to test port) 4.47 mVrms to 502 mVrms (Frequency ≤ 1 GHz) 4.47 mVrms to 447 mVrms (Frequency > 1 GHz*1) Resolution 0.1 dB*2 Power Accuracy Test Head*3 Frequency ≤ 1 GHz ±2 dB (23 ± 5°C) ±4 dB (5°C to 40°C) Frequency > 1 GHz ±3 dB (23 ±5°C) ±5 dB (5°C to 40°C) Option 010 Probe Station Connection Kit Frequency ≤ 1 GHz ±5.5 dB (5°C to 40°C) Frequency > 1 GHz ±7.6 dB (5°C to 40°C) *1. It is possible to set an oscillator level of more than 0 dBm (447 mV, 8.94 mA) at frequency > 1 GHz. However, the characteristics at this setting are not guaranteed. *2. When the unit is set at mV or mA, the entered value is rounded to 0.1 dB resolution. *3. When 50 Ω load is connected to test port of test head. Chapter 11 239 Specifications and Supplemental Information Source Characteristics Output Impedance Output impedance 50 Ω (nominal) 240 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information NOTE Specifications and Supplemental Information DC Bias (Option 001) DC Bias (Option 001) DC Voltage Bias DC voltage bias Range Resolution Accuracy 0 to ±40 V 1 mV ± {0.1% + 6 mV + (Idc[mA] × 20 Ω)[mV]} (23 ±5°C) ± {0.2% + 12 mV + (Idc[mA] × 40 Ω)[mV]} (5°C to 40°C) DC Current Bias DC current bias Range Resolution Accuracy 100 μA to 50 mA, −100 μA to −50 mA 10 μA ± {0.2% + 20 μA + (Vdc[V] / 10 kΩ)[mA]} (23 ±5°C) ± {0.4% + 40 μA + (Vdc[V] / 5 kΩ)[mA]} (5°C to 40°C) DC Bias Monitor Monitor parameters Voltage monitor accuracy Current monitor accuracy Voltage and Current ± {0.5% + 15 mV + (Idc[mA] × 2 Ω)[mV]} (23 ±5°C, typical) ± {1.0% + 30 mV + (Idc[mA] × 4 Ω)[mV]} (5°C to 40°C, typical) ± {0.5% + 30 μA + (Vdc[V] / 40 kΩ)[mA]} (23 ±5°C, typical) ± {1.0% + 60 μA + (Vdc[V] / 20 kΩ)[mA]} (5°C to 40°C, typical) Vdc: dc voltage bias monitor reading value [mV] Idc: dc current bias monitor reading value [mA] Chapter 11 241 Specifications and Supplemental Information Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Oscillator Level Power Accuracy Frequency ≤ 1 GHz Frequency > 1 GHz ±5.5 dB (5°C to 40°C) ±7.6 dB (5°C to 40°C) 242 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Specifications and Supplemental Information Sweep Characteristics Sweep Characteristics Sweep Conditions Sweep parameters Sweep range setup Sweep types Frequency sweep Other parameters’ sweep Sweep mode Sweep directions Number of measurement points Delay time Types Range Resolution Frequency, Oscillator level (power, voltage, current), DC bias voltage, DC bias current Start/Stop or Center/Span Linear, Log, Segment Linear Continuous, Single Up sweep, Down sweep 2 to 801 Point delay, Sweep delay, Segment delay 0 to 20 sec 1 msec Segment Sweep Available setup parameters for each segment Sweep frequency range, number of measurement points, Point averaging factor, Oscillator level (power, voltage, or current), DC bias (voltage or current), DC bias limit (current limit for voltage bias, voltage limit for current bias) Number of segments 1 to 16 Sweep span types Frequency base or Order base Chapter 11 243 NOTE Specifications and Supplemental Information Measurement Accuracy Measurement Accuracy The following information is also applicable to the measurement accuracy of E4991A Option 010. Conditions for Defining Accuracy Temperature Calibration plane Measurement frequency points 23 ±5°C 7-mm connector of test head Same as calibration points. Accuracy When Open/Short/Load Calibration is Performed |Z|, |Y| ±(Ea + Eb) [%] (see Figure 11-1 through Figure 11-4 for examples of calculated accuracy) θ ±(---E----a-1---+0---0--E---b---)- [rad] L, C, X, B ±(Ea + Eb) × (1 + Dx2) [%] R, G D at Dx tan   -E---a-1---+0---0--E----b- <1 at Dx ≤ 0.1 Q at Qx tan   -E---a-1---+0---0--E----b- <1 at E----a---1-+--0---E----b- ≥ Qx ≥ 10 ±(Ea + Eb) × (1 + Qx2) [%] ±(---11----+-+−----DD-----x2x---)t-a-t--an---n----E-----E----a---1-----a---1-+0--------+0-0-----E---0------E---b-------b---±-E---a-1---+0---0--E----b- ±(---11----+-+−----QQ-----x2x---)t-a-t--an---n----E-----E----a---1-----a---1-+0--------+0-0-----E---0------E---b-------b---±Qx2 -E---a-1---+0---0--E----b- 244 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Specifications and Supplemental Information Measurement Accuracy Accuracy When Open/Short/Load/Low-Loss Capacitor Calibration is Performed (point averaging factor ≥ 8, typical) |Z|, |Y| ±(Ea + Eb) [%] θ ±1--E-0---c0-- [rad] L, C, X, B ± (Ea + Eb)2 + (EcDx)2 [%] R, G D at Dx tan   1--E-0---c0-- <1 at Dx ≤ 0.1 Q at Qx tan   1--E-0---c0-- <1 at 1E---0-c- ≥ Qx ≥ 10 ± (Ea + Eb)2 + (EcQx)2 [%] ±-(--11----+-+−----DD-----x2x---)t-a-t--an---n----1---E--1--0----E---c-0--0-----c0-----±1--E-0---c0-- ±-(--11----+-+−----QQ-----x2x---)t-a-t--an---n----1---E--1--0----E---c-0--0-----c0-----±Qx2 1--E-0---c0-(see Figure 11-5) Definition of Each Parameter Dx = Measurement value of D Qx = Measurement value of Q Ea = (Within ±5°C of calibration temperature. Measurement accuracy applies when calibration is performed at 23°C ±5°C. When calibration is performed beyond 23°C ±5°C, measurement error doubles.) at Oscillator level ≥ −33 dBm ±0.65 [%] (1 MHz ≤ Frequency ≤ 100 MHz) ±0.8 [%] (100 MHz < Frequency ≤ 500 MHz) ±1.2 [%] (500 MHz < Frequency ≤ 1 GHz) ±2.5 [%] (1 GHz < Frequency ≤ 1.8 GHz) ±5 [%] (1.8 GHz < Frequency ≤ 3 GHz) Chapter 11 245 Specifications and Supplemental Information Measurement Accuracy at Oscillator level < −33 dBm Eb = Ec = Zs = at Oscillator level = −3 dBm, −13 dBm, or −23 dBm at Oscillator level ≥ −33 dBm at Oscillator level < −33 dBm Yo = at Oscillator level = −3 dBm, −13 dBm, −23 dBm at Oscillator level ≥ −33 dBm at Oscillator level < −33 dBm ±1 [%] (1MHz ≤ Frequency ≤ 100 MHz) ±1.2 [%] (100 MHz < Frequency ≤ 500 MHz) ±1.2 [%] (500 MHz < Frequency ≤ 1 GHz) ±2.5 [%] (1 GHz < Frequency ≤ 1.8 GHz) ±5 [%] (1.8 GHz < Frequency ≤ 3 GHz) ± --ZZ----xs- + Yo • Zx   × 100 [%] (|Zx|: Measurement value of |Z|) ±0.06 + 0---.--10---08---0--×-0---F-- [%] (F: Frequency [MHz], typical) (Within ±5°C of calibration temperature. Measurement accuracy applies when calibration is performed at 23°C ±5°C. When calibration is performed beyond 23°C ±5°C, measurement error doubles. F: Frequency [MHz].) ± (13 + 0.5 × F) [mΩ] (Point averaging factor ≥ 8) ± (25 + 0.5 × F) [mΩ] (Point averaging factor ≤ 7) ± (25 + 0.5 × F) [mΩ] (Point averaging factor ≥ 8) ± (50 + 0.5 × F) [mΩ] (Point averaging factor ≤ 7) ± (50 + 0.5 × F) [mΩ] (Point averaging factor ≥ 8) ± (100 + 0.5 × F) [mΩ] (Point averaging factor ≤ 7) (Within ±5°C of calibration temperature. Measurement accuracy applies when calibration is performed at 23°C ±5°C. When calibration is performed beyond 23°C ±5°C, measurement error doubles. F: Frequency [MHz].) ± (5 + 0.1 × F) [μS] (Point averaging factor ≥ 8) ± (10 + 0.1 × F) [μS] (Point averaging factor ≤ 7) ± (10 + 0.1 × F) [μS] (Point averaging factor ≥ 8) ± (30 + 0.1 × F) [μS] (Point averaging factor ≤ 7) ± (20 + 0.1 × F) [μS] (Point averaging factor ≥ 8) ± (60 + 0.1 × F) [μS] (Point averaging factor ≤ 7) 246 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-1 Specifications and Supplemental Information Measurement Accuracy Calculated Impedance Measurement Accuracy |Z|, |Y| Measurement Accuracy When Open/Short/Load Calibration is Performed Oscillator level = −23 dBm, −13 dBm, −3 dBm Point averaging factor ≥ 8 within ± 5°C of calibration temperature Chapter 11 247 Figure 11-2 Specifications and Supplemental Information Measurement Accuracy |Z|, |Y| Measurement Accuracy When Open/Short/Load Calibration is Performed Oscillator level ≥ −33 dBm Point averaging factor ≥ 8 within ±5°C of calibration temperature 248 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-3 Specifications and Supplemental Information Measurement Accuracy |Z|, |Y| Measurement Accuracy When Open/Short/Load Calibration is Performed Oscillator level ≥ −33 dBm Point averaging factor ≤ 7 within ±5°C of calibration temperature Chapter 11 249 Figure 11-4 Specifications and Supplemental Information Measurement Accuracy |Z|, |Y| Measurement Accuracy When Open/Short/Load Calibration is Performed Oscillator level < −33 dBm within ±5°C of calibration temperature 250 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-5 Specifications and Supplemental Information Measurement Accuracy Q Measurement Accuracy When Open/Short/Load/Low-Loss Capacitor Calibration is Performed (typical) Chapter 11 251 Specifications and Supplemental Information Measurement Support Functions Measurement Support Functions Error Correction Available calibration and compensation Open/Short/Load Calibration Connect open, short, and load standards to the desired reference plane and measure each kind of calibration data. The reference plane is called the calibration reference plane. Low-Loss Capacitor Calibration Connect the dedicated standard (low-loss capacitor) to the calibration reference plane and measure the calibration data. Port Extension Compensation (fixture selection) When a device is connected to a terminal that is extended from the calibration reference plane, set the electrical length between the calibration plane and the device contact. Select the model number of the registered test fixtures in the E4991A's setup toolbar or enter the electrical length for a user's test fixture. Open/Short Compensation When a device is connected to a terminal that is extended from the calibration reference plane, make open and/or short states at the device contact and measure each kind of compensation data. Calibration/Compensation data measurement point User-defined point mode Obtain calibration/compensation data at the same frequency and power points as used in actual device measurement, which are determined by the sweep setups. Each set of calibration/compensation data is applied to each measurement at the same point. If measurement points (frequency and/or power) are changed by altering the sweep setups, calibration/compensation data become invalid and calibration or compensation data acquisition is again required. Fixed frequency and fixed power point mode Obtain calibration/compensation data at fixed frequency and power points covering the entire frequency and power range of the E4991A. In device measurement, calibration or compensation is applied to each measurement point by using interpolation. Even if the measurement points (frequency and/or power) are changed by altering the sweep setups, you don’t need to retake the calibration or compensation data. Fixed frequency and user-defined power point mode Obtain calibration/compensation data at fixed frequency points covering the entire frequency range of the E4991A and at the same power points as used in actual device measurement which are determined by the sweep setups. Calibration/compensation data become invalid only if the power points are changed, in which case calibration or compensation data would need to be acquired again. 252 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Trigger Trigger mode Averaging Types Setting range Sweep-to-sweep averaging Point averaging Display LCD display Type/Size Resolution Number of traces Data trace Memory trace Trace data math Format For scalar parameters For complex parameters Other display functions Specifications and Supplemental Information Measurement Support Functions Internal, External (external trigger input connector), Bus (GPIB), Manual (front key) Sweep-to-sweep averaging, Point averaging 1 to 999 (integer) 1 to 100 (integer) Color LCD, 8.4 inch (21.3 cm) 640 (horizontal) × 480 (vertical) 3 scalar traces + 2 complex traces (maximum) 3 scalar traces + 2 complex traces (maximum) Data − Memory, Data/Memory (for complex parameters), Delta% (for scalar parameters), offset Linear Y-axis, Log Y-axis Z, Y: Polar, Complex; Γ: Polar, Complex, Smith, Admittance Split/Overlay display (for scalar parameters), Phase expansion Chapter 11 253 Specifications and Supplemental Information Measurement Support Functions Marker Number of markers Marker Reference marker Marker search Search type Search track Other functions Eight for each trace (Marker 1 - Marker 8) One for each trace (Marker R) Maximum, Minimum, Target, Peak Performs search with each sweep Marker continuous mode, Marker coupled mode, Marker list, Marker statistics Equivalent Circuit Analysis Circuit models 3-component model (4 models), 4-component model (1 model) Analysis types Equivalent circuit parameters calculation, frequency characteristics simulation Limit Marker Test Number of markers for limit test Setup parameters for each marker 9 (Marker R, Markers 1 to 8) Stimulus value, upper limit, and lower limit Mass Storage Built-in flexible (floppy) disk drive 3.5 inch, 720 KByte or 1.44 MByte, DOS format Hard disk drive 2 GByte (minimum) Stored data State (binary), Measurement data (binary, ASCII, or CITIfile), Display graphics (bmp, jpg), VBA program (binary) 254 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Specifications and Supplemental Information Measurement Support Functions Interface GPIB Standard conformity IEEE 488.1-1987, IEEE 488.2-1987 Available functions (function code)*1 SH1, AH1, T6, TE0, L4, LE0, SR1, RL0, PP0, DT1, DC1, C0, E2 Numerical data transfer format ASCII Protocol IEEE 488.2-1987 *1. Refer to the standard for the meaning of each function code. Printer parallel port Interface standard Connector type IEEE 1284 Centronics 25-pin D-sub connector, female LAN interface Standard conformity Protocol Functions USB Port Interface standard Connector type Available function 10 Base-T or 100 Base-TX (automatically switched), Ethertwist, RJ45 connector TCP/IP FTP USB1.1 Standard USB A,female Connection to printers and USB/GPIB Interface Measurement Terminal (at Test Head) Connector type 7-mm connector Rear Panel Connectors External reference signal input connector Frequency 10 MHz ±10 ppm (typical) Level 0 to +6 dBm (typical) Input impedance 50 Ω (nominal) Connector type BNC, female Chapter 11 255 Figure 11-6 Specifications and Supplemental Information Measurement Support Functions Internal reference signal output connector Frequency Accuracy of frequency Level Output impedance Connector type 10 MHz (nominal) Same as frequency accuracy described in “Frequency” on page 239 +2 dBm (nominal) 50 Ω (nominal) BNC, female High stability frequency reference output connector (option 1D5) Frequency 10 MHz (nominal) Accuracy of frequency Same as frequency accuracy described in “Frequency” on page 239 Level +2 dBm (nominal) Output impedance 50 Ω (nominal) Connector type BNC, female External trigger input connector Level LOW threshold voltage: 0.5 V HIGH threshold voltage: 2.1 V Input level range: 0 to +5 V Pulse width (Tp) ≥ 2 μsec (typical) See Figure 11-6 for definition of Tp Polarity Positive or Negative (selective) Connector type BNC, female Definition of Pulse Width (Tp) 256 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Specifications and Supplemental Information General Characteristics General Characteristics Environment Conditions Operating condition Temperature 5°C to 40°C Humidity (at wet bulb temperature ≤ 29°C, without condensation) Flexible disk drive non-operating condition 15% to 90% RH Flexible disk drive operating condition 20% to 80% RH Altitude 0 to 2,000 m (0 to 6,561 feet) Vibration 0.5 G maximum, 5 Hz to 500 Hz Warm-up time 30 minutes Non-operating storage condition Temperature − 20°C to + 60°C Humidity (at wet bulb temperature 15% to 90% RH ≤ 45°C, without condensation) Altitude 0 to 4,572 m (0 to 15,000 feet) Vibration 1 G maximum, 5 Hz to 500 Hz Chapter 11 257 Specifications and Supplemental Information General Characteristics Other Specifications EMC European Council Directive 89/336/EEC IEC 61326-1:1997+A1 CISPR 11:1990 / EN 55011:1991 Group 1, Class A IEC 61000-4-2:1995 / EN 61000-4-2:1995 4 kV CD / 4 kV AD IEC 61000-4-3:1995 / EN 61000-4-3:1996 3 V/m, 80-1000 MHz, 80% AM IEC 61000-4-4:1995 / EN 61000-4-4:1995 1 kV power / 0.5 kV Signal IEC 61000-4-5:1995 / EN 61000-4-5:1995 0.5 kV Normal / 1 kV Common IEC 61000-4-6:1996 / EN 61000-4-6:1996 3 V, 0.15-80 MHz, 80% AM IEC 61000-4-11:1994 / EN 61000-4-11:1994 100% 1cycle Note: When tested at 3 V/m according to EN 61000-4-3:1996, the measurement accuracy will be within specifications over the full immunity test frequency range of 80 to 1000 MHz except when the analyzer frequency is identical to the transmitted interference signal test frequency. This ISM device complies with Canadian ICES-001. Cet appareil ISM est conforme à la norme NMB-001 du Canada. AS/NZS 2064.1/2 Group 1, Class A Safety European Council Directive 73/23/EEC IEC 61010-1:1990+A1+A2 / EN 61010-1:1993+A2 INSTALLATION CATEGORY II, POLLUTION DEGREE 2 INDOOR USE IEC60825-1:1994 CLASS 1 LED PRODUCT CAN/CSA C22.2 No. 1010.1-92 258 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-7 Specifications and Supplemental Information General Characteristics Environmemt This product complies with the WEEE Directive (2002/96/EC) marking requirements. The affixed label indicates that you must not discard this electrical/ electronic product in domestic household waste. Product Category : With reference to the equipment types in the WEEE Directive Annex I, this product is classed as a “Monitoring and Control instrumentation” product. Do not dispose in domestic household waste. To return unwanted products, contact your local Agilent office, or see www.agilent.com/environment/product/ for more information. Power requirements Power requirements 90 V to 132 V, or 198 V to 264 V (automatically switched), 47 Hz to 63 Hz, 350 VA maximum Weight Main unit Test head 17 kg (nominal) 1 kg (nominal) Dimensions Main unit Test head see Figure 11-7 through Figure 11-9. see Figure 11-10. Main Unit Dimensions (front view, in millimeters, nominal) Chapter 11 259 Figure 11-8 Specifications and Supplemental Information General Characteristics Main Unit Dimensions (rear view, in millimeters, nominal) Figure 11-9 Main Unit Dimensions (side view, in millimeters, nominal) 260 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-10 Specifications and Supplemental Information General Characteristics Direct Connection Type Test Head Dimensions (in millimeters, nominal) Chapter 11 261 Figure 11-11 Specifications and Supplemental Information General Characteristics Option 010 Test Head Dimensions (in millimeters, nominal) Figure 11-12 Option 007 Test Head Dimensions (in millimeters, nominal) 262 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) Measurement Parameter Permittivity parameters εr , ε′r , ε″r , tan δ Permeability parameters μr , μ′r , μ″r , tan δ Frequency Range Use with Agilent 16453A Use with Agilent 16454A 1 MHz to 1 GHz (typical) 1 MHz to 1 GHz (typical) Measurement Accuracy Conditions Calibration Calibration temperature Measurement temperature range temperature Measurement plane Measurement frequency points Oscillator level Point averaging factor Electrode pressure setting of 16453A Open, Short, and Load calibration at the test port (7-mm connector) Calibration is performed at an environmental temperature within the range of 23°C ± 5°C. Measurement error doubles when calibration temperature is below 18°C or above 28°C. Within ± 5°C of calibration temperature Measurement accuracy applies when calibration is performed at 23°C ± 5°C. When calibration is below 18°C or above 23°C, measurement error doubles. Same as calibration plane Same as calibration points Same as the level set at calibraiton ≥8 Maximum Chapter 11 263 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) Typical accuracy of permittivity parameters εr′ accuracy = Δ--ε--ε-′--r′--rm--m-- Loss tangent accuracy of ε·r (= Δ tan δ) where, Ea = at Frequency ≤ 1 GHz at Frequency > 1 GHz Eb = f= t= ε′rm = tanδ = ± 5 +   10 + 0---f.--1-  -----t---ε′rm + 0.25 ε---′--tr--m-- + --1----–---------f1------0----1--ε0----3--′---r-----m-------2--- [%] (at tanδ < 0.1 ) ±(Ea + Eb) (at tan δ < 0.1 ) 0.002 + 0---.--0-f--0---1- • -----t---ε′rm + 0.004 f + --1----–---------f--0------.--1-1-ε----3--′---r-----m-------2--- 0.002 + 0---.--0-f--0---1- • -----t---ε′rm + 0.004 f + --1----–---------f--1------.--1-1-ε----3--′---r-----m-------2---   Δ-----ε---′-r--m-ε′rm • 1---0-1--0-- + ε′r m 0---.--0-t--0---2-  tan δ Measurement frequency [GHz] Thickness of MUT (material under test) [mm] Measured value of ε′r Measured value of dielectric loss tangent 264 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) Typical accuracy of permeability parameters μr′ accuracy = Δ--μ--μ--′--r′--rm--m-- Loss tangent accuracy of μ· r (= Δ tan δ) where, Ea = 4 + 0---.--f0---2- × -F----μ2---5′--r--m-- + Fμ′rm1 + -F----μ1---5′--r--m-- 2f2 [%] (at tanδ < 0.1 ) ±(Ea + Eb) (at tan δ < 0.1 ) 0.002 + F--0--μ-.--0-′--0r--m-1---f + 0.004f Eb = f= Δ-----μ---′--r--m-μ′rm • -t-1-a--0n---0-δ- Measurement frequency [GHz] F= h ln b-c- [mm] h= Height of MUT (material under test) [mm] b= Inner diameter of MUT (material under test) [mm] c= Outer diameter of MUT (material under test) [mm] μ′rm = tanδ = Measured value of μ′r Measured value of loss tangent Chapter 11 265 Figure 11-13 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) Examples of Calculated Permittivity Measurement Accuracy Permittivity Accuracy ( Δ-----ε---′-r ) vs. Frequency (at t = 0.3 mm, typical) ε′r Figure 11-14 Permittivity Accuracy ( Δ-----ε---′-r ) vs. Frequency (at t = 1 mm, typical) ε′r 266 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-15 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) Permittivity Accuracy ( Δ-----ε---′-r ) vs. Frequency (at t = 3 mm, typical) ε′r Figure 11-16 Dielectric Loss Tangent (tanδ) Accuracy vs. Frequency (at t = 0.3 mm, typical) NOTE This graph shows only frequency dependence of Ea for simplification. The typical accuracy of tanδ is defined as Ea + Eb; refer to “Typical accuracy of permittivity parameters” on page 264. Chapter 11 267 Figure 11-17 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) Dielectric Loss Tangent (tanδ) Accuracy vs. Frequency (at t = 1 mm, typical) NOTE Figure 11-18 This graph shows only frequency dependence of Ea for simplification. The typical accuracy of tanδ is defined as Ea + Eb; refer to “Typical accuracy of permittivity parameters” on page 264. Dielectric Loss Tangent (tanδ) Accuracy vs. Frequency (at t = 3 mm, typical) NOTE This graph shows only frequency dependence of Ea for simplification. The typical accuracy of tanδ is defined as Ea + Eb; refer to “Typical accuracy of permittivity 268 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-19 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) parameters” on page 264. Permittivity ( ε′r ) vs. Frequency (at t = 0.3 mm, typical) Figure 11-20 Permittivity ( ε′r ) vs. Frequency (at t = 1 mm, typical) Chapter 11 269 Figure 11-21 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) Permittivity ( ε′r ) vs. Frequency (at t = 3 mm, typical) 270 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-22 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) Examples of Calculated Permeability Measurement Accuracy Permeability Accuracy ( Δ-----μ---′--r ) vs. Frequency (at F = 0.5, typical) μ′r Figure 11-23 Permeability Accuracy ( Δ-----μ---′--r ) vs. Frequency (at F = 3, typical) μ′r Chapter 11 271 Figure 11-24 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) Permeability Accuracy ( Δ-----μ---′--r ) vs. Frequency (at F = 10, typical) μ′r Figure 11-25 Permeability Loss Tangent (tanδ) Accuracy vs. Frequency (at F = 0.5, typical) NOTE This graph shows only frequency dependence of Ea for simplification. The typical accuracy of tanδ is defined as Ea + Eb; refer to “Typical accuracy of permeability parameters” on page 265. 272 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-26 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) Permeability Loss Tangent (tanδ) Accuracy vs. Frequency (at F = 3, typical) NOTE Figure 11-27 This graph shows only frequency dependence of Ea for simplification. The typical accuracy of tanδ is defined as Ea + Eb; refer to “Typical accuracy of permeability parameters” on page 265. Permeability Loss Tangent (tanδ) Accuracy vs. Frequency (at F = 10, typical) Chapter 11 273 NOTE Figure 11-28 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) This graph shows only frequency dependence of Ea for simplification. The typical accuracy of tanδ is defined as Ea + Eb; refer to “Typical accuracy of permeability parameters” on page 265. Permeability ( μ′r ) vs. Frequency (at F = 0.5, typical) Figure 11-29 Permeability ( μ′r ) vs. Frequency (at F = 3, typical) 274 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-30 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 002 Material Measurement (typical) Permeability ( μ′r ) vs. Frequency (at F = 10, typical) Chapter 11 275 NOTE Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 007 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit Option 007 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit This section contains specifications and supplemental information for the E4991A Option 007. Except for the contents in this section, the E4991A standard specifications and supplemental information are applied. Operation Temperature Range -55°C to +150°C (at the test port of the heat-resistant cable) Source Characteristics Frequency Range 1 MHz to 3 GHz Oscillator Level Source power accuracy at the test port of the heat-resistant cable: Frequency ≤ 1 GHz +2 dB/-4 dB (23°C ± 5°C) +4 dB/-6 dB (5°C to 40°C) Frequency > 1 GHz +3 dB/-6 dB (23°C ± 5°C) +5 dB/-8 dB (5°C to 40°C) Measurement Accuracy (at 23°C ± 5°C) Conditions The measurement accuracy is specified when the following conditions are met: Calibration Calibration temperature Measurement temperature range Measurement plane Oscillator level Open, Short and Load calibration is completed at the test port (7-mm connector) of the heat-resistant cable Calibration is performed at an environmental temperature within the range of 23°C ± 5°C. Measurement error doubles when calibration temperature is below 18°C or above 28°C. Within ± 5°C of calibration temperature Same as calibration plane Same as the level set at calibration The heat-resistant cable must be kept at the same position throughout calibration and measurement. 276 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 007 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit Impedance, Admittance and Phase Angle Accuracy |Z|, |Y| ±(Ea + Eb) [%] (see Figure 11-31 through Figure 11-34 for calculated accuracy) θ ±(---E----a-1---+0---0--E---b---)- [rad] Where, Ea = At Oscillator level ≥ −33 dBm At Oscillator level < −33 dBm Eb = Where, |Zx|= Zs = At Oscillator level = −3 dBm, −13 dBm, or −23 dBm At Oscillator level ≥ −33 dBm At Oscillator level < −33 dBm Yo = At Oscillator level = −3 dBm, −13 dBm, −23 dBm At Oscillator level ≥ −33 dBm At Oscillator level < −33 dBm ± 0.8 [%] (1 MHz ≤ f ≤ 100 MHz) ± 1 [%] (100 MHz < f ≤ 500 MHz) ± 1.2 [%] (500 MHz < f ≤ 1 GHz) ± 2.5 [%] (1 GHz < f ≤ 1.8 GHz) ± 5 [%] (1.8 GHz < f ≤ 3 GHz) ± 1.2 [%] (1MHz ≤ f ≤ 100 MHz) ± 1.5 [%] (100 MHz < f ≤ 500 MHz) ± 1.5 [%] (500 MHz < f ≤ 1 GHz) ± 2.5 [%] (1 GHz < f ≤ 1.8 GHz) ± 5 [%] (1.8 GHz < f ≤ 3 GHz) (Where, f is frequency) ± --ZZ----xs- + Yo × Zx   × 100 [%] Absolute value of measured impedance ± (30 + 0.5 × F) [mΩ] (Point averaging factor ≥ 8) ± (40 + 0.5 × F) [mΩ] (Point averaging factor ≤ 7) ± (35 + 0.5 × F) [mΩ] (Point averaging factor ≥ 8) ± (70 + 0.5 × F) [mΩ] (Point averaging factor ≤ 7) ± (50 + 0.5 × F) [mΩ] (Point averaging factor ≥ 8) ± (150 + 0.5 × F) [mΩ] (Point averaging factor ≤ 7) (Where, F is frequency in MHz) ± (12 + 0.1 × F) [μS] (Point averaging factor ≥ 8) ± (20 + 0.1 × F) [μS] (Point averaging factor ≤ 7) ± (15 + 0.1 × F) [μS] (Point averaging factor ≥ 8) ± (40 + 0.1 × F) [μS] (Point averaging factor ≤ 7) ± (35 + 0.1 × F) [μS] (Point averaging factor ≥ 8) ± (80 + 0.1 × F) [μS] (Point averaging factor ≤ 7) (Where, F is frequency in MHz) Chapter 11 277 Figure 11-31 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 007 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit Calculated Impedance/Admittance Measurement Accuracy |Z|, |Y| Measurement Accuracy Caliration: Open/Short/Load Oscillator level = −23 dBm, −13 dBm, −3 dBm Point averaging factor ≥ 8 Within ± 5°C of calibration temperature 278 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-32 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 007 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit |Z|, |Y| Measurement Accuracy Calibration: Open/Short/Load Oscillator level ≥ −33 dBm Point averaging factor ≥ 8 Within ± 5°C of calibration temperature Chapter 11 279 Figure 11-33 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 007 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit |Z|, |Y| Measurement Accuracy Calibration: Open/Short/Load Oscillator level ≥ −33 dBm Point averaging factor ≤ 7 Within ± 5°C of calibration temperature 280 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-34 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 007 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit |Z|, |Y| Measurement Accuracy Calibration: Open/Short/Load Oscillator level < −33 dBm Point averaging factor ≥ 8 Within ± 5°C of calibration temperature Chapter 11 281 Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 007 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit Typical Effects of Temperature Change on Measurement Accuracy When the temperature at the test port (7-mm connector) of the heat-resistant cable changes from the calibration temperature, typical measurement accuracy involving temperature dependence effects (errors) is applied. The typical measurement accuracy is represented by the sum of error due to temperature coefficients ( Ea′ , Zs′ and Yo′ ), hysteresis error ( Eah , Zsh and Yoh ) and the specified accuracy. Conditions The typical measurement accuracy is applied when the following conditions are met: Conditions of Ea′ , Zs′ and Yo′ : Measurement temperature -55°C to 5°C or 40°C to 150 °C at test port. For 5°C to 40°C, Ea′ , Yo′ and Zs′ are 0 (neglected). Temperature change ≥ 5°C from calibration temperature when the temperature compensation is off. ≥ 20°C from calibration temperature when the temperature compensation is set to on. Calibration temperature Calibration mode 23°C ± 5 °C User Calibration Temperature compensation Temperature compensation data is acquired at the same temperature points as measurement temperatures. Conditions of Eah , Zsh and Yoh : Measurement temperature Calibration temperature Calibration mode -55°C to 150 °C at the test port 23°C ± 5 °C User Calibration 282 Chapter 11 NOTE Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 007 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit Typical measurement accuracy (involving temperature dependence effects) |Z|, |Y| ±(Ea + Eb + Ec + Ed) [%] θ ±(---E----a----+-----E---b-1---+0---0--E----c----+-----E---d---)- [rad] Where, Ec = Ea′ × ΔT + Eah Ed = ±Z----s--′---×-----Δ-Z---T-x----+-----Z---s---h + (Yo′ × ΔT + Yoh) × Zx   × 100 [%] Where, |Zx|= Absolute value of measured impedance Here, Ea′ , Zs′ and Yo′ are given by the following equations: Without temperature compensation With temperature compensation 1 MHz ≤ f < 500 MHz 500 MHz ≤ f ≤ 3 GHz Ea′ 0.006 + 0.015 × f [%/°C] 0.006 + 0.015 × f [%/°C] 0.006 + 0.015 × f [%/°C] Zs′ 1 + 10 × f [mΩ/°C] 1 + 10 × f [mΩ/°C] 5 + 2 × f [mΩ/°C] Yo′ 0.3 + 3 × f [μS/°C] 0.3 + 3 × f [μS/°C] 1.5 + 0.6 × f [μS/°C] f = Measurement frequency in GHz See graphs in Figure 11-35 for the calculated values of (Ec + Ed) exclusive of the hysteresis errors Eah , Zsh and Yoh , when measured impedance is 10 Ω and 250 Ω. Eah , Zsh and Yoh are given by following equations: Eah = Ea′ × ΔTmax × 0.3 [%] Zsh = Zs′ × ΔTmax × 0.3 [mΩ] Yoh = Yo′ × ΔTmax × 0.3 [μS] ΔT = Difference of measurement temperature from calibration temperature ΔTmax = Maximum temperature change (°C) at the test port from calibration temperature after the calibration is performed. Chapter 11 283 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Specifications and Supplemental Information Option 007 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit Figure 11-35 Typical frequency characteristics of temperature coefficient,(Ec + Ed) / ΔT , when |Zx|=10 Ω and 250 Ω, Eah = Zsh = Yoh = 0 are assumed. NOTE Read the value of Δ |Z|%/°C at the material measurement frequency and multiply it by ΔT to derive the value of (Ec + Ed) when Eah = Zsh = Yoh = 0 . 284 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Material measurement accuracy contains the permittivity and permeability measurement accuracy when the E4991A with Option 002 Material Measurement and 007 Temperature Measurement Test Kit is used with the 16453A or 16454A test fixture. Measurement Parameter Permittivity parameters Permeability parameters εr , ε′r , ε″r , tan δ μr , μ′r , μ″r , tan δ Frequency Use with Agilent 16453A Use with Agilent 16454A 1 MHz to 1 GHz (typical) 1 MHz to 1 GHz (typical) Operation Temperature Range -55°C to +150°C (at the test port of the heat-resistant cable) Typical Material Measurement Accuracy (at 23°C ± 5°C) Conditions The measurement accuracy is specified when the following conditions are met: Calibration Calibration temperature Measurement temperature range Measurement frequency points Oscillator level Point averaging factor Open, Short and Load calibration is completed at the test port (7-mm connector) of the heat-resistant cable Calibration is performed at an environmental temperature within the range of 23°C ± 5°C. Measurement error doubles when calibration temperature is below 18°C or above 28°C. Within ± 5°C of calibration temperature Same as calibraion points (User Cal) Same as the level set at calibration ≥8 Chapter 11 285 NOTE Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Typical permittivity measurement accuracy ε′r accuracy   E ε = Δ--ε---ε′--r′--rm--m-- ± 5 + 10 + 0---f.--5- × -----t---ε′rm + 0.25 × ε---′--tr--m-- + --1----–---------f1------0----1--ε0----3--′---r-----m-------2--- [%] (at tanδ < 0.1 ) Loss tangent accuracy of ε·r (= Δ tan δ) ±(Ea + Eb) (at tan δ < 0.1 ) where, Ea = at Frequency ≤ 1 GHz 0.002 + 0---.--0---f0---2---5- × -----t---ε′rm + ( 0.008 × f ) + --1----–--------f---0------.--1-1-ε----3--′---r-----m-------2--- Eb =   Δ-----ε---′-r--m-ε′rm × 1---10---0-- + ε′rm × 0---.--0-t--0---2-  × tan δ f= Measurement frequency [GHz] t= Thickness of MUT (material under test) [mm] ε′rm = tanδ = Measured value of ε′r Measured value of dielectric loss tangent The accuracy applies when the electrode pressure of the 16453A is set to Maximum. 286 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Typical permeability measurement accuracy μ′r accuracy   Eμ = Δ--μ---μ-′--r′--rm--m-- Loss tangent accuracy of μ· r (= Δ tan δ) where, Ea = Eb = f= F= h= b= c= μ′rm = tanδ = 4 + -0---.-f0---2- × F------×--2--μ-5---′--r--m-- + F × μ′r m ×   1 + -F-----×--1--μ-5---′--r--m-- 2 × f 2 [%] (at tanδ < 0.1 ) ±(Ea + Eb) (at tan δ < 0.1 ) 0.002 + F------×--0--μ-.--0-′--0r--m-5----×-----f + 0.004 × f Δ-----μ---′--r--m-μ′rm × -t-1-a--0n---0-δ- Measurement frequency [GHz] h ln b-c- [mm] Height of MUT (material under test) [mm] Inner diameter of MUT [mm] Outer diameter of MUT [mm] Measured value of μ′r Measured value of loss tangent Chapter 11 287 Figure 11-36 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Examples of Calculated Permittivity Measurement Accuracy Permittivity Accuracy ( Δ-----ε---′-r ) vs. Frequency (at t = 0.3 mm, typical) ε′r Figure 11-37 Permittivity Accuracy ( Δ-----ε---′-r ) vs. Frequency (at t = 1 mm, typical) ε′r 288 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-38 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Permittivity Accuracy ( Δ-----ε---′-r ) vs. Frequency (at t = 3 mm, typical) ε′r Figure 11-39 Dielectric Loss Tangent (tanδ) Accuracy vs. Frequency (at t = 0.3 mm, typical) NOTE This graph shows only frequency dependence of Ea for simplification. The typical accuracy of tanδ is defined as Ea + Eb; refer to “Typical permittivity measurement accuracy” on page 286. Chapter 11 289 Figure 11-40 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Dielectric Loss Tangent (tanδ) Accuracy vs. Frequency (at t = 1 mm, typical) NOTE Figure 11-41 This graph shows only frequency dependence of Ea for simplification. The typical accuracy of tanδ is defined as Ea + Eb; refer to “Typical permittivity measurement accuracy” on page 286. Dielectric Loss Tangent (tanδ) Accuracy vs. Frequency (at t = 3 mm, typical) 290 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information NOTE Figure 11-42 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 This graph shows only frequency dependence of Ea for simplification. The typical accuracy of tanδ is defined as Ea + Eb; refer to “Typical permittivity measurement accuracy” on page 286. Permittivity ( ε′r ) vs. Frequency (at t = 0.3 mm, typical) Figure 11-43 Permittivity ( ε′r ) vs. Frequency (at t = 1 mm, typical) Chapter 11 291 Figure 11-44 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Permittivity ( ε′r ) vs. Frequency (at t = 3 mm, typical) 292 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-45 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Examples of Calculated Permeability Measurement Accuracy Permeability Accuracy ( Δ-----μ---′--r ) vs. Frequency (at F = 0.5, typical) μ′r Figure 11-46 Permeability Accuracy ( Δ-----μ---′--r ) vs. Frequency (at F = 3, typical) μ′r Chapter 11 293 Figure 11-47 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Permeability Accuracy ( Δ-----μ---′--r ) vs. Frequency (at F = 10, typical) μ′r Figure 11-48 Permeability Loss Tangent (tanδ) Accuracy vs. Frequency (at F = 0.5, typical) NOTE This graph shows only frequency dependence of Ea for simplification. The typical accuracy of tanδ is defined as Ea + Eb; refer to “Typical permeability measurement accuracy” on page 287. 294 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-49 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Permeability Loss Tangent (tanδ) Accuracy vs. Frequency (at F = 3, typical) NOTE Figure 11-50 This graph shows only frequency dependence of Ea for simplification. The typical accuracy of tanδ is defined as Ea + Eb; refer to “Typical permeability measurement accuracy” on page 287. Permeability Loss Tangent (tanδ) Accuracy vs. Frequency (at F = 10, typical) NOTE This graph shows only frequency dependence of Ea for simplification. The typical accuracy of tanδ is defined as Ea + Eb; refer to “Typical accuracy of permeability Chapter 11 295 Figure 11-51 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 parameters” on page 265. Permeability ( μ′r ) vs. Frequency (at F = 0.5, typical) Figure 11-52 Permeability ( μ′r ) vs. Frequency (at F = 3, typical) 296 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-53 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Permeability ( μ′r ) vs. Frequency (at F = 10, typical) Chapter 11 297 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Typical Effects of Temperature Change on Permittivity Measurement Accuracy When the temperature at the test port (7-mm connector) of the heat-resistant cable changes more than 5°C from the calibration temperature, the typical permittivity measurement accuracy involving temperature dependence effects (errors) is applied. The typical permittivity accuracy is represented by the sum of error due to temperature coefficient ( Tc ), hysteresis error (Tc × ΔTmax ) and the accuracy at 23°C ± 5°C. Typical accuracy of permittivity parameters εr′ accuracy = Δ--ε--ε-′--rr--m-m---′ Loss tangent accuracy of ε·r (= Δ tan δ) ±(Eε + Ef + Eg) [%] ±(---E----ε---+---1--E--0--f0---+-----E----g---) where, Eε = Permittivity measurement accuracy at 23°C ± 5°C Ef = TC × ΔT Eg = TC × ΔTmax × 0.3 Tc = K1 + K2 + K3 See Figure 11-54 through Figure 11-56 for the calculated value of Tc without temperature compensation K1 = 1 × 10–6 × (60 + 150 × f) K2 =   3 × 10–6 × (1 + 10 × f) ×    ε---′--tr--m--  × --1----–-----1----f--f-0------2-- + 10   × f K3 = 5 × 10–3 × (0.3 + 3 × f) × ---------------------------------1---------------------------------      ε---′--tr--m--  × --1----–-----1----f--f-0------2-- + 10   × f 298 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 with temperature compensation K1 = K2 = 1 MHz ≤ f < 500 MHz 500 MHz ≤ f ≤ 1 GHz K3 = 1 MHz ≤ f < 500 MHz 500 MHz ≤ f ≤ 1 GHz f= f0 = t= ε′rm = ΔT = ΔTmax = 1 × 10–6 × (60 + 150 × f)   3 × 10–6 × (1 + 10 × f) ×    ε---′--tr--m--  × --1----–-----1----f--f-0------2-- + 10   × f   3 × 10–6 × (5 + 2 × f) ×    ε---′--tr--m--  × --1----–-----1----f--f-0------2-- + 10   × f 5 × 10–3 × (0.3 + 3 × f) × ---------------------------------1---------------------------------      ε---′--tr--m--  × --1----–-----1----f--f-0------2-- + 10   × f 5 × 10–3 × (1.5 + 0.6 × f) × ---------------------------------1---------------------------------      -ε--′--tr--m--  × --1----–-----1---f---f-0------2-- + 10   × f Measurement frequency [GHz] ---1---3---- [GHz] ε′r Thickness of MUT (material under test) [mm] Measured value of ε′r Difference of measurement temperature from calibration temperature Maximum temperature change (°C) at test port from calibration temperature after the calibration is performed. Chapter 11 299 Figure 11-54 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Typical Frequency Characteristics of Temperature Coefficient of ε′r (Thickness = 0.3 mm) Figure 11-55 Typical Frequency Characteristics of Temperature Coefficient of ε′r (Thickness = 1 mm) 300 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-56 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Typical Frequency Characteristics of Temperature Coefficient of ε′r (Thickness = 3 mm) Chapter 11 301 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Typical Effects of Temperature Change on Permeability Measurement Accuracy When the temperature at the test port (7-mm connector) of the heat-resistant cable changes more than 5°C from the calibration temperature, the typical permeability measurement accuracy involving temperature dependence effects (errors) is applied. The typical permeability accuracy is represented by the sum of error due to temperature coefficient ( Tc ), hysteresis error (Tc × Tmax ) and the accuracy at 23°C ± 5°C. μr′ accuracy = Δ--μ--μ--′--r′--rm--m-- ±(Eμ + Eh + Ei) [%] Loss tangent accuracy of μ· r (= Δ tan δ) ±(---E----μ----+---1--E-0---0h----+----E----i--)- where, Eμ = Permeability measurement accuracy at 23°C ± 5°C Eh = TC × ΔT Ei = TC × ΔTmax × 0.3 Tc = K4 + K5 + K6 See Figure 11-57 through Figure 11-59 for the calculated value of Tc without temperature compensation K4 = 1 × 10–6 × (60 + 150 × f) K5 = 1 × 10–2 × (1 + 10 × f) × --1----–-----0---.-0-{--1-F----×--×---{-(--F-μ----′×-r---m-(--μ-–---′--1r--m-)----+–-----12---0)---}+-----×1---0-f---}----×-----f--2-- K6 = with temperature compensation 2 × 10–6 × (0.3 + 3 × f) × --1----–-----0---.-0-{--1-F----×--×---{-(--F-μ----′×-r---m-(--μ-–---′--1r--m-)----+–-----12---0)---}+-----×1---0-f---}----×-----f--2-- K4 = 1 × 10–6 × (60 + 150 × f) K5 = 1 MHz ≤ f < 500 MHz 500 MHz ≤ f ≤ 1 GHz 1 × 10–2 × (1 + 10 × f) × --1----–-----0---.-0-{--1-F----×--×---{-(--F-μ----′×-r---m-(--μ-–---′--1r--m-)----+–-----12---0)---}+-----×1---0-f---}----×-----f--2-1 × 10–2 × (5 + 2 × f) × --1----–-----0---.-0-{--1-F----×--×---{-(--F-μ----′×-r---m-(--μ-–---′--1r--m-)----+–-----12---0)---}+-----×1---0-f---}----×-----f--2-- 302 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 K6 = 1 MHz ≤ f < 500 MHz 500 MHz ≤ f ≤ 1 GHz f= F= h= b= c= μ′rm= ΔT = ΔTmax = 2 × 10–6 × (0.3 + 3 × f) × --1----–-----0---.-0-{--1-F----×--×---{-(--F-μ----′×-r---m-(--μ-–---′--1r--m-)----+–-----12---0)---}+-----×1---0-f---}----×-----f--2-- 2 × 10–6 × (1.5 + 0.6 × f) × --1----–-----0---.-0-{--1-F----×--×---{-(--F-μ----′×-r---m-(--μ-–---′--1r--m-)----+–-----12---0)---}+-----×1---0-f---}----×-----f--2-Measurement frequency [GHz] h ln b-c- [mm] Height of MUT (material under test) [mm] Inner diameter of MUT [mm] Outer diameter of MUT [mm] Measured value of μ′r Difference of measurement temperature from calibration temperature Maximum temperature change (°C) at test port from calibration temperature after the calibration is performed. Chapter 11 303 Figure 11-57 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Typical Frequency Characteristics of Temperature Coefficient of μ′r (at F = 0.5) Figure 11-58 Typical Frequency Characteristics of Temperature Coefficient of μ′r (at F = 3) 304 Chapter 11 11. Specifications and Supplemental Information Figure 11-59 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 Typical Frequency Characteristics of Temperature Coefficient of μ′r (at F = 10) Chapter 11 305 Specifications and Supplemental Information Typical Material Measurement Accuracy When Using Option 002 and 007 306 Chapter 11 A. Manual Changes A Manual Changes This appendix contains the information required to adapt this manual to versions or configurations of the E4991A manufactured earlier than the current printing date of this manual. The information in this manual applies directly to E4991A units having the serial number printed on the title page of this manual. 307 Table A-1 Table A-2 Figure A-1 Manual Changes Manual Changes Manual Changes To adapt this manual to your E4991A, refer to Table A-1 and Table A-2. Manual Changes by Serial Number Serial Prefix or Number JP1KH JP2KH or MY432 Make Manual Changes Change 1 Change 2, Change 3, Change 4, Change 5 Manual Changes by Firmware Version Version 2.0x Make Manual Changes Change 6 Agilent Technologies uses a two-part, ten-character serial number that is stamped on the serial number plate (Figure A-1). The first five characters are the serial prefix and the last five digits are the suffix. Serial Number Plate 308 Appendix A A. Manual Changes Manual Changes Manual Changes Change 6 This function is available when the volume label on the C-drive is IG201 or higher. o User recovery function Change 5 When the serial number prefix is JP2KH and MY432, change the description of “Configuring the Network” on page 216 to the following one. LAN Setup Set up your LAN to incorporate the E4991A after consulting with your network administrator. Setup procedure NOTE Do not make a physical connection of the E4991A to your LAN before completing proper LAN setup (through completion of Step 3). Connecting the E4991A to a LAN in an inappropriate setup could cause trouble for the entire network. Use the mouse or keyboard for the procedure described below. Step 1. Exit from the E4991A system program a. Click System - Exit from the menu bar. This opens the Enter Password to exit dialog box (Figure A-7). Figure A-2 Enter Password to exit dialog box b. Enter the password: e4991a into the Password box by using the character input dialog box that appears by clicking the Keyboard... button or by using the external keyboard. c. Exit from the E4991A system by clicking the OK button. Step 2. Set up the IP address/subnet mask a. Open the shortcut menu by right-clicking the Network Neighborhood icon on the desktop and click Properties. This opens up the Network dialog box (Figure A-9). Appendix A 309 Figure A-3 Manual Changes Manual Changes Network dialog box Figure A-4 b. Click the TCP/IP icon in the Configuration tab to select it. c. Click the Properties button. This opens the TCP/IP Properties dialog box (Figure A-11). TCP/IP Properties dialog box (IP Address tab) d. Click the Specify an IP address option button in the IP Address tab to select it and input your IP address in the IP Address box and your subnet mask in the Subnet Mask box (overwrite the initial values) to assign a specific IP address and subnet mask. Click the Obtain an IP address automatically option button to select it if an IP address can be obtained automatically (when a DHCP server is available). In this case, setup of the gateway address in Step 3 is not necessary. Step 3. Set up a gateway address 310 Appendix A Figure A-5 a. Click the Gateway tab (Figure A-5) to open it. TCP/IP Properties dialog box (Gateway tab) Manual Changes Manual Changes A. Manual Changes b. Input the correct gateway address in the New gateway box and click the Add button. Step 4. Perform other network setup If other network setup is necessary, perform it in the same manner as with a conventional computer running Windows 98™. Step 5. Shut down the E4991A a. Click the OK button to close the TCP/IP Properties dialog box. b. Click the OK button to close Network dialog box. This opens the System Setup Change dialog box (Figure A-6). Figure A-6 System Setup Change dialog box NOTE c. Click the Yes button to restart the E4991A. Shut down the E4991A by following the procedure below if you click the No button by mistake. 1. Click Start - Shut Down... 2. Click the Shut down button in the Shut Down Windows dialog box to select it. 3. Click the OK button Step 6. Connect LAN cable and turn power on Appendix A 311 NOTE Manual Changes Manual Changes a. Connect the E4991A to a LAN with a LAN cable after the power to the E4991A has been turned off. b. Press the Standby switch once to reset the switch and then press the switch once more to turn the power on. Change 4 When the serial number prefix is JP2KH and MY432, change the description of “System Recovery” on page 204 to the following one. System Recovery Performing system recovery will allow you to reset the Windows operating system and the firmware of the E4991A to the state when you purchased*1. If, for some reason, the Windows operating system or firmware failed and cannot be started normally or operation after startup is unstable, execute system recovery. Notes on executing system recovery Performing system recovery causes the following: o The following settings of the E4991A are initialized. • Network settings • GPIB settings • Printer settings o If the firmware has been updated after purchasing the E4991A, the firmware when you purchased the product*1 is recovered. o If you installed any driver software for the supported printer, it will be deleted. Files you created using the save function are not affected, but we recommend backing them up before executing system recovery for precautionary purposes. Procedure to execute system recovery You need the keyboard for this operation. Step 1. Shut down the E4991A. Step 2. Connect the keyboard to the E4991A. Step 3. Press the standby switch of the E4991A to turn it on. Step 4. When the message in the figure below appears on the screen following the Agilent's logo screen, immediately press on the keyboard. *1.If the hard disk failed and has been replaced after purchase, the state when the replacement was performed is recovered. 312 Appendix A A. Manual Changes Manual Changes Manual Changes NOTE Watch the message carefully because after several seconds it will be replaced with the next screen. Note that this is automatically done with no key operations. If the above message does not appear, the E4991A is at fault; contact your local Agilent customer center listed at the end of this manual or the distributor from which you purchased the instrument. Step 5. When ”Recover Hard disk (C drive) [Y, N]?” is displayed, press on the keyboard. If you want to quit the system recovery, press to start up the E4991A as usual. Step 6. The following message appears. This is the final confirmation message asking whether you want to start the system recover. Press on the keyboard to start the system recovery. If you want to quit the system recovery, press to start up the E4991A as usual. =============== SYSTEM RECOVERY =============== This process will recover the system drive (C:) of this instrument to the factory-shipment state. It takes about 10 minutes. Please refer to the Operation Manual for more information. This is the last chance to quit the recovery process Continue [Y,N]? Step 7. The system recovery will complete in about 10 minutes. The following message is displayed during the system recovery. =============================== SYSTEM RECOVERY IN PROGRESS.... =============================== System recovery in progress. It takes about 10 minutes. Please DO NOT TURN THE POWER OFF DURING THIS TIME. CAUTION Never turn off the power during the system recovery because doing so may cause serious damage to the E4991A. Step 8. When the system recovery is completed, the following message appears below the above message indicating that the system recovery is in progress. "Recovery Completed !" "Please any key and then restart system." NOTE Now the system recovery of the E4991A is complete. If the problem persists even after executing system recovery, the E4991A is at fault; contact your local Agilent customer center listed at the end of this manual or the distributor from which you purchased the instrument. Appendix A 313 Manual Changes Manual Changes Change 3 When the serial number prefix is JP2KH and MY432, change the description of “Procedure for setting the internal clock” on page 197 to the following one. Setting the Internal Clock The E4991A has a built-in clock for the date and time. This internal clock is used for recording the date and time of when internal data or a VBA program is saved as a file. Procedure for setting the internal clock NOTE Use the mouse or keyboard for the following operation. Step 1. Exiting the E4991A system program. a. Click System - Exit in the menu bar. The Enter Password to exit dialog box (Figure A-7) opens. Figure A-7 Enter Password to exit dialog box b. Click the Keyboard... button and use the displayed character entry dialog box or use an external keyboard to enter the password e4991a in the Password box. c. Click the OK button to exit the E4991A system. Step 2. Setting the date and time. a. Click the Start button in the lower-left corner of the screen and select Settings Control Panel (Figure A-8). This operation will open the Control Panel window (Figure A-9). Figure A-8 Select Control Panel from the start menu. 314 Appendix A A. Manual Changes Figure A-9 Control Panel window Manual Changes Manual Changes Figure A-10 b. After double-clicking the Date/Time icon, the Date/Time Properties dialog box (Figure A-10) will open. Date/Time Properties dialog box Figure A-11 c. Set the date and time in the Date and Time areas, respectively. d. Click the Time Zone tab. Date/Time Properties dialog box (Time Zone tab) Appendix A 315 Manual Changes Manual Changes e. Click the t button to select the time zone. f. If you want to set daylight savings time automatically, enter a check mark (√) in the Automatically adjust clock for daylight saving changes check box. g. Click the OK button. NOTE When you want to execute a setting change for the mouse at the same time, proceed to Step 3 on page 200 for “Setting the Mouse” (doing both procedures at this time will require you to restart the E4991A only once). h. Click the x button in the Control Panel window to close the window. Step 3. Shutting down and restarting the E4991A. a. Click Start - Shut Down... (Figure A-12). Figure A-12 Click Start - Shut Down. Figure A-13 b. Click the Shut down option button and then click the OK button (Figure A-13). The E4991A will shut down. Shut down dialog box c. When the power of the E4991A is off, press the Standby switch once to activate the switch and then press it again to turn on the power. Change 2 When the serial number prefix is JP2KH and MY432, change the description of ÅgSetup and Confirmation of GPIBÅh on page xxx to the following one. Setup and Confirmation of GPIB This section describes the setup procedures of the interfaces required for using the E4991A GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus). Refer to the “Programming Manual” for the concept and execution procedures of automatic measurement using GPIB. When the E4991A is used in a GPIB system, it is necessary to select the E4991A as a 316 Appendix A A. Manual Changes Manual Changes Manual Changes system controller or to use it in addressable-only mode. Only one unit can be set up as the system controller in an automatic measurement system to control the entire system. On the other hand, instruments set in addressable mode can be controlled by using addresses from other instruments. The addresses in system controller mode or in addressable-only mode are set differently depending on the mode in use. NOTE The E4991A’s GPIB function (including setups) is available only from the local user interface. For details on the local user interface and remote user interface, refer to “Using Remote User Interface” on page 228. Operation procedure Step 1. Confirmation and change of control mode a. Open the shortcut menu by right-clicking and select System (Or press ). b. Click the GPIB Setup Menu button. c. Confirm the setup control mode by the indication on the Control Mode button. Click the button to toggle the control modes. Proceed to step 2 when the desired control mode is confirmed. Indication on Control Mode button Control Mode: [System Controller] Control Mode: [Addressable Only] Control mode setup System controller mode Addressable-only mode Figure A-14 A dialog box (Figure A-14) pops up after the button is clicked. E4991A Dialog box d. Click the OK button in the dialog box. Step 2. Confirmation and change of address a. The address in the addressable-only mode and the address in the system controller mode are indicated in the Address: E4991A box and Address: Controller box, respectively. Open the address box you want to change by clicking it and then select a new address by clicking one. Proceed to step 3 if no change is required. A dialog box (Figure A-14) pops up when the address is changed. b. Click OK button in the dialog box. Step 3. Shutting down and restarting the E4991A Execute the procedure below if you changed the control mode or the address. a. Shut down the E4991A by pressing “1. Standby switch” on page 23. b. Turn on the E4991A by again pressing “1. Standby switch” on page 23. Appendix A 317 Manual Changes Manual Changes NOTE The new control mode or address after changing does not become valid until the E4991A has been shutdown and restarted. Change 1 When the serial number prefix is JP1KH, change the description of “Procedure to execute system recovery” on page 205 to the following one. Procedure to execute system recovery Step 1. Prepare the items shown below. • System recovery disk (3.5 inch floppy disk) attached to the E4991A • Keyboard (Connect to the E4991A) Step 2. Shut down the E4991A. Step 3. Insert the system recovery disk in the floppy disk drive of the E4991A. Step 4. Turn on the E4991A by pressing the Standby switch and press Figure A-15 is displayed. immediately after Figure A-15 Initial Power-on Screen Display The contents of the system recovery disk are loaded while Figure A-16 is displayed. After a short time, the system recovery start screen (Figure A-17) is displayed. 318 Appendix A Figure A-16 Searching File Display Manual Changes Manual Changes A. Manual Changes Figure A-17 System Recovery Start Screen Step 5. Press before starting system recovery. A: \ > is indicated on the screen when system recovery is complete. Step 6. Remove the system recovery disk from the floppy disk drive. Step 7. Shut down the E4991A by pressing the Standby switch. Step 8. The E4991A will restart in the system-recovery-complete condition. Appendix A 319 NOTE Manual Changes Manual Changes System recovery can be suspended without execution by pressing instead of in Step 5. A: \ > is also indicated on the screen after this selection is made. Remove the system recovery disk and shut down the E4991A by pressing the Standby switch. 320 Appendix A B. Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) B Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) This appendix explains the E4991A Option 010 Probe Station Connection Kit, which is used to connect the instrument to a probe station made by a third-party manufacturer. 321 Figure B-1 Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Option 010 Overview Option 010 Overview The E4991A Option 010 Probe Station Connection Kit permits connection of the E4991A to any manufacturer’s probe station. Agilent Technologies recommends that you use the Cascade Microtech Summit 9000, 11000, and 12000 series probe stations. This connection kit consists of a test head and an extension cable. Mount the test head on the probe station with the parts provided by Cascade Microtech before performing measurement. Use a probe station to measure the impedance of DUTs such as semiconductor devices, components on a substrate, print patterns, and IC packages. Overview NOTE CAUTION You must not apply either alternate or direct current to the DUT port. Doing this could cause operational failure. Pay particular attention to whether the capacitor is charged. Fully discharge the device under test before connecting it to the test head DUT port or test fixture. Whenever you connect a DUT to or disconnect it from the DUT port for measurement, you must first turn off the dc bias or set the sweep to the hold state (in sweep hold state, dc bias is not applied to the DUT). If this step is not taken, the dc bias may destroy the DUT. 322 Appendix B NOTE Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Option 010 Overview Recommended Probe Stations The following probe stations are recommended for use with the Option 010 Probe Station Connection Kit. • Cascade Microtech Summit 9000 series • Cascade Microtech Summit 11000 series • Cascade Microtech Summit 12000 series Recommended Probe Heads The following probe heads are recommended for use with the Option 010 Probe Station Connection Kit. Cascade Microtech ACP series • ACP40-GS series • ACP40-SG series • ACP40-GSG series Cascade Microtech HPC series • HPC40-GSG series Except for the oscillator level, the E4991A standard specifications and supplemental information are applied while using the Option 010 Probe Station Connection Kit. For specifications of the oscillator level, refer to “Oscillator Level” on page 239. B. Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Appendix B 323 Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Mounting Test Head and Connecting Cables (using recommended probe station) Mounting Test Head and Connecting Cables (using recommended probe station) To mount the test head, you need the mounting plate and the semi-rigid cable provided by Cascade Microtech in addition to Option 010. The mounting plate is used to connect the test head to the probe arm. The semi-rigid cable is used to connect the test head to the probe head. Their are two types of semi-rigid cables: one for the Summit 9000 series and another for the Summit 11000/12000 series. Select the appropriate type for your probe station. To order these parts, please inquire to Cascade Microtech. Step 1. Fix the test head to the mounting plate supplied by Cascade Microtech. Figure B-2 Fixing Test Head to Mounting Plate Step 2. Connect the 3.5-mm to 7-mm adapter to the test head’s 7-mm connector. 324 Appendix B Figure B-3 Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Mounting Test Head and Connecting Cables (using recommended probe station) Connecting 3.5-mm to 7-mm Adapter B. Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Step 3. Mount the mounting plate with the test head to the probe arm. For more on how to mount the plate, refer to Cascade Microtech’s manual. Step 4. Connect the test head’s 3.5-mm connector to the probe head with the semi-rigid cable supplied by Cascade Microtech. For more on how to make this connection, refer to Cascade Microtech’s manual. Step 5. Connect each N(m) to SMA(f) adapter to the corresponding port on the E4991A test head interface (RF OUT, PORT1, PORT2). Figure B-4 Connecting N(m) to SMA(f) Adapter Step 6. Connect each of the extension cable’s SMA(m) connectors to the corresponding port on the E4991A test head interface (RF OUT, PORT1, PORT2). Use a wrench to tighten the Appendix B 325 Figure B-5 Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Mounting Test Head and Connecting Cables (using recommended probe station) connector nut of the SMA(m) connector. Connecting extension cable to E4991A 326 Appendix B Figure B-6 Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Mounting Test Head and Connecting Cables (using probe stations other than recommended models) Mounting Test Head and Connecting Cables (using probe stations other than recommended models) If you use a probe station other than the Cascade Microtech Summit 9000, 11000, or 12000 series, you should prepare a mounting plate that fixes the test head and a cable that connects the test head and probe head. Refer to the test head dimensions (Figure B-6) and customize a mounting plate that connects easily with your probe station. The cable that connects the test head to the probe head should have a 50 Ω characteristic impedance and be as short as possible. Test Head Dimensions Figure B-7 Example of Mounting Plate and Cable B. Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Appendix B 327 Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Calibration OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Calibration The OPEN/SHORT/LOAD calibration needs to be performed at the tip of Cascade Microtech’s probe head by using the Cascade ISS (Impedance Standard Substrate) to remove residual impedance from the extension cable and probe head. Set the calibration reference plane to the tip of the probe. Electrical length compensation and fixture compensation (Open compensation and Short compensation) are not executed. Follow the steps below to select fixture type, define calibration kit, select calibration/compensation measurement point mode, and perform OPEN/SHORT/LOAD calibration of the E4991A. Selecting Fixture Type Set the fixture type to none to turn off the electrical length compensation in the E4991A. Step 1. Selecting fixture a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and click Cal/Comp (or press ). b. Click and open the Fixture Type box and then click to select None. Definition of Calibration Kit The ACP probe head has its own residual parameters such as capacitance (C-Open) at OPEN calibration, inductance (L-Short) at SHORT calibration, and inductance (L-Term) at LOAD calibration. These parameters are defined at each probe pitch and printed inside the probe head’s case cover provided by Cascade Microtech. Set the appropriate values in the Cal Kit Menu of the E4991A, depending on the probe head you are using and its pitch. Step 1. Click the Cal Kit Menu button Step 2. Click and open the Cal Kit Type box and click to select User. Step 3. Using the numeric entry dialog box that appears by right-clicking inside the calibration kit definition box (or using the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block keys on the front panel), enter the definition of the calibration kit: Calibration Kit Definition Box Open C: (F) Short L: (H) Load L: (H) Value to be defined Capacitance C at Open Calibration (C-Open) Inductance L at Short Calibration (L-Short) Inductance L at Load Calibration (L-Term) 328 Appendix B Figure B-8 Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Calibration Selection of Fixture Type and Definition of Calibration Kit B. Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Table B-1 Calibration/Compensation Measurement Point Mode The E4991A has three modes for defining the measurement points when the calibration and compensation data are measured. Agilent Technologies recommends performing calibration in User-defined frequency/User-defined power point mode when using a probe station. Calibration/Compensation Measurement Point Mode Calibration/Compensation Measurement Point Mode Calibration/Compensation Measurement Condition Frequency Power Number of measurement points Advantages Disadvantages User-defined frequency / User-defined power point mode (User Freq&Pwr) Fixed frequency / Fixed power point mode (Fixed Freq&Pwr) Fixed frequency / User-defined power point mode (FixedFreq, UserPwr) Frequency points determined by sweep setups 372 Preset points 372 Preset points Power points determined by sweep setups 372 Preset points Power points determined by sweep setups Same as the number of sweep measurement points (NOP) 372 × 3 = 1116 points 372 points The most accurate DUT measurement can be performed Not necessary to retake the calibration/ compensation data even if the measurement points are changed Not necessary to retake the calibration/ compensation data if the frequency points are changed Need to retake the calibration/ compensation data if measurement points (frequency and/or power) are changed Takes more time to complete calibration/ compensation data measurement due to large number of measurement points Appendix B 329 NOTE Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Calibration User-defined frequency/User-defined power point mode This mode obtains calibration/compensation data at the same frequency and power points as those used in actual device measurement, which are determined by the sweep setups. Each set of calibration/compensation data is applied to each measurement at the same points. Accordingly, the most accurate measurement will be performed. If measurement points (frequency and/or power) are changed, calibration should be performed again. User-defined frequency/User-defined power mode is the recommended calibration mode for performing measurement while using a probe station. Fixed frequency/fixed power point mode This mode obtains calibration/compensation data in a fixed frequency and power range of the E4991A. In device measurement, calibration or compensation is applied to each measurement point by using interpolation. This causes interpolation error. Calibration of Open/Short/Load The calibration data of Open/Short/Load is measured according to the following procedure while using the Cascade ISS (Impedance Standard Substrate). For more information on how to use ISS, refer to the Cascade Microtech’s manual. Step 1. Selection of measurement point for calibration/compensation a. Right-click to open the shortcut menu and select Cal/Comp (or press ). b. Click the Cal Menu button. c. Click to open the Cal Type box and select the desired calibration/compensation measurement point mode. User Freq&Pwr (User-defined frequency/User-defined power mode) is recommended for performing calibration. Cal Type Box Fixed Freq&Pwr FixedFreq, UserPwr User Freq&Pwr Calibration/Compensation Measurement Point Mode Fixed frequency/fixed power point Fixed frequency/user-defined power point User-defined frequency/user-defined power point Step 2. Measurement of open calibration data a. Set the probe tip to the open position in the ISS. b. Click the Meas Open button and measure the open calibration data. When you want to interrupt measurement of calibration data, click the Abort Cal Meas button shown during measurement. When the measurement of each type of calibration data is finished, a check mark (√) will appear to the left side of the corresponding calibration execution button. This mark indicates that the calibration data is stored. Step 3. Measurement of short calibration data. a. Set the probe tip to the short position in the ISS. b. Click the Meas Short button and measure short calibration data. 330 Appendix B NOTE Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Calibration Step 4. Measurement of load calibration data. a. Set the probe tip to the load position in the ISS. b. Click the Meas Load button and measure the load calibration data. Step 5. Finishing calibration data measurement and confirmation of calibration state. a. Click the Done button to finish measuring the calibration data. To delete all measured calibration data, click the Cal Reset button. At the same time, all stored fixture compensation data are also deleted. b. Confirm the calibration state according to the display of the Cal Menu button as follows. Display of Cal Menu button Cal Menu [Fix] Cal Menu [FixR] Cal Menu [User] Cal Menu [Uncal] Calibration State Calibration is on while in the fixed frequency/fixed power point mode Calibration is on while in the fixed frequency/user-defined power point mode Calibration is on while in the user-defined frequency/user-defined power point mode Calibration is off CAUTION If you change the probe head or the measurement pitch, you should again perform calibration. B. Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) Appendix B 331 Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010) OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Calibration 332 Appendix B C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) C Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) This appendix provides information necessary for measuring temperature characteristic using the thermal characteristic test kit (option 007). 333 Figure C-1 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Overview Overview The E4991A option 007 temperature characteristic test kit extends the measurement terminal to measure the temperature characteristic of the DUT, and is used along with a temperature chamber*1. This kit makes it possible to perform measurement within the range of -55°C to 150°C by extending the test head as close as possible to the temperature chamber, securing it with a stand, and using the heat-resistant measurement cable to connect the 7-mm terminal of the test head and the fixture stand placed in the temperature chamber, as shown in Figure C-1. The temperature compensation feature using the built-in VBA macro feature is provided to perform temperature compensation for measurement results, decreasing errors due to temperature changes to acquire more accurate temperate characteristics. Overview of temperature characteristic test kit *1.To be prepared by the user. The ESPEC SU-261 is recommended, but any other temperature chambers are possibly used. 334 Appendix C NOTE Figure C-2 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Installation Installation To measure temperature characteristics using the temperature characteristic test kit, connect the devices as shown in Figure C-2. Wait for at least 1 hour at the highest and lowest temperatures before starting measurement In order to obtain stable measurement results, before starting measurement, keep the temperature inside the temperature chamber at the highest temperature of the actual measurement for at least 1 hour and then at the lowest temperature for at least 1 hour. This should be done each time you change the installation. Temperature characteristic measurement system C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Figure C-3 Cautions for protecting cable o Use the heat-resistant measurement cable, keeping it straight where possible. If unavoidable, bent it gradually within 30° or less relative to the horizontal as shown in the left figure of Figure C-3. Condition for bending measurement cable o Connect the extension cable after all the other settings are completed. After connected, the cable should be carefully handled. In particular, when you connect/disconnect the adapter and the N connector with the cable connected to the adapter or when you forcefully move the connected extension cable, the connector part is stressed and may be damaged. Appendix C 335 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Installation Connection procedure 1. Mount the test head to the stand. Step 1. Remove the test head from the E4991A. NOTE First, remove the Type N connector connected to RF OUT. Then, turn both the Type N connectors connected to PORT1 and PORT2 at the same time to remove them. Step 2. Secure the test head you removed to the test head holder. Figure C-4 Securing test head Step 3. Mount the test head holder to the stand. At this time, do not secure it completely for later fine positioning. Figure C-5 Mounting test head holder 336 Appendix C Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Installation 2. Install the measurement cable in the temperature chamber. Step 1. Insert the measurement cable into the hole in the temperature chamber so that the Type L, 7-mm connector side faces the inside of the temperature chamber. Attach heat insulating materials to the cable as necessary. Step 2. Adjust the position of the test fixture stand so that the length of the part of the measurement cable that is exposed to air outside the temperature chamber (refer to Figure C-6) is 15 cm or longer, and install the measurement cable to the stand. Figure C-6 Installing measurement cable to test fixture stand 3. Connect the measurement cable to the test head. Step 1. Adjust the position of the stand so that the 7-mm connector of the measurement cable and the 7-mm connector of the test head (DUT port) are located at the same height. In this step, fine adjust the position of the test head holder temporarily mounted and secure it tightly. Figure C-7 Connecting measurement cable and test head C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Step 2. Connect the measurement cable and the test head. Appendix C 337 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Installation 4. Connect the extension cable between the E4991A and the test head. Step 1. Connect the N (male) - 3.5 mm (female) adapters to RF Out, Port 1, and Port 2 on the ČûĀĀøĈ and then connect the cables to the corresponding ports whose names are written on the extension cable. NOTE Figure C-8 To avoid damage to the connectors of the extension cable, be sure to connect the adapters to the E4991A first, and then connect the extension cable to the adapters. Connecting extension cable and E4991A NOTE Step 2. Connect the N (female) - 3.5 mm (female) adapters to RF Out, Port 1, and Port 2 on the test head and then connect the cables to the corresponding ports whose names are written on the extension cable. To avoid damage to the connectors of the extension cable, be sure to connect the adapters to the test head first, and then connect the extension cable to the adapters. 338 Appendix C Figure C-9 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Installation Connecting extension cable and test head C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Step 3. To decrease stress on the connector part due to the move of the extension cable, stick the attached mount cable tie (1400-0584) to an appropriate position, and use tie wraps or strings to tie the extension cable to the seat for securing. NOTE When routing the extension cable downward, be sure to secure it at an upper part of the stand. When you need to route the extension cable downward (for example, when placing the E4991A by the test head stand), the weight of the cable itself may stress the connector part. To decrease this overload, secure the extension cable at an upper part of the stand as shown in Figure C-10. Figure C-10 Securing extension cable Appendix C 339 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Calibration/compensation Figure C-11 Calibration/compensation The measurement set with the temperature characteristic test kit connected requires the same calibration/compensation procedures as with usual connection in which the test head is connected directly to the E4991A, except for the calibration reference surface. Perform calibration at room temperature. While the calibration reference surface is the 7-mm terminal of the test head or the test fixture connected to the 7-mm terminal for the ČûĀĀøĈ with the test head is directly connected, it is the 7-mm terminal of the tip of the heat-resistant measurement cable (A in Figure C-11) or the DUT connection terminal of the test fixture connected to the tip of the measurement cable (B in Figure C-11) for the one with the temperature characteristic test kit connected. For more information about calibration/compensation, see Chapter 4, “Calibration and Compensation.” Calibration reference surface 340 Appendix C Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Temperature compensation NOTE Temperature compensation Executing the temperature compensation feature will reduce an error due to temperature change. The temperature compensation feature uses reference data to compensate an error that may be related to the measuring cable exposed to temperature change. Prior to compensation, the reference data is prepared by obtaining variation of measurement values of the open/short standards (heat-resistant) relative to normal temperature. The data will be obtained for all temperatures to be measured. The temperature compensation is executed using a built-in VBA program called TemperatureCompensation. You cannot execute the temperature compensation using the front panel. You can perform temperature compensation more easily using the attached sample program (tctest) that performs temperature compensation. In particular, when you use ESPEC SU-261 as a temperature chamber, you can use the attached sample program without any modification. For more information, refer to “Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program” on page 351. Execution procedure of temperature compensation Follow the temperature compensation flow shown below. Step 1. Acquire temperature compensation data for the temperature you want to measure and save it in a file. For more information, refer to “Acquiring temperature compensation data” on page 344. Step 2. Execute measurement at a desired temperature. Step 3. Stop the sweep. Step 4. Execute the temperature compensation with the measurement result using the program for compensation. Refer to “Information to create program to execute temperature compensation” on page 341 to create a program to execute temperature compensation using Temperature Compensation. Information to create program to execute temperature compensation Preparation for using TemperatureCompensation TemperatureCompensation is included in the library called Agilent E4991A-007 Compensation Library (DLL). In order to use the Agilent E4991A-007 Compensation Library, you need to enable the reference to it. Enable the reference to Agilent E4991A-007 Compensation Library Step 1. Run the VBA editor. Step 2. On the Tools menu of the VBA editor, click References... to display the References window. Step 3. Check the box associated with Agilent E4991A-007 Compensation Library. C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Appendix C 341 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Temperature compensation Description NOTE Function reference TemperatureCompensation temperature, file_name Reads data from the E4991A, executes compensation at the specified temperature for the data, and then writes the result in the raw data arrays. This function is provided for the built-in VBA and is not available for HTBasic. NOTE Variable You need to store compensation data files in the following folder. D:\Tctest\Compen\ Description Data type Unit Resolution Note temperature Compensation temperature Variant type (Variant) °C 0.1 The compensation temperature must be specified within the following range. -55°C to 150°C Example of use Description Data type Note file_name Compensation data file name Character string type (String) If the specified file does not exist, an error occurs. Dim objComp As TemperatureCompensation Set objComp = New TemperatureCompensation objComp.TemperatureCompensation 45, "CompFileName" 342 Appendix C Example C-1 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Temperature compensation Sample program Example C-1 shows a sample program that demonstrates how to execute temperature compensation. You can find the source file of this program, named TempComp.bas, on the sample program disk. When executed, this program stops the sweep and then executes compensation at 100°C for the measurement result using the compensation data file named "CompData.cpn." The program is detailed below:Line numbers are added for description purpose only, and do not appear in the actual program source code. Lines 50 to 60 Assigns TemperatureCompensation to an object type variable, objComp, in order to use the TemperatureCompensation function included in the class module. Line 110 Stops sweeping on the E4991A. Line 130 Uses the TemperatureCompensation function to update the displayed data to the data for which temperature compensation has been done. Execution of temperature compensation (object name: TempComp.bas) 10| 20| 30| 40| 50| 60| 70| 80| 90| 100| 110| 120| 130| 140| 150| Sub TempComp() Dim Temp As Variant Dim CompFile As String Dim objComp As TemperatureCompensation Set objComp = New TemperatureCompensation Temp = 100 CompFile = "CompData.cpn" SCPI.Output ":INIT:CONT OFF" objComp.TemperatureCompensation Temp, CompFile End Sub C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Appendix C 343 NOTE NOTE Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Temperature compensation Acquiring temperature compensation data You need to acquire temperature compensation data for all temperature points at which you want to make measurement. The temperature compensation data is the difference at each temperature between admittance measurement data for the open standard/impedance measurement data for the short standard and the reference data (measurement data for the open/short standard measured within the temperature range of 18°C to 28°C). Execution procedure of acquiring temperature compensation data When the DC bias feature (option) is provided, turn the feature off while acquiring temperature compensation data. Step 1. Make sure that the temperature of the ČûĀĀøĈ itself and tip of the measurement cable is within 18°C to 28°C and execute the open/short/load calibrations at the tip of the measurement cable (7-mm port) in the fixed frequency and fixed power point mode. Do not change the wiring layout of the measurement cable after executing calibration. Step 2. Set measurement frequency points so that those will form the same sequence as the frequency points used for calibration (the frequency point in the fixed frequency and fixed power point mode). Step 3. Measure the open standard. 1. Connect the heat-resistant open standard to the tip of the measurement cable. 2. Measure the admittance and read out the result. This data is the reference data for open. 3. After putting the temperature chamber (the tip of the measurement cable) to the temperature at which you want to acquire temperature compensation data, wait for at least 30 minutes (until the temperature becomes sufficiently stable) after the temperate is reached. 4. Measure the admittance and read out the result. 5. For each measurement temperature, repeat 3 and 4. Step 4. Measure the short standard. 1. After putting the temperature chamber (the tip of the measurement cable) within 18°C to 28°C, wait for at least 30 minutes (until the temperature becomes sufficiently stable) after the temperate is reached. 2. Connect the heat-resistant short standard to the tip of the measurement cable. 3. Measure the impedance and reads out the result. This data is the reference data for short. 4. After putting the temperature chamber (the tip of the measurement cable) to the temperature at which you want to acquire temperature compensation data, wait for at least 30 minutes (until the temperature becomes sufficiently stable) after the temperate is reached. 5. Measure the impedance and read out the result. 344 Appendix C Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Temperature compensation 6. For each measurement temperature, repeat 4 and 5. Step 5. Calculate open/short data and save it into a file in the following folder. D:\Tctest\Compen\ Open data From the admittance measurement data for the open standard ( Y ) and the reference data ( Yref ), calculate the deviation ( Y – Yref ) and then convert it to the impedance value ( -Y----–---1--Y---r---e--f ). The result is the open data. Short data From the impedance measurement data for the short standard ( Z ) and the reference data ( Zref ), calculate the deviation ( Z – Zref ). The result is the short data. Saving compensation data into a file When saving the temperature compensation data into a file, note the following and follow the example shown in Figure C-12. o Separate each data item with a comma (,). No space is needed. o You need to write measurement temperature points at the beginning of open data or short data. Arrange them from the lowest temperature to the highest temperature, instead of in the order of measurement execution. For readability when reading data in a compensation data file with a spread sheet program or other applications, you need to pad commas in addition to the ones that separate data items. For example, when you measure the reference data at 23°C and compensation data at 0°C, 10°C, 40°C, and 100°C, the data is ",0,,10,,23,,40,,100,". o In each line, write a frequency point at the beginning and then the real part and imaginary part of data at each temperature point from the lowest temperature to the highest. o For the data at the temperature at which you measured the reference data, place 0 in the real part of the open data, 1E+20 in the imaginary part, and 0 for both in the real and imaginary parts of the short data. This should be done similarly for all frequency points. C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Appendix C 345 Figure C-12 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Temperature compensation Format of compensation data file NOTE Sample program Example C-1 shows a sample program that demonstrates how to acquire temperature compensation data. You can find the source file of this program, named CompMeas.bas, on the sample program disk. This program measures the heat-resistant open/short standards at 23°C (used for the reference data), 0°C, and 100°C, calculates temperature compensation data, and save it into a file named "CompData.cpn." This sample program is created assuming that it is executed after executing the open/short/load calibrations in the fixed frequency and fixed power point mode. When executed, this program sets the measurement frequency points so that those make the same frequency point sequence used for the calibration in the fixed frequency and fixed power point mode. Then it displays a message "Set the temperature of the chamber to 23 deg. Then, wait 30 min." After at least 30 minutes elapsed after the temperature of the chamber reaches 23°C, click the OK button. When "Connect the Open (heat-resistant) to the Test Port." is displayed, connect the heat-resistant open standard to the tip of the measurement cable and click the OK button. The measurement for 23°C is executed. For 0°C and 100°C, perform measurement in the same manner. When the measurements of the open standard are complete, perform measurements of the short standard in the same manner. When all the measurements are complete, the temperature compensation data is saved into a file named "D:\Tctest\Compen\CompData.cpn" and then a closing message is displayed. The program is detailed below. Line numbers are added for description purpose only, and do not appear in the actual program source code. Line 190 Uses the SetMeasCondition function to set the measurement frequency point so that it forms the same frequency point sequence as used for the calibration in the fixed frequency and fixed power point mode. Lines 200 to 230 Sets the data formats of trace 4 and trace 5 to admittance and 346 Appendix C Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Temperature compensation Lines 240 to 270 Line 310 Line 320 Lines 330 to 350 Line 370 Lines 380 to 400 Line 420 Lines 430 to 450 Lines 470 to 630 Line 650 Lines 660 to 670 Lines 700 to 710 Line 720 Lines 730 to 850 impedance respectively and sets both the display formats of trace 4 and trace 5 to the complex plane. Sets up the trigger system. Displays a message instructing the user to set the the temperature of the chamber to 23 °C and to wait for 30 minutes. Displays a message that prompts the user to connect the heat-resistant open standard. Performs measurement once, reads out the admittance value, and stores it into the MeasDataOpen23 variable. Displays a message instructing the user to set the the temperature of the chamber to 0 °C and to wait for 30 minutes. Performs measurement once, reads out the admittance value, and stores it into the MeasDataOpen0 variable. Displays a message instructing the user to set the the temperature of the chamber to 100 °C and to wait for 30 minutes. Performs measurement once, reads out the admittance value, and stores it into the MeasDataOpen100 variable. Measures data using short standard in the same way as the measurement using open standard and stores it into the MeasDataShor23, MeasDataShor0 and MeasDataShor100 variables. Reads out the number of measurement points. Reads out the measurement frequency and stores it into the StimData variable. Opens the file. Writes the data of the measurement temperature points. Repeats the following steps as many times as the number of points and writes the open data into the file. Lines 740 to 750 Lines 760 to 770 Line 790 Lines 800 to 810 Line 820 Calculates the real part and imaginary part of the admittance value difference at 0°C relative to the reference data and assigns them to the variables Diff0_r and Diff0_i, respectively. Calculates the real part and imaginary part of the admittance value difference at 100°C relative to the reference data and assigns them to the variables Diff100_r and Diff100_i, respectively. Writes the frequency data into the file. Converts the admittance difference at 0°C to the impedance value, calculates the real part (= Diff0_r/(Diff0_r2+Diff0_i2)) and imaginary part (= -Diff0_i/(Diff0_r2+Diff0_i2)) of the admittance value, and writes those parts into the file. Writes data (fixed to 0,1E+20,) for the temperature (23°C) at which the reference data was measured. C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Appendix C 347 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Temperature compensation Lines 830 to 840 Converts the admittance difference at 100°C to the impedance value, calculates the real part (= Diff100_r/(Diff100_r2+Diff100_i2)) and imaginary part (= -Diff100_i/(Diff100_r2+Diff100_i2)) of the admittance value, and writes those parts into the file. Line 860 Writes the data of the measurement temperature points. Lines 870 to 950 Repeats the following steps as many times as the number of points and writes the short data into the file. Line 890 Lines 900 to 910 Line 920 Lines 930 to 940 Writes the frequency data into the file. Calculates the real part and imaginary part of the impedance difference at 0°C and writes those parts into the file. Writes data (fixed to 0,0,) for the temperature (23°C) at which the reference data was measured. Calculates the real part and imaginary part of the impedance difference at 100°C and writes those parts into the file. Lines 960 to 980 Closes the file and displays a closing message. Lines 1020 to 1190 The SetMeasCondition function. Sets each segment so that it will form the same frequency point sequence as used for the calibration in the fixed frequency and fixed power point mode and sets the sweep type to segment. 348 Appendix C Example C-2 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Temperature compensation Acquiring temperature compensation data (object name: CompMeas.bas) 10| Sub CompDataMeas() 20| Dim File As String 30| Dim MeasDataOpen0 As Variant 40| Dim MeasDataShor0 As Variant 50| Dim MeasDataOpen23 As Variant 60| Dim MeasDataShor23 As Variant 70| Dim MeasDataOpen100 As Variant 80| Dim MeasDataShor100 As Variant 90| Dim StimData As Variant 100| Dim Diff0_r As Double 110| Dim Diff0_i As Double 120| Dim Diff100_r As Double 130| Dim Diff100_i As Double 140| Dim Nop As Integer 150| Dim iFileNo As Integer 160| 170| File = "CompData.cpn" 180| 190| Call SetMeasCondition 200| SCPI.Output ":CALC4:FORM Y" 210| SCPI.Output ":CALC5:FORM Z" 220| SCPI.Output ":DISP:TRAC4:GRAT:FORM CPL" 230| SCPI.Output ":DISP:TRAC5:GRAT:FORM CPL" 240| SCPI.Output ":TRIG:SOUR BUS" 250| SCPI.Output ":TRIG:EVEN SWE" 260| SCPI.Output ":ABOR" 270| SCPI.Output ":INIT:CONT ON" 280| 290| ' Open Data Measurement 300| ' 23 deg (Room temperature) 310| MsgBox "Set the temperature of the chamber to 23 deg. Then, wait 30 min." 320| MsgBox "Connect the Open (heat-resistant) to the Test Port." 330| SingleMeasure 340| SCPI.Output ":CALC4:DATA? FDATA" 350| SCPI.Enter MeasDataOpen23, "#" 360| ' 0 deg 370| MsgBox "Set the temperature of the chamber to 0 deg. Then, wait 30 min." 380| SingleMeasure 390| SCPI.Output ":CALC4:DATA? FDATA" 400| SCPI.Enter MeasDataOpen0, "#" 410| ' 100 deg 420| MsgBox "Set the temperature of the chamber to 100 deg. Then, wait 30 min." 430| SingleMeasure 440| SCPI.Output ":CALC4:DATA? FDATA" 450| SCPI.Enter MeasDataOpen100, "#" 460| 470| ' Short Data Measurement 480| ' 23 deg (Room temperature) 490| MsgBox "Set the temperature of the chamber to 23 deg. Then, wait 30 min." 500| MsgBox "Connect the Short (heat-resistant) to the Test Port." 510| SingleMeasure 520| SCPI.Output ":CALC5:DATA? FDATA" 530| SCPI.Enter MeasDataShor23, "#" 540| ' 0 deg 550| MsgBox "Set the temperature of the chamber to 0 deg. Then, wait 30 min." 560| SingleMeasure 570| SCPI.Output ":CALC5:DATA? FDATA" 580| SCPI.Enter MeasDataShor0, "#" 590| ' 100 deg 600| MsgBox "Set the temperature of the chamber to 100 deg. Then, wait 30 min." 610| SingleMeasure 620| SCPI.Output ":CALC5:DATA? FDATA" 630| SCPI.Enter MeasDataShor100, "#" Appendix C 349 C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Temperature compensation 640| 650| Nop = SCPI.Query(":SWE:POIN?") 660| SCPI.Output ":SWE:STIM1?" 670| SCPI.Enter StimData, "#" 680| 690| ' Saving Data 700| iFileNo = FreeFile 710| Open File For Output As iFileNo 720| Print #iFileNo, ",0,,23,,100," 730| For i = 0 To Nop - 1 740| Diff0_r = MeasDataOpen0(i * 2) - MeasDataOpen23(i * 2) 750| Diff0_i = MeasDataOpen0(i * 2 + 1) - MeasDataOpen23(i * 2 + 1) 760| Diff100_r = MeasDataOpen100(i * 2) - MeasDataOpen23(i * 2) 770| Diff100_i = MeasDataOpen100(i * 2 + 1) - MeasDataOpen23(i * 2 + 1) 780| Write #iFileNo, _ 790| Val(StimData(i)), _ 800| Diff0_r / (Diff0_r * Diff0_r + Diff0_i * Diff0_i), _ 810| -(Diff0_i / (Diff0_r * Diff0_r + Diff0_i * Diff0_i)), _ 820| 0, 1E+20, _ 830| Diff100_r / (Diff100_r * Diff100_r + Diff100_i * Diff100_i), _ 840| -(Diff100_i / (Diff100_r * Diff100_r + Diff100_i * Diff100_i)) 850| Next i 860| Print #iFileNo, ",0,,23,,100," 870| For i = 0 To Nop - 1 880| Write #iFileNo, _ 890| Val(StimData(i)), _ 900| MeasDataShor0(i * 2) - MeasDataShor23(i * 2), _ 910| MeasDataShor0(i * 2 + 1) - MeasDataShor23(i * 2 + 1), _ 920| 0, 0, _ 930| MeasDataShor100(i * 2) - MeasDataShor23(i * 2), _ 940| MeasDataShor100(i * 2 + 1) - MeasDataShor23(i * 2 + 1) 950| Next i 960| Close iFileNo 970| 980| MsgBox "Done. (File Name: " & File & ")" 990| 1000| End Sub 1010| 1020| Private Sub SetMeasCondition() 1030| SCPI.Output "SEGM:COUN 12" 1040| SCPI.Output "SEGM:POW:STAT ON" 1050| SCPI.Output "SEGM:CURR:OFFS:STAT ON" 1060| SCPI.Output "SEGM1:DATA 1E6,1.24E6,9,8,-13,100e-6,1" 1070| SCPI.Output "SEGM2:DATA 1.26E6,1.5E6,9,8,-13,100e-6,1" 1080| SCPI.Output "SEGM3:DATA 1.55E6,1.95E6,9,8,-13,100e-6,1" 1090| SCPI.Output "SEGM4:DATA 2E6,2.6E6,7,8,-13,100e-6,1" 1100| SCPI.Output "SEGM5:DATA 2.8E6,4E6,7,8,-13,100e-6,1" 1110| SCPI.Output "SEGM6:DATA 4.3E6,4.6E6,2,8,-13,100e-6,1" 1120| SCPI.Output "SEGM7:DATA 5E6,8E6,7,8,-13,100e-6,1" 1130| SCPI.Output "SEGM8:DATA 9E6,16E6,8,8,-13,100e-6,1" 1140| SCPI.Output "SEGM9:DATA 18E6,30E6,7,8,-13,100e-6,1" 1150| SCPI.Output "SEGM10:DATA 33E6,51E6,7,8,-13,100e-6,1" 1160| SCPI.Output "SEGM11:DATA 55E6,95E6,9,8,-13,100e-6,1" 1170| SCPI.Output "SEGM12:DATA 100E6,3E9,291,8,-13,100e-6,1" 1180| SCPI.Output "SWE:TYPE SEGM" 1190| End Sub 350 Appendix C NOTE Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program This sample program is available with the firmware version 3.01 or greater. The VBA program for temperature characteristic measurement, tctest.lcr, is stored in the following folder at the factory. D:\Tctest This program includes 2 macros: Tctest.Start and Compensation.Start. "Tctest.Start" enables you to control the temperature chamber and the E4991A and measure the temperature characteristic of the DUT automatically under 3 different kinds of measurement conditions that are programmed. It also allows you to obtain temperature compensation data to decrease errors due to temperature changes and reflect it to the measurement result of the temperature characteristic, as necessary. This sample program is created assuming that the recommended temperature chamber (ESPEC SU-261) is used, therefore, when you use ESPEC SU-261, it can be used without any modifications. If you use a temperature chamber other than the ESPEC SU-261, you have to modify the program. For more information, refer to Chapter , “Modifying attached sample program,” on page 371. "Compensation.start" enables you to perform temperature compensation using temperature compensation data you obtained in advance. C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Appendix C 351 Figure C-13 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program Measuring temperature characteristic using Tctest.Start macro Overview of Tctest.Start Screen displayed immediately after execution of Tctest.Start (Main Menu) The function of each part is described below. 1. Measurement Conditions Makes the settings for temperature changes of the temperature chamber. Also, selects a state file (.sta) to be loaded when executing temperature characteristic measurement. 2. Temp Change Compensation Acquires temperature compensation data and makes the settings for temperature compensation. 3. Program Setup File Save/Load Saves/recalls the settings for Measurement Conditions and Temp Change Compensation. 4. Output File Specifies an output file name (a file to save measurement result). 5. Start Measurements Starts measurement under the conditions you have specified on the Main Menu. 352 Appendix C Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program Preparation for staring measurement Before staring measurement, check the following items relating to the temperature chamber and the E4991A. • Checking the temperature chamber Using a temperature chamber other than the ESPEC SU-261 will require the program to be modified. For more information, refer to Chapter , “Modifying other temperature chambers than recommended,” on page 372. • Checking the GPIB address of the temperature chamber The GPIB address setting of the temperature chamber when using Tctest.start is "1." Using a GPIB address other than "1" will require the program to be modified. For more information, refer to Chapter , “Changing GPIB address,” on page 372. • Setting the GPIB control mode of the E4991A Set the control mode to "System Controller." For more information, refer to “Setting the GPIB” on page 194 in Chapter 9. C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Appendix C 353 Figure C-14 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program Measurement procedure using Tctest.start The procedure is describe below. Flow of measurement using Tctest.start 354 Appendix C NOTE Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program 1. Saving a measurement condition state file This sample program allows you to perform measurement under up to 3 different state conditions at each temperature point. At each temperature point, measurement is performed while reproducing measurement conditions by loading the specified state file (.sta). Prior to measurement, therefore, set measurement conditions and save the state file after the execution of calibration/compensation. Keep the temperature of the temperature chamber constant within the range of 18°C to 28°C while creating a state file. Step 1. Set the measurement conditions of the instrument. For information on the setting method/procedure, refer to Chapter 3, “Setting Measurement Conditions.”. Step 2. Execute calibration/compensation. For information on the execution procedure, refer to “Calibration/compensation” on page 340. Step 3. Save the state file (.sta) into the following folder. D:\TCTEST\STATE If you want to perform measurement under other conditions, repeat steps 1 through 3. 2. Starting the program Execute the sample program (VBA). For more information on the procedure, refer to Chapter 13, “Use of Macros.” in the Programming Guide. Step 1. Load the sample program, D:\Tctest\tctest.lcr. Step 2. Execute the macro, Tctest.Start. C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Appendix C 355 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program 3. Specifying the measurement conditions and temperature conditions Set the measurement conditions and temperature conditions on the Main Menu (Figure C-13). Step 1. Setting a temperature profile You can set one of the following temperature changes (profiles). • Stepwise temperature change • Arbitrary temperature change NOTE Choose one of them by using the radio button on the Main Menu (1 in Figure C-13). Stepwise temperature change with constant increment/decriment To change temperature stepwise, click Set Temp Profile button on the Main Menu and set the following temperature change parameters to specify a temperature change pattern as shown in Figure C-15. Parameter name Start Temperature Stop Temperature # of Points # of Cycles Waiting Time Description Temperature of the first measurement point. Temperature of the last measurement point. Number of measurement temperature points. Number of temperature change repetitions from Start Temperature to Stop Temperature. Waiting time from when each measurement temperature reached as specified to when the measurement is started. Figure C-15 Set Temp Profile screen (example) NOTE Although Figure C-15 shows a temperature change pattern from the lowest temperature to the highest temperature, you can set the start temperature to the highest temperate and the stop temperature to the lowest temperature. 356 Appendix C Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program Table C-1 Unit, resolution, and limit values of each parameter Start Temperature Stop Temperature # of Points # of Cycles Waiting Time Unit °C °C Minute Resolution Maximum Minimum value value 0.1 150 -55 0.1 150 -55 1 25 1 1 9 1 1 999 1 NOTE Figure C-16 You can modify the program to change the limit values. For information on how to change them, refer to “Changing limits when setting temperature change pattern” on page 371. Arbitrary temperature change To change temperature arbitrarily, you have to load a temperature profile file stored in the format shown in "The format of a temperature profile file" in advance. Click the Load Temp Profile button on the Main Menu (Figure C-13) to display Figure C-16. Load Temp Profile screen C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) NOTE Figure C-17 Click the Load button (Figure C-16) to display Figure C-17. Choose a temperature profile file you want to use for measurement and click the OK button. You can choose from files with the ".TPR" extension located in D:\TCTEST\. Load File screen (example) Appendix C 357 Figure C-18 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program Click the OK button in Figure C-18 to load the temperature profile and return to the Main Menu (Figure C-13). Load Temp Profile screen after loading (example) Format of temperature profile file To change measurement temperature arbitrarily, you need to create a temperature profile file (measurement temperature state file). You have to save temperature profile files in the following folder. D:\TCTEST\ The extension should be ".TPR." Create files on your external PC. File transfer between the external PC and the E4991A is performed using the FTP server function of the E4991A over LAN. For more information on the FTP server function, refer to Chapter 10, “Using LAN.”. In the temperature profile file, each measurement temperature (and humidity) and waiting time after the specified temperature (humidity) reaches as specified are written in the order of: {temperature},{humidity},{waiting time} separated with a comma (,). Each temperature point is separated with a line feed. 358 Appendix C Figure C-19 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program Temperature Profile File (example) C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) NOTE NOTE Since the recommended temperature chamber does not provide humidity control, humidity is not specified in Figure C-21. No space is required between a value and a comma(,). When you do not specify humidity, place no space between commas. Always enter temperatures and waiting times. Table C-2 Unit, resolution, and limit values of temperature profile data Unit Resolution Maximum Minimum value value Temperature Humidity Waiting Time °C 0.1 % 0.1 Minute 1 150 -55 99 0 999 1 NOTE You can modify the program to change the limit values. For information on how to change them, refer to “Changing limits when setting temperature change pattern” on page 371. Step 2. Setting a state file Click the State Files button on the Main Menu (Figure C-13) to display Figure C-20. Click the Browse button, choose a desired state file you saved in advance, and click the OK button. You can specify up to 3 files each for A to C. Specify at least one file. Appendix C 359 Figure C-20 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program State Files screen 360 Appendix C Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program 4. Acquiring temperature compensation data When you perform temperature compensation, you need to acquire temperature compensation data according to the following procedure before measuring the DUT. NOTE If the DC bias feature (option) is provided, turn it off while acquiring temperature compensation data. Step 1. Specify measurement temperature settings using the following temperature profile file. Figure C-21 shows the temperature profile file provided at the factory. You need to acquire temperature compensation data for all measurement temperatures, making any changes as necessary. D:\TCTEST\CompTemp.Tpr Edit a file on your external PC. File transfer between the external PC and the E4991A is performed using the FTP server function of the E4991A via LAN. For more information on the FTP server ffunction, refer to Chapter 10, “Using LAN.”. NOTE Figure C-21 The only valid temperature profile file name when acquiring temperature compensation is D:\TCTEST\CompTemp.Tpr. In the temperature profile file, each temperature (and humidity) at which you want to acquire compensation data and waiting time after the specified temperature (humidity) reached as specified are written in the order of: {temperature},{humidity},{waiting time} separated with a comma (,). Each temperature point is separated with a line feed. CompTemp.Tpr temperature profile file (factory-set) C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) NOTE NOTE Since the recommended temperature chamber does not provide humidity control, humidity is not specified in Figure C-21. No space is required between a value and a comma(,). When you do not specify humidity, place no space between commas. Always enter temperatures and waiting times. Appendix C 361 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program Step 2. Make sure that the temperature of the E4991A and the end of the measurement cable is within 18°C to 28°C and execute the open/short/load calibration at the end of the measurement cable (7-mm port) in the fixed frequency and fixed power point mode. NOTE Keep the measurement cable in the same position as it was when calibration was performed. Step 3. Click the Measure Compensation Data button on the Main Menu (Figure C-13). Figure C-22 Temperature Change Compensation Setup screen Step 4. Click the Compensation Data File button (1 in Figure C-22). The screen shown in Figure C-23 appears. Enter a compensation data file name and click the OK button. Figure C-23 Compensation Data File screen when entering a file name (example) NOTE The box below Directory: D:\TCTEST\COMPEN\ only displays the list of existing file names. You cannot choose a file from the list. If you enter the same file name as one of the displayed files and click the OK button, a message to confirm overwrite is displayed. If you click the Yes button, data will be overwritten after the completion of measurement. Step 5. Click the Start Measurement button (2 in Figure C-22) to start temperature compensation data measurement. 362 Appendix C Figure C-24 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program The screen shown in Figure C-24 appears. Connect the heat-resistant open standard attached to Option 007 and then click the Meas button to start the open measurement. Temperature Change Compensation Data screen when measuring open connection Figure C-25 When measurements at all temperature points are completed, the screen shown in Figure C-25 appears. Click the Next button. Temperature Change Compensation Data screen when open measurement is complete Figure C-26 A screen appears as shown in Figure C-26. Connect the heat-resistant short standard attached to Option 007 and then click the Meas button to start the short measurement. Temperature Change Compensation Data screen when measuring the short connection Figure C-27 When measurements at all temperature points are completed, the screen shown in Figure C-27 appears. Click the Done button to finish the temperature compensation data measurement and return to the Main Menu. Temperature Change Compensation Data screen when the short measurement is complete C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Appendix C 363 Figure C-28 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program 5. Loading temperature compensation data Specifying temperature compensation data file Specify the compensation data you saved in acquiring temperature compensation data. Click the Load Compensation Data button on the Main Menu (Figure C-13) to display the screen in Figure C-28. Click the browse button. Load Compensation Data screen Figure C-29 Select your desired file in Figure C-29 and click the OK button. Temperature Compensation Data Select screen (example) Figure C-30 Turning on/off the temperature compensation data You need to turn on/off the compensation with the radio buttons on the Main Menu (Figure C-13). Compensation on/off screen 364 Appendix C Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program Measurement Conditions and Temp Change Compensation save/recall feature You can also load the setting of Measurement Conditions and Temp Change Compensation that have been stored in a file to reproduce them. Loading procedure Step 1. Click the Load Program Setup button on the Main Menu (Figure C-13) to display the screen in Figure C-31. Click the browse button. Figure C-31 Load Program Setup screen Step 2. Select your desired file Figure C-32 and click the OK button. Figure C-32 Program Setup Select screen (example) Figure C-33 Saving procedure Click the Save Program Setup button on the Main Menu (Figure C-13) to display Figure C-33. Enter a file name and click the OK button. Save Program Setup screen (example) C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) NOTE The box below Directory: D:\TCTEST\ only displays the list of existing file names. You cannot specify a file from the list. Appendix C 365 Figure C-34 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program 6. Setting output file Click Output Files on the Main Menu (Figure C-13) to display Figure C-34. Enter an output file name and click the OK button. Output File screen (example) NOTE NOTE The box below Directory: D:\TCTEST\OUTPUT\ only displays the list of existing file names. You cannot specify a file from the list. If you enter the same file name as one of the displayed files and click the OK button, a message to confirm overwrite is displayed. If you click the Yes button, the data is overwritten. The storage folder for output files is D:\TCTEST\OUTPUT only. Measurement results are saved in a file whose name is automatically defined by combining the file name specified above and the character "_" followed by 2 characters indicating data type: 1st character : Symbol of a state file used for measurement (Corresponding to one of A to C when specifying a state file) 2nd character : Trace number For example, if you specify an output file name as "test," the measurement result of trace 2 under the measurement conditions in state file B is saved under the name "test_B2.CSV." 366 Appendix C Figure C-35 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program Example of output file (imported in Microsoft Excel) C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) 1. Date of file saving 2. Measurement conditions and temperature conditions 3. Elapsed time from the measurement start (unit: minute) 4. Measurement temperature point (unit: °C) 5. Measurement humidity point (unit: %) 6. Stimulus data 7. Trace data for each measurement temperature/humidity Appendix C 367 NOTE Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program 7. Measurement When you have entered all the following conditions, you can start measurement. • Temperature profile condition (1 in Figure C-13) • State file (1 in Figure C-13) • Temperature compensation data setting (2 in Figure C-13): when using temperature compensation data • On/off of using temperature compensation data (2 in Figure C-13) • Output file (4 in Figure C-13) Step 1. Turn on the main power supply on the upper-right side of the ESPEC SU-261 and press the POWER key and the CONST.OPER./STOP key on the front panel. For a temperature chamber other than SU-261, set it so that it can accept the temperature setting command. Step 2. Click the Start Measurements button on the Main Menu (6 in Figure C-13) to start measurement. Measurement results are save in Output files. The trace saved in the output file depends on the measurement condition in the loaded file.Only scalar traces (traces 1 to 3) displayed with the measurement condtion in each loaded state file are saved as the measurement result. NOTE The Output file is saved in the following directory. D:\TCTEST\OUTPUT\ NOTE Figure C-36 When the measurement is complete, the temperature chamber is set to the initial temperature (at the start of measurement). The following screen is displayed during measurement. The Measure screen (example) 368 Appendix C Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program NOTE Temperature compensation for measurement result using Compensation.Start macro You can execute temperature compensation for your manual measurement result using Compensation.Start. This macro assumes that temperature compensation data was acquired beforfe it is used. For information on measuring/saving temperature compensation data, refer to “Temperature compensation” on page 341 or “4. Acquiring temperature compensation data” on page 361. Measurement procedure Step 1. Execute measurement. Step 2. Set the trigger setting of the E4991A to HOLD (sweep stop). Step 3. Load the temperature characteristic program and execute the Compensation.Start macro. Figure C-37 Screen displayed immediately after execution of Compensation.Start (Main Menu) Step 4. Set the calibration data. a. Click the Load Compensation Data button on the Main Menu (Figure C-37) to display the screen in Figure C-38. Click the browse button. Figure C-38 Load Compensation Data screen C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Appendix C 369 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Measuring temperature characteristic using sample program Figure C-39 b. Select your desired file in Figure C-39 and click the OK button. Temperature Compensation Data Select screen (example) NOTE The temperature compensation data at measurement must be included in the temperature compensation data. Step 5. Enter the temperature when executing measurement in Step 2 (the set temperature of the temperature chamber). Click the Measurement Temperature button on the Main Menu (Figure C-37) to display Figure C-40. Enter a temperature and click the OK button. Figure C-40 Measurement Temperature screen Step 6. Click the Compensation button on the Main Menu (Figure C-37) to display (overwrite) the result after temperature compensation for the data at execution. Inside the E4991A, the raw data array is overwritten with the data. After the execution of compensation, the program terminates automatically. 370 Appendix C Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Modifying attached sample program Figure C-41 Modifying attached sample program Changing limits when setting temperature change pattern The sample program provides the limits (upper limit/lower limit) as Table C-1 on page 357 and Table C-2 on page 359 when setting the temperature change pattern. These values are defined as the following constants in the standard module named UserConstant. You can change the limits by changing the definition of these constants. Definition part of limit values (part of standard module, UserConstant) C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) The following table shows the relationship between the limits and the constants. Limit item Start Temperature in Table C-1 Stop Temperature in Table C-1 # of Points in Table C-1 # of Cycles in Table C-1 Waiting time in Table C-1 Temperature in Table C-2 Humidity in Table C-2 Waiting time in Table C-2 Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Constant name StartTempMax StartTempMim StopTempMax StopTempMim NumOfPointsMax NumOfPointsMim NumOfCyclesMax NumOfCyclesMim WaitingTimeMax WaitingTimeMim TemperatureMax TemperatureMim HumidityMax HumidityMim ProWaitingTimeMax ProWaitingTimeMim Unit °C °C °C °C — — — — Minute Minute °C °C % % Minute Minute Appendix C 371 Figure C-42 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Modifying attached sample program Changing GPIB address The GPIB address of the temperature chamber is defined to 1 with the GpibAddress constant, as shown below, in the standard module named ChamberControl. You can change the GPIB address to a value other than 1 by changing the definition of this constant. Definition part of GPIB address (part of standard module, ChamberControl) Modifying other temperature chambers than recommended When you use a constant temperature (and humidity) chamber other than the recommended one(ESPEC SU-261), change the limits of temperature/humidity when setting the temperature change pattern depending on the chamber you use. For information on how to change them, refer to “Changing limits when setting temperature change pattern” on page 371. In addition, change the part that controls the temperature chamber in the program depending on the chamber you use. When using temperature chamber that can control temperature only If your temperature chamber can control temperature only, change the following functions in the ChamberControl standard module. • StartOperation StartOperation is a function that turns on the temperature chamber. Change the command sending part (1 in Figure C-43) according to the specification of the GPIB command that turns on the temperature chamber you use. If the command has no Query response, delete the receiving part (2 in Figure C-43). • GetTemp GetTemp is a function that checks the temperature of the temperature chamber. Change the command sending part (3 in Figure C-43) according to the specification of the GPIB command that checks the temperature of the temperature chamber you use. • SetTemp SetTemp is a function that sets the temperature of the temperature chamber. Change the command sending part (4 in Figure C-43) according to the specification of the GPIB command that sets the temperature chamber you use. If the command has no Query response, delete the receiving part (5 in Figure C-43). • CurrentTemp CurrentTemp is a function that acquires temperature information from the string obtained as the response to the temperature check command. Change the processing part (6 in Figure C-43) according to the specification of the GPIB command that checks the temperature of the temperature chamber you use. 372 Appendix C Figure C-43 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Modifying attached sample program Part to be changed when using a temperature chamber that can control temperature only (part of standard module, UserConstant) C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Appendix C 373 Figure C-44 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Modifying attached sample program When using temperature chambers that can control temperature and humidity When you use a temperature chamber that can control temperature and humidity and you want to control humidity as well as temperature, change as described in “When using temperature chamber that can control temperature only” on page 372, then you have to complete GetHumid and SetHumid in the ChamberControl standard module and then change SetChamber in the frmCompenMeas and frmMainMeas form modules. • GetHumid GetHumid is a function that checks the humidity of the temperature chamber. Since the recommended temperature chamber does not have the humidity control feature, it does nothing by default. Referring to the description of the temperature check (GetTemp), modify the program so that it sends a GPIB command that checks the humidity of the temperature chamber you use to check the humidity. • SetHumid SetHumid is a function that sets the humidity of the temperature chamber. Since the recommended temperature chamber does not have the humidity control feature, it does nothing by default. Referring to the description of the temperature setting (SetTemp), modify the code so that it sends a GPIB command that sets the humidity of the temperature chamber you use to set the humidity. • SetChamber SetChamber is a function that sets the temperature and humidity of the temperature chamber as you specified. Change the part that judges whether the temperature chamber reaches the specified conditions (enclosed with a thick box in Figure C-44) so that the judgment is performed using the humidity check result (vntCurHumid) in addition to the temperature check result (vntCurTemp). Part of SetChamber to be changed (part of form modules, frmCompenMeas/frmMainMeas) 374 Appendix C Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Recovery of the sample program furnished the option 007 Recovery of the sample program furnished the option 007 Performing the following steps will allow you to recover the sample program furnished with the option 007 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit when you purchased. Step 1. Exit from the E4991A system program a. Click System - Exit from the menu bar. This opens the Enter Password to exit dialog box (Figure C-45). Figure C-45 Enter Password to exit dialog box b. Enter the password: e4991a into the Password box by using the character input dialog box that appears by clicking the Keyboard... button or by using the external keyboard. c. Exit from the ČûĀĀøĈ system by clicking the OK button. Step 2. Insert the floppy disk furnished the option 007 into the E4991A floppy disk drive. Step 3. Double-click the icon My Computer on the E4991A display and double-click the A drive displayed in the window. Figure C-46 My Computer Icon Step 4. Double-click the “Setup.msi” stored in the A drive and follow the on-screen instructions to install the sample program. C. Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Appendix C 375 Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007) Recovery of the sample program furnished the option 007 376 Appendix C D Menu References This appendix explains the E4991A functions available from the display’s menu and cross references them to GPIB commands. D. Menu References 377 Menu References Menu References Menu References The buttons/boxes in the setup toolbar (right of display screen) are called up from the menu bar (upper screen) and front panel keys. In the list below, these are shown along with the functions they perform and the corresponding GPIB commands. Each heading in the list indicates the following: Menu Bar (Key) A Menu Bar selection and the front panel key (shown in parentheses) having the same function. Setup Toolbar A button/box in the active setup toolbar. Function The function performed by the button/box. GPIB Command The GPIB command used for each function. Trace Menu Trace - Scalar {1|2|3} | Complex {4|5} Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Trace ( ) Cannot access. -Scalar 1 -Scalar 2 -Scalar 3 -Complex 4 -Complex 5 Function Sets Trace 1 to Active Trace. Sets Trace 2 to Active Trace. Sets Trace 3 to Active Trace. Sets Trace 4 to Active Trace. Sets Trace 5 to Active Trace. GPIB Command DISP:TRAC{1-5}:SEL DISP:TRAC{1-5}:SEL DISP:TRAC{1-5}:SEL DISP:TRAC{1-5}:SEL DISP:TRAC{1-5}:SEL 378 Appendix D Menu References Menu References Meas/Format Menu Meas/Format - Meas/Format... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Meas/Format -Meas/Format ( ) Meas/Format: -Meas Parameter -Format -Expand Phase[ ] -Phase Unit[ ] -Sweep Average[ ] -Swp Avg Count -Sweep Average Restart Function GPIB Command Selects measurement parameter for the active trace. The available measurement parameter will depend on the measuring mode (impedance, derivative, magnetic measurement). Set the display format for the active trace to the Y axis. The available display format will depend on the scalar trace and the complex trace. Available only when the active trace measurement parameter is θz, θy, or θγ. This function sets the phase expansion display for the active trace. When On it can display phase traces beyond ±180° without folding back. Available only when the active trace measurement parameter is θz, θy, θγ. This function sets the phase display unit [Degree/Radian] for the active trace. This function sets the sweep average for all of the traces [On/Off]. For more on sweep averaging, refer to “Averaging Plural Sweeps (Sweep-to-Sweep Averaging)” on page 71. Available only when sweep averaging is On. This function sets the sweep averaging count from 1 to 999. Available only when sweep averaging is on. This function restarts the measurement and clears the sweep count to 1. CALC{1-5}:FORM DISP:TRAC{1-5}:GRAT:FOR M DISP:TRAC{1-3}:Y:SPAC CALC{1-3}:FORM:PAR:EPH CALC{1-5}:FORM:UNIT:AN GL CALC:AVER CALC:AVER:COUN CALC:AVER:CLE D. Menu References Appendix D 379 Menu Bar (Key) Scale -Scale... ( ) Menu References Menu References Scale Menu Scale - Scale...(When Display Format is Linear) Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Scale: -Autoscale All -Autoscale -Full Scale -(Top) -Ref Val -(Bottom) -Ref Pos -Scale For -Scale Entry[ ] -Reference Line[ ] Executes autoscale for all traces. DISP:TRAC:Y:AUTO:ALL Executes autoscale for active trace. DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:AUTO Full Scale: Displayed when the Scale Entry box is set to [Scale/Ref]. Sets the active trace to the difference between the top line and the bottom line. (Top): Displayed when the Scale Entry box is set to [Top/Bottom]. Sets the value on the top line for the active trace. Full Scale: DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:FULL Top: DISP:TRAC{1-3}:Y:TOP Ref Val: Displayed when the Scale Entry box is set to [Scale/Ref]. Sets the reference line position for the active trace. (Bottom): Displayed when the Scale Entry box is set to [Top/Bottom]. Sets the bottom line value for the active trace. Ref Val: DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:RLEV Bottom: DISP:TRAC{1-3}:Y:BOTT Sets the reference line position for the active trace. DISP:TRAC{1-3}:Y:RPOS Selects target trace (data trace/memory trace/data & memory trace) for scaling. DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:FOR Selects the input method of scale settings. Input box will depend on the selected method. None Sets reference line display [On/Off] for the active DISP:TRAC{1-3}:REF trace. 380 Appendix D Menu Bar (Key) Scale -Scale... ( ) Scale - Scale...(When Display Format is Log) Setup Toolbar Function Menu References Menu References GPIB Command Scale: -Autoscale All -Autoscale -Top -Bottom -Scale For Executes autoscale for all traces. Executes autoscale for active trace. Sets the value on top line for active trace. Sets the value on bottom line for active trace. Sets the target trace (data trace/memory trace/data & memory trace) for scaling. DISP:TRAC:Y:AUTO:ALL DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:AUTO DISP:TRAC{1-3}:Y:TOP DISP:TRAC{1-3}:Y:BOTT DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:FOR Menu Bar (Key) Scale -Scale... ( ) Scale - Scale...(When Display Format is Polar) Setup Toolbar Function Scale: -Autoscale All -Autoscale -Scale -Scale For Executes autoscale for all traces. Executes autoscale for active trace. Sets the size from the origin to the outermost circle for active trace. Selects the subject trace (data trace/memory trace/data & memory trace) for scaling. GPIB Command DISP:TRAC:Y:AUTO:ALL DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:AUTO DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:FULL DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:FOR D. Menu References Appendix D 381 Menu Bar (Key) Scale -Scale... ( ) Menu References Menu References Scale - Scale...(When Display Format is Complex Plane) Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Scale: -Autoscale All -Autoscale -Scale -Ref X -Ref Y -Scale For Executes autoscale for all traces. Executes autoscale for active trace. Sets the length per scale for active trace. Sets the reference line value in the horizontal (X) axis for active trace. Sets the reference line value in the vertical (Y) axis for active trace. Selects the target trace (data trace/memory trace/data & memory trace) for scaling. DISP:TRAC:Y:AUTO:ALL DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:AUTO DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:FULL DISP:TRAC{4-5}:X:RLEV DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:RLEV DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:FOR Menu Bar (Key) Scale -Scale... ( ) Scale - Scale... (When Display Format is Smith/Admittance Chart) Setup Toolbar Function Scale: -Autoscale All -Scale For Executes autoscale for all traces. Selects the target trace (data trace/memory trace/data & memory trace) for scaling. GPIB Command DISP:TRAC:Y:AUTO:ALL DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:FOR Scale - Autoscale All Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Scale -Autoscale Cannot access. All Function Same function as Scale - Scale - Autoscale All. GPIB Command DISP:TRAC:Y:AUTO:ALL 382 Appendix D Menu Bar (Key) Scale -Autoscale Scale - Autoscale Setup Toolbar Function Cannot access. Same function as Scale - Scale - Autoscale. Menu References Menu References GPIB Command DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:AUTO D. Menu References Appendix D 383 Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Display -Display... ( ) Display Menu Display - Display... Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Display: -Num Of Traces -Display Scalar Trace[ ] -Copy Data→Memory -Define Trace -Math Offset -List Values[ ] -Print/Clipboard Menu -More Sets the number of traces displayed. Can display scalar trace (number of traces: 1-3) and/or complex trace (number of traces: 1-2). When there is more than one trace, selects whether to display all traces in a single window [Overlay] or to split the traces and display each in its own window individually [Split]. Stores into memory currently measured raw data (R-X format) and data trace displayed after being converted into set measurement parameters for all traces in the window of the active trace. The offset value, if any, will be subtracted from the data trace before it is stored. Also, only one memory trace can be saved for each data trace. Selects the method for displaying the active trace (Data Trace/Memory Trace/Data & Memory Trace/calculated traces of Data − Memory and Delta %). Available only in scalar trace. Sets amount to be subtracted (offset value) from the active trace. For the window that displays the active trace, sets the list display mode [On (Display List)/Off (Display Graph)] for the data trace. Calls up the setup toolbar that selects the screen printing content and copying format. For details see “Display - Display - Print/Clipboard Menu” on page 385. Calls up the 2nd page of the Display toolbar. For details see “Display - Display - More” on page 384” DISP:TRAC{1-5} DISP:FORM CALC{1-5}:MATH:MEM CALC{1-5}:MATH:FUNC CALC{1-3}:MATH:OFFS DISP:TRAC{1-5}:TEXT Menu Bar (Key) Display -Display... ( ) Display - Display - More Setup Toolbar Function -More Display: 384 GPIB Command Appendix D Menu Bar (Key) Menu References Menu References Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command -Color Setting Menu -Title -Window Maximize -Window Restore -Freq Disp Resolution -Operation Param Menu Calls up the setup toolbar that sets the trace, background, and grid colors. For details see “Display - Display - More - Color Setting Menu” on page 386. Sets the title for the active trace, which is displayed as text in the upper part of the screen. Maximizes the window where the active trace is displayed. Restores the maximized window back to normal. Sets the resolution of the marker frequency display. Calls up the setup toolbar that displays a list of setting statuses for measurement conditions, calibration, and fixture compensation. For details see “Display - Display - More - Operation Param Menu” on page 387. DISP:TRAC{1-5}:TITL:DATA DISP:TRAC{1-5}:TITL None None None Menu Bar (Key) Display -Display... ( ) Display - Display - Print/Clipboard Menu Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command -Print/Clipbd Menu Print/Clipbd: -Print Graph(Color) -Print Graph(Mono) -Print List Values -Print Operating Params -Copy to Clipboard Graph(bmp) Prints graph of measurement data displayed on screen in color. For more on printing, refer to “Printing Measurement Graphs and Internal Data Lists” on page 186. Prints measurement data graph displayed on screen in black and white. Prints list of measurement data from all measuring points. Prints list of primary parameters related to measurement conditions. Available only when remote user interface is On (when E4991A User Interface program is operating on an external PC). Copies graph display of data trace to the clipboard in bmp format. When more than one window is open, the function will only copy the window with the active trace. HCOP:CONT HCOP:IMAG HCOP HCOP:CONT HCOP:IMAG HCOP HCOP:CONT HCOP HCOP:CONT HCOP None D. Menu References Appendix D 385 Menu Bar (Key) Menu References Menu References Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command -Copy to Clipboard Graph(jpg) -Copy to Clipboard List Values -Copy to Clipboard Operating Params Only available when the remote user interface is On. Copies graph display of data trace to the clipboard in jpg format. When more than one window is open, the function will only copy the window with the active trace. Only available when the remote user interface is On. Copies list of data trace from all measuring points to the clipboard. Only available when the remote user interface is On. Copies list of primary parameters related to measurement conditions to the clipboard. None None None Menu Bar (Key) Display -Display... ( ) Display - Display - More - Color Setting Menu Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command -More -Color Setting Menu Color Setting: -Item -Red -Green -Blue -Default Selects the coloring object. Able to select trace (data trace/memory trace), background, or grid. None Adjusts red luminosity from 0 to 255 degrees. None Adjusts green luminosity from 0 to 255 degrees. None Adjusts blue luminosity from 0 to 255 degrees. None Resets all coloring parameters to the initial setting. None 386 Appendix D Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Display -Display... ( ) Display - Display - More - Operation Param Menu Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command -More -Operation Param Menu Display: -Operation Parameters -Cal Status/Kit -Comp Status/Kit Displays a list of primary parameters related to the measurement conditions. Displays a list of calibration statuses and standard values of the calibration kit. Displays a list of fixture compensation statuses and standard values of fixture compensation kit. None None None Display - Window Menu Bar (Key) Display -Window -Maximize Setup Toolbar Cannot access. -Restore Cannot access. Function Same function as Display - Display - More Window Maximize. Same function as Display - Display - More Window Restore. GPIB Command None None Display - Print Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Display -Print -Graph Cannot access. (Color) -Graph Cannot access. (Mono) Function GPIB Command Same function as Display - Display - Print/Clipbd Menu - Print Graph (Color) Same function as Display - Display - Print/Clipbd Menu - Print Graph (Mono) HCOP:CONT HCOP:IMAG HCOP HCOP:CONT HCOP:IMAG HCOP D. Menu References Appendix D 387 Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar -List Cannot access. Values -Operating Cannot access. Parameters Function GPIB Command Same function as Display - Display - Print/Clipbd Menu - Print List Values. Same function as Display - Display - Print/Clipbd Menu - Print Operating Params. HCOP:CONT HCOP HCOP:CONT HCOP Display - Copy to Clipboard Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Display -Copy to Clipboard -Graph Cannot access. (bmp) -Graph Cannot access. (jpg) -List Cannot access. Values -Operating Cannot access. Parameters Function GPIB Command Same function as Display - Display - Print/Clipbd Menu - Copy to Clipboard Graph (bmp). Same function as Display - Display - Print/Clipbd Menu - Copy to Clipboard Graph (jpg). Same function as Display - Display - Print/Clipbd Menu - Copy to Clipboard List Values. Same function as Display - Display - Print/Clipbd Menu - Copy to Clipboard Operating Prams. None None None None 388 Appendix D Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Marker -Marker... ( ) Menu Bar (Key) Marker -Marker... ( ) Marker Menu Marker - Marker... Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Marker: -Select Marker -Stimulus -Selected Marker[ ] -Marker On[ ] -Delta Marker Menu -Marker To Menu -All Off -More Selects a marker number and displays it as a new marker. If the marker number is already displayed, it becomes the active marker. The marker point of the active marker is indicated by a large triangle (Δ). The reference marker (Marker R) can be used as a normal marker as well as a reference value in Δ mode. When the trace-to-trace marker coupling is disconnected, the active trace’s marker is automatically selected. Sets the stimulus value for the active marker and moves it to that position. The measurement and stimulus values are displayed in the screen’s upper area. Turns off the active marker display. Available only when both data trace and memory trace are displayed. Sets the active trace as the trace that uses the marker and selects either data trace or memory trace. Calls up the setup toolbar that selects the reference marker mode and setting. For details see “Marker - Marker - Delta Marker Menu” on page 390. Calls up the setup toolbar that inputs the active marker’s stimulus or measurement value as the setting for each function. A marker is displayed if there is none active yet. For details see “Marker Marker - Marker To Menu” on page 391. Turns off all markers displayed for all traces. If the trace-to-trace marker function is not on, only the markers displayed in the active trace will be turned off. Calls up the 2nd page of the Marker toolbar. For details see “Marker - Marker - More” on page 389. CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF CALC{1-5}:MARK{1-8} CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:ACT CALC{1-5}:MARK{1-8}:ACT CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:X CALC{1-5}:MARK{1-8}:X CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF CALC{1-5}:MARK{1-8} CALC{1-5}:MARK:ON CALC{1-5}:MARK:AOFF Marker - Marker - More Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command -More D. Menu References Appendix D 389 Menu Bar (Key) Menu References Menu References Setup Toolbar Marker: -Marker[ ] -Coupled Marker[ ] Function GPIB Command Toggles the Continuous marker mode ([Continuous]) and Discrete marker mode ([Discrete]). In Continuous mode, the marker can read any selected point value on an active trace by interpolating. In Discrete mode, the marker can only read measurement points. Sets the Continuous marker function [On/Off]. When On, the marker moves all traces. When Off, the marker moves the active trace only. CALC{1-5}:MARK:DISC CALC:MARK:COUP Menu Bar (Key) Marker -Marker... ( ) Marker - Marker - Delta Marker Menu Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command -Delta Marker Menu Delta Marker: -Delta Mode Available only when the reference marker is On. Selects the reference marker mode from among Δ mode off (OFF), Δ mode (Delta), and fixed Δ mode (Fixed Delta). In Δ mode off, the active marker stimulus and measurement values are shown in the upper area of the screen. In Δ mode, the differences between the measurement values and the stimulus value for the active marker and reference marker are shown in the upper area of the screen. In fixed Δ mode, the reference marker can be set to any location by the user (it does not have to be on the trace). The differences between the measurement values and the stimulus value for the active marker and reference marker are shown in the upper area of the screen. CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:TYP E 390 Appendix D Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar -Stimulus -Delta Value -Delta Aux Value Menu References Menu References Function GPIB Command Available only when the reference marker is in Δ mode or fixed Δ mode. Sets the reference marker stimulus value and moves it to that position. Available only when the reference marker is in fixed Δ mode. Sets the reference marker measurement value and moves it to that position. Available only when the reference marker is in fixed Δ mode and the display is in polar, complex plane, Smith Chart, or Admittance Chart format. Sets the reference marker’s auxiliary measurement value and moves it to that position. CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:X CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:Y CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:Y Menu Bar (Key) Marker -Marker... ( ) Marker - Marker - Marker To Menu Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command -Marker To Menu Marker To: -Start -Stop -Center -Delta To Span Sets the active marker’s stimulus value as the sweep starting value for all traces and changes the sweep range accordingly as the new sweep starting value. Sets the active marker’s stimulus value as the sweep stopping value for all traces and changes the sweep range accordingly as the new sweep stopping value. Sets the active marker’s stimulus value as the sweep centering value for all traces and changes the sweep range accordingly as the new sweep centering value. Available only when the reference marker is in Δ mode or fixed Δ mode and any marker other than the reference marker is selected in the Select Marker box. Sets the stimulus differences for the active marker and reference marker to the sweep span value and changes the sweep range accordingly as the new sweep span value. CALC{1-5}:MARK:SET CALC{1-5}:MARK:SET CALC{1-5}:MARK:SET CALC{1-5}:MARK:SET D. Menu References Appendix D 391 Menu Bar (Key) Menu References Menu References Setup Toolbar -Reference -Offset Function GPIB Command Available only when the display is in linear format. Sets the active marker measurement value in the active trace as the scale reference value and changes the scale accordingly as the new reference value. The scale reference value refers to the Ref Val box in “Scale - Scale...(When Display Format is Linear)” on page 380. Available only in scalar trace. Sets the active marker measurement value in the active trace as an offset value and sets the trace as the new offset value. The new offset value refers to the settings in Math Offset box in “Display - Display...” on page 384. CALC{1-5}:MARK:SET CALC{1-5}:MARK:SET Marker - Function... Menu Bar (Key) Marker -Function... ( ) Setup Toolbar Marker Fctn: -Search -Search Type -Next -Left Function GPIB Command Executes marker search function for an active trace. This function searches for the points that match the conditions selected in the Search Type box. Selects the search type for the active trace. The search type can be selected from Maximum, Minimum, Target, Positive Peak, Negative Peak. Available only in peak search. If the peak search is set to Positive Peak, the function will search for the next smallest positive peak from the last search (positive peak measurement). If the peak search is set to Negative Peak, the function will search for the next largest negative peak from the last search (negative peak measurement). Available in peak search and target search. Searches for the peak value or target value on the left side of the active marker. CALC{1-5}:MARK:FUNC:EX EC CALC{1-5}:MARK:FUNC CALC{1-5}:MARK:FUNC:EX EC:NEXT CALC{1-5}:MARK:FUNC:EX EC:LEFT 392 Appendix D Menu Bar (Key) Menu References Menu References Setup Toolbar -Right -Search Track[ ] -Search Def&Range Menu -More Function GPIB Command Available in peak search and target search. Searches for the peak value or target value on the right side of the active marker. Sets the search track [On/Off] for the active trace. This function will execute a new search every time the trace has been updated by sweep. Calls up the setup toolbar that sets the partial search, peak definition, and target value for target search. For details see “Marker - Function Search Def&Range Menu” on page 394. Calls up the 2nd page of the Marker Fctn toolbar. For details see “Marker - Function - More” on page 393. CALC{1-5}:MARK:FUNC:EX EC:RIGH CALC{1-5}:MARK:FUNC:TR AC Menu Bar (Key) Marker -Function... ( ) Marker - Function - More Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command -More Marker Fctn: -Marker List[ ] -Statistics[ ] -Smith/Polar Executes the marker list function [On/Off] for the active trace. This function lists up the stimulus and measurements values for all of the markers (Δ mode and fixed Δ mode are included). Executes statistics function [On/Off] when the active trace has a marker displayed. When On, the screen will calculate and display the statistical figures of the total trace (average, standard deviation, peak-to-peak between the marker). If partial search function is set to On, the function will calculate and display within that search area. If the display is in polar, complex plane, Smith Chart, or Admittance Chart format, the statistical figures are displayed by the absolutes of the complex numbers. Selects the display format when calling the active marker measurement value for the active trace if the display is complex trace (polar, complex plane, Smith Chart, Admittance Chart). CALC{1-5}:MARK:LIST CALC{1-5}:MST CALC{4-5}:MARK:FORM D. Menu References Appendix D 393 Menu Bar (Key) Menu References Menu References Setup Toolbar -Marker X Axis -Limit Test Menu Function GPIB Command Selects the marker X axis display method used for all traces. The method is selected from among stimulus, sweep time (the time it takes to reach the active marker from the sweep start as 0 (s)), or relaxation time (1/2πf, f: measured frequency). Calls up the setup toolbar that sets the limit test function and displays the limit test table. For details see “Marker - Function - More - Limit Test Menu” on page 395. CALC{1-5}:MARK:UNIT Menu Bar (Key) Marker -Function... ( ) Marker - Function - Search Def&Range Menu Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command -Search Def&Range Menu Def & Range: -Partial Search[ ] -Marker to Left Range -Marker to Right Range -Mkr Delta to Search Range -Target Value -Peak Delta X -Peak Delta Y -Marker to Peak Delta Selects partial search function [On/Off] for the active trace. This function sets the sweep range for the marker search. This search area range is indicated by double vertical lines. Available when the Partial Search function is On. Draws a left range line on the stimulus value of the active marker position and sets it as the starting point for the partial search range. Available when Partial Search is On. Draws a right range line on the stimulus of the active marker position and set it as the ending point for the partial search range. Available when the reference marker mode is in Δ mode or fixed Δ mode and Partial Search is On. Sets the stimulus value ranges for the active and reference markers as the partial search range. For the active trace, sets the target value for the Target Search (target measurement). If the reference marker is set to Δ mode or fixed Δ mode, the target value is the relative value based on the reference marker. Sets the ΔX in the incline ΔX/ΔY that defines the peak in the active trace. Sets the ΔY in the incline ΔX/ΔY that defines the peak in the active trace. Compares the incline from the active marker position to the measurement points on both sides and sets the smaller one to the peak incline ΔX/ΔY. CALC{1-5}:MARK:FUNC:D OM CALC{1-5}:MARK:FUNC:D OM:STAR CALC{1-5}:MARK:FUNC:D OM:STOP CALC{1-5}:MARK:FUNC:D OM:SPAN CALC{1-5}:MARK:FUNC:TA RG CALC{1-5}:MARK:APE:EXC :X CALC{1-5}:MARK:APE:EXC :Y CALC{1-5}:MARK:APE:SET 394 Appendix D Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Marker -Function... ( ) Marker - Function - More - Limit Test Menu Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command -More -Limit Test Menu Limit Test: -Limit Test[ ] -Select Marker -Test Marker[ ] -Stimulus -Upper -Lower Executes the limit test function for the active trace [On/Off]. This function compares the limit value defined in each marker position (upper limit, lower limit) and the measurement data and then displays the results (Pass/Fail) in the bottom right corner of the screen. In complex trace, the limit value is defined by the format set in the Smith/Polar box (the first numerical number value or absolute value displayed among the two markers). Selects the marker number for the limit test. The screen displays the newly selected marker number if it is not already shown. Selects whether to use the marker selected in the Select Marker box for the limit test [On/Off]. Set the stimulus value of the marker selected in the Select Marker box for the active trace. Sets the upper limit of the marker measurement selected in the Select Marker box for the active trace. Sets the lower limit point of the marker measurement selected in the Select Marker box for the active trace. CALC{1-5}:MARK:FUNC:D OM:LIM:ALL CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF CALC{1-5}:MARK{1-8} CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:ACT CALC{1-5}:MARK{1-8}:ACT CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:FUN C:DOM:LIM CALC{1-5}:MARK{1-8}:FUN C:DOM:LIM CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:X CALC{1-5}:MARK{1-8}:X CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:FUN C:DOM:LIM:UP CALC{1-5}:MARK{1-8}:FUN C:DOM:LIM:UP CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:FUN C:DOM:LIM:LOW CALC{1-5}:MARK{1-8}:FUN C:DOM:LIM:LOW Menu Bar (Key) Marker -To... Marker - To... Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Marker To: Same function as Marker - Marker - Marker To Menu D. Menu References Appendix D 395 Menu References Menu References Marker - Fctn More... Menu Bar (Key) Marker -Fctn More... Setup Toolbar Marker Fctn: Function Same function as Marker - Function - More. GPIB Command Menu Bar (Key) Marker -Limit... Marker - Limit... Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Limit Test: Same function as Marker - Function - More Limit Test Menu. Menu Bar (Key) Marker -All Off Marker - All Off Setup Toolbar Function Cannot access. Same function as Marker - Marker - All Off. GPIB Command CALC{1-5}:MARK:AOFF 396 Appendix D Stimulus Menu Stimulus - Start/Stop... Menu Bar (Key) Stimulus -Start/Stop... ( ) Setup Toolbar Start/Stop: -Start Function Sets the sweep starting value. -Stop Sets the sweep stopping value. -Center Sets the sweep center value. Menu References Menu References GPIB Command Frequency sweep: FREQ:STAR Oscillator level (dBm) sweep: SOUR:POW:STAR Oscillator level (voltage) sweep: SOUR:VOLT:STAR Oscillator level (current) sweep: SOUR:CURR:STAR Dc bias (voltage) sweep: SOUR:VOLT:OFFS:STAR Dc bias (current) sweep: SOUR:CURR:OFFS:STAR Frequency sweep: FREQ:STOP Oscillator level (dBm) sweep: SOUR:POW:STOP Oscillator level (voltage) sweep: SOUR:VOLT:STOP Oscillator level (current) sweep: SOUR:CURR:STOP Dc bias (voltage) sweep: SOUR:VOLT:OFFS:STOP Dc bias (CURRENT) sweep: SOUR:CURR:OFFS:STOP Frequency sweep: FREQ:CENT Oscillator level (dBm) sweep: SOUR:POW:CENT Oscillator level (voltage) sweep: SOUR:VOLT:CENT Oscillator level (current) sweep: SOUR:CURR:CENT Dc bias (voltage) sweep: SOUR:VOLT:OFFS:CENT Dc bias (current) sweep: SOUR:CURR:OFFS:CENT D. Menu References Appendix D 397 Menu Bar (Key) Menu References Menu References Setup Toolbar -Span -Stimulus Display[ ] Function GPIB Command Sets the sweep span value. Selects whether to display the sweep range on the bottom of the screen by start/stop value or by center/span value. Frequency sweep: FREQ:SPAN Oscillator level (dBm) sweep: SOUR:POW:SPAN Oscillator level (voltage) sweep: SOUR:VOLT:SPAN Oscillator level (current) sweep: SOUR:CURR:SPAN Dc bias (voltage) sweep: SOUR:VOLT:OFFS:SPAN Dc bias (current) sweep: SOUR:CURR:OFFS:SPAN None 398 Appendix D Menu References Menu References Stimulus - Sweep Setup... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Stimulus -Sweep Setup... ( ) Sweep Setup: -Number Of Points -Point Average -Sweep Time[ ] -Sweep Parameter -Sweep Type -Sweep Direction[ ] -Segment Table Menu -Segment Display Function GPIB Command Sets the number of measurement points (NOP) in integers from 2 to 801. The larger the NOP is, the better the resolution becomes but the longer the sweep time becomes. The smaller the NOP is, the shorter the sweep time becomes but the trace resolution decreases. Sets the point averaging factor (done at each measurement point) in integers from 1 to 100. An averaging factor of two or more will automatically turn Point Average On and start point averaging. Setting averaging to 1 sets up the same condition as Point Average Off. Calls up the setup toolbar that sets the sweep time and delay time. For details see “Stimulus - Sweep Setup - Sweep Time[ ]” on page 400. Selects the sweep parameter from Frequency, Power (oscillation level), Bias Voltage, or Bias current. Selects the sweep type from Linear, Log, or Segment if Frequency is selected as the sweep parameter. However, to select Segment it is necessary to set up the segment sweep table beforehand from the Segment Table Menu. Linear is automatically selected if the sweep parameter is set to Power or Bias Voltage (current). Switches the sweep direction up & down. Up starts the sweep from the sweep start position and ends it at the sweep end position. Down starts the sweep from the sweep stop position and ends it at the sweep start position. Calls up the setup toolbar that creates the segment sweep table. For details see “Stimulus - Sweep Setup - Segment Table Menu” on page 400. Segment sweep function sweeps according to the previously set frequency ranges (segments) in a single sweep. Available only when Segment Sweep is selected as the sweep type. Selects the display method of the measured data trace by using the segment sweep function. The display can be selected from Frequency linear (Freq Base), segment number order (Order base), or Frequency log (Log Freq Base). SWE:POIN AVER:COUN AVER SWE:TYPE SWE:TYPE SWE:DIR DISP:TRAC{1-5}:X:SPAC D. Menu References Appendix D 399 Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Stimulus - Sweep Setup - Sweep Time[ ] Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Stimulus -Sweep Setup... ( ) -Sweep Time[ ] Sweep Time: -Sweep Time Auto[ ] -Sweep Time -Point Delay -Segment Delay -Sweep Delay Switches the sweep time from manual (sets sweep time to any selected time) to auto (sets sweep time automatically). Setting the sweep time by using the Sweep Time box automatically changes the setting to manual. Sets sweep time to any given time. Sets the point delay time (measurement point delay time). The start of measurement for each measurement point is delayed by the amount of delay time set. Sets the segment delay time (segment sweep delay time). By using this function, each segment sweep is delayed by the set delay time. Sets the sweep delay time. By using this function, each sweep is delayed by the set delay time. SWE:TIME:AUTO SWE:TIME SWE:DWEL2 SWE:DWEL3 SWE:DWEL1 Menu Bar (Key) Stimulus - Sweep Setup - Segment Table Menu Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Stimulus -Sweep Setup... ( ) -Segment Table Menu Segment Table: -Add Segment -Segment No. -Start -Stop Adds a new segment to the Segment Sweep Table. If the table has no segment defined at all, one with the initial settings is added. If there already is a segment defined in the table, the last defined segment is copied and added. A maximum of 16 segments can be added. Selects the segment number that needs editing from the segments that compose the Segment Sweep Table. Sets the sweep start frequency for the selected segment number. Sets the sweep stop frequency for the selected segment number. SEGM:COUN None SEGM{1-16}:FREQ:STAR SEGM{1-16}:FREQ:STOP 400 Appendix D Menu Bar (Key) Menu References Menu References Setup Toolbar -Number Of Points -Point Average -Delete Segment -More Function GPIB Command Sets the number of measurement points for the selected segment number from 2 to 801. However, the total number of all segments cannot exceed the maximum of 801. Sets the number of point averaging for the selected segment numbers from 1 to 100. Deletes the selected segment. Calls up the2nd page of the Segment Table toolbar. For details see “Stimulus - Sweep Setup Segment Table Menu - More” on page 402. SEGM{1-16}:SWE:POIN SEGM{1-16}:AVER:COUN AVER None D. Menu References Appendix D 401 Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Stimulus - Sweep Setup - Segment Table Menu - More Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Stimulus -Sweep Setup... ( ) -Segment Table Menu -More Segment Table: -Osc Level -Osc Unit -Bias Level -Bias Limit -Bias Source Sets the oscillation level for the selected segment number. Oscillation level (dBm): SEGM{1-16}:POW Oscillation level (voltage): SEGM{1-16}:VOLT Oscillation level (current): SEGM{1-16}:CURR Selects the oscillation level unit for all segment numbers. dBm, voltage, or current can be selected. Oscillation level (dBm): SEGM:POW:STAT Oscillation level (voltage: SEGM:VOLT:STAT Oscillation level (current): SEGM:CURR:STAT Sets the DC bias level for the selected segment numbers. DC Bias (voltage): SEGM{1-16}:VOLT:OFFS DC Bias (current): SEGM{1-16}:CURR:OFFS Sets the bias level limit (upper) when applying the DC bias for the selected segment number. When using DC bias in constant voltage mode, use current to set the upper limit. When using DC bias in constant current mode, use voltage to set the upper limit. DC Bias (voltage): SEGM{1-16}:VOLT:LIM DC Bias (current): SEGM{1-16}:CURR:LIM Selects the DC bias source when setting the DC bias level for the selected segment numbers. Select from constant voltage mode or constant current mode. DC Bias (voltage): SEGM:VOLT:OFFS:STAT DC Bias (current): SEGM:CURR:OFFS:STAT 402 Appendix D Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Stimulus -Source... ( ) Stimulus - Source... Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Source: -Osc Level -Osc Unit -CW Freq -Bias Level -Bias Limit -Bias Source -Bias Monitor[ ] -Dc Bias[ ] Available when selecting a sweep parameter other than the oscillation level sweep. Sets the oscillation level. Selects the unit for setting the oscillation level from dBm, voltage, or current. Available when selecting a sweep parameter other than frequency sweep. Sets the oscillation frequency. Available when selecting a sweep parameter other than DC bias. Sets the DC bias source level. The level of the set DC bias source is shown at the bottom of the screen when the Dc Bias button is On. Sets the level limit when applying DC bias (upper limit). When using DC bias in constant voltage mode, use current to set the upper limit. When using the constant current mode, use voltage. The set level limit is shown at the bottom of the screen when the Dc bias button is On. Selects the DC bias source when setting DC bias source level. Selected from constant voltage or constant current mode. Switches the display that monitors the DC bias level applied in the samples. The monitor rate is shown below the marker only when the marker is shown. DC bias source level settings and the monitor rate do not necessarily match. Turns On/Off the DC bias source output. Turning the measurement Off→On activates the hold mode. When applying the DC bias, set the instrument to single trigger mode or continuous trigger mode before triggering. Oscillation level (dBm): SOUR:POW Oscillation level (voltage): SOUR:VOLT Oscillation level (current): SOUR:CURR Oscillation level (dBm): SOUR:POW:MODE Oscillation level (voltage): SOUR:VOLT:MODE Oscillation level (current): SOUR:CURR:MODE FREQ DC bias (voltage): SOUR:VOLT:OFFS DC bias (current): SOUR:CURR:OFFS DC bias (voltage): SOUR:VOLT:LIM:OFFS DC bias (current): SOUR:CURR:LIM:OFFS DC bias (voltage): SOUR:VOLT:OFFS SOUR:CURR:LIM:OFFS SOUR:VOLT:OFFS:STAT DC bias (current): SOUR:CURR:OFFS SOUR:VOLT:LIM:OFFS SOUR:CURR:OFFS:STAT Note that the final command will be the top priority. CALC:BMON DC bias (voltage): SOUR:VOLT:OFFS:STAT DC bias (current): SOUR:CURR:OFFS:STAT D. Menu References Appendix D 403 Menu References Menu References Stimulus - Cal/Compen... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Stimulus -Cal/Compen. ( ) Cal/Compen: -Cal Menu[ ] - Comp Menu[ ] -Cal Kit Menu -Comp Kit Menu -Fixture Type -Fxtr Length -Port Extension Function GPIB Command Calls up the setup toolbar for calibration and settings. For details see “Stimulus - Cal/Compen Cal Menu[ ]” on page 405. Before calibration the Uncal is shown in the [ ]. After calibration it displays the calibrated data measurement points selected (Fix, FixR, User). See “Calibration/Compensation measurement point mode” on page 78 for calibrated data measurement points. Calls up the setup toolbar for fixture compensation and settings. For details see “Stimulus - Cal/Compen - Comp Menu[ ]” on page 406. Before fixture compensation OFF is displayed in the [ ], but after fixture compensation ON is displayed. Buttons on the setup toolbar are enabled only when the calibration is completed. Calls up the setup toolbar for inputting the standard values when using the user defined calibration kit. For details see “Stimulus Cal/Compen - Cal Kit Menu (Impedance/Magnetic)” on page 407 and “Stimulus - Cal/Compen - Cal Kit Menu (Derivatives)” on page 408. Only available in impedance measurement. Calls up the setup toolbar for inputting the standard values when using the user defined fixture compensation kit. For details see “Stimulus Cal/Compen - Comp Kit Menu (Impedance Only)” on page 408. Selects the test fixture. The available test fixtures are different depending on the mode (impedance, derivative, magnetic measurement). When using a user created test fixture, select User from the list. Available when using a user created test fixture. Sets the electrical length of the test fixture. When using an ĈĮİijĬĵĻ test fixture registered in the Fixture Type box, the standard rate for that test fixture is automatically set. When it is necessary to set a rate other than the standard rate, select User from the Fixture Type box and enter the desired electrical length. Sets the offset delay time added to the test fixture’s electrical length when the 7-mm port is extended with a cable, etc. SENS:CORR2:FIXT SENS:CORR2:FIXT:EDEL:U SER:DIST SENS:CORR2:EDEL:TIME 404 Appendix D Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar -Recover Cal/Comp State Menu References Menu References Function GPIB Command Recovers the calibration/fixture compensation data and restores the instrument setups. For more on the instrument setups, refer to Appendix G on page 439. None Menu Bar (Key) Stimulus - Cal/Compen - Cal Menu[ ] Setup Toolbar Function Stimulus -Cal/Compen. ( ) -Cal Menu[ ] Calibration: -Meas Open -Meas Short -Meas Load -Meas Low Loss C -Done -(Abort Cal Meas) -Cal Reset Measures the calibration data in the OPEN standard of the calibration kit. When the measurement is completed, there is a check mark (√) to the left of the button. Measures the calibration data in the SHORT standard of the calibration kit. When the measurement is over, there is a check mark (√) to the left of the button. Measures the calibration data in the LOAD standard of the calibration kit. When the measurement is over, there is a check mark (√) to the left of the button. Measures the low loss capacitor calibration data (attachment only) in the OPEN standard of the calibration kit. When the measurement is over, there is a check mark (√) to the left of the button. Low loss capacitor calibration is only necessary when High Q (low loss factor) measurement is done at high precision. Done: Available when the measurement of the OPEN, SHORT, LOAD (low loss capacitor) calibration data is completed. The calibration coefficient is calculated based on the acquired 3 (4) calibration data, which are then stored into memory to enable calibration. (Abort Cal Meas): Available only in OPEN, SHORT, LOAD (low loss capacitor) calibration measurement. Aborts calibration measurement. Disables all calibration data and the calibration coefficient acquired. When the button is clicked, the check mark (√) to the left of the button disappears. GPIB Command SENS:CORR1:COLL SENS:CORR1:COLL SENS:CORR1:COLL SENS:CORR1:COLL SENS:CORR1:COLL:SAVE (None) SENS:CORR1 D. Menu References Appendix D 405 Menu Bar (Key) Menu References Menu References Setup Toolbar -Cal Type Function GPIB Command Selects the calibration and fixture compensation data measurement point. The measurement point is selected from fixed frequency/fixed power point mode (Fixed Freq & Pwr), Fixed frequency/User defined power point mode (Fixed Freq, User Pwr), or User defined frequency/user-defined power point mode (User Freq & Pwr). For details on the calibration data measurement points, see “Calibration/Compensation measurement point mode” on page 78. SENS:CORR1:COLL:FPO SENS:CORR2:COLL:FPO Menu Bar (Key) Stimulus - Cal/Compen - Comp Menu[ ] Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Stimulus -Cal/Compen. ( ) -Comp Menu[ ] Compen: -Meas Open -Meas Short -Done -(Abort Compen Meas) -Comp Open[ ] -Comp Short[ ] Measures the OPEN compensation data. When the measurement is completed, there is a check mark (√) to the left of the button. Measures the SHORT compensation data. When the measurement is completed, there is a check mark (√) to the left of the button. Done: Available when the measurement of the OPEN, SHORT compensation data is completed. The compensation coefficient is calculated based on the acquired fixture compensation data, which are then stored into memory to enable fixture compensation. (Abort Cal Meas): Availably only in OPEN or SHORT data measurement. Aborts the fixture compensation data measurement. Switches On/Off the open compensation in fixture compensation. Compensation also turns On by simply clicking the Done button after measuring open compensation. Switches On/Off the SHORT compensation in fixture compensation. SHORT Compensation also turns On by simply clicking the Done button after measuring SHORT compensation. SENS:CORR2:COLL SENS:CORR2:COLL SENS:CORR2:COLL:SAVE (None) SENS:CORR2:COLL:OPEN SENS:CORR2:COLL:SHOR 406 Appendix D Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Stimulus - Cal/Compen - Cal Kit Menu (Impedance/Magnetic) Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Stimulus -Cal/Compen. ( ) -Cal Kit Menu Cal Kit: -Cal Kit Type -Open G -Open C -Short R -Short L -Load R -Load L Selects the calibration kit type from Standard (7 mm) or User Defined (User). Available only when the User-Defined calibration kit is selected. Sets the conductance value (G) for the OPEN standard. Available only when the User-Defined calibration kit is selected. Sets the capacitance value (C) for the OPEN standard. Available only when the User-Defined calibration kit is selected. Sets the resistance value (R) for the SHORT standard. Available only when the User-Defined calibration kit is selected. Sets the inductance value (L) for the SHORT standard. Available only when the User-Defined calibration kit is selected. Sets the resistance value (R) for the LOAD standard. Available only when the User-Defined calibration kit is selected. Sets the inductance value (L) for the LOAD standard. SENS:CORR1:CKIT SENS:CORR1:CKIT:STAN1: G SENS:CORR1:CKIT:STAN1: C SENS:CORR1:CKIT:STAN2: R SENS:CORR1:CKIT:STAN2: L SENS:CORR1:CKIT:STAN3: R SENS:CORR1:CKIT:STAN3: L D. Menu References Appendix D 407 Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Stimulus - Cal/Compen - Cal Kit Menu (Derivatives) Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Stimulus -Cal/Compen. ( ) -Cal Kit Menu Cal Kit: -Cal Kit Type -ε r Real -ε r Loss -Thickness Automatically selects the LOAD standard (PTFE) as the dielectric calibration kit. Cannot be changed. Sets the real part of the LOAD standard’s complex relative permittivity ( εr' ). Sets the imaginary part of the LOAD standard’s complex relative permittivity ( ε″r ). Sets the thickness of the LOAD standard. SENS:CORR1:CKIT SENS:CORR1:CKIT:STAN7: PRE SENS:CORR1:CKIT:STAN7: PLF SENS:CORR1:CKIT:STAN7: THIC Menu Bar (Key) Stimulus - Cal/Compen - Comp Kit Menu (Impedance Only) Setup Toolbar Function Stimulus -Cal/Compen. ( ) -Comp Kit Menu Comp Kit: -Open G -Open C -Short R -Short L Sets the conductance value (G) for the OPEN standard. Sets the capacitance value (C) for the OPEN standard. Sets the resistance value (R) for the SHORT standard. Sets the inductance value (L) for the SHORT standard. GPIB Command SENS:CORR2:CKIT:STAN1: G SENS:CORR2:CKIT:STAN1: C SENS:CORR2:CKIT:STAN2: R SENS:CORR2:CKIT:STAN2: L 408 Appendix D Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Trigger -Trigger ( ) Trigger Menu Trigger - Trigger Setup Toolbar Function Cannot access. Available only when the trigger source is set to manual. Trigger is initiated once. GPIB Command None Trigger - Trigger Setup... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Trigger -Trigger Setup... ( ) Trigger Setup: -Hold -Single -Continuous -Trigger Source -Trigger Event -Trigger Polarity[ ] -Manual Trigger Function GPIB Command Sets the Hold Mode, where no triggers are accepted, and stops measurement. Sets the single trigger mode, where one trigger makes one sweep before setting the hold mode. If sweep averaging is On, the system is set to hold mode after all of the sweeps set in the averaging count are completed. Sets the continuous trigger mode, where triggers are continuously selected. In this mode, sweep can be done continuously. Selects the trigger source. Triggers are selected from internal, manual, external, or GPIB. Available only when the trigger source is set to manual, external, or GPIB. Selects the trigger event mode when search is carried out for the trigger event. Trigger Event Mode is selected from every sweep, every measurement point, or every segment. Available only when the trigger source is set to external. Sets the polarity (up & down) of the outer trigger signals. Available only when the trigger source is set to manual. The trigger is done once. INIT:CONT INIT INIT:CONT TRIG:SOUR TRIG:EVEN TRIG:SLOP TRIG D. Menu References Appendix D 409 Menu Bar (Key) Trigger -Hold Menu References Menu References Trigger - Hold Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Cannot access. Same function as Trigger - Trigger Setup - Hold. INIT:CONT Menu Bar (Key) Trigger -Single Trigger - Single Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Cannot access. Same function as Trigger - Trigger Setup - Single. INIT Trigger - Continuous Menu Bar (Key) Trigger -Continuous Setup Toolbar Cannot access. Function Same function as Trigger - Trigger Setup Continuous. GPIB Command INIT:CONT 410 Appendix D Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Utility -Utility ( ) Utility Menu Utility - Utility... Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Utility: -Equivalent Circuit Menu -Material Option Menu -Macros -Visual Basic Editor -Save Program -Load Program Calls up the setup toolbar that sets the equivalent circuit analysis. For details see “Utility - Utility Equivalent Circuit Menu” on page 412. Calls up the setup toolbar that sets the measurement mode and the measuring materials. Materials measurement is only possible when Option 002 (material measurement software) is installed in the E4991A. For details see “Utility Utility - Material Option Menu” on page 413. Displays the dialog box that runs and saves the loaded Macro program (VBA program). Lists only the procedures in the standard module defined as Public type. For more on the macro program, refer to “Chapter 3 Using Macros” in the Programming Manual. Displays the editing screen for the programming function of the internal VBA (Visual Basic Applications) program. Calls up the dialog box to store all files of the VBA project (macro programs that have the extension .lcr). Calls up the dialog box to load the stored Macro program (with extension .lcr). PROG:CAT? PROG:NAME PROG:STAT None MMEM:STOR:MACR MMEM:LOAD:MACR D. Menu References Appendix D 411 Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Utility -Utility ( ) Utility - Utility - Equivalent Circuit Menu Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command -Equivalent Circuit Menu Equivalent Circuit: -Select Circuit[ ] -R1 -C1 -L1 -C0 -Calculate Parameters -Simulate Freq-Char -Simulate Freq-Char to All Traces Calls up the setup toolbar that selects the equivalent circuit model. For details see “Utility Utility - Equivalent Circuit Menu - Select Circuit[ ]” on page 413. Enters the parameter R1 for the equivalent circuit model A-E. Also, the equivalent parameter R1 calculated by the Calculate Parameters button is displayed. Enters the parameter C1 for the equivalent circuit model A-E. Also, the equivalent parameter C1 calculated by the Calculate Parameters button is displayed. Enters the parameter L1 for the equivalent circuit model A-E. Also, the equivalent parameter L1 calculated by the Calculate Parameters button is displayed. Enters the parameter C0 for the equivalent circuit model A-E. Also, the equivalent parameter C0 calculated by the Calculate Parameters button is displayed. Calculates the equivalent circuit parameters based on the measurement results and the selected equivalent circuit model. If the partial search function of the marker is set to On, the equivalent circuit parameters are calculated within that search area. Simulates, for all active traces, the selected equivalent circuit model frequency characterization based on the equivalent circuit parameter entered or calculated by the Calculate Parameters button. The simulated results are stored into the memory trace and displayed on screen. Simulates, for all traces, the selected equivalent circuit model frequency characterization based on the equivalent circuit parameter entered or calculated by the Calculate Parameters button. The simulated results are stored into the memory trace and displayed on screen. CALC{1-5}:DATA:EPAR CALC{1-5}:DATA:EPAR CALC{1-5}:DATA:EPAR CALC{1-5}:DATA:EPAR CALC{1-5}:EPAR CALC{1-5}:EPAR:SIM None 412 Appendix D Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) Utility -Utility ( ) Utility - Utility - Equivalent Circuit Menu - Select Circuit[ ] Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command -Equivalent Circuit Menu -Select Circuit[ ] Select Circuit: -A -B -C -D -E Selects equivalent circuit model A. Model A is generally suited to analyzing inductors with high core loss. Selects equivalent circuit model B. Model B is generally suited to analyzing general inductors and resistors. Selects equivalent circuit model C. Model C is generally suited to analyzing resistors with high resistance. Selects equivalent circuit model D. Model D is generally suited to analyzing capacitors. Selects equivalent circuit model E. Model E is generally suited to analyzing resonators and oscillators. CALC{1-5}:EPAR:CIRC CALC{1-5}:EPAR:CIRC CALC{1-5}:EPAR:CIRC CALC{1-5}:EPAR:CIRC CALC{1-5}:EPAR:CIRC Menu Bar (Key) Utility -Utility ( ) Utility - Utility - Material Option Menu Setup Toolbar Function -Material Option Menu Material: -Material Type -Thickness -Height -Inner Diameter Selects the measurement mode from impedance (Impedance), dielectrics (Permittivity), or Magnetics (Permeability). Available only when the mode is Permittivity. Enters the thickness of the dielectric material (material under test). Available only when the measurement is Permeability. Enters the height of the magnetic material (material under test). Available only when the measurement is Permeability. Enters the internal diameter of the magnetic material (material under test). GPIB Command MODE CALC:FORM:PAR:DIE CALC:FORM:PAR:MAG CALC:FORM:PAR:MAG D. Menu References Appendix D 413 Menu Bar (Key) Menu References Menu References Setup Toolbar -Outer Diameter Function Available only when the measurement is Permeability. Enters the outer diameter of the magnetic material (material under test). GPIB Command CALC:FORM:PAR:MAG Utility - Equivalent Circuit... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Utility -Equivalent Equivalent Circuit: Circuit... Function GPIB Command Same as Utility - Utility - Equivalent Circuit Menu. Utility - Material Option... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Utility -Material Option... Material: Function GPIB Command Same as Utility - Utility - Material Option Menu. Utility - VBA Macros... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Utility -VBA Cannot access. Macros... Function Same as Utility - Utility - Macros. GPIB Command PROG:CAT? PROG:NAME PROG:STAT Utility - Visual Basic Editor... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Utility -Visual Basic Editor... Cannot access. Function Same as Utility - Utility - Visual Basic Editor. GPIB Command None 414 Appendix D Utility - Save Program... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Utility -Save Cannot access. Program... Function Same as Utility - Utility - Save Program. Utility - Load Program... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Utility -Load Cannot access. Program... Function Same as Utility - Utility - Load Program. Menu References Menu References GPIB Command MMEM:STOR:MACR GPIB Command MMEM:LOAD:MACR D. Menu References Appendix D 415 Menu References Menu References Save/Recall Menu Save/Recall - Save/Recall... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Save/Recall -Save/Recall.. ( ) Save/Recall: -Save State Calls up the dialog box to store the state file (with extension .sta). The state file can store the E4991A setting, calibration data arrays, calibration coefficient arrays, fixture compensation data arrays, fixture compensation coefficient arrays, user-defined calibration kit settings, user-defined fixture compensation kit settings, data arrays, and memory arrays. -Save Data Calls up the dialog box to store the E4991A’s internal data arrays. To store internal data, it is necessary to indicate the file type and the content of the internal data. See Chapter 7, “Saving and Recalling Internal Data,” on page 165 for storing internal data. -Save Graphics Calls up the dialog box to store the current display in jpg format or BMP format. -Recall State Calls up the dialog box to load the stored state file (with extension .sta). -Recall Data Calls up the dialog box to load the binary file (with extension .dat) where the internal data array is stored. -xxx*1 Up to 3 recent stored/loaded state files can be registered in the Save/Recall toolbar. *1. The absolute path of the recently stored/loaded file is displayed. MMEM:STOR MMEM:STOR:TRAC:ASC MMEM:STOR:TRAC MMEM:STOR:TRAC:SEL{14} MMEM:STOR:CITI{1-3} MMEM:STOR:GRAP MMEM:LOAD MMEM:LOAD:TRAC Save/Recall - Save State... Menu Bar (Key) Save/Recall -Save State... Setup Toolbar Cannot access. Function GPIB Command Same as Save/Recall - Save/Recall - Save State. MMEM:STOR 416 Appendix D Menu References Menu References Save/Recall - Save Data... Menu Bar (Key) Save/Recall -Save Data... Setup Toolbar Cannot access. Function GPIB Command Same as Save/Recall - Save/Recall - Save Data. MMEM:STOR:TRAC:ASC MMEM:STOR:TRAC MMEM:STOR:TRAC:SEL{14} MMEM:STOR:CITI{1-3} Save/Recall - Save Graphics... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Save/Recall -Save Cannot access. Graphics... Function Same as Save/Recall - Save/Recall - Save Graphics. GPIB Command MMEM:STOR:GRAP Save/Recall - Recall State... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Save/Recall -Recall State... Cannot access. Function GPIB Command Same as Save/Recall - Save/Recall - Recall State. MMEM:LOAD Save/Recall - Recall Data... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar Save/Recall -Recall Data... Cannot access. Function GPIB Command Same as Save/Recall - Save/Recall - Recall Data. MMEM:LOAD:TRAC D. Menu References Appendix D 417 Menu References Menu References System Menu System - Toolbar Off Menu Bar (Key) System -Toolbar Off ( ) Setup Toolbar Cannot access. Function Closes the setup toolbar. Dialog boxes can be closed with the Cancel/Close key. GPIB Command None System - System... Menu Bar (Key) System -System... ( ) Setup Toolbar System: -GPIB Setup Menu -FTP Server Menu -Remote Setup Dialog -Beep[ ] -About E4991A Function GPIB Command Calls up the setup toolbar that sets the GPIB system control mode and address. Calls up the setup toolbar that sets file transfer via FTP (File Transfer Protocol). Available only when the remote user interface is On. Calls up the dialog box for connecting the remote user interface. Sets the beep function [On/Off] that notifies the calibration measurement or Pass/Fail of the limit test function. Displays the E4991A’s product information (firmware version no. and installed option no.). None SYST:BEEP:STAT *IDN? *OPT? 418 Appendix D Menu References Menu References Menu Bar (Key) System -System... ( ) System - System - GPIB Setup Menu Setup Toolbar Function -GPIB Setup GPIB Setup: -Control Mode[ ] -E4991A Address -Controller Address Selects whether the E4991A or an external controller controls the GPIB bus; that is, it sets the GPIB control rights. Selection is made between the mode in which the E4991A is controlled by an outer controller (Addressable Only) and the mode in which the E4991A itself maintains control as a system controller (System Controller). After changing this setting, the system must be restarted. Sets the E4991A GPIB address when the control mode is set to control by an external controller (Addressable Only). Sets the controller GPIB address when the control mode is set to control by the E4991A itself (System Controller). GPIB Command None None None Menu Bar (Key) System - System - FTP Server Menu Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command System -System... ( ) -FTP Server FTP Server: -FTP Server[ ] -Abort -Disconnect Switches On/Off the file transfer function via FTP (File Transfer Protocol). When On, a file stored in the E4991A hard disk can be transferred interactively to an external computer without using floppy discs. Halts the FTP file transfer. Disconnects the file transfer application from the external computer side. None None None D. Menu References Appendix D 419 Menu Bar (Key) System -Preset ( ) Menu References Menu References System - Preset Setup Toolbar Function Cannot access. Returns the E4991A to its initial settings. For more on initial settings, refer to Appendix G, “Initial Settings,” on page 439. GPIB Command SYST:PRES Menu Bar (Key) System -Exit System - Exit Setup Toolbar Function GPIB Command Cannot access. Exits the E4991A system program and displays a Windows 98 desktop. To exit, a password entry is required. This operation is necessary for such purposes as installing printer drivers and setting the remote user interface addresses or internal clocks. None System - GPIB Setup... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar System -GPIB Setup.. Cannot access. Function GPIB Command Same function as System - System - GPIB Setup Menu. None System - FTP Server Setup... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar System -FTP Server Cannot access. Setup... Function GPIB Command Same function as System - System - FTP Server Menu. None 420 Appendix D System - Remote Setup... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar System -Remote Cannot access. Setup... Function Same function as System - System - Remote Setup Dialog. Menu References Menu References GPIB Command None System - About E4991A... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar System -About Cannot access. E4991A... Function Same function as System - System - About E4991A. GPIB Command *IDN? *OPT? System - Diagnostic... Menu Bar (Key) Setup Toolbar System -Diagnostic... Cannot access. Function GPIB Command Calls up the dialog box for the test function to diagnose the E4991A internal functions. For more on the test function, refer to the Service Manual. *IDN? *OPT? D. Menu References Appendix D 421 Menu References Menu References 422 Appendix D E. Theory on Material Measurement E Theory on Material Measurement This appendix explains the basic principle and concept of material measurement. 423 Theory on Material Measurement Dielectric Material Measurement Equation E-1 Figure E-1 Dielectric Material Measurement If your E4991A has Option 002 installed, it is possible to measure the relative permittivity of a solid dielectric material taking the shape of a board. Permittivity here refers to the ease of storing energy in an electric field. Definition of Permittivity The application of an alternating-current electric field to a dielectric material causes some dielectric loss and a delay in the dielectric response to the electric field. Permittivity in an alternating-current electric field is defined as complex relative permittivity ( ε∗r ) (see Equation E-1). The real component of complex relative permittivity ( εr' ) represents the amount of energy stored in the dielectric material from the alternating current electric field. On the other hand, the imaginary component (ε″r ) indicates energy loss to the alternating current electric field. Definition of Complex Relative Permittivity ε∗r = εr' – jεr'' As shown in Figure E-1, complex relative permittivity can be expressed in a vector diagram. The dielectric loss factor (D) of a dielectric material is expressed as a dielectric loss tangent (tanδ), which is the ratio of the imaginary component (ε″r ) to the real component ( εr' ) of complex relative permittivity. Vector Diagram of Complex Relative Permittivity and Dielectric Loss Tangent NOTE Dielectric material measurement generally implies the measurement of its relative permittivity. 424 Appendix E E. Theory on Material Measurement Figure E-2 Theory on Material Measurement Dielectric Material Measurement Measurement Principle of Dielectric Material The E4991A uses the measurement technology called the Capacitance Method to measure relative permittivity. This method calculates relative permittivity from capacitance values measured with the E4991A by positioning a DUT between the test fixture’s electrodes to form a condenser. Figure E-2 shows a conceptual diagram using a 16453A text fixture. Capacitance Method Figure E-3 Since the capacitor C (see Figure E-2) formed using 16453A has a small capacity because of its large impedance, the equivalent circuit in Figure E-3 consists of an equivalent parallel capacitance and an equivalent parallel conductance. Loss of Dielectric Material Equation E-2 Equation E-3 The admittance Y of the circuit (i) in Figure E-3 is expressed as Equation E-2, and the complex admittance (Y∗ ) of the circuit (ii) is expressed as Equation E-3. C0 indicates a capacitance when using air as a dielectric material. Admittance of Circuit (i) Y = jωC = jω ε∗r C0 Complex Admittance of Circuit (ii) Y∗ = G + jωCp = jω   C-C----p0 – jω----G-C----0- C0 Appendix E 425 Equation E-4 Equation E-5 Equation E-6 NOTE Figure E-4 Theory on Material Measurement Dielectric Material Measurement Therefore, the complex relative permittivity of a dielectric material ( ε∗r ) and the real ( εr' ) and imaginary (ε″r ) components of the complex relative permittivity are calculated as follows. Calculation of Complex Relative Permittivity ( ε∗r ) ε∗r =   CC-----p0 – j -ω---G-C----0- Calculation of Effective Relative Permittivity ( εr' ) εr′ = CC-----p0 = t-ε--C0---S-p Calculation of Relative Permittivity Loss (ε″r ) εr″ = ω----G-C----0- = ω-----ε---0-t-S----R----p   G → R--1--p- The electrode area S of the 16453A test fixture is included in the calculation as the area of the lower electrode. Error Components of 16453A Test Fixture Error components of the 16453A test fixture include errors due to edge capacitance on edge electrodes (stray capacitance), residual parameters of the test fixture such as electrical length, residual impedance, stray admittance, and an air gap caused when sandwiching the DUT between the electrodes. Error Due to Edge Capacitance Figure E-4 shows lines of electric force when measuring a capacity value of a dielectric material. As shown in Figure E-4, edge capacitance occurs around electrode edges, resulting in a larger capacitance value than it really has. The E4991A internally calculates edge capacitance, thus eliminating the need to consider errors due to edge capacitance when using the 16453A test fixture. Occurrence of Edge Capacitance 426 Appendix E E. Theory on Material Measurement Figure E-5 Theory on Material Measurement Dielectric Material Measurement Errors Due to Residual Parameters of Text Fixture Since the 16453A test fixture has errors due to electrical length, residual impedance, and stray admittance, these errors can be minimized by performing OPEN, SHORT and LOAD calibrations on the DUT contact surface of the test fixture. Errors Due to Air Gap The 16453A test fixture uses the Electrode Contact Method to sandwich a DUT between electrodes. In this method, even if the DUT is processed as flat as possible, an air gap is formed between the DUT and the electrodes, affecting the measured capacitance value as an error component. Errors Due to Air Gap There are several methods to minimize error due to air gap: • Form thin film electrodes on a dielectric material. • Maximize the spring pressure on the text fixture to the extent that it does not deform the DUT. • When measuring a thin (several hundred μm) and highly-pressure-resistant DUT with a smooth surface, lay three to four DUTs one on the top of the other. If the first method is used, it is necessary to process the DUT into a shape suitable for the positioning of the electrodes formed on the DUT and the 16453A structure. Appendix E 427 Theory on Material Measurement Magnetic Material Measurement Equation E-7 Figure E-6 Magnetic Material Measurement If your E4991A has Option 002 installed, the relative permeability of a magnetic material (a toroidal core) can be measured. Permeability here refers to the ease of storing energy in the magnetic field. Definition of Permeability The application of an alternating-current magnetic field to a magnetic material will cause some magnetic loss and delayed induction of magnetic flux. Permeability in the alternating-current magnetic field is defined as complex relative permeability ( μ∗r ) (see Equation E-7). The real component of the complex relative permeability ( μr′ ) represents the amount of energy stored in the magnetic material from the alternating-current magnetic field. On the other hand, the imaginary component ( μr″ ) indicates energy loss to the alternating current magnetic field. Definition of Complex Relative Permeability μ∗r = μr′ – jμr'' As shown in Figure E-6, complex relative permeability can be expressed in a vector diagram. The loss factor (D) of a magnetic material is expressed as a loss tangent (tanδ), which is the ratio of the imaginary component (μ″r ) to the real component ( μr′ ) of the complex relative permeability. Vector Diagram of Complex Relative Permeability and Loss Tangent NOTE Magnetic material measurement generally implies the measurement of its relative permeability. 428 Appendix E E. Theory on Material Measurement Figure E-7 Theory on Material Measurement Magnetic Material Measurement Measurement Principle of Magnetic Material To measure relative permeability, the E4991A uses a measurement technology called the Inductance Method. In this method, a DUT (toroidal core) is wrapped with a wire, and relative permeability is calculated from the inductance values at the end of the core. This section explains the measurement principle when using the 16454A test fixture. Relationship among Current, Magnetic Flux, and Magnetic Flux Density Equation E-8 Equation E-9 Equation E-10 Generally, the magnetic flux density ( B ) induced by the current running in a line of unlimited length, as shown in (a) of Figure E-7, is expressed as Equation E-8. Magnetic Flux Density Induced by Current Running in Line of Unlimited Length B = 2--μ--π--I--r On the other hand, the magnetic flux ( Φ ) induced by current running in the closed loop shown in (b) of Figure E-7 is expressed as Equation E-9. Note that L indicates the self-inductance of the closed loop. Magnetic Flux Induced by Current in Closed Loop Φ = LI Furthermore, this magnetic flux ( Φ ) also can be expressed as the integration of magnetic flux density ( B ) with respect to area, as shown in Figure E-7 (See Equation E-10). Relationship between Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux Density Φ = Bds Appendix E 429 Figure E-8 Theory on Material Measurement Magnetic Material Measurement When a DUT (toroidal core) is mounted in a 16454A, an ideal (no magnetic flux leak) inductance with a wire rolled once is formed, as shown in Figure E-8. Measurement Principle When Using 16454A Test Fixture Equation E-11 Equation E-12 Equation E-13 Equation E-14 The self-inductance of a measurement circuit including the DUT is derived as Equation E-11 from Equation E-8, Equation E-9, Equation E-10, and the physical shape of the 16454A. Self-Inductance of Measurement Circuit L = 1-I-  B ds =  e a h0 0 2---μ-π----r dr dz By unfolding Equation E-11 with μ0 as permeability of free space and μr as relative permeability of the DUT, Equation E-12 can be obtained. Self-Inductance of Measurement Circuit         L = e 2-c- h0 0 2--μ--π--0--r drdz + 2-cb2-- h 0 μ--2--0-π--μ--r--r dr dz + 2-cb2-- h0 h 2--μ--π--0--r dr dz + b2-a h0 0 2--μ--π--0--r dr dz By further unfolding Equation E-12, Equation E-13 can be obtained. Self-Inductance of Measurement Circuit L = 2-μ---π-0-    ( μr – 1)h ln b-c- + h0 ln a-e-    By transforming Equation E-13 to calculate the relative permeability ( μr ) of the DUT, Equation E-14 can be obtained. Relative Permeability of DUT μr = 2----π-μ---(-0-L--h---–-l-n--L--b-c---s--s--) + 1 430 Appendix E E. Theory on Material Measurement Equation E-15 Figure E-9 Theory on Material Measurement Magnetic Material Measurement Lss in Equation E-15 indicates self-inductance when a DUT is not mounted in the test fixture. Self-Inductance When DUT Is Not Mounted in Test Fixture Lss = 2-μ---π-0-h0 ln a-e- Loss of Magnetic Material Equation E-16 Equation E-17 Equation E-18 Equation E-19 The impedance Z of the circuit (i) in Figure E-9 is expressed as Equation E-16, and the complex impedance Z∗ of the circuit (ii) is expressed as Equation E-17. Impedance of Circuit (i) Z = jωL Complex Impedance of Circuit (ii) Z∗ = Rs + jωLs = j ω   j-R--ω--s + Ls As alternating current causes inductance loss, the self-inductance L of the measurement circuit is expressed as complex impedance, as shown in Equation E-18. Self-Inductance of Measurement Circuit Expressed as Complex Impedance L = Z-j--ω-∗- Substituting “L” in Equation E-18 into Equation E-14 yields Equation E-19. Complex Relative Permeability of DUT μ∗r = 2----π---j-(-ω-Z---∗-μ---0-–--h--j--lω-n----Lb-c----s--s---) + 1 Appendix E 431 Figure E-10 Theory on Material Measurement Magnetic Material Measurement Structure of 16454A Test Fixture As shown in Figure E-10, 16454A has a residual impedance Zr∗es as serial impedance. 16545A Residual Impedance Equation E-20 Equation E-21 Equation E-22 Given the ideal impedance Zs∗s of the 16454A text fixture with no DUT mounted, the residual impedance Zr∗es can be calculated from the measured impedance Zs∗m with no DUT mounted in the 16454A (in SHORT state). 16454A Residual Impedance Zr∗es = Zs∗m – Zs∗s Errors due to residual impedance can be minimized by SHORT compensation. The impedance after error compensation Zc∗omp can be calculated from the measured impedance Z∗m with a DUT mounted in the 16454A, as shown in Equation E-21. Compensated Impedance Zc∗omp = Z∗m – Zr∗es Assuming that Zs∗s consists only of inductance elements ( Zs∗s = jωLss ), the complex relative permeability of the DUT can be calculated using Equation E-19 and compensated impedance, Zc∗omp (= Z∗ ), as shown in Equation E-22. Complex Permeability of DUT μ∗r = 2----π----(j--ωZ---∗-mμ----0---h–---l--Zn---s∗-b-c--m-------) + 1 432 Appendix E F. Information on Maintenance F Information on Maintenance This appendix explains the measures you should take to maintain the Agilent E4991A. 433 WARNING NOTE Information on Maintenance Cleaning this Instrument Cleaning this Instrument This section describes how to clean the instrument. To protect yourself from electrical shock, be sure to unplug the power cable from the outlet before cleaning the instrument. Never clean the internal components of the instrument. Cleaning an LCD Use one of the following methods to clean the display surface regularly. • For normal cleaning, wipe the surface gently with a soft cloth that is dry or wetted with a small amount of water and wrung tightly. • When stains are difficult to remove, gently wipe the surface with cloth damped with a small amount of ethanol or isopropyl alcohol. Do not use chemicals other than ethanol and isopropyl alcohol to wet the cleaning cloth. Maintenance of Connectors/Ports A 7-mm connector is used for the test head of the E4991A. The N-type connector is used for the front panel. In the RF band, dirt or damage to connectors significantly affects measurement accuracy. Take special care about the following. • Always keep the connectors free from stains and dust. • Do not touch the contact surface on the connectors. • Do not plug damaged or scratched connectors into the test ports. • Use compressed air for cleaning connectors. Do not use abrasives under any circumstance. Observe the above instruction for the connectors and ports not on the test head or the front panel. Procedure to replace center conductor collet of 7-mm connector. Required tools Collet removal tool 6-slot precision collet Agilent part number 5060-0370 85050-20001 434 Appendix F F. Information on Maintenance Information on Maintenance Cleaning this Instrument Removing center conductor collet Follow these steps to remove the center conductor collet of the 7-mm connector. Step 1. Turn the outer part of the 7-mm connector clockwise viewed from above to completely expose the connector sleeve. Step 2. Pull up the handle of the collet replacement cool (Figure A below) and, while keeping pulling the handle, insert the replacement tool slowly until it touches the end of the connector (Figure B below). Step 3. After releasing the handle (Figure A below), pull up the collet removal tool (Figure B below) to remove the old collet. Appendix F 435 Information on Maintenance Cleaning this Instrument Installing center conductor collet Follow these steps to install the center conductor collet of the 7-mm connector. Step 1. Insert the collet into the center conductor of the connector. Step 2. Push the collet slowly as far as it will go. Cleaning a Display Other than an LCD To remove stains on parts other than the LCD, test ports, and other connectors/ports of the instrument, wipe them gently with a soft cloth that is dry or wetted with a small amount of water and wrung tightly. 436 Appendix F F. Information on Maintenance Information on Maintenance Cautions Applicable to Requesting Repair, Replacement, Regular Calibration, etc. Cautions Applicable to Requesting Repair, Replacement, Regular Calibration, etc. Devices to be Sent Back for Repair or Regular Calibration If it is necessary to send the unit to the Service Center of Agilent Technologies for repair or regular calibration, please follow the instructions below. Devices you must send When you ask our service center for repair or periodic calibration of the instrument, send the E4991A with the following accessories attached. No other accessories have to be sent. o Test head o Calibration kit For Option 010, send the following accessories in addition to the above. o Option 010 test head (with extension cable) o N (male) - SMA (female) conversion adapter (x 3) For Option 007, send the following accessories in addition to the above. o Measurement cable (heat-resistant) o Extension cable o N (male) - SMA (female) conversion adapter (x 3) o N (female) - SMA (female) conversion adapter (x 3) Packing Use the original package and shock absorbers, or equivalent antistatic packing materials, when sending the unit. Shipping Address For the location of the nearest Agilent Technologies Service Center, contact the Customer Contact listed at the end of this brochure. Recommended Calibration Period The recommended calibration period for this instrument is one year. The user is recommended to request the Company’s Service Center to perform regular calibration every year. Appendix F 437 Information on Maintenance Cautions Applicable to Requesting Repair, Replacement, Regular Calibration, etc. 438 Appendix F G. Initial Settings G Initial Settings This appendix lists initial settings, settings that can be saved/recalled, and settings that can be backed up. 439 NOTE Initial Settings Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up The following table shows the following items. • Initial settings (factory settings) • Settings set by the command). key on the front panel or reset by the :SYST:PRES GPIB • Settings reset by the *RST GPIB command. • Settings that can be saved/recalled The table uses the following symbols. √: Settings that can be saved/recalled blank: Settings that cannot be saved/recalled • Settings that can be restored to calibration/compensation status by the Recover Cal/Comp State button The table uses the following symbols. √: Settings that can be saved/recalled blank: Settings that cannot be saved/recalled • Settings that can be backed up The table uses the following symbols. √: Settings that can be backed up blank: Settings that cannot be backed up • Available methods for making a setting The table uses the following symbols. L: Settings that can be set by the local user interface. R: Settings that can be set by the remote user interface. G: Settings that can be set by a remote controller using a GPIB command. The symbol “←” in the table indicates that the value is the same as that indicated in the space to the left. 440 Appendix G Initial Settings Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up Related key Box/button name of toolbar or setting Active Trace Meas Parameter Format Expand Phase Phase Unit Sweep Average Swp Avg Count Full Scale Ref Val Ref Pos Scale For Scale Entry Reference Line Factory settings Trace 1 Trace 1: |Z| Trace 2: θz [°] |Z|: Lin Y-Axis θz: Lin Y-Axis Off Degree Off 16 |Z|: 1 MΩ θz: 400 ° |Z|: 500 kΩ θz: 0 ° 5 Data Scale/Ref On Reset *RST Restore Save/ cal/comp Recall settings Back up Available setting methods ← ← √ L/R/G ← ← √ L/R/G ← ← √ L/R/G ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G ← ← √ L/R/G ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G G. Initial Settings Appendix G 441 Initial Settings Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up Related key Box/button name of toolbar or setting Factory settings Reset *RST Restore Save/ cal/comp Recall settings Back up Available setting methods Number Of Traces 2 Scalar ← ← √ Display Scalar Trace Overlay ← ← √ Define Trace Data ← ← √ Math Offset 0 ← ← √ List Values Off ← ← √ E4991A default local printer (driver name) HP DeskJet 550C Printer No effect No effect Scalar 1 Data (color setting) R:255, G:255, B:0 ← ← √ Scalar 1 Mem (color setting) R:0, G:255, B: 0 ← ← √ Scalar 2 Data (color setting) R:0, G:255, B:255 ← ← √ Scalar 2 Mem (color setting) R:255, G:0, B:0 ← ← √ Scalar 3 Data (color setting) R:255, G:0, B:255 ← ← √ Scalar 3 Mem (color setting) R:0, G:0, B:255 ← ← √ Complex 1 Data (color setting) R:255, G:255, B: 0 ← ← √ Complex 1 Mem (color setting) R:0, G:255, B:0 ← ← √ Complex 2 Data (color setting) R:0, G:255, B:255 ← ← √ Complex 2 Mem (color setting) R:255, G:0, B:0 ← ← √ Background (color setting) R:0, G:0, B:0 ← ← √ Grid (color setting) R:128, G:128, B:128 ← ← √ Freq Disp Resolution 10 kHz ← ← √ L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G √ L/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G 442 Appendix G Initial Settings Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up Related key Box/button name of toolbar or setting Factory settings Marker On/Off All Off (Marker 1 is on immediately after the marker toolbar is displayed) Select Marker Marker 1 (immediately after the maker toolbar is displayed) Stimulus Marker 1: 1.5005 GHz (immediately after the maker toolbar is displayed) Marker On Data Delta Mode Off Marker (Continuous/Dicrete) Continuous Marker Couple On Search Type Maximum Search Track Off Partial Search Off Target Value 0Ω Peak Delta X 10 MHz Peak Delta Y 1Ω Marker List Off Statistics Off Smith/Polar (maker display parameter) Real Imag Marker X Axis Stimulus Limit Test Off Test Marker All Off Upper (maker limit test upper limit value) All 0 (immediately after the test marker is set on) Lower (maker limit test lower limit value) All 0 (immediately after the test marker is set on) Reset *RST Restore Save/ cal/comp Recall settings Back up Available setting methods ← ← √ L/R/G ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G G. Initial Settings Appendix G 443 Initial Settings Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up Related key Box/button name of toolbar or setting Factory settings Start 1 MHz Stop 3 GHz Center 1.5005 GHz Span 2.999 GHz Stimulus Display Start/Stop Number Of Points 201 Point Averaging 1 Sweep Time Auto Sweep Parameter Frequency Sweep Type Linear Sweep Direction Up Start (segment sweep) 1 MHz (first added segment) Stop (segment sweep) 3 GHz (first added segment) Number Of Points (segment sweep) 2 (first added segment) Point Average (segment sweep) 1 (first added segment) Osc Level (segment sweep) 100 mV (first added segment) Osc Unit (segment sweep) Voltage (first added segment) Bias Level (segment sweep) 100 μA (first added segment) Bias Limit (segment sweep) 1V (first added segment) Bias Source (segment sweep) Current (first added segment) Segment Display Freq Base Reset *RST Restore Save/ cal/comp Recall settings Back up Available setting methods ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ ← ← √ ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G ← ← √ √ L/R/G ← ← √ √ L/R/G ← ← √ √ L/R/G ← ← √ √ L/R/G ← ← √ √ L/R/G ← ← √ √ L/R/G ← ← √ √ L/R/G ← ← √ √ L/R/G ← ← √ L/R/G 444 Appendix G Initial Settings Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up Related key Box/button name of toolbar or setting Osc Level Osc Unit CW Freq Bias Level Bias Limit Bias Source Bias Monitor Dc Bias Factory settings 100.0 mV (Voltage) Voltage 1 MHz 100 μA (current source) 0 V (voltage source) 1 V (current source) 2 mA (voltage source) Current Off Off Reset *RST Restore Save/ cal/comp Recall settings Back up Available setting methods ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G ← ← √ √ L/R/G ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G G. Initial Settings Appendix G 445 Initial Settings Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up Related key Box/button name of toolbar or setting Factory settings Reset *RST Restore Save/ cal/comp Recall settings Back up Available setting methods Cal Menu (calibration status) Uncal ←*1 ←*1 √ √ Cal Type Fixed Freq & Pwr ← ← √ √ Comp Menu (compensation Off status) ← ← √ √ Cal Kit Type (7 mm / User /PTFE) 7 mm ← (when the Material Type is set to Permeability: PTFE) ← √ √ Open G (calibration kit) 0 S (when the Cal Kit ← Type is set to User) ← √ √ Open C (calibration kit) 0 F (when the Cal Kit ← Type is set to User) ← √ √ Short R (calibration kit) 0 Ω (when the Cal Kit ← Type is set to User) ← √ √ Short L (calibration kit) 0 H (when the Cal Kit ← Type is set to User) ← √ √ Load R (calibration kit) 50 Ω (when the Cal Kit ← Type is set to User) ← √ √ Load L (calibration kit) 0 H (when the Cal Kit ← Type is set to User) ← √ √ εr Real (calibration kit) 2.1 (when the Material No effect ← √ √ Type is set to Permeability) εr Loss (calibration kit) 0 (when the Material No effect ← √ √ Type is set to Permeability) Thickness (calibration kit) 800 μ (when the No effect ← √ √ Material Type is set to Permeability) Open G (compensation kit) 0S ← ← √ √ Open C (compensation kit) 0F ← ← √ √ Short R (compensation kit) 0Ω ← ← √ √ Short L (compensation kit) 0H ← ← √ √ Fixture Type None ← ← √ √ Fixture Length 0m ← ← √ √ Port Extension 0 sec ← ← √ √ L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G 446 Appendix G Initial Settings Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up Related key Box/button name of toolbar or setting Factory settings Hold/Single/Continuous (trigger mode) Continuous Trigger Source Internal Trigger Event On Sweep (immediately after the Trigger Source is set, except to internal) Trigger Polarity Positive (immediately after the Trigger Source is set to External) Trigger system continuous On activation On/Off (Init:cont) Select Circuit (equivalent A circuit selection) R1 (equivalent circuit 0Ω parameter) C1 (equivalent circuit 0F parameter) L1 (equivalent circuit 0H parameter) C0 (equivalent circuit 0F parameter) Material Type Impedance Thickness 1 μm (immediately after the Material Type is set to Permeability) Height 3.65 mm (immediately after the Material Type is set to Permeability) Inner Diameter 3.04 mm (immediately after the Material Type is set to Permeability) Outer Diameter 9 mm (immediately after the Material Type is set to Permeability) Reset *RST Restore Save/ cal/comp Recall settings Back up Available setting methods ← ← √ √ L/R/G ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ L/R/G L/R/G ← ← √ √ L/R/G ← Off √ √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ ← ← √ √ ← ← √ √ G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G L/R/G ← ← √ √ L/R/G ← ← √ √ L/R/G ← ← √ √ L/R/G G. Initial Settings Appendix G 447 Initial Settings Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up Related key Box/button name of toolbar or setting Control Mode (GPIB) Address: E4991A (GPIB) Address: Controller (GPIB) Data transfer format Byte order when data transfer format is set to binary FTP Server Host Name (remote U/I) Port Number (remote U/I) Time Interval (remote U/I) Beep Time and date of the internal clock IP address Gateway address Subnet mask Computer name Service request enable register number Standard event status enable register number Operation status register enable register number Operation status register positive transition filter number Operation status register negative transition filter number Questionable status enable register number Factory settings Addressable only 17 21 ASCII NORMAL On localhost 4991 5 On unspecified 192.168.0.1 - 255.255.255.0 E4991A 0 0 0 32767 0 0 Reset *RST Restore Save/ cal/comp Recall settings Back up Available setting methods No effect ← No effect ← No effect ← No effect ASCII No effect NORMAL √ L √ L √ L G G No effect ← √ L No effect ← √ R No effect ← √ R No effect ← √ R ← ← √ √ L/R/G No effect ← √ L No effect ← No effect ← No effect ← No effect ← No effect ← √ L √ L √ L √ L G No effect ← G No effect ← G No effect ← G No effect ← G No effect ← G 448 Appendix G Initial Settings Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up Related key Box/button name of toolbar or setting Factory settings Reset *RST Restore Save/ cal/comp Recall settings Back up Available setting methods E4991A current directory at state saving D:\Documents No effect No effect √ L/G File type of the data to be saved (ASCII/Binary) Binary ← ← √ L/R/G Contents of the data to be saved (Contents) Trace Data, Trace ← Memory ← √ L/R/G Format of the graphics to be Jpeg saved (Format) ← ← √ L/R/G Height of the graphics to be 421 saved (Height) ← ← √ L/R/G Width of the graphics to be 516 saved (Width) ← ← √ L/R/G Latest file name(s) displayed on the buttons in the Save/Recall toolbar (None) No effect ← √ √ L/R *1. “No effect” when Cal Kit Type is 7 mm and calibration is on while in the fixed frequency/fixed power point mode (Cal Menu [Fix]). G. Initial Settings Appendix G 449 Initial Settings Initial Settings, Settings that can be Saved/Recalled, Settings that can be Backed Up 450 Appendix G H. Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A H Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Comparison information of the Agilent 4291B and the Agilent E4991A (excluding GPIB command comparison) is given in this appendix. Refer to Appendix D of the Programming Manual (“4291B vs. E4991A GPIB Command Comparison Chart”) for a comparison of the instruments’ GPIB commands. 451 NOTE Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Major Differences Major Differences Channels and Traces Changes in concept The 4291B has two channels. Both channels can sweep together or separately under two independent conditions (for example, frequency sweep and OCS level sweep). Impedance measurement results of each channel are converted into the selected parameter and then displayed. On the other hand, the closest thing to a channel concept in the E4991A is its having five traces (3 scalar and 2 complex). The difference between channel and trace is that conditions, including the sweep condition, can be set independently in the channel concept, while all such conditions are common to all traces in the trace concept. Changes in functions • The 4291B can simultaneously display a maximum of two kinds of parameters, but the E4991A can simultaneously display a maximum of five kinds of parameters (3 scalar, 2 complex). • The 4291B can sweep based on two kinds of sweep parameters (for example, frequency sweep and OSC level sweep), but the E4991A cannot do this. Calibration/Compensation Changes in concept In the 4291B, the calibration/compensation procedure (calibrate on the designated calibration plane and compensate error elements of the test fixture) was complicated for some users, so they used the instrument without appropriate calibration/compensation. In the E4991A, the calibration/compensation procedure is simplified to prevent such difficulties. In the normal procedure, Open/Short/Load compensation is executed after executing Open/Short/Load/Low loss capacitor calibration. In the E4991A, error compensation can be done by executing Open/Short/Load calibration on the test fixture material contact plane. Changes in functions • The 4291B has LOAD compensation, but the E4991A doesn’t because of the concept described above. • Just one reference value of the LOAD calibration is set to cover the entire frequency range in the 4291B, but separate reference values of LOAD calibration can be set for each frequency point in the E4991A (this setting can be made by just issuing a GPIB command). • The 4291B has two modes: USER mode (both frequency and OSC level are set by the user) and FIXED POINT mode (both frequency and OSC level are fixed). On the other hand, the E4991A has an additional user setting mode in which frequency is fixed and OSC level is set by users. For details on the E4991A’s calibration/compensation functions, see Chapter 4, 452 Appendix H NOTE NOTE Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Major Differences “Calibration and Compensation,” on page 75. Marker Marker One main marker and 7 sub-markers are available with the 4291B. Marker functions such as marker search are available for only the main marker. On the other hand, eight markers are available with the E4991A. There is no main/sub concept as with the 4291B, but instead the E4991A has a new active marker concept. Any marker can be specified as the active marker, and marker functions such as marker search can be carried out with the active marker in the same manner as with the 4291B’s main marker. In other words, each of the eight markers can be used as a main marker. Δ Marker A Δ marker is used as a base to indicate relative value against any point in the 4291B. On the other hand, a reference marker is used as a base to indicate relative value against any point in the E4991A. The same functions as those of a normal marker are available to the reference marker if it is specified as the active marker. Consequently, there is no tracking Δ marker function as with the 4291B. Also, the E4991A’s reference marker can be used as the ninth marker if Δ mode is set to the OFF condition. For details on the E4991A’s marker functions, see Chapter 6, “Analysis of Measurement Results,” on page 127. Limit test The maximum and minimum limit values for several measurement points (a maximum 18 points) can be specified and the judgment of PASS/FAIL can be made by using the lines connecting these points (limit lines) with the 4291B. The entire sweep range is the object of PASS/FAIL judgment because the maximum and minimum limit lines are drawn through the entire sweep range and this judgment is made based on whether the measurement results (data trace) are within the range. The overall judgment result for all measurement points (on screen and GPIB output) and the judgment result for each measurement point (only GPIB output) are available. On the other hand, the maximum and minimum limit values at the marker location are specified and the PASS/FAIL judgment is made in the E4991A. Only the measurement result at the marker location is the object of PASS/FAIL judgment. Nine markers (8 markers, 1 reference marker) are available. Objects of judgment are a maximum of nine. The entire sweep range cannot be the object of judgment as with the 4291B. The overall judgment result for all marker locations (on measurement screen and GPIB output) and the judgment result for each marker location (on limit test table screen and GPIB output) are available. For details on the E4991A’s limit test functions, see “Setting a Limit to the Trace and Making a Pass/Fail Determination” on page 160. H. Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Appendix H 453 Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Function Comparison List Table H-1 Function Comparison List Table H-1 compares the functions of the 4291B with those of the E4991A. Function Comparison List 4291B E4991A Measurement performance Frequency OSC level Range Resolution Voltage ranges (in open condition) 1 MHz to 1.8 GHz 1 mHz 0.2 mVrms to 1 Vrms (@≤1 GHz) 0.2 mVrms to 0.5 Vrms (@>1 GHz) 1 MHz to 3 GHz 1 mHz 4.47 mVrms to 502 mVrms (@≤1 GHz) 4.47 mVrms to 447 mVrms (@>1 GHz) Electric current ranges (in short condition) 4 μArms to 20 mArms (@≤1 GHz) 4 μArms to 10 mArms (@>1 GHz) Power ranges (in 50Ω end -67 dBm to 7 dBm (@≤1 GHz) terminal condition) -67 dBm to 1 dBm (@>1 GHz) DC Voltage range 0 V to ±40 V Bias Electric current ranges -100 mA to -20 μA 20 μA to 100 mA Basic accuracy 0.8% 89.4 μArms to 10 mArms (@≤1 GHz) 89.4 μArms to 8.4 mArms (@>1 GHz) -40 dBm to 1 dBm (@≤1 GHz) -40 dBm to 0 dBm (@>1 GHz) 0 V to ±40 V -50 mA to -100 μA 100 μA to 50 mA 0.8% Test station (head) Impedance measurement range Cables Terminals Heads Number of channels 100 mΩ to 40 kΩ (@ 1 MHz, <10%) 1.8 m 7 mm High impedance type Low impedance type 2 130 mΩ to 20 kΩ (@ 1 MHz, < 10%) 0 m (Direct connection) 7 mm Only one type No channel concept Traces Measurement parameter Number of parameters that can be displayed on screen Selectable parameters Data trace Memory trace (multiple) User trace Maximum 2 Data trace Memory trace Maximum 5 (scalar: 3, complex:2) Impedance measurement: |Z|, θz, R, X, Impedance measurement: |Z|, θz, R, X, |Y|, θy, G, B, |Γ|, θΓ, Γx, Γy, Cp, Cs, |Y|, θy, G, B, |Γ|, θΓ, Γx, Γy, Cp, Cs, Lp, Ls, Rp, Rs, D, Q Lp, Ls, Rp, Rs, D, Q Dielectric/Magnetic material measurement Dielectric/Magnetic material measurement (option): εr`, εr", tanδ(ε), |εr|, μr`, μr", (option): εr`, εr", tanδ(ε), |εr|, μr`, μr", tanδ(μ), |μr| tanδ(μ), |μr| 454 Appendix H Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Function Comparison List Table H-1 Function Comparison List Display 4291B LCD Display formats 8.4 inch (color) Linear Logarithms Polar chart Smith chart Admittance chart Complex plane Phase Unit display Degree Radian Expanded phase indication Yes function Divided display function of each trace Yes List display function of measurement Yes results Data calculation function among traces Addition: DATA+MEM Subtraction: Data-MEM Division: DATA/MEM Multiplication: DATA*MEM Gain and offset calculation functions Title display function Label display function Trace selection Gain and offset calculation Yes Yes Data Memory Data & Memory User Grid display switch function Screen color adjustment functions Frequency blank (non-display) display Number of digits Automatic scale adjustment function Yes Yes Available Fixed Yes Equivalent Equivalent circuit types circuit analysis function Functions Averaging Sweep averaging Point averaging Inductor with large core loss Inductor and resistor Large resistor Capacitor Resonator Equivalent circuit parameter calculation Frequency characteristic simulation Averaging factor: 1 to 999 Averaging factor: 1 to 999 E4991A 8.4 inch (color) Linear Logarithms Polar chart Smith chart Admittance chart Complex plane Degree Radian Yes Yes Yes Subtraction: Data-MEM Division: DATA/MEM (Only complex) Δ%: (DATA-MEM)/DATA*100 (Only scalar) Offset calculation Yes No Data Memory Data & Memory (calculation results of trace and memory cannot be displayed simultaneously) No Yes Not available Not fixed (can change) Yes (Possible to execute on all trace in one time.) Inductor with large core loss Inductor and resistor Large resistor Capacitor Resonator Equivalent circuit parameter calculation Frequency characteristic simulation Averaging factor: 1 to 999 Averaging factor: 1 to 100 H. Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Appendix H 455 Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Function Comparison List Table H-1 Function Comparison List 4291B E4991A Calibra- Types tion Open Short Load Low loss capacitor Open Short Load Low loss capacitor Measurement points of calibration data Frequency and OSC level are fixed. Frequency and OSC level are set by users. Frequency and OSC level are fixed. Frequency is fixed and OSC level is set by users. Frequency and OSC level are set by users. Calibration kit 7 mm User 7 mm User Definition Definition Open G-C G-C of user parameters calibration Short R-L R-L kit Load R-X R-L Save function Yes No (User calibration kit setup is saved by saving Instrument setup.) Compen- Types sation Open Short Load Open Short Measurement points of compensation data Frequency and OSC level are fixed. No selection (Combined with setup of Frequency and OSC level are set by users. calibration data measurement points. Cannot be set independently.) Definition Definition Open G-C of user parameters compensat Short R-L ion kit Load R-L G-C R-L No Load compensation Save function Yes No (User calibration kit setup is saved by saving Instrument setup.) Port extension compensation Yes Yes Fixture Selectable fixtures selection (Electri- cal length compensation) Save function of user fixture definition contents 16191A, 16192A, 16193A, 16194A, 16453A (Option), 16454A (Option), User Yes 16191A, 16192A, 16193A, 16194A, 16196A, 16196B, 16196C, 16197A, 16453A (Option), 16454A (Option), User No (User fixture setup is saved by saving Instrument state.) 456 Appendix H Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Function Comparison List Table H-1 Function Comparison List Sweep Sweep time Delay 4291B Automatic/Manual Point delay Sweep delay Measurement points Combination between channels Sweep parameter Sweep type For frequency sweep For OSC level sweep 2 to 801 Combined/Independent Frequency OSC level DC bias voltage (Option) DC bias current (Option) Linear Log List Linear Log Trigger Sweep direction List sweep For DC voltage/current sweep For frequency sweep For other sweeps Number of segments Display methods Linear Up Up/Down 15 Frequency base (Linear format) Unit setup Frequency OSC level DC bias Sweep mode Trigger source Trigger event mode Order base Sweep Hz range Fixed value Hz Sweep V range Fixed value V/A/dBm Sweep V/A range Fixed value V/A Continuous Hold Single Number of groups Internal Manual External GPIB On point On sweep Polarity of External trigger Positive Negative E4991A Automatic/Manual Point delay Sweep delay Segment delay 2 to 801 No channel concept Frequency OSC level DC bias voltage (Option) DC bias current (Option) Linear Log List (Name is changed to segment) Linear (Sweep range can be set in dBm, so that same function as Log sweep is available.) Linear Up/Down Up/Down 16 Frequency base (Linear format) Frequency base (Log format) Order base Hz Hz V/A/dBm V/A/dBm V/A V/A Continuous Hold Single (Sweep averaging factor in case that it is on) Internal Manual External GPIB On point On sweep On segment Positive Negative H. Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Appendix H 457 Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Function Comparison List Table H-1 Function Comparison List Marker 4291B E4991A Number of markers Main marker: 1 Sub-markers: 7 Δ marker: 1 Markers: 8 (No distinction between main and sub, the markers designated as active markers have the same functions as previous main markers.) Reference marker: 1 Objective trace of markers Data trace/Memory trace Data trace/Memory trace Coupled marker trace Yes Yes Marker movement mode Continuous/Discrete Continuous/Discrete Δ marker (Reference marker) Mode Movement Δ/Fixed Δ Move the main marker with tracking (Tracking Δ marker) Δ/Fixed Δ Independently move with normal marker function by specifying the reference marker as active marker. Setup of sweep range with using marker Setting stimulus value of the marker location as center value/start value/stop value After searching peak value, setting stimulus value of the marker location as center value Available Available Available Not available (The same function is available in combination with the peak search function.) Setting range between the Available marker and Δ marker as sweep range Available Setting subtraction between the marker and Δ marker stimulus values as the center value Available Not available After changing stimulus Available value of marker location to the center value, zoom sweep range. Not available (Zooming of the area defined by mouse is available. But setup of sweep range does not change.) Setting the marker location’s measurement value as the scale reference value Available Available Search Type of search Maximum value/Minimum value/Target value/Peak value (Positive or negative is selectable by definition of the peak.) Maximum value/Minimum value/Target value/Positive peak value Search tracking function Available Available Bandwidth search function Available Not available Partial search function Available Available List display Available (Traces of both channels cannot Available be displayed simultaneously while the list is displayed.) Statistical analysis Average value Standard deviation Peak-Peak value Average value Standard deviation Peak-Peak value 458 Appendix H Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Function Comparison List Table H-1 Function Comparison List Marker (Continued) Display formats of the marker for indicating complex numbers Display formats of stimulus value Level monitor functions Limit test Beep sound Print Save/ Recall Storage device File format File types Save Recall Automatic recall function File management functions File transfer Floppy disk formatting function Interfaces Remote control Programming GPIB command types 4291B E4991A Real part and imaginary part Absolute value (Linear display) and phase Absolute value (Log display) and phase Resistance and reactance Conductance and susceptance Reflection coefficient and phase Real part and imaginary part Absolute value (Linear display) and phase Absolute value (Log display) and phase Resistance and reactance Conductance and susceptance Reflection coefficient and phase Stimulus value Time Relaxation time Stimulus value Time Relaxation time OSC voltage value OSC current value DC bias voltage value DC bias current value (OSC level can not be monitored) DC bias voltage value DC bias current value PASS/FAIL judgment of all measurement PASS/FAIL judgment of a maximum nine points by using limit lines measurement points by using markers Three types (Operation completion type/Warning type/Limit test type) One type (Common to all functions) Color Black and white Color (inverse) Black and white Internal memory (volatile) Floppy disk Hard disk Floppy disk DOS LIF DOS Instrument setup state Measurement data (ASCII/Binary) Image on LCD screen (tiff) Instrument setup state Measurement data (ASCII/Binary/ CITIfile) Image on LCD screen (jpeg/BMP) Instrument setup state Measurement data (Binary) Instrument setup state Measurement data (Binary) Yes Yes Copy Delete Create folder Change current folder Copy Delete Create folder Change current folder By GPIB command By FTP (through LAN) Yes No GPIB Centronics GPIB LAN (10Base-T/100Base-Tx) Centronics General parallel I/O GPIB Instrument BASIC SCPI, Simple GPIB, LAN (Remote U/I) VBA Macro SCPI H. Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Appendix H 459 Comparison Information of 4291B and E4991A Function Comparison List Table H-1 Function Comparison List Data input Data transfer format and output 4291B ASCII IEEE 32 bit floating-point IEEE 64 bit floating-point MS-DOS Output/Input data Data trace array Memory trace array Data array Memory array (Only output) Raw data array Calibration coefficient array Compensation coefficient array Status report functions Register structure Information to be obtained Internal clock Outer dimensions Main body Test station (Head) Weight Main body Test station (Head) Compensation standard array Level monitor array Status byte register Standard event status register Operation status register Instrument event status register ç Error generation Sweep completion Point measurement completion Calibration/Compensation completion Waiting trigger Limit test failure Marker search failure Data input completion Printing Executing Program Yes 426 (W) × 235 (H) × 553 (D) mm 275 (W) × 95 (H) × 205 (D) mm 21.5 kg 3.7 kg E4991A ASCII IEEE 32 bit floating-point IEEE 64 floating-point (Byte order can be selected, so MS-DOS format can be used.) Data trace array (only output) Memory trace array (only output) Raw data array (only output) Calibration coefficient array Calibration data array (only output) Compensation coefficient array Compensation data array (only output) Calibration standard array Compensation standard array Level monitor array (only output) Status byte register Standard event status register Operation status resister Questionable status resister Questionable status hardware register Questionable status limit register Questionable status search register Error generation Sweep completion Point measurement completion Calibration/Compensation completion Waiting trigger Limit test failure Marker search failure Valid Calibration/Compensation Hardware failure Yes 426 (W) × 235 (H) × 445 (D) mm 160 (W) × 64 (H) × 163 (D) mm 17 kg 1 kg 460 Appendix H I Messages The E4991A can display error messages as well as messages that indicate the internal operating status of the equipment. This appendix explains what these messages mean by listing them in alphabetical order. The Programming Manual lists error messages in order of error number. I. Messages 461 6 -168 10 Messages Additional standards needed Messages showing the status of the E4991A are displayed in the lower-left area of the E4991A LCD screen. These messages include error messages that occur during the execution of GPIB commands and others that indicate the internal status of the equipment. Error messages are indicated following the character string “[Err]” and can be read out by a GPIB command. Other kinds of messages are indicated without the “[Err]” character string and cannot be read out by a GPIB command. This section explains the meaning of each message and how to resolve the problem it indicates. Alphabetical Order Errors with negative error numbers are basically general errors for GPIB instruments defined by IEEE488.2. On the other hand, errors with positive error numbers have been defined specifically for the E4991A. A Additional standards needed Before completing data measurement that requires calculation of the calibration coefficient, a GPIB command is sent to turn the calibration function On. For example, when only measurement of the Open Standard and Short Standard, but not the Load Standard, of the calibration kit has been completed, the SENS:CORR1:COLL:SAVE command is attempted in order to set the calibration function On. Measure all of the necessary calibration data. B Block data not allowed Block data ia received at a position where the E4991A cannot allow a block data element. C Cal measure aborted One of the following problems has occurred. • During measurement of the necessary calibration/fixture compensation data, or during and after the calculation of calibration/fixture compensation coefficients (with calibration function turned On), the settings of calibration/fixture compensation acquired data points (Fixed, Full Range, Fixed, User Pwr or User Freq & Pwr) have been altered. All measured calibration/fixture compensation data acquired thus far and/or the calibration/fixture compensation function have been invalidated. • While the calibration/fixture compensation acquired data point setting is in the user-defined point condition (User Freq & Pwr), the sweep condition (Sweep Range, Sweep Parameter, Measurement Points, and Sweep Type) has been altered during measurement of the necessary calibration/fixture compensation data, or during and after the calculation of calibration/fixture compensation coefficients (with the 462 Appendix I 7 31 62 -148 -100 13 Messages Calibration required calibration function turned On). All measured calibration/fixture compensation data acquired thus far and/or the calibration/fixture compensation function have been invalidated. • During measurement of the necessary calibration data, the measurement has been interrupted by the Abort Cal Meas button. The calibration data have been invalidated. In order to recover the calibration/fixture compensation function or the equipment setting valid just prior to the event, click the Recover Cal/Compen state button. Also, if necessary, retry measurement of the calibration/fixture compensation data. Calibration required While the calibration function is not set to On, a GPIB command has been sent even though that command can only be executed while the calibration function is On. For example, when the calibration function is Off, the SENS:CORR2:COLL command has been attempted in order to measure fixture compensation data. After measuring all necessary data, turn the calibration function On. Can’t calculate equivalent parameters The measured data are not suitable for approximate calculation into the equivalent circuit parameters selected in the equivalent circuit model. Retry measurement or select an appropriate equivalent circuit model. Can’t execute data examination Even though the data for statistic analysis has been acquired, an attempt has been made to read out the statistic analysis results by changing the setting conditions (such as sweep start rate) and using the CALC{1-5}:MST:DATA? command before the measurement has been updated. After changing the setting conditions, wait for the measurement to be updated and then read out the statistic analysis results. Character data not allowed Character data has been received at a position where the E4991A cannot allow a character data element. For example, when the program message "CALC1:MARK:FUNC:TARG MAX" is sent instead of the correct program message "CALC1:MARK:FUNC:TARG le-12", the character data element is regarded by the ČûĀĀøĈ as invalid. Refer to the command reference and check the parameter to be used for that command. Command error An error has occurred for which the E4991A could not grammatically specify the error message. This shows that a command error defined by IEEE488.2,5.1.1.4 has occurred. Comp measure aborted During measurement of the necessary fixture compensation data, the measurement has been interrupted by the Abort Compen Meas button. The fixture compensation data has been invalidated. Retry measuring the fixture compensation data if necessary. I. Messages Appendix I 463 11 -230 -222 -104 -200 -123 -178 -170 Messages Compensation Required Compensation Required Before finishing the measurement of fixture compensation data, a command has been sent to turn the fixture compensation function On. For example, before measurement of Open Compensation Data has been finished, the SENS:CORR2:COLL:OPEN command has been attempted in order to set the Open Compensation Function in the fixture compensation functions to On. Measure the necessary fixture compensation data. D Data corrupt or stale Data may be invalid. Also, a newly reading procedure may have been started but not completed since the most recent access. Data out of range A data element well out of the E4991A’s defined range (but not violating the standard) has been received. Data type error The parser has recognized a data element that is not supposed to exist. For example, even though numerical figure or character string data are expected, block data have been sent. Define the type of recognized data. E Execution error An execution error has occurred for which the E4991A could not specify the error message. This code shows that an execution error defined in IEEE488.2, 11.5.1.1.5 has occurred. Exponent too large The absolute figure of the exponent has exceeded 32,000. (refer to IEEE488.2, 7.2.4.1). Expression data not allowed An expression data element has been received at a position where the E4991A does not allow expression data elements. Expression error During structure analysis of the expression data, there has been an error that does not apply to a situation between errors -171 and - 179. 464 Appendix I -256 95 -105 -224 71 -213 -161 Messages File name not found F File name not found A designated file could not be found and the command has not been correctly executed. For example, attempts have been made to read and write on a file that does not exist or a disk has not been properly inserted. Frequency sweep only A command that is only valid when the sweep parameter is in frequency has been sent. For example, when a sweep parameter other than frequency is set, the CALC{1-5}:MARK:UNIT command is attempted in order to set the marker X-axis display to relaxation time (1/2πf). First, use the SWE:TYPE command to set the sweep parameter to frequency. G GET not allowed While receiving a program message, the Group Execution Trigger (GET command in HTBasic) has been inputted (refer to IEEE4888.2,7.7). For example, a wait command such as "*OPC?", or "*WAI" has been sent. I Illegal parameter value The parameter value is not appropriate. For example, when the program message "DISP:TRAC1:Y:SPAC OBAS" has been sent instead of the correct program message "DISP:TRAC1:Y:SPAC LOG", the parameter rate is regarded by the ČûĀĀøĈ as inappropriate. Refer to the command reference and confirm that the parameter value is correctly inputted. Impedance measurement mode only A command has been sent that is only valid for Impedance Measurement Mode. For example, during the Magnetic Material Measurement Mode, the SENS:CORR2:CKIT:STAN1:C command has been attempted in order to define the user defined fixture compensation kit. Select Impedance Measurement Mode. Init ignored Because another measurement is already underway, the Measurement Initialize Request ("INIT" command) has been ignored. For example, this happens when changing the setting of "INIT:CONT" to "OFF" and the "TRIG:SOUR" command to "BUS" or when attempting a trigger with the "*TRG" command. If the "INIT" command is sent to the ČûĀĀøĈ before the sweep is completed (without a wait time), it is regarded as an invalid command. Invalid block data Even though the block data is expected, the received block data is invalid for some reason (refer to IEEE488.2, 7.7.6.2). For example, before the length of block data has been filled, an END message is received. Appendix I 465 I. Messages -101 -121 -171 106 77 -103 -151 -131 Messages Invalid character Invalid character In the error message character string, an invalid character has been found. For example, when a message "SENS:CORR1:COLL:FPO USER" is sent toward the proper program message; "SENS:CORR1:COLL:FPO&USER", the ampersand symbol (&) will be perceived by ČûĀĀøĈ as an invalid character. In case the parameter is inputted at the end, provide space between the command and the parameter. Invalid character in number There are invalid characters in the received data and type. For example, an alphabetic character has been found in a decimal numeric or a “9” has been found in octal data. Invalid expression An expression data element is invalid (refer to IEEE488.2, 7.7.7.2). For example, the brackets are not paired or the character violates the standard. Invalid file name During the execution of file save/recall command, the character string contained an inappropriate file name. For example, when executing a recall command, the file name extension was incorrect. Specify an appropriate file name. Also, when saving data on a floppy disk, this error message will be shown if the disk is not properly inserted or the disk is write-protected. Invalid material size The definition of the size of the test material in a Magnetic Material Measurement is invalid. For example, an attempt has been made to set the outer diameter of the test material to a smaller figure than the inner diameter. Set the outer diameter of the magnetic material to a larger size than that of the inner diameter. Invalid separator When the parser (compiler) is expecting a separating symbol, a character that is not a separating symbol has been sent. For example, when the program message "SENS:CORR1:COLL:FPO USER *OPC?" is sent instead of two program messages correctly separated by a semi-colon as "SENS:CORR1:COLL:FPO USER;*OPC?" the instrument cannot perceive the separation. When sending two program messages simultaneously, be sure to insert a separating symbol such as a semi-column (;) between the two messages. Invalid string data Even though character string data are expected, the received character string is invalid for some reason (refer to IEEE488.2, 7.7.2.4). For example, the END message has been received before the closing quotation mark character appeared. Invalid suffix The suffix (here meaning Unit) does not following the sentence structure defined by IEEE488.2, 7.7.3.2, or the suffix is not appropriate for the E4991A. For example, when the program message "SOUR:VOLT:STAR 10dbm" has been sent instead of the correct program message "SOUR:VOLT:STAR 10mV", the suffix is regarded by the ČûĀĀøĈ as invalid. Refer to the command reference to confirm the unit that should be used for this 466 Appendix I -272 -261 -109 32 92 61 113 0 Messages Macro execution error command. M Macro execution error An execution error related to the E4991A’s macro functions has occurred. Math error in expression A program data element that is a syntactically legal expression could not be executed due to a math error such as an attempted divide-by-zero. Missing parameter A parameter is insufficient for a command, or the parameter has not been inputted. For example, the SWE:POIN command requires 1 parameter, so when the program message "SWE:POIN" has been sent instead of the correct program message "SWE:POIN 201", it is regarded as invalid by the ČûĀĀøĈ because no parameter has been inputted. Make sure to input a parameter for any command that requires one. Must be more than 2 points for analysis Measurement points within the sweep range are set to 2 (if the partial search function is On within the designated Searching range), so calculation of the equivalent circuit parameter (Calculate Parameter button or CALC{1-5}:EPAR command) could not be executed. Measurement points within the sweep range (if the partial search function is On within the designated Searching range) must be set to 3 or above. N No active marker Because the marker is not displayed, the sent command has been ignored. For example, when the marker is not displayed, the CALC{1-5}:MARK:SET command has been attempted in order to change the instrument setting of the E4991A. First use the CALC{1-5}:MARK{1-8} command to show the marker on the display. No data available in memory This occurs when the marker’s Statistic Analysis Function (Statistics button) is Off and an attempt has been made to read out the statistic analysis result by using the CALC{1-5}:MST:DATA? command. Turn the Marker’s Statistic Analysis Function to On and acquire data for statistic analysis. No data trace displayed Because the data trace is not displayed, the sent command has been ignored. For example, when the data trace is not displayed, the CALC{1-5}:MARK:ON command has been attempted in order to set a trace displaying a marker as the data trace. First use the CALC{1-5}:MATH:FUNC command to display the data trace. (no error) No error has occurred. This message is not normally shown on the LCD display but returned after the Appendix I 467 I. Messages Messages No fixed delta marker SYST:ERR? command has been sent by GPIB. When the equipment finds no occurrence of an error, a message is returned as error number 0. 94 No fixed delta marker Because the reference marker is not set to fixed Δ mode, the sent command has been ignored. For example, when the fixed Δ mode is not set, the CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:Y command has been attempted in order to set the reference marker to the designated measurement values. First use the CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF command to display the reference marker. Next, use the CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:TYPE command to change the setting to fixed Δ mode. 90 No marker delta - parameter not set This occurs when the reference marker’s Δ mode is Off and the CALC{1-5}:MARK:SET command or CALC{1-5}:MARK:FUNC:DOM:SPAN command has been attempted in order to set the Δ value to span value within the sweep range or within the partial search range. First use the CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF command to display the reference marker. Next, use the CALC{1-5}:MARK:REF:TYPE command to set the Δ Mode or Fixed Δ Mode to On. 114 No memory trace displayed Due to the fact that memory trace is not displayed, a command that has been sent was ignored. For example, when the memory trace is not displayed, the DISP:TRAC{1-5}:Y:FOR command is attempted in order to set the scale setting subject as the data trace. First use the CALC{1-5}:MATH:FUNC command to display the memory trace. 30 No Valid Memory Trace This occurs when there are no data stored in the Memory Trace and the CALC{1-5}:MATH:FUNC command has been attempted in order to display the Memory Trace. Before displaying the Memory Trace, use the CALC{1-5}:MATH:MEM command to store the data into the Memory Trace. 140 Not allowed for the current trigger source An invalid command for the presently selected trigger source has been sent. For example, when the trigger source is set to internal trigger (Internal), the TRIG:EVEN command has been attempted in order to set the trigger event mode (detecting point for triggering) at each measurement point (On Point) or at each (On Segment). This operation is valid only when internal trigger is not set as the trigger source. After setting the trigger source to Manual, External or GPIB Bus, change the Trigger Event Mode. 14 Not allowed in power sweep An invalid command has been sent to the oscillator level sweep while it is in progress. For example, during the oscillator level sweep, the SWE:TYPE command has been attempted in order to set the sweep type to log sweep. This operation is invalid during the oscillator level sweep. Confirm that the command is valid for the oscillator level sweep. 70 Not allowed in this measurement mode 468 Appendix I 80 79 47 -120 -128 48 -321 -108 Messages Not available for this fixture A command has been sent that cannot be executed in the currently set measurement mode. For example, in the Dielectric Measurement Mode, the SENS:CORR1:CKIT command has been attempted in order to set the calibration kit to the defined calibration kit used. Select a measurement mode in which the command is valid. Not available for this fixture An invalid command has been sent to the currently selected text fixture. For example, when the 16197A is selected, the CALC{1-5}:FORM command is attempted in order to set a prohibited measurement parameter (e.g. complex dielectric constant). Select an appropriate measurement parameter or display format. Not available for this format The selected measurement parameter or display format could not be executed. For example, in the Dielectric Measurement Mode or in Magnetic Material Measurement Mode, the DISP:TRAC{1-5}:GRAT:FORM command is attempted in order to set a prohibited display format (Smith Chart or Admittance Chart). Select an appropriate measurement parameter or display format. Not enough data The amount of data transferred to the E4991A by an eternal controller was less than the amount expected by the E4991A. Match the amount of data to be transferred with the E4991A measurement points. Numeric data error An error has been caused by numeric data (including nondecimal numeric types). In errors - 121 to - 129, an unspecified numeric error has occurred. Numeric data not allowed A numeric data element has been received at a position where the E4991A does not allow numeric data elements. For example, when the program message "CALC1:FORM 3" has been sent instead of the correct program message "CALC1:FORM RS", the numeric data element is received by ČûĀĀøĈ as invalid. Refer to the command reference and confirm which parameter should be used for a particular command. O Option not installed Because a particular option has not been installed, the sent command has been ignored. For example, when the option 001 (DC bias function) is not installed, the SOUR:VOLT:OFFS command has been attempted in order to set up the DC bias voltage values. Please contact your nearest Agilent Technologies branch office or the company where you purchased the instrument iinstall the necessary options. Out of memory There is a shortage of memory (RAM). P Parameter not allowed Appendix I 469 I. Messages 73 72 22 -112 -430 -400 -410 -420 Messages Permeability measurement mode only The parameters have exceeded the number necessary for a command. For example, when the program message "SWE:TYPE LIN,SEGM" is sent instead of the proper program message "SWE:TYPE LIN", 2 parameters are sent even though only 1 parameter is required for this command. Therefore, the number of parameters is regarded as invalid by the ČûĀĀøĈ. Refer to the command reference and check the number of parameters required. Permeability measurement mode only A command that is only valid for Magnetic Material Measurement Mode has been sent. For example, in the Dielectric Measurement Mode, the CALC:FORM:PAR:MGA command has been attempted in order to set the size of the magnetic substance. Select Magnetic Material Measurement Mode. Permittivity measurement mode only A command that is only valid for Dielectric Measurement Mode has been sent. For example, in the Magnetic Material Measurement Mode, the SENS:CORR1:CKIT:STAN7:THIC command has been attempted in order to set the thickness of the load standard for Dielectric Measurement. Select Dielectric Measurement Mode. Printer error The printer has not responded to the control from the E4991A. Confirm whether the printer’s power is On or Off, the connection status of the cable, and the paper supply. Program mnemonic too long The length of a header has exceeded 12 characters. The length of a header here refers to the length of the series of characters that are separated by colons (:). Refer to IEEE488.2,7.6.4.1 for further details. Q Query DEADLOCKED This indicates a condition that has created a "DEADLOCK" Query error (refer to IEEE488.2, 6.3.1.7). This error occurs, for example, when both input and output buffers become full and when the E4991A is no longer able to carry out a process. Query error The E4991A has found a Query error for which it is not able to specify the error message. This code shows that a Query error defined in IEEE488.2, 11.5.1.1.7 or 6.3 has occurred. Query INTERRPUTED This indicates a condition that has created an "INTERRUPTED" Query error (refer to IEEE488.1, 6.3.2.3). This error is generated when, for example, the data byte "DAB" or Get is received after the Query but before its response is fully sent. Query UNTERMINATED This indicates a condition that has created an "UNTERMINATED" Query error (refer to IEEE488.1, 6.3.3.2). This error occurs when the ČûĀĀøĈ is designated as a talker (if 470 Appendix I -440 105 104 118 -221 -150 -158 -138 Messages Query UNTERMINATED after indefinite response designated as a controller, data transmission is possible via the interface) and receives incomplete program messages. For example, when a command that does not require a Query, such as "*CLS", has been sent as "*CLS?", it is regarded as an incomplete message by the E4991A. Check the command reference. Query UNTERMINATED after indefinite response This indicates that a query has been received in the same program message after a query requesting an indefinite response has been executed (refer to IEEE488.2, 6.5.7.5.7). R Recall error An error has occurred during reading out (recall) of a file. For example, this occurs when an attempt is made to read out a file containing invalid data (such as the extension (.sta) for instrument state files that were saved with equipment other than the E4991A). Confirm that there is no problem in the file contents. S Save error While saving a file, an error has been detected on the media in which the data is to be stored. For example, when saving the file to a floppy disk, the space available in the floppy disk is not sufficient. Check the amount of available space in the media in which the date is to be stored. Segment table empty or insufficient table Because the segment sweep table has not been created, a sent command has been ignored. For example, before the segment sweep table is created, the SWE:TYPE command is attempted in order to set a sweep type as the segment sweep. Before carrying out a segment sweep, create the segment sweep table. Settings conflict Even though the program data element has been received and it conforms to the standard, execution is not possible with the present condition of the E4991A. String data error An error caused by a received series of character data elements (quotation mark character) has occurred. In errors - 151 to - 159, an unspecified character string error has occurred. String data not allowed A string data element has been found at a position where the E4991A does not allow string data elements. For example, when the program message "TRIG:SOUR "MAN"" has been sent instead of the correct program message "TRIG:SOUR MAN", the double quote (") is regarded by the ČûĀĀøĈ as invalid. Refer to the command reference and confirm whether the double quote (") is required in the parameter of a particular command. Suffix not allowed Appendix I 471 I. Messages -134 -102 -310 -124 69 -223 -211 Messages Suffix too long A suffix has been added after numeric data where a suffix (here meaning Unit) cannot be inputted. For example, when the program message "DISP:TRAC1:Y:PDIV 0.01rad" has been sent instead of the correct program message "DISP:TRAC1:Y:PDIV 0.01", the suffix is regarded by ČûĀĀøĈ as invalid. Refer to the command reference and confirm that the suffix can be added to the numeric data element. Suffix too long The suffix (here meaning Unit) display is written with more than 12 characters (refer to IEEE488.2, 7.7.2.4). Syntax error An unrecognized command or data type has occurred. For example, when the program message "SYST:POFF" is sent instead of the proper program message "SYST::POFF", a colon (:) has been incorrectly inserted, and it will be perceived by the ČûĀĀøĈ as an unrecognized command. Delete one colon (:) in order to send the appropriate command. System error In the E4991A, one of the so called "System Errors" has occurred. T Too many digits The mantissa of a decimal numeric data element exceeds 255 excluding leading zeros (refer to IEEE488.27.7.2.4). Too many segments or points While editing the list sweep table, a setting has been attempted that exceeds the maximum number of segments (16), the maximum number of measurement points (201) per segment, or the maximum number of total measurement points (801) in all segments. During setting, the numbers of segments or measurement points should not exceed the maximum figures. Too much data This occurs when the amount of data exceeds the E4991A’s memory capacity, even though the program data received in a block, expression, or character string conforms to the standard. The occurrence of this error indicates that the problem is restricted to the memory or memory related devices. Trigger ignored The trigger command "*TRG" or an external trigger signal has been received and detected by the E4991A but was ignored because of the timing (for example, the E4991A trigger was not in the waiting condition). Prepare for the trigger command or external trigger signal when the trigger is in the waiting condition. 472 Appendix I Messages Undefined header U -113 Undefined header A command not defined by the E4991A has been received, although grammatical structure does not provide any problem. For example, when the program message "DISP:TRAC1:X:AUTO" has been sent instead of the correct program message "DISP:TRAC1:Y:AUTO", it is received by the ČûĀĀøĈ as an undefined command. Refer to the command reference and check the correct commands. 15 User cal mode only Setting has been attempted by using commands to define each standard of the calibration kit before selecting a user defined calibration kit. First select the calibration kit that will be used as the user defined calibration kit. Then define each standard value for this calibration kit. I. Messages Appendix I 473 Messages DC bias overload Messages indicating the internal status of the equipment Messages that indicate the internal status of the equipment include equipment irregularities as well as the results of processing (or current processing status). These messages do not have numbers. Messages indicating measurement failure DC bias overload During application of DC bias voltage, a sudden change in the connection condition of the DUT has lowered the direct-current impedance, resulting in momentary over-current at the DC bias source. Do not remove the DUT during application of DC bias. If this error occurs frequently during normal measurement, this may be due to instrument failure. In this event, please contact your nearest Agilent Technologies branch office or the company where you purchased the instrument. PLL Unlock An error has been detected in the internal PLL (Phase Lock Loop) circuit of the E4991A. The PLL is used to generate a stable frequency source. This can occur due to an error of the external reference signal or when the power is turned ON in a low-temperature environment. If the external reference signal has not been inputted or shows no error, instrument tuning or repair is necessary. If the message does not disappear in a few minutes after turning the power ON, instrument tuning or repair is necessary. In this event, please contact your nearest Agilent Technologies branch office or the company where you purchased the instrument. Power on test failed An error has been detected during the self-test after turning on the power. Please contact your nearest Agilent Technologies branch office or the company where you purchased the instrument. RF overload There has been a ranging failure in the internal circuit due to a sudden change in impedance caused by removing the DUT or some other reason during measurement. Do not remove the DUT during measurement. If this error occurs frequently during normal measurement, there may be instrument failure. In this event, please contact your nearest Agilent Technologies branch office or the company where you purchased the instrument. 474 Appendix I Messages Cal done Messages indicating the results (or current status) of processing Cal done Calculation and storage of a calibration coefficient completed. Cal measure aborted Measurement of calibration data aborted. Comp done Calculation and storage of a fixture compensation coefficient completed. Comp measure aborted Measurement of a fixture compensation coefficient aborted. Peak not found Peak search function executed, but no defined peak was found. Target value not found Target search function executed, but no target measurement value was found. Trigger hold Measurement is in hold mode, in which a trigger is not accepted. Wait -- measuring cal standard Calibration data are now being measured. Wait -- measuring comp standard Fixture compensation data are now being measured. I. Messages Appendix I 475 Messages Wait -- measuring comp standard 476 Appendix I Index Index Symbols ΔΤ, 299, 303 ΔTmax, 299, 303 [ .. ], 169 [Cal/Compel] key, 24 [Display] key, 24 [Marker Fctn] key, 24 [Marker] key, 24 [Meas/Format] key, 24 [Preset] key, 26 [Save/Recall] key, 26 [Scale] key, 24 [Source] key, 24 [Start/Stop] key, 24 [Sweep] key, 24 [System] key, 26 [Trace] key, 24 [Trigger Setup] key, 24 [Trigger] key, 24 [Utility] key, 26 ~LINE, 29 Numerics 007, 333 010, 321 1 Port option button CITIfile, 181 2 Port A option button CITIfile, 181 2 Port B option button CITIfile, 181 3.5" built-in floppy disk drive, 23 A A button function list by menu, 413 Abort button function list by menu, 419 Abort Cal Meas button function list by menu, 406 Abort Compen Meas button function list by menu, 406 About E4991A button function list by menu, 418 Accurac Open/Short/Load/Low-Loss Capacitor Calibration is Performed, 245 Accuracy Open/Short/Load Calibration is performed, 244 active trace selection and confirmation, 45 Active trace axis LCD Display display areas, 38 Add Segment button function list by menu, 400 Address:Controller box Index function list by menu, 419 Address:E4991A box function list by menu, 419 Agilent E4991A-007 Compensation Library, 341 All Off button, 129 function list by menu, 389 All option button in Print dialog box, 189 analysis of measured results, 127 arrow keys, 25 ASCII format data saving, 175 ASCII/Binary option button, 172 assistance, 6 auto scale, 107 automatic recall, 170 autorec.sta, 170 Autoscale All button function list by menu, 380 Autoscale button function list by menu, 380 Averaging Specification, 253 averaging point calculation formula, 73 point averaging, 73 sweep-to-sweep calculation formula, 71 sweep-to-sweep averaging, 71 B B button function list by menu, 413 Backed Up Settings, 440 Beep[ ] button function list by menu, 418 BEGIN CITIfile, 181 Bias Level box (Stimulus-Source...) function list by menu, 403 Bias Level box (Stimulus-Sweep Setup-Segment Table Menu-More) function list by menu, 402 Bias Limit box (Stimulus-Source...) function list by menu, 403 Bias Limit box (Stimulus-Sweep Setup-Segment Table Menu-More) function list by menu, 402 Bias Monitor button, 60 Bias Monitor[ ] button (Stimulus-Source...) function list by menu, 403 Bias OFF Instrument status bar, 39 Bias ON Instrument status bar, 39 Bias Source box (Stimulus-Source...) 477 Index function list by menu, 403 Bias Source box (Stimulus-Sweep Setup-Segment Table Menu-More) function list by menu, 402 Blue box function list by menu, 386 BMP format Save Display Information, 183 Bottom box, 109 Bottom box (when display format is linear) function list by menu, 380 Bottom box (when display is log format) function list by menu, 381 button function list by menu, 380 C C button function list by menu, 413 C0 box function list by menu, 412 C1 box function list by menu, 412 Cal Fix Instrument status bar, 39 Cal Kit Menu[ ] button function list by menu, 404 Cal Kit Type box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Cal Kit Menu) function list by menu, 407, 408 Cal OFF Instrument status bar, 39 Cal User Instrument status bar, 39 Cal/Compen key function list by menu, 404 Calculate Parameters button function list by menu, 412 Calibration Temperature characteristic test kit, 340 Using Probe Sgtation, 328 calibration, 77 Calibration and Compensation Measurement Support Functions, 252 calibration and compensation outline of function, 76 types of function, 76 using 7 mm terminal as the calibration reference plane, 81 using DUT connecting terminal as the calibration reference plane, 83 Calibration Menu[ ] button function list by menu, 404 Calibration Reset button function list by menu, 406 Calibration Status/Kit button function list by menu, 387 Calibration Type box function list by menu, 406 Calibration/Compensation difference between 4286A and 4287A, 452 Calibration/Compensation data measurement point Measurement Support Functions, 252 Calibration/Compensation measurement point mode Using Probe Station, 329 Cancel/Close key function list by menu, 418 Cascade Microtech Recommended Probe Stations, 323 Center box (Stimulus-Start/Stop...) function list by menu, 397 Center button (Marker-Marker-Mraker To Menu) function list by menu, 391 certification, 4 Change temperature arbitary Temperature Profile (Tctest.Start), 357 Change temperature stepwise Temperature Profile (Tctest.Start), 356 CITIFILE CITIfile keyword, 180 CITIfile circuit model, 179 conversion expression, 179 file structure, 180 how to create, 179, 181 CITIfile format data saving, 179 Cleaning, 434 click key, 25 Cmpn OFF Instrument status bar, 39 Cmpn ON Instrument status bar, 39 Collate check box in Print dialog box, 189 color LCD display, 23 Color Setting Menu button function list by menu, 384 Compen Kit Menu[ ] button function list by menu, 404 Compen Open[ ] button function list by menu, 406 Compen Short[ ] button function list by menu, 406 Compensaiton.Start Main Menu, 369 Compensation Temperature characteristic test kit, 340 Compensation Status/Kit button function list by menu, 387 Compensation.Start, 351, 369 Enter temperature, 370 Load temperature compensation data, 369 Complex 4 function list by menu, 378 Complex 5 function list by menu, 378 478 Index Index Index CompMeas.bas, 346 Conditions for Defining Accuracy Measurement accuracy, 244, 263 Temperature Measurement, 276 Typical measurement accuracy(Option 007), 282 Conditions for Defining Typical Accuracy Measurement accuracy with Temperature Measurement Test Kit, 285 Connectors Maintenance, 434 Contents check box, 172 Continuous button function list by menu, 409 continuous sweep executing, 63 Control Mode[ ] button function list by menu, 419 Copy Data - Memory button function list by menu, 384 Copy to Clipboard Graph (bmp) button function list by menu, 386 Copy to Clipboard Graph (jpg) button function list by menu, 386 Copy to Clipboard List Values button function list by menu, 386 Copy to Clipboard Operating Params button function list by menu, 386 Copy to FDD button, 169 CW Freq box (Stimulus-Source...) function list by menu, 403 CW frequency setting, 65 D D button function list by menu, 413 DATA CITIfile keyword, 180 Data in Contents check box, 172 data arrays, 166 data flow, 167 Data section CITIfile, 180 data trace arrays, 166 DC bias level monitor, 60 setting, 60 DC Bias Monitor Specification, 241 Dc Bias[ ] button (Stimulus-Source...) function list by menu, 403 DC Current Bias Specification, 241 DC Voltage Bias Specification, 241, 242 Default box function list by menu, 386 Define Trace box function list by menu, 384 definition of calibration/compensation kit, 91 Definition of Each Parameter Specification, 245 Definition of Parameter, 245, 246, 283 Definition of Parameter (Option 007), 277 Del Instrument status bar, 39 Delete button, 169 Delete Segment button function list by menu, 400 Delta Aux Value box function list by menu, 391 Delta Mode box, 131 function list by menu, 390 Delta Mode Menu button function list by menu, 389 ΔΤ, 299, 303 ΔTmax, 299, 303 Delta To Span button function list by menu, 391 Delta Value box function list by menu, 391 Dimensions Specification, 259 Disconnect button function list by menu, 419 Display Specification, 253 display color changing, 126 Display key function list by menu, 384 Display Scalar Trace[ ] button function list by menu, 384 documentation map, 7 Done button (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Calibration Menu[ ]) function list by menu, 406 Done button (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Fixture Compen Menu[ ]) function list by menu, 406 Drive box, 169 Dx, 245 E E button function list by menu, 413 E4991A-007 Compensation Library, 341 Ea, 245 Ea (Option 007), 277 Eb, 246 Eb (Option007), 277 Ec, 246 Ec (Option 007), 283 Ed, 283 Index 479 Index Electrical Delay box function list by menu, 405 electrical length compensation, 87 EMC Specification, 258 END CITIfile, 181 Enter Password to exit dialog box, 191 Enter temperature Compensation.Start, 370 Entry/navigation block, 25 Environment Conditions Specification, 257 Equivalent Circuit Analysis Specification, 254 Equivalent Circuit Menu button function list by menu, 411 equivalent circuit parameter analyzing, 157 εr Loss box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Cal Kit Menu) function list by menu, 408 εr Real box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Cal Kit Menu) function list by menu, 408 Error Correction Measurement Support Functions, 252 error message list, 461 exclusive remedies, 5 Execute of temperature compensation Tctest.Start, 363 Exit function list by menu, 420 Expand Phase[ ] button function list by menu, 379 Ext Ref In, 30 Ext Trig, 29 External monitor output terminal, 29 External reference signal input connector, 30 Specification, 255 External trigger input connector, 29 Specification, 256 external trigger input signal selecting polarity, 64 ExtRef Instrument status bar, 39 F File format Temperature compensation data file, 345 Fixed frequency point mode Calibration/Compensation data measurement point, 252 Fixed frequency power point mode Calibration/Compensation data measurement point, 252 Fixed power point mode Calibration/Compensation data measurement point, 252 Fixture Compen Menu[ ] button function list by menu, 404 480 fixture compensation, 89 Fixture Type box function list by menu, 405 floppy disk drive, 23 Format Temperature compensation data file, 345 Temperature Profile, 358 Format box function list by menu, 379 FREQ CITIfile, 180 Freq Disp Resolution box function list by menu, 384 Frequency Specification, 239, 276 Frequency Range Material Measurement, 263 Material Measurement with Temperature Measurement Test Kit, 285 front panel names and functions of blocks, 22 FTP Server Menu button function list by menu, 418 FTP Server[ ] button function list by menu, 419 Full Scale box, 109 function list by menu, 380 Fxtr Length box function list by menu, 405 G General Characteristics Specification, 257 GPIB setting, 194 Specification, 255 GPIB address(chamber) Changing, 372 GPIB connector, 29 GPIB Setup Menu button function list by menu, 418 graph overlay display, 114 split display, 114 Graph Coordination Format selecting, 104 Green box function list by menu, 386 H Header section CITIfile, 180 Heat-resistant cable Cautions, 335 Installation, 337 Height box function list by menu, 413 Index Index Index High stability frequency reference output connector, 29 Specification, 256 history, manual printing, 2 Hold Instrument status bar, 39 Hold button function list by menu, 409 How to Use This Operation Manual, 19 HP DeskJet 895C Series printers available, 187 HP DeskJet 930C Series printers available, 187 HP DeskJet 970C Series printers available, 187 I Impedance Measurement Accuracy Calculated Examples, 247 Calculated Examples (Option 007), 278 Temperature Characteristic Measurement, 277 Initial Settings, 440 Inner Diameter box function list by menu, 413 Installation Temperature characteristic test kit, 335 Installation and Quick Start Guide, 7 Instrument status bar LCD Display display areas, 39 Int Ref Out, 30 Interface Specification, 255 internal data flow, 167 Internal reference signal output connector, 30 Specification, 256 Internal Test button function list by menu, 418 IP address Setting, 197, 314 Item box function list by menu, 386 J JPG format Save Display Information, 183 K keyboard port, 31 Keyboard... button, 169 KYBD, 31 L L1 box function list by menu, 412 LAN setup procedures, 309 Index LAN interface Specification, 255 LAN port, 29 LCD display, 23 Left button function list by menu, 392 Limit Marker Test Specification, 254 limit test marker limit test, 160 Limit Test [ ] button function list by menu, 395 Limit Test Menu button function list by menu, 394 limitation of warranty, 5 list displaying measurement value in list, 115 list sweep, 66 List Values[ ] button function list by menu, 384 Load L box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Cal Kit Menu) function list by menu, 407 Load Program button function list by menu, 411 Load R box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Cal Kit Menu) function list by menu, 407 Load temperature compensation data Compensation.Start, 369 Tctest.Start, 364 Lower box function list by menu, 395 Low-loss capacitor calibration Measurement Support Functions, 252 M Macros button function list by menu, 411 MAG CITIfile, 180 Main Menu Compensation.Start, 369 Tctest.Start, 352 Main Unit Dimensions Specifications and Supplemental Information, 259 maintenance, 433 manual changes, 307 manual printing history, 2 Manual Trigger button function list by menu, 409 Marker Specification, 254 marker analysis target trace, 139 change stimulus value display, 156 deleting from trace, 129 delta marker, 131 limit test, 160 481 Index marker continuous mode, 135 marker interlocking on/off, 136 marker list display, 130 marker value display mode, 137 moving marker, 129 reading trace data, 128 setting reference line value by marker, 112 turning off, 129 Marker [Continuous] button, 135 Marker [Discrete] button, 135 Marker Couple [Off] button, 136 Marker Couple [On] button, 136 Marker Couple[ ] button function list by menu, 389 Marker Fctn key function list by menu, 392 Marker key function list by menu, 389 Marker List[ ] button function list by menu, 393 Marker On [Data/Memory] button, 139 Marker On[ ] button function list by menu, 389 Marker to Left Range button function list by menu, 394 Marker To Menu button function list by menu, 389 Marker to Peak Delta button function list by menu, 395 Marker to Right Range button function list by menu, 394 Marker value LCD Display display areas, 34 Marker X Axis box function list by menu, 394 Marker[ ] button function list by menu, 389 Markers LCD Display display areas, 38 Mass Storage Specification, 254 Material Measurement Measurement Accuracy, 263 Typical Effects of Temperature Change, 298 typical, 263 material measurement setting shape parameter, 43 Material Measurement Parameter Specification, 263 material measurement parameter setting, 43, 102 Material Measurement Parameter with Temperature Measurement Test Kit Specification, 285 Material Measurement with Temperature Measurement Test Kit Measurement Accuracy, 285 Material Option Menu button function list by menu, 411 Material Type box function list by menu, 413 Math Offset box function list by menu, 384 Meas Load button function list by menu, 405 Meas Low Loss C button function list by menu, 405 Meas Open button (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Calibration Menu[ ]) function list by menu, 405 Meas Open button (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Fixture Compen Menu[ ]) function list by menu, 406 Meas Parameter box function list by menu, 379 Meas Short button (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Calibration Menu[ ]) function list by menu, 405 Meas Short button (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Fixture Compen Menu[ ]) function list by menu, 406 Meas/Format key function list by menu, 379 Meas/Format menu, 379 Meas/Format... function list by menu, 379 Measurement Accuracy Material Measurement, 263 Typical Effects of Temperature Change, 298 Material Measurement with Temperature Measurement Test Kit, 285 Specification, 244 Measurement accuracy, 276 Measurement block, 23 Measurement cable(heat-resistant) Cautions, 335 Installation, 337 Measurement Conditions Tctest.Start, 352 measurement parameter procedure, 100 Measurement Parameters Specification, 238 Measurement Range Specification, 238 Measurement Support Functions Specifications and Supplemental Information, 252 Measurement Terminal Specification, 255 Memory in Contents check box, 172 memory arrays, 166 memory trace 482 Index Index Index using, 116 memory trace arrays, 166 Menu bar LCD Display display areas, 32 message, 461 Mini-DIN keyboard port, 31 Mini-DIN mouse port, 30 Mkr Delta to Search Range button function list by menu, 394 More button (Display-Display...) function list by menu, 384 More button (Marker-Function...) function list by menu, 393 More button (Marker-Marker...) function list by menu, 389 More button (Stimulus-Sweep Setup-Segment Table Menu) function list by menu, 400 Mount cable tie, 339 MOUSE, 30 Mouse Setup Step, 200 mouse port, 30 N NAME CITIfile keyword, 180 Name box in Print dialog box, 188 names and functions of LCD Display display areas, 32 Network Configuring, 216 New Folder button, 169 Next button function list by menu, 392 Nominal Definitions, 238 Non-active trace axes LCD Display display areas, 38 Non-operating storage condition Specification, 257 Num Of Traces box function list by menu, 384 Number of copies box in Print dialog box, 189 Number of points (NOP) setting, 57 Number Of Points box (Stimulus-Sweep Setup...) function list by menu, 399 Number Of Points box (Stimulus-Sweep Setup-Segment Table Menu) function list by menu, 400 O Offset button function list by menu, 392 Open C box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Cal Kit Menu) function list by menu, 407 Open C box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Compen Kit Menu) function list by menu, 408 Open G box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Cal Kit Menu) function list by menu, 407 Open G box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Compen Kit Menu) function list by menu, 408 Open/Short Compensation , 252 Open/Short/Load Calibration Measurement Support Functions, 252 Using Probe Sgtation, 328 open/short/load/low-loss capacitor calibration, 84, 330 operating parameter printing, 186 Operation Param Menu button function list by menu, 384 Operation Parameters button function list by menu, 387 Operational Manual, 7 Option 007, 333 option 007, 375 Option 010, 321 Overview, 322 Option 1D5, 29 Osc Level box, 59 Osc Level box (Stimulus-Source...) function list by menu, 403 Osc Level box (Stimulus-Sweep Setup-Segment Table Menu-More) function list by menu, 402 Osc Unit box, 59 Osc Unit box (Stimulus-Source...) function list by menu, 403 Osc Unit box (Stimulus-Sweep Setup-Segment Table Menu-More) function list by menu, 402 Oscillator Level Specification, 239, 276 oscillator level selecting unit, 59 setting, 58 setting values, 59 Outer Diameter box function list by menu, 414 Output File Tctest.Start, 352 Output Impedance Specification, 240 Overview Temperature characteristic test kit, 334 Ovld Instrument status bar, 39 P Pages option button in Print dialog box, 189 Index 483 Index Parallel, 29 partial search area setting, 153 Partial Search[ ] button function list by menu, 394 Peak Delta X box function list by menu, 395 Peak Delta Y box function list by menu, 395 peak search, 144 Permeability Measurement Accuracy Calculated Examples, 271, 293 Permeability parameters Material Measurement Parameter, 263 Material Measurement Parameter with Temperature Measurement Test Kit, 285 Typical accuracy, 265, 287 Typical accuracy (with Option 007), 302 Permittivity Measurement Accuracy Calculated Examples, 266, 288 Permittivity parameters Material Measurement Parameter, 263 Material Measurement Parameter with Temperature Measurement Test Kit, 285 Typical accuracy, 264, 286 Typical accuracy (with Option 007), 298 phase continuous display, 122 selecting unit, 123 Phase Unit[ ] button function list by menu, 379 Point Average box (Stimulus-Sweep Setup...) function list by menu, 399 Point Average box (Stimulus-Sweep Setup-Segment Table Menu) function list by menu, 400 point averaging calculation formula, 73 procedure, 73 Point Delay box function list by menu, 400 Port extension compensation Measurement Support Functions, 252 port extension compensation, 86 Power cable receptacle, 29 Power requirements Specification, 259 preset initialization of E4991A, 42 Preset (front panel key), 42 Preset key function list by menu, 420 Print dialog box, 188 Print Graph (Color) button, 188, 236 function list by menu, 385 Print Graph (Mono) button, 188, 236 function list by menu, 385 484 Print List Values button, 188, 236 function list by menu, 385 Print Operating Params button, 188, 236 function list by menu, 385 Print range option button in Print dialog box, 189 Print to file check box in Print dialog box, 189 Print/Clipbd Menu button, 188 function list by menu, 384 PRINTER, 29 printer driver installation, 191 Printer parallel port, 29 Specification, 255 printers printers available, 187 printers available, 187 printing how to print, 187 measurement list, 186 operating parameter list, 186 printing measurement graph and internal data, 186 printing measurement graph and internal data, 186 prn file printing, 189 Probe Heads Option 010 recommended, 323 Probe Station Connection Kit, 321 Probe Stations Option 010 recommended, 323 Program Setup File Safe/Load Tctest.Start, 352 Programming Manual, 7 Properties button in Print dialog box, 189 Q Q Measurement Accuracy Calculated Examples, 251 Quick Start Guide, 7 Qx, 245 R R1 box function list by menu, 412 reading the value on trace, 128 rear panel names and functions, 28 Rear Panel Connectors Specification, 255 Recall Data button function list by menu, 416 Recall State button function list by menu, 416 Recover Cal/Compen State button function list by menu, 405 Index Index Index Recovery System recovery, 312 tctest.lcr, 375 RecoveryÅFSample programÅitctest.lcr), 375 Red box function list by menu, 386 Ref Oven, 29 Ref Pos box, 109 function list by menu, 380 Ref Val box, 109 function list by menu, 380 Ref X box function list by menu, 382 Ref Y box function list by menu, 382 Reference button function list by menu, 392 Reference Line button, 110 Remote Setup Dialog button function list by menu, 418 Reserved ports, 31 RI CITIfile, 180 Right button function list by menu, 393 rotary knob, 25 S S[1,1] CITIfile, 180 S[1,2] CITIfile, 180 S[2,1] CITIfile, 180 S[2,2] CITIfile, 180 safe mode, 23 Safety Specification, 258, 259 safety symbols, 4 safety summary, 3 Sample program Acquiring temperature compensation data, 346 Execution of temperature compensation, 343 save and recall Overview, 166 Save Data button function list by menu, 416 Save Display Information, 183 Save Graphics, 183 Save Graphics button function list by menu, 416 Save Program button function list by menu, 411 Save State button, 169 function list by menu, 416 Index Save State dialog box, 169 Save/Recall dialog box operation, 169 Save/Recall key function list by menu, 416 Saved/Recalled Settings, 440 saving and recalling Overview, 166 saving and recalling internal data, 165 saving binary data, 172 saving setting states, 169 Scalar 1 function list by menu, 378 Scalar 2 function list by menu, 378 Scalar 3 function list by menu, 378 scale auto adjustment, 107 manual setting, 108 Scale box (when display is complex plain format) function list by menu, 382 Scale box (when display is polar format) function list by menu, 381 Scale Entry [Scale/Ref/Top/Bottom] Bottom, 109 Scale For box function list by menu, 380 Scale key (when display format is linear) function list by menu, 380 Scale key (when display is complex plain format) function list by menu, 382 Scale key (when display is log format) function list by menu, 381 Scale key (when display is polar format) function list by menu, 381 Scale key (when display is Smith/Admittance chart format) function list by menu, 382 Scale menu, 380 Scale reference line value LCD Display display areas, 38 search max. value, 140 min. value, 140 peak search, 144 search target measurement value, 142 search tracking, 155 Search button function list by menu, 392 Search Def & Range Menu button function list by menu, 393 search for max. value, 140 search min. value, 140 Search Track[ ] button function list by menu, 393 Search Type box function list by menu, 392 SEG 485 Index CITIfile, 181 SEG_LIST_BEGIN CITIfile, 181 SEG_LIST_END CITIfile, 181 Segment Delay box function list by menu, 400 Segment Display box function list by menu, 399 Segment No. box function list by menu, 400 Segment Sweep Specification, 243 segment sweep concept, 66 executing, 66 Segment Table Menu button function list by menu, 399 Select Circuit[ ] button function list by menu, 412 Select Marker box (Marker-Function-More-Limit Test Menu) function list by menu, 395 Select Marker box (Marker-Marker...) function list by menu, 389 Selected Marker[ ] button function list by menu, 389 Serial number plate, 31, 308 Set a State File Tctest.Start, 359 Set output file Tctest.Start, 366 Settings Backed Up, 440 Saved/Recalled, 440 Setup toolbar LCD Display display areas, 35 Short L box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Cal Kit Menu) function list by menu, 407 Short L box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Compen Kit Menu) function list by menu, 408 Short R box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Cal Kit Menu) function list by menu, 407 Short R box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Compen Kit Menu) function list by menu, 408 Simulate F-Characteristics button function list by menu, 412 Simulate F-Characteristics to All Traces button function list by menu, 412 Single button function list by menu, 409 single sweep executing, 63 Smith/Polar box, 137 function list by menu, 393 Source Characteristics Specification, 239 Source key function list by menu, 403 Span box (Stimulus-Start/Stop...) function list by menu, 398 Specification Definitions, 238 Specifications, 237 Standby switch, 23 Start box (Stimulus-Start/Stop...) function list by menu, 397 Start box (Stimulus-Sweep Setup-Segment Table Menu) function list by menu, 400 Start button (Marker-Marker-Mraker To Menu) function list by menu, 391 Start Measurememt Tctest.Start, 352 Start/Stop key function list by menu, 397 statistics data display, 151 Statistics[ ] button function list by menu, 393 Stimulus block, 24 Stimulus box (Marker-Function-More-Limit Test Menu) function list by menu, 395 Stimulus box (Marker-Marker...) function list by menu, 389 Stimulus box (Marker-Marker-Delta Mode Menu) function list by menu, 391 Stimulus Display[ ] button function list by menu, 398 Stop box (Stimulus-Start/Stop...) function list by menu, 397 Stop box (Stimulus-Sweep Setup-Segment Table Menu) function list by menu, 400 Stop button (Marker-Marker-Mraker To Menu) function list by menu, 391 stop sweep executing, 63 subnet mask Setting, 197, 314 Svc Instrument status bar, 39 sweep area selecting display, 118 setting, 52, 65 setting by marker, 54 Sweep Average Restart button function list by menu, 379 Sweep Average[ ] button function list by menu, 379 Sweep Conditions Specification, 243 Sweep Delay box function list by menu, 400 sweep direction selecting, 49 486 Index Index Index Sweep Direction[ ] button function list by menu, 399 Sweep key function list by menu, 399 sweep parameter selecting, 46 Sweep Parameter box function list by menu, 399 Sweep start value LCD Display display areas, 38 Sweep stop value LCD Display display areas, 38 Sweep Time box function list by menu, 400 Sweep Time[ ] button (Stimulus-Sweep Setup...) function list by menu, 399 Sweep Time[ ] button (Stimulus-Sweep Setup-Sweep Time[ ]) function list by menu, 400 sweep type setting, 48 Sweep Type box function list by menu, 399 sweep-to-sweep averaging calculation formula, 71 Swp Avg Count box function list by menu, 379 System block, 26 System key function list by menu, 418 system program how to shut down, 197, 314 System Recovery How to Execute, 204 System recovery, 312 T target search, 142 Target Value box function list by menu, 394 tctest.lcr, 351 How to modify, 371 How to use, 351 Recovery, 375 Tctest.Start, 351 Execute of temperature compensation, 363 Load temperature compensation data, 364 Main Menu, 352 Measurement Conditions, 352 Output File, 352 Program Setup File Save/Load, 352 Set a State File, 359 Set Output File, 366 Start Measurement, 352 Temp Change Compensation, 352 Temperature Profile Change temperature arbitary, 357 Change temperature stepwise, 356 Tuning on/off the temperature compensation data, 364 Temp Change Compensation Tctest.Start, 352 Temp Change Compensation(Tctest.Start) Acquire temperature compesation data, 361 TempComp.bas, 343 Temperature Characteristic Measurement Accuracy, 276 Specification, 276 Temperature characteristic test kit, 333 Calibration/compensation, 340 Installation, 335 Overview, 334 Temperature compensation, 341 Temperature compensation, 341 Temperature compensation data file Format, 345 Temperature Measurement Accuracy typical, 282 Temperature Profile, 356, 358 Format, 358 Temperature Profile File, 361 Test fixture stand (option 007), 337 Test Head Dimensions Specifications and Supplemental Information, 261 Test head holder (option 007), 336 Test head interface, 26 Test head stand (option 007), 336 Test Marker[ ] button function list by menu, 395 Test Ports Maintenance, 434 Thickness box (Stimulus-Cal/Compen-Cal Kit Menu) function list by menu, 408 Thickness box (Utility-Utility-Material Option Menu) function list by menu, 413 title trace title, 124 Title bar LCD Display display areas, 32 Title button function list by menu, 384 Toolbar Off function list by menu, 418 Top box, 109 Top box (when display format is linear) function list by menu, 380 Top box (when display is log format) function list by menu, 381 trace Average, standard deviation, p-p, 151 comparison and operation, 116 setting types and numbers, 96 zooming, 113 Trace 1 LCD Display display areas, 38 Index 487 Index Trace 2 LCD Display display areas, 38 Trace Data in Contents check box, 172 Trace key function list by menu, 378 Trace Memory in Contents check box, 172 Trace menu, 378 Trigger Specification, 253 trigger event selecting, 62 Trigger Event box function list by menu, 409 Trigger key function list by menu, 409 Trigger Polarity[ ] button function list by menu, 409 Trigger Setup key function list by menu, 409 trigger source selecting, 61 Trigger Source box function list by menu, 409 Tuning on/off the temperature compensation data Tctest.Start, 364 typeface conventions, 6 Typical Definitions, 238 Typical Measurement Accuracy Material Measurement with Temperature Measurement Test Kit, 285 Typical measurement accuracy Temperature dependence effects (Option 007), 283 U Unused ports, 31 Upper box function list by menu, 395 USB ports, 30 User-defined point mode Calibration/Compensation data measurement point, 252 Utility key, 26 function list by menu, 411 V VAR CITIfile keyword, 180 version number CITIfile, 180 VIDEO, 29 Visual Basic Editor button function list by menu, 411 W warranty, 5 limitation of, 5 Weight Specification, 259 Window Maximize button function list by menu, 384 Window Restore button function list by menu, 384 Windows or OS/2 Bitmap format Save Display Information, 183 Y |Y| Measurement Accuracy Calculated Examples, 247 Calculated Examples (Option 007), 278 Yo, 246 Yo (Option 007), 277 Z |Z| Measurement Accuracy Calculated Examples, 247 Calculated Examples (Option 007), 278 Zero Span sweep setting, 47 zooming zooming of trace, 113 Zs, 246 Zs (Option 007), 277 488 Index

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