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    PCB Design Training Module Document Version 1.01, December 4, 2006 Software, documentation and related materials: Copyright © 2006 Altium Limited. All rights reserved. You are permitted to print this document provided that (1) the use of such is for personal use only and will not be copied or posted on any network computer or broadcast in any media, and (2) no modifications of the document is made. Unauthorized duplication, in whole or part, of this document by any means, mechanical or electronic, including translation into another language, except for brief excerpts in published reviews, is prohibited without the express written permission of Altium Limited. Unauthorized duplication of this work may also be prohibited by local statute. Violators may be subject to both criminal and civil penalties, including fines and/or imprisonment. Altium, Altium Designer, Board Insight, CAMtastic, CircuitStudio, Design Explorer, DXP, LiveDesign, NanoBoard, NanoTalk, Nexar, nVisage, P-CAD, Protel, SimCode, Situs, TASKING, and Topological Autorouting and their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Altium Limited or its subsidiaries. Microsoft, Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Access are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. OrCAD, OrCAD Capture, OrCAD Layout and SPECCTRA are registered trademarks of Cadence Design Systems Inc. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of AutoDesk Inc. HP-GL is a registered trademark of Hewlett Packard Corporation. PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc. All other registered or unregistered trademarks referenced herein are the property of their respective owners and no trademark rights to the same are claimed. PCB Design training module ii PCB Design Training Module 1. PCB design process....................................................................................................4-1 2. The PCB Editor workspace .........................................................................................4-3 2.1 PCB Panel......................................................................................................4-3 2.2 Using the PCB Editor panel to browse...........................................................4-4 2.3 PCB Editor Preferences .................................................................................4-9 2.4 Board Options dialog....................................................................................4-25 2.5 Board Layers and Colors..............................................................................4-26 2.6 The PCB coordinate system ........................................................................4-27 2.7 Grids .............................................................................................................4-27 3. Browsing footprint libraries........................................................................................4-29 4. Creating a new PCB..................................................................................................4-30 4.1 Creating the Blank PCB ...............................................................................4-30 4.2 Defining a sheet template.............................................................................4-30 4.3 Defining the Board Shape, and Placement / Routing Boundary................4-31 4.4 Exercise – Creating a board outline & placement / routing boundary..........4-32 5. Transferring design information to the PCB ..................................................................4-34 5.1 Design synchronization ................................................................................4-34 5.2 Resolving synchronization errors .................................................................4-35 5.3 Design transfer using a netlist......................................................................4-36 5.4 Exercise – Transferring the design ..............................................................4-37 6. Setting up the PCB layers .........................................................................................4-38 6.1 Enabling Layers............................................................................................4-38 6.2 Layer definitions ...........................................................................................4-39 6.3 Defining the Electrical Layer Stackup ..........................................................4-41 6.4 Defining Mechanical layers ..........................................................................4-43 6.5 Internal power planes ...................................................................................4-43 6.6 Exercise – Setting up layers.........................................................................4-45 7. Design rules and design rule checking .....................................................................4-46 7.1 Adding design rules......................................................................................4-46 7.2 Design rules concepts ..................................................................................4-47 7.3 How rules are checked.................................................................................4-49 7.4 Where rules apply ........................................................................................4-50 7.5 Object classes ..............................................................................................4-52 7.6 From-tos .......................................................................................................4-53 7.7 Exercise – Setting up the design rules.........................................................4-53 7.8 Design Rule Checking..................................................................................4-54 8. Component Placement tools .....................................................................................4-56 8.1 Placing components .....................................................................................4-56 8.2 Finding components for placement ..............................................................4-56 8.3 Moving components .....................................................................................4-57 8.4 Interactive Placement commands ................................................................4-58 8.5 Re-Annotation ..............................................................................................4-59 8.6 Exercise – Component Placement...............................................................4-60 9. Routing ......................................................................................................................4-61 9.1 Interactive routing.........................................................................................4-61 9.2 Automatic routing .........................................................................................4-67 10. Polygons....................................................................................................................4-69 10.1 Placing polygons ..........................................................................................4-69 10.2 Exercise – Working with polygons ...............................................................4-72 PCB Design training module iii 11. Output Generation.....................................................................................................4-73 11.1 Creating a new Output Job file.....................................................................4-73 11.2 Setting up Print job options ..........................................................................4-74 11.3 Creating CAM files .......................................................................................4-75 11.4 Running the Output Generator.....................................................................4-78 11.5 Exercise – adding an OutJob file to the project ...........................................4-78 PCB Design training module iv 1. PCB design process The PCB Design training day covers how to use the PCB Editor to create a PCB from setup, through component placement, routing, design rule checking and CAM output. This first section looks at the overall PCB design process. The diagram below shows an overview of the PCB design process from schematic entry through to PCB design completion. Figure 1. Overview of the PCB Design Process PCB Design training module 4-1 Once the PCB design is completed and verified, the Create Manufacturing Output process is used to generate the PCB output files. This process is outlined below in Figure 2. Figure 2. Work flow for generating PCB output files PCB Design training module 4-2 2. The PCB Editor workspace This section investigates how to browse through a PCB design and how to set up the workspace preferences and other document options, such as layers and grids. 2.1 PCB Panel The PCB panel provides a powerful method of examining the contents of the PCB workspace. Clicking on an entry in the panel will filter the workspace to highlight that object – the highlighting will depend on the settings of the options at the top of the panel. To begin with, enable all the options. 2.1.1 Browse mode selection list The drop down list at the top of the panel allows you to list, locate or edit the following PCB object types in the active PCB document: • Components (and then Component Classes) • Nets (and then Net Classes) • From-Tos • Split Planes • Design Rules & Design Rule Violations. • Differential Pairs When you select an object in the panel, it will be highlighted in the workspace, according to the options at the top of the panel. Each Browse function is described in the following pages. 2.1.2 MiniViewer The MiniViewer is located at the bottom of the panel and provides an overview of the workspace. The double-lined rectangle indicates the current region being displayed in the workspace. The MiniViewer also has the following display control functions: • Click and drag in the rectangle to pan around the workspace. • Click and drag on a corner of the rectangle to change the magnification of the workspace. Figure 3. PCB Editor panel PCB Design training module 4-3 2.2 Using the PCB Editor panel to browse 2.2.1 Browsing nets and net classes • To browse nets, select Nets from the dropdown list in the PCB panel. • Click on All Nets in the Net Classes region of the dialog to browse all nets on the PCB. The nets are listed in the region below and they are also highlighted on the PCB. • If the design includes Net Classes these are also listed. Net classes such as D[0..7] have been generated automatically from busses in the design. • Click on a net name in the Nets region to choose it – all the objects that belong to that net are listed in the Net Items region. Also, the net is highlighted on the PCB. • Click on an item in the Net Items region and note that it is highlighted on the PCB. Also note that the object that you clicked on is selected. • Multi-select keys are supported. Hold SHIFT or CTRL as you click on entries in the list. • Right-click in the Net Items section and note that you can control which net items are displayed. • Double-click on a net name to open the Edit Net dialog. Here you can change the net name, add or remove nodes from the net and define the color of the connection lines for this net. • The Nets and the Net Items region have multiple columns. Note that you can control the sorting by clicking the heading on a column. • Type-ahead is supported. You can type on the keyboard to jump through the lists. Press Esc to abort the current type-ahead search and start another. Figure 4. Browsing nets from the PCB panel PCB Design training module 4-4 2.2.2 Browsing components and component classes • To browse components, select Components from the drop-down list. • When the panel is being used to filter (highlight) components, you might find it better to have the Select option at the top of the panel switched off. • Click on All Components in the Components Class region to browse all components on the PCB. The components are listed in the Components region, as well as being highlighted on the display. • If the design includes component classes, these are listed too, when you click on a component class only the components in that class are listed and highlighted. • Click on a component name in the Components region to choose it. All the objects that belong to that component are listed in the Component Primitives region. Also, the component is highlighted on the PCB. • Click on an item in the Component Items region, Note that it is highlighted on the PCB. Also note that the object that you clicked on is selected. • Multi-select keys are supported. Hold SHIFT or CTRL as you click on entries in the list. • Right-click in the Component Items section. Note that you can control which component primitives are displayed. • Double-click on a component name to open the Component dialog where you can modify any attribute of the component. • The Components and the Component Items region have multiple columns. Note that you can control the sorting by clicking the heading on a column. • The order of the columns can also be changed; click and drag a column to change the column order. This is handy when you wish to use the type-ahead feature on a different column. • Type-ahead is supported. You can type on the keyboard to jump through the lists. Press ESC to abort the current type-ahead search and start another. The type-ahead is always performed on the left-most column, so drag any column to make it the left-most. Figure 5. Browsing components from the PCB panel PCB Design training module 4-5 2.2.3 Browsing design rules and rule violations To browse design rules, select Rules from the drop-down list. All Rules classes are listed. • Click on a Rule Class and all rules defined for that class are listed in the Rules list. • Click on a rule in the Rules list to highlight all objects targeted by that rule. • Double-click on the rule to display a dialog to edit that rule. • If the selected rule is in violation, all violating objects are listed in the Violations region. To check all rules for violations, select [All Rules] in the Rule Classes section. • Click on a violation to highlight the object causing the violation. • Double-click on a violation to display the Violation Details dialog which details the rule that is being violated and the parameters of the primitive that is causing the violation. • For more information about design rule checking and violations, refer to 7.3 How rules are checked. Figure 6. Browsing design rules from the PCB panel PCB Design training module 4-6 2.2.4 From-To editor • Choose From-To Editor from the drop-down field at the top of the PCB panel. The top list section of the panel will fill with all nets currently defined for the design. • As you click on a net entry, all of the nodes on that net will be loaded into the middle list section of the panel. Filtering will be applied and a mask automatically used in order to leave just the nodes (pads) on the net fully visible. All other objects are dimmed. • Double-click on a net entry to open the Edit Net dialog where you can edit the properties of the net. • To add a new from-to, select the Nodes on Nets to which you want to add the from-to and click the Add From To button. The new from-to appears in the From-Tos on Net section. Click on the from-to in the From-Tos on Net section and click on Generate and select a from-to topology, e.g. Shortest, Daisy varieties or Starburst. • The From-To editor can only be used to create fromtos. To browse for existing from-tos, create a query in the Filter panel using the IsFromto keyword. • Note that all connection lines, other than those that have been defined as From-Tos on the currently selected net, will remained dimmed. Switch the panel back to Nets to restore the display of connection lines. Figure 7. The From-To Editor in the PCB panel 2.2.5 Split Plane editor • You can review and edit split planes in the PCB panel by selecting the Split Plane Editor from the drop-down list at the top of the panel. • Select the plane you want to display by clicking on the Plane name. The split planes and their nets on that power plane are listed. • Click on a split plane name in the Split Planes and Nets section to show the pads and vias on that split plane. • Double-click on a split plane name to edit the net associated with the split plane. • Right-click on a split plane name to select an option from the menu. Figure 8. Use the Split Plane Editor to display split planes PCB Design training module 4-7 2.2.6 Differential Pairs Editor • You can review and edit Differential Pairs in the PCB panel by selecting the Differential Pairs Editor from the drop-down list at the top of the panel. • Select the Differential Pair Class you want to display by clicking on the Differential Pair Class name. The Differential Pair Designators will then be listed. • Click on a Differential Pair name in the Differential Pair section to show the constituent nets of the pair, both positive and negative. • Double-click on a Differential Pair name to edit the nets associated with the Pair and view the options. • Right-click on any Differential Pair Class listing (Excepting the default class of All Differential Pairs) and the Object Class Explorer dialog will open allowing you to modify your Classes. Figure 9. Use the Differential Pairs Editor to display Differential Pairs. 2.2.7 Exercise – Browsing a PCB document In this exercise, you will examine the various ways to browse through a PCB document. 1. Open the document 4 Port Serial Interface.PcbDoc located in the \Altium Designer 6\Examples\Reference Designs\4 Port Serial Interface folder. 2. Choose the Fit Board view command. Try the other view control options in the View menu. 3. Use the MiniViewer to move around the board. 4. Browse each object type and observe how the display changes as you click in the different sections of the panel. As you do, try the Mask, Select and Zoom options. PCB Design training module 4-8 2.3 PCB Editor Preferences The Preferences dialog allows you to set up parameters relating to the PCB Editor workspace. This dialog is displayed using the Tools » Preferences menu command. Settings in this dialog are stored with the Altium Designer environment, so they remain the same when you change active PCB files. The options in each of the pages are described below. 2.3.1 General page Figure 10 General page of the PCB preferences Editing options Online DRC When checked, any design rule violations are flagged as they occur. The design rules are defined in the PCB Rules & Constraints Editor dialog (select the Design » Rules menu command). Snap to Center When checked, the cursor snaps to the centre when moving a free pad or via, snaps to the reference point of a component, or snaps to the vertex when moving a track segment. Smart Component Snap When enabled, cursor jumps to center of nearest component pad rather than the component reference. PCB Design training module 4-9 Double Click Runs Inspector When enabled, double-click opens the Inspector instead of the object’s traditional dialog. Remove Duplicates With this option enabled, a special pass is included when data is being prepared for output. This pass checks for and removes duplicate primitives from the output data. Protect Locked Objects When checked, locked objects cannot be moved. If they are part of a selection that is being moved, you will be asked to confirm the action. Confirm Selection Memory Clear Eight selection memories are available – click the button at the bottom of the workspace to display the Selection Memory controls (press F1 over the panel for details of the shortcuts for using the selection memory). The Selection Memories work just like a calculator — the selection state of objects can be stored, recalled and added to on storage or recall. Enable this option to display a warning dialog when the contents of a section are to be cleared. Click Clears Selection The selection behavior in Altium Designer is like all other Windows applications, i.e. when you click on an object, it is selected and when you click away from that object, it is deselected. If this option is disabled, clicking away from an object no longer deselects it. If this option is off, you use the Deselect options in the Edit menu. Shift+Click to Select Rather than simply clicking on an object to select it, you can configure Altium Designer to require that the SHIFT key must be depressed when clicking to select it. Press the Primitives button to choose which objects will require Shift+Click to select. Popular choices include rooms, polygons and components. Preserve Angle When Dragging Enable this option so that when the tracks are being dragged on the PCB document, the angles of these track segments are preserved, maintaining the routing quality. You can also create new segments by dragging the drag handles, while holding down the Alt key before performing the drag operation will revert to the previous behavior. The new drag method also has an avoid obstacle mode which is toggled with the Shift + R short cut. Smart Track Ends If this Smart Track Ends option is enabled the net analyzer will attempt to keep connection lines attached to the ends of the tracks. For example, if you start routing from a pad, and then stop the routing (leaving the track end in free space), the net analyzer will attach the connection line to the track end rather than the originating pad. Note: The connection line can be either as a solid or dotted line in this mode. A solid line denotes that there is no routing topology rule assigned, and the net analyzer simply connects the various sub nets at their nearest locations. A dotted connection line denotes that there is a routing topology rule for this net and the net analyzer attempts to obey this topology rule by drawing a partially routed connection. PCB Design training module 4 - 10 Other section Undo/Redo This sets the undo stack size, i.e. the number of undo/redos available. Note that the higher the number, the more memory required. For object intensive operations, like autorouting or copying and pasting the entire board, the memory usage can be significant. Rotation Step When an object that can be rotated is floating on the cursor, press the SPACEBAR to rotate it by this amount in an anti-clockwise direction. Hold the SHIFT key while pressing the SPACEBAR to rotate it in a clockwise direction. Cursor Type Set the cursor to a small or large 90-degree cross, or a small 45-degree cross. Component Drag This option determines how connected tracks are dealt with when moving a component. When Connected Tracks is selected, tracks drag with the component; otherwise, they do not. - If the Connected Tracks option for components is set, components cannot be rotated while being moved. Autopan options Style If this option is enabled, Autopan becomes activated when there is a crosshair on the cursor. There are six Autopan modes: • Re-Center — re-centers the display around the location where the cursor touched the window edge. It also holds the cursor position relative to its location on the board, bringing it back to the centre of the display. • Fixed Size Jump — pans across in steps defined by the Step Size. Hold the SHIFT key to pan in steps defined by the Shift Step Size. • Shift Accelerate — pans across in steps defined by the Step Size. Hold the SHIFT key to accelerate the panning up to the maximum step size, defined by the Shift Step Size. • Shift Decelerate — pans across in steps defined by the Shift Step Size. Hold the SHIFT key to decelerate the panning down to the minimum step size, defined by the Step Size. • Ballistic — pans at maximum speed. • Adaptive — pans at the rate set in the Speed field. Speed When Adaptive is enabled, the panning speed for Autopanning is set in mils/sec or pixels/sec. Step and Shift Step Size Some of the Autopan styles require step sizes. These options set the distances that define the autopanning step distance and the step distance when you hold down the SHIFT key while autopanning. The default distances are in mils or mms and the larger the number, the faster the panning speeds. Polygon Repour This has three options for determining whether a polygon repours when edited: • Never — no automatic repour. PCB Design training module 4 - 11 • Threshold — if selected, polygons with more than the Threshold Number of primitives will prompt to confirm repour, before performing the repour. • Always — polygon always repours. 2.3.2 Display page Figure 11 Display page of the PCB preferences Display options section Convert Special Strings When enabled, special strings that can be interpreted on screen are converted and displayed, rather than simply displaying the special string text. Regardless of this setting, all special strings are converted when output is generated, e.g. printed. Redraw Layers Forces a screen redraw as you toggle through layers with the current layer being redrawn last Transparent Layers Gives layer colors a ‘transparent’ nature by changing the color of an object that overlaps an object on another layer, allowing objects that would otherwise be hidden by an object on the current layer to be readily identified. The background color changes to black for easier viewing. PCB Design training module 4 - 12 Use Alpha Blending Toggle this option if your video card does not support Alpha Blending or if you suspect your Video Card Drivers are having difficulty using this graphic feature. Highlighting Options section Highlight in Full Completely highlights the selected object in the current selection color. With this option disabled, the selected object is outlined in the current selection color. Use Net Color for Highlight This option is used on power plane layers to shade the plane in the net color. Use Transparent Mode When Masking Turn this option on to enable transparent object behavior for masked objects. Show All Primitives in Highlighted Nets Enable this option to display all primitives in a highlighted net, even if layers that net objects are on are not currently enabled. Useful for a board with high layer count, requiring you to design with only a few layers enabled at a time. Apply Mask During Interactive Editing Use masking (fading of objects that are not of interest) during interactive editing. Apply Highlight During Interactive Editing Highlight, or brighten objects of interest during interactive editing. Show section The check boxes in this section perform the following when checked. Testpoints Displays testpoints Origin Marker Displays the Origin Marker Status Info Displays information about the object under the cursor in the status bar Draft Thresholds section Tracks Tracks of the width entered in the check box (or narrower) will be displayed as a single line; tracks of a greater width will be displayed as an outline (when tracks are displayed in Draft Mode). Strings The number entered in this field determines which strings are displayed as text and which are displayed as an outline box. Strings that are placed at or greater than the height entered in pixels (default 11) will be displayed as text; strings that are placed at a lesser value will be represented by an outline box. Plane Drawing section These options control the display of power planes. The first two options present the plane layers in the negative where objects on the layer represent no-copper. The Solid Net Colored option shades each region on the plane in a semi-transparent shade of the current net color. If this mode is selected and Single Layer Mode is enabled, pad and via plane connections are drawn in the positive. PCB Design training module 4 - 13 Layer Drawing Order button The PCB Editor allows you to control the order in which layers are re-drawn. Click on the Layer Drawing Order button to pop up the Layer Drawing Order dialog. The order that the layers appear in the list is the order in which they will re-draw. The layer at the top of the list is the layer that will appear on top of all other layers on the screen. 2.3.3 Board Insight Display page Figure 12 Board Insight Display page of the PCB preferences Pad and Via Display Options section Pad Nets Enable this option to show the Net name for all pads Pad Numbers Enable this option to show the pin numbers for all pads Via Nets Enable this option to show the Net name for all vias. Use Smart Display Color Enable this option for Altium Designer to control the font characteristics for the display of the pad and via details. If this option is disabled you can set the font characteristics below. PCB Design training module 4 - 14 • Font Color • Transparent Background 1. Enable this option to use the background ground color surrounding the pad/via details. Disable this option and set the Background Color. • Background Color Min/Max Font Size • The minimum font size to be used to display the Pad and Via details, regardless of the zoom level. This setting is not used if the Smart Display Color option is enabled. • The maximum font size to be used to display the Pad and Via details, regardless of the zoom level. This setting is not used if the Smart Display Color option is enabled. Font Name The font to be used to display the Pad and Via details. This setting is not used if the Smart Display Color option is enabled. Font Style The font style to be used to display the Pad and Via details. This setting is not used if the Smart Display Color option is enabled. Minimum Object Size The minimum size used to display the Pad and Via details, regardless of the zoom level. So at low levels of zoom you can still maintain visibility of the pad and via details. This setting is not used if the Smart Display Color option is enabled. Net Names on Tracks section Display Enable this option to control the display of the net name on tracks. You can choose from: • Do Not Display - the net name is not displayed on the track • Single and Centered - the net name is displayed once, in the center of the track • Repeated - the net name is displayed all along the track Single Layer Mode Options section Current Shows which Single Layer Mode option is currently in use. You can cycle through all available modes while in PCB by pressing the SHIFT+S hotkey. Available Select which Single Layer Modes to cycle through when pressing SHIFT+S in the PCB editor. • Hide Other Layers 2. Enable this option to include the Hide Other Layers as an available single layer mode option. The SHIFT+S keyboard shortcut cycles through the available layer modes. • Gray Scale Other Layers 3. Enable this option to include the Grey Scale Other Layers as an available single layer mode option. The SHIFT+S keyboard shortcut cycles through the available layer modes. • Monochrome Other Layers PCB Design training module 4 - 15 4. Enable this option to include the Monochrome Other Layers as an available single layer mode option. The SHIFT+S keyboard shortcut cycles through the available layer modes. Note: The available Single Layer Modes here are shared with and set the same for the Board Insight Lens although they maintain a separate setting for the current mode they are in. 2.3.4 Board Insight Modes page Figure 13 Board Insight Modes page of the PCB preferences Display Section Display Heads Up Information Enable this option to display context-sensitive information in your workspace. The information that is displayed can be controlled with the Browse Mode settings. Most of this information is already displayed in the status bar, however you can now raise your head up and look at this information in the same area that you are working. Use Background Color Enable this option so that the Heads Up information is displayed with its background transparent. Disable this options the Background Color setting is used. Insert Key Resets Heads Up Delta Origin Enable this option to reset the Delta Origin to the current mouse coordinates when the Insert Key is pressed. The distance horizontally and vertically the mouse is moved from the Delta Origin can PCB Design training module 4 - 16 be displayed in the Heads Up display. If this option is disabled then pressing Insert does not reset the Delta Origin. Mouse Click Resets Heads Up Delta Origin Enable this option to reset the Delta Origin to the current mouse coordinates. The distance horizontally and vertically the mouse is moved from the Delta Origin can be displayed in the Heads Up display. If this option is disabled then a mouse click does not reset the Delta Origin. Hover Mode Delay Set the time for the mouse cursor to be idle before information of the object hovering under the cursor is displayed. Heads Up Transparency Slide this bar to the right increases the level of transparency of the Heads Up display, making it less visible. Hover Transparency If you pause for a moment as you are moving the cursor, the Heads-Up display will switch to Hover mode. In Hover mode extra information is displayed, this can include a summary, available shortcuts, rule violations, net, component and primitive details. This setting determines the transparency of the Heads Up Display when it enters Hover Mode. Visual Display Modes Section Each Row within this section gives you the ability to enable or disable the information displayed in the various available Board Insight modes as well as the Font options for each type of information so it can be tailored to display in a way that you can quickly spot the information you are looking for within the panel. The Hover Preview and Heads Up Preview sections below give you the opportunity to ensure you have not set font or color options in such a way that you will not be able to clearly see the information in relation to various background colors at your current transparency level. PCB Design training module 4 - 17 2.3.5 Board Insight Lens page Figure 14 Board Insight Lens page of the PCB preferences Configuration section Visible Enable this option to activate the Board Insight Lens facility and you can see magnified objects in this lens facility from where the cursor is hovering on the PCB document. X/Y Size Click on the up or down arrow buttons to increment the X or Y coordinate by 10 units at a time to change the size of the Board Insight Lens. Or use the slider to the right to adjust these values Rectangular or Elliptical Radio Button Enable this option to have the board insight lens shaped as a rectangle or elliptical. You can change the size and the visibility of this insight lens. Behavior section Zoom Main Window to Lens When Routing Enable this option and the Insight Lens is not displayed when auto-routing. PCB Design training module 4 - 18 On Mouse Cursor Enable this option to have the Insight Lens move with the cursor. Disable this option and the Insight Lens position will be fixed location on the screen. Animate Zoom Enable this setting to adjust the zoom of the Insight lens as the zoom level of the main board is adjusted. Content section Zoom Click on the up or down arrow buttons to increment the zoom factor by 10 units at a time, or use the slider on the right, to change the size of the viewable contents of the PCB document captured by the Board Insight Lens. Single Layer Mode Shows which Single Layer Mode option is currently in use by the Board Insight Lens. You can cycle through all available modes while in the PCB editor by pressing the Hotkey assigned in the Hotkeys section of this dialog, by default this is CTRL+SHIFT+S. Note: The Board Insight Lens maintains its own separate Single Layer Mode apart from the PCB Editor, although they share the same Available Single Layer modes from the Board Insight Display section Hot Keys section This is a list of action hot keys configured for the Board Insight Lens facility. To map new hotkeys, while in PCB customize the commands found in ViewÆBoard Insight, by going to this menu and holding CTRL before clicking on the menu item to Customize it (Environment & Editor Basics, Section 6.) PCB Design training module 4 - 19 2.3.6 Interactive Routing page Figure 15. Interactive Routing page of the PCB preferences Interactive Routing Conflict Resolution section None This is one of the three interactive routing conflict resolutions that controls how the standard interactive router attempts to deal with obstacles during the routing process. Select this option to do nothing. The routing mode can be changed on the fly using the Shift R hot key during interactive routing. Stop at First Conflicting Object This is one of the three interactive routing conflict resolutions that controls how the standard interactive router attempts to deal with obstacles during the routing process. Select this option to avoid obstacles while routing. The routing mode can be changed on the fly using the Shift R hot key during interactive routing. Push Conflicting Objects This is one of the three interactive routing conflict resolutions that control how the standard interactive router attempts to deal with obstacles during the routing process. Select this option to push obstacles (these conflicting objects) while routing. The routing mode can be changed on the fly using the Shift R hot key during interactive routing. PCB Design training module 4 - 20 Plow Through Polygons Enable this option so you can route over polygons and then the polygons will be re-poured after the route is complete. The Polygon Repour general option in the General Preferences page must be enabled for the plow to work. Interactive Routing Options section Restrict to 90/45 This interactive routing mode determines the allowed directions and corner modes in which the manual routing is done. Enable this option to restrict to 90/45 degree angled tracks when you cycle through the modes during routing using the SHIFT+SPACEBAR keys. Auto Complete With this option enabled the Smart Interactive Router will try to complete the connection to the target with the look-ahead segments. Automatically Terminate Routing With this option enabled, when you complete a route by terminating to the target pad the interactive router will automatically terminate that route so you can begin routing from a new location without escaping out of your currently selected route. Automatically Remove Loops With this option enabled, loops that are created during manual routing are automatically removed. Note: Automatic Loop Removal can be disabled on an individual net to allow loops to be created on that specific net. Access the net properties to alter this setting. An example of when this would be necessary would be when a ground loop needs to be created. Smart Connection Pad Exits section Allow Diagonal When this option is not enabled, the router will attempt to exit pads in a clean 90 degree angle from the edge. Otherwise when the option is enabled, the pad exits are made diagonally by the smart connection router. This option is only available when using the smart connection router. Interactive Routing Width/Via Size Sources section Pickup Track Width From Existing Routes With this option enabled, if you begin a route from an existing track the width of that track will be used for your current route. Track Width Mode • User Choice – With this mode enabled the Width will be determined by the width selected by pressing Shift+W while routing. • Rule Minimum – With this mode enabled the design rule minimum width defined for the current net will be used. • Rule Preferred – With this mode enabled the design rule preferred width defined for the current net will be used. • Rule Maximum – With this mode enabled the design rule maximum width defined for the current net will be used. Note: You can cycle between the above modes while interactive routing by pressing the 3 key. PCB Design training module 4 - 21 Via Size Mode • User Choice – With this mode enabled the Via Size will be determined by the size set after pressing TAB while routing. • Rule Minimum – With this mode enabled the design rule minimum Via Size defined for the current net will be used. • Rule Preferred – With this mode enabled the design rule preferred Via Size defined for the current net will be used. • Rule Maximum – With this mode enabled the design rule maximum Via Size defined for the current net will be used. Favorite Interactive Routing Widths Click this button to define favorite interactive routing widths that can be re-used. To use these favorite width values during routing, the Shift W short cut will pop up the Chooser dialog which allows you to quickly choose a value from the list of routing widths. Smart Connection Routing Conflict Resolution section None This is one of the three smart connection routing conflict resolutions that will control how the smart connection router attempts to deal with obstacles during the routing process. Select this option to do nothing while smart connection routing. The routing mode can be changed on the fly using the Shift R hot key during smart connection routing. Stop at First Conflicting Object This is one of the three smart connection routing conflict resolutions that control how the smart connection router attempts to deal with obstacles during the routing process. Select this option to avoid obstacles while smart connection routing. The routing mode can be changed on the fly using the Shift R hot key during smart connection routing. Walkaround Conflicting Objects This is one of the three smart connection routing conflict resolutions that control how the smart connection router attempts to deal with obstacles during the routing process. Select this option to avoid obstacles while smart connection routing. The routing mode can be changed on the fly using the Shift R hot key during smart connection routing. Plow Through Polygons Enable this option so you can route over polygons using the smart connection routing and then the polygons will be re-poured after the route is complete. The Polygon Repour general option in the General Preferences page must be enabled for the plow to work. 2.3.7 Show/Hide page This dialog enables you to control which object types are displayed and how they are displayed. PCB Design training module 4 - 22 2.3.8 True Type Fonts page Figure 16 TrueType Fonts page of the PCB preferences TrueType Fonts Save/Load Options Section Embed TrueType fonts inside PCB documents. True Type fonts are the fonts installed on your computer. Enable this setting to save the true type fonts you have used in your PCB file. This will allow other machines which do not have this font to view the design as you have intended. Substitution font The selected font will be used in those cases a PCB file is opened which has true type fonts which are not installed in your computer. PCB Design training module 4 - 23 2.3.9 Mouse Wheel Configuration page Figure 17 Mouse Wheel Configuration page of the PCB preferences This is a list of mouse wheel configurations (a mouse that normally has a wheel between two mouse buttons) for various actions on a PCB document such as Ctrl key and mouse wheel to zoom in or out on the main PCB window. To modify the mouse wheel configuration, you can toggle the keyboard buttons as well as the wheel/wheel click for each action. 2.3.10 Defaults page This enables you to set the default properties for each primitive (object) type in the PCB Editor. If the Permanent option is not checked on the Defaults tab, the settings in the object’s properties dialog will change when you change the properties of an object during placement. 2.3.11 Exercises – Exploring the preferences This exercise looks at various display options in the PCB section of the Preferences dialog. 1. Open the document 4 Port Serial Interface.PcbDoc located in the \Altium Designer 6\Examples\Reference Designs\4 Port Serial Interface folder. 2. Choose the Display page in the Preferences and try the following steps. 3. Enable the Show Pad Nets and Show Pad Number options. 4. Check the Single Layer Mode, click on OK and change active layers by selecting the various layer tabs along the bottom of the PCB Design Window. Press the Shift+S shortcut keys to turn single layer mode off. 5. Choose the Show/Hide page in the PCB section of the of the Preferences dialog. 6. Observe the effect of selecting All Draft and clicking OK. Now try the All Final and All Hidden buttons to view different display modes. PCB Design training module 4 - 24 2.4 Board Options dialog The Board Options dialog allows you to set parameters relating to individual PCB documents. Select Design » Board Options from the menus to open the dialog. The settings in this dialog are saved with the PCB file. Figure 18. Set grid options in the Board Options dialog. Measurement Unit Sets the coordinate system to either metric or imperial. Snap X X value for the snap grid Snap Y Y value for the snap grid Component X X value for the component grid Component Y Y value for the component grid. Electrical Grid When the electrical grid is enabled and you are executing a command which supports the electrical grid and you move the cursor within the Grid Range value of an object assigned to a net, the cursor will jump to that object. Visible Grid Sets the size and style of the visible grids. Sheet Position The sheet is a calculated object, drawn to represent the printed page. The sheet size can either be defined by the Size and Location settings in this dialog, or it can be linked to the contents of mechanical layer(s). If it is linked to the contents of mechanical layer(s), you can use the Design » Board Shape » Auto-position Sheet command to recalculate it when the contents of the linked mechanical layers change. Typically, the linked mechanical layers would be used for drawing detail that is required on the printout. Another advantage of linking the sheet to mechanical layers is that both the sheet and the mechanical layers can be hidden by disabling the Display Sheet option. Designator Display The designator display can be either the logical designator shown on the schematic or the physical designator assigned when the design is compiled. Normally, these are the same except in a multi-channel design when the physical designator includes channel identifier information. PCB Design training module 4 - 25 2.5 Board Layers and Colors This dialog is used to set the display state and color of each layer in the PCB (L shortcut key). Figure 19 Board Layers and Colors dialog Signal Layers and Internal Planes These layers are added too and removed from the PCB in the Layer Stack Manager. Their color and display state is controlled in this dialog. Note: Press the accelerator key in brackets () next to the layer name to toggle that layers show property while in this dialog Mechanical Layers There are 16 mechanical layers, disable the Only Show Enabled option to display the entire set and enable a new mechanical layer for this PCB. Press F2 to edit the name of a mechanical layer. Layer Pairs Layer pairs are mechanical layers that have been associated to handle layer-specific component data. For example, if you have component footprints that require glue information, define this on a mechanical layer in the Library Editor, then pair this mechanical layer with another. When the footprint is flipped to the bottom of the board, the information on the first mechanical layer is automatically transferred to the paired mechanical layer. Color Sets The Default Color Set button sets the colors to the default settings with a pale yellow background. Default colors cannot be used if the Transparent Layers option (Display tab) is selected. The Classic Color Set button sets the colors to the traditional black background setting. PCB Design training module 4 - 26 Keep-Out Layer The keep out layer is a special layer. Objects placed on the keep out layer act as an obstacle or boundary to an object placed on any signal layer. The keep out layer is typically used to define regions such as the board routing and placement boundary, or areas of the board that must be kept free of components and routing. The keep out layer is discussed more in section 4. 2.6 The PCB coordinate system The PCB Editor has a coordinate system with the origin located in the bottom left hand corner of the workspace. This point has the coordinates of (0,0) and is known as the Absolute Origin. The workspace size is 100 inches by 100 inches. The reference point of the coordinate system can be re-defined at any time using the Edit » Origin » Set menu command and this sets what is known as the relative Origin. The coordinate readout in the status bar references this relative Origin. The Edit » Origin » Reset menu command sets the relative Origin back to the Absolute Origin. An Origin Marker shows the location of the relative Origin. This is displayed by checking the Display Origin Marker check box in the Display tab of the Preferences dialog. The coordinate system units can be either metric or imperial. The View » Toggle Units menu command or the Q shortcut key toggles the co-ordinate system between metric and imperial. 2.7 Grids 2.7.1 Snap Grid The Snap Grid ensures accurate movement and placement of objects. The Snap Grid causes the coordinates of a mouse click to snap to the nearest snap grid point. The Snap Grid has X and Y values and is set in the Board Options dialog. Press G or CTRL+G shortcuts to change the grid. 2.7.2 Component Grid The Component Grid is similar to the Snap Grid except that it is only active when placing or moving components. The Component Grid has X and Y values and is set in the Board Options dialog. 2.7.3 Visible Grid The Visible Grids either display as lines or dots when turned on. They are independent of the Snap Grid. The PCB Editor has two visual grids that you can set in the Board Options dialog and display independently. 2.7.4 Electrical Grid The Electrical Grid can be thought of as a range of attraction. During interactive editing the cursor will jump to any existing electrical object when the cursor falls within the range of the electrical grid setting. When the Electrical Grid overrides the Snap Grid an octagon displays on the cursor when the hot-spot (or electrical centre-point) is under the cursor. When you see that octagon, you know that the cursor is precisely located on the object it has jumped to. The Electrical Grid is set and turned on or off in the Board Options dialog. You can also toggle the Electrical Grid on and off using the SHIFT+E shortcut, or disable it temporarily during an edit-type operation (such as interactive routing) by holding down the CTRL key. PCB Design training module 4 - 27 Shortcut keys for setup options Pressing the O shortcut key displays a menu that provides a quick way of accessing the setup dialogs. Combine this shortcut with the underlined letter in the menu options, e.g. OB to display the board options. The options in this menu are described below. Option Board Options Board Layers Layer Stack Manager Classes Preferences Display Show/Hide Defaults Dialog displayed Board Options dialog Board Layers and Colors dialog (can also use the L shortcut) Layer Stack Manager dialog Object Classes dialog Preferences dialog (Tools » Preferences) Display tab of Preferences dialog Show/Hide tab of Preferences dialog Defaults tab of Preferences dialog 2.7.5 Exercise – Exploring document and environment options Use this exercise to experiment with document and environment options. 1. Open the document 4 Port Serial Interface.PcbDoc located in the \Altium Designer 6\Examples\Reference Designs\4 Port Serial Interface folder. 2. Experiment with the Used On, All On and All Off buttons and with turning on and off individual layers in the Board Layers & Colors dialog. 3. Observe the display change when the Display Sheet option is toggled in the Board Options dialog. 4. Experiment with changing the colors of various layers. 5. Now, experiment with changing the various grid settings to see changes in the grid display and object movement in the Board Options dialog. 6. In the Defaults tab of the Preferences dialog, select Component and click on the Edit Values button. In the Comment section of the Component dialog, make sure the Hide option is enabled. Also check the Autoposition option is set to Left-Above in the Designator section. PCB Design training module 4 - 28 3. Browsing footprint libraries PCB libraries are accessed through the same panel as schematic libraries – the Libraries panel. • Enable the footprint display mode by clicking the button at the top of the panel and enabling the Footprints checkbox. • Select a library name in the drop down list to choose it and display all the footprints in that library. This can be either an integrated library or a footprint library. • Footprint libraries that are in the active project, currently installed or found down the search path are available in the panel. • Click the Libraries button at the top panel to install a footprint library. • Library search paths are defined in the Search Path tab of the Options for Project dialog. • To Search for a footprint, first enable the Footprints mode, then click the Search button. • Click on a footprint name in the list to display that footprint in the MiniViewer. • Click on the Place button to place the chosen footprint in the workspace, or double-click on the footprint name. PCB Design training module 4 - 29 4. Creating a new PCB This section looks at how to create a new PCB using the Board Wizard. 4.1 Creating the Blank PCB There are three ways to create a new PCB: • Select File » New » PCB from the menus. This creates an empty PCB workspace, with a 6in by 4in board shape. • In the New from Template region of the Files panel, select PCB Templates. This opens the Choose Existing Document dialog where you can select from an array of template files. The template name indicates the sheet size and each template file also includes a default board shape, typically 6in by 4in. • Using the Board Wizard. This is launched from the bottom of the Files panel. The Wizard can be used to select from a pre-defined list of industry standard board shapes or generate a simple board outline. Figure 20. A new PCB created by using the New from Template option. 4.2 Defining a sheet template The PCB sheet template is simply a display feature that is linked to mechanical layers in the PCB design. In the Board Layers and Colors dialog there is a checkbox next to each mechanical layer, titled Linked to Sheet. Any layer with this enabled is used by the software to calculate the size of the white sheet region. • Define a template on a mechanical layer using the standard design objects, enable the Linked to Sheet checkbox, and enable the display of the sheet in the Board Options dialog. If you PCB Design training module 4 - 30 change the shape or size of the template, select Design » Board Shape » Auto Position Sheet from the menus to automatically resize the white sheet region to just enclose all objects on the linked mechanical layers. • There are a number of pre-defined PCB sheet templates in the \Altium Designer 6\Templates folder, open the required size and copy the contents of Mechanical 16 into your own PCB to create a sheet template. 4.3 Defining the Board Shape, and Placement / Routing Boundary Once the blank board has been created the next step is to define the shape of the board (typically this is the final finished board shape), and the routing and placement boundary. • The board shape can be defined manually using the commands in the Board Shape submenu, or by getting the software to define it automatically from a set of selected objects. Defining it from selected objects is typically done when you have imported a board shape definition from another tool, such as a mechanical CAD package. • The placement and routing boundary is defined by placing a continuous barrier on the Keep out layer (described later in section 6.2). Any object placed on the keep out layer is considered an obstacle to objects on all the signal layers. Typically the keep out boundary is defined along, or slightly in from the board outline, taking into consideration any mechanical clearance requirements, such as brackets, card guides, and so on. Figure 21. Board shape (black region) and keep out boundary for the 4 Port Serial Interface example PCB. The row of small fills is there to prevent routing between the contacts of the edge connector. PCB Design training module 4 - 31 4.4 Exercise – Creating a board outline & placement / routing boundary This exercise creates a new board outline for the training example. 1. Display the Files panel (View » Workspace Panels » Files) and click on the PCB Templates option in the New from template section. 2. Choose A4.pcbdoc in the Choose Existing Document dialog. The new blank PCB will open, as shown in Figure 20, where the black region on the sheet represents the board shape. We will now redefine it based on data in a DXF mechanical file. 3. Select File » Import to display the Import File dialog. 4. Set the Files of Type option to AutoCAD (*.DXF, *.DWG) 5. Browse and locate the file \Altium Designer 6\Examples\Training\Temperature Sensor\Outline.DXF and open it. Figure 22. Import the board shape from a DXF file. 6. When the Import from AutoCAD dialog appears, set the following: 7. Set the Scale to inch (the imported shape should be approximately 2021mil x 2755mil) 8. In the Layer Mapping, map the source DXF layer to mechanical layer 4 9. Set the Insertion Point to something sensible, for example X=1000, Y=1000. The value is not crucial, as you will move it after importing. 10. leave other options at their defaults PCB Design training module 4 - 32 11. When the OK button is clicked, four track segments, forming a rectangle, will appear on Mechanical layer 4. 12. We will now redefine the board shape to match this shape. Select the four track segments (drag a rectangle around them). 13. Select Design » Board Shape » Define from selected objects. The black board shape will redefine to match the imported tracks. 14. To move the new board shape to the centre of the sheet, drag a rectangle to select the board shape and the mechanical layer tracks, press the M key to display the Move submenu and select Move Selection. Click somewhere on the selection to define the point where it will be held, then move the board outline and mechanical layer tracks approximately to the centre of the sheet, and click to place them. - Note: To ensure that objects remain on your preferred working grid it is generally better to select a meaningful point when moving or copying & pasting objects, in this case the point at the bottom left of the rectangle where the vertical and horizontal tracks meet would be suitable. If you want to set your reference point based on an object, make the layer that the object is on the active layer – that way the electrical grid will pull the cursor to a meaningful point on the object. 15. Change the Visible grid 2 to 100 mils in the Board Options dialog. 16. To define the placement / routing boundary first deselect all. The easiest way to select all the tracks on Mechanical layer 4 is to use the select on current layer command. To do this, make the Mechanical layer the active layer (use the layer tabs at the bottom of the PCB workspace), press S for select, then Y to select all on the current layer. 17. Choose Edit » Copy from the menus, choosing an appropriate reference point to hold the selection by when prompted (such as one of the corners). 18. Make the Keep out layer the current layer. If the Keep out layer is not currently enabled, press L to display the Board Layers and Colors dialog and enable it. 19. You are now going to paste the selection onto the current layer (the Keep out layer). To do this select Edit » Paste Special from the menus, enable the Paste on Current Layer option in the Paste Special dialog, and click OK to return to the workspace where you can paste the tracks onto the keep out layer. 20. Save the new PCB as \Altium Designer 6\Examples\Training\Temperature Sensor\Temperature Sensor.PcbDoc. 21. Check in the Projects panel If the board is part of the Temperature Sensor project. If it is not, click and drag the board, dropping it on the project name. 22. Right-click on the project name and choose Save Project from the floating menu. PCB Design training module 4 - 33 5. Transferring design information to the PCB Rather than using an intermediate netlist file to transfer design changes from the schematic to the PCB, Altium Designer has a powerful design synchronization feature. 5.1 Design synchronization The core features of the synchroniser are: • Difference engine — compares the schematic project to the PCB. The difference engine can compare the component and connective information between almost all kinds of documents. It can compare a schematic project to a PCB, one PCB to another PCB, a netlist to a PCB, a netlist to a netlist, and so on. The differences found by the difference engine are listed in the difference dialog. • Difference dialog –lists all differences detected between the compared documents. You can then define which document should be updated to synchronize the documents. This approach PCB Design training module 4 - 34 allows you to make changes in both directions in a single update process, giving your bidirectional synchronization. Right-click in the dialog for direction options. • Engineering Change Order dialog – Once the direction of update for the differences has been defined, a list of engineering change orders is generated. A report of these can be generated. There are two approaches to performing an update: • Select Design » Update to push all changes from schematic to PCB (or PCB to schematic). If you choose this option, you have indicated the direction to use, so you go straight to the ECO dialog. • Select Project » Show Differences if you need selective control of the direction. You also use this option if you wish to compare any other document kinds, for example, to compare a netlist to a PCB (also referred to as loading a netlist into a PCB). 5.2 Resolving synchronization errors Most problems with synchronizing a design generally fall into two categories: 1. Missing component footprints. This occurs when: - A footprint is missing from the component information in the schematic. - You have forgotten to add the required PCB libraries to the currently available libraries. - The footprint in the schematic does not match any PCB library component. 2. Footprint pin numbers not matched to schematic pin numbers. Altium Designer supports userdefinable pin-to-pad mapping, the default behavior is to expect the same number/letter on both sides. Pin-to-pad mapping is defined in the PCB Model dialog (edit the schematic symbol, select the footprint in the Model region of the dialog, and click Edit). To resolve errors, perform a Show Differences, then in the Differences dialog click the Explore Differences button. The Differences panel will appear – as well as information on what the problem is. This panel lists the objects in question on both the schematic and PCB. Click on an object to display it. Note: If there are large scale net connectivity changes it can be easier to clear the netlist in the PCB editor, the synchronisation process will reload them all. You will then need to reapply the net information to any routing, to do this use the Update Free Primitives from Component Pads command (Design » Netlist). PCB Design training module 4 - 35 5.3 Design transfer using a netlist For most situations, the Synchronizer has superseded netlist loading. In cases where the PCB is being designed from a schematic drawn on another EDA vendor’s schematic editor, a netlist can be used. Using the difference engine, the component and connectivity information in the netlist can be compared to the PCB. Using a netlist is not as powerful as direct synchronization since during direct synchronization components on both the schematic and PCB is issued with a unique ID (UID). By using UIDs, the designators are not required as the synchronization link and can be changed at will on both sides. 5.3.1 Loading a netlist To load a netlist: • Select the Project » Show Differences menu command. This displays the Choose Documents to Compare dialog. • Enable the Advanced check box, as shown in Error! Reference source not found.4. Figure 23. Advanced mode chosen in the Choose Documents to Compare dialog • Select the required Netlist on one side and the PCB on the other. The Netlist must either be open in Altium Designer or included in the Project. • When you click OK, the Confirm dialog will indicate that it is unable to match using UIDs. Click Yes to proceed using designators to match by. • The Difference dialog will appear from where the process is the same as direct synchronization. PCB Design training module 4 - 36 5.4 Exercise – Transferring the design In this exercise, you will transfer the design data from the schematic into the new PCB that you have created. This means that all required footprints must be present in available libraries. Keep these points in mind: • Footprints that are in your project PcbLib are automatically available • For components placed from an integrated library, such as the PIC Microcontroller, the default state is to only look for the footprint in that integrated library, so it must be available during design transfer. To transfer the design: 1. In the Libraries panel, click the button to open the Available Libraries dialog. This dialog shows all libraries that are currently available to you. 2. Confirm that the Temperature Sensor.PcbLib is listed in the Projects tab. 3. In the Installed tab, confirm that the following libraries are installed: • Microchip Microcontroller 8-Bit PIC16 2.IntLib • ON Semi Power Mgt Voltage Regulator.IntLib. • Chip Resistor - 2 Contacts.PcbLib (for the 0805 footprint, the library is in the \Library\PCB sub-folder) 4. The 2 default libraries must also be installed, Miscellaneous Devices.IntLib and Miscellaneous Connectors.IntLib. If these have been uninstalled, they can be found in the root of the \Altium Designer 6\Library folder. 5. Select Design » Import Changes from Temperature Sensor.PrjPCB from the PCB editor menus. The ECO dialog displays, listing all the changes that must be made to the PCB so that it matches the schematic. Note that you do not need to open the schematic sheets, this is handled automatically. 6. Scroll down through the list of changes, they should include adding 20 components, 22 nets, 5 component classes, 1 net class and 3 design rules. Click on Validate Changes to check the changes are valid. 7. Click on Execute Changes to transfer the design data. Close the ECO dialog. 8. The components will be placed on the new PCB, positioned to the right of the board outline. 9. Save the board. Note: If you did not complete the exercises during the Environment & Editor Basics, Creating Components or the Schematic Capture sessions, you can copy the following project and schematic documents (located in the Training\Backup folder) to the Temperature Sensor folder and then complete this exercise: - Temperature Sensor.PRJPCB - Temperature Sensor.SchDoc - MCU.SchDoc - Sensor.SchDoc PCB Design training module 4 - 37 6. Setting up the PCB layers 6.1 Enabling Layers The PCB Editor has a concept of design layers to represent the various physical layers created to fabricate a printed circuit board. When placing objects using the PCB Editor, you need to consider which layer they are to be placed on. Objects are placed on the current layer, shown as the active layer tab at the bottom of the PCB workspace. • Electrical layers are added in the Layer Stack Manager dialog (Design » Layer Stack Manager). Figure 24. Define the required electrical layers in the Layer Stack Manager dialog. • Layer display and the control of other non-electrical layers are done in the Board Layers and Colors dialog (Design » Board Layers & Colors). Figure 25. Control the display of layers in the Board Layers and Colors dialog. PCB Design training module 4 - 38 • The current layer (the layer you are placing on) is set by any of the following: 1. Clicking on the appropriate Layer tab at the bottom of the workspace, 2. Pressing the * key to toggle to the next copper layer, 3. Pressing the + or – keys on the numeric pad to move up or down to the next layer. 6.2 Layer definitions Each of the PCB Editor layers is described below. Signal Layers There are 32 signal layers that can be used for track placement. Anything placed on these layers will be plotted as solid (copper) areas on the PCB. As well as tracks, other objects (e.g. fills, text, polygons, etc.) can be placed on these layers. The signal layers are named as follows: Top Layer Top signal layer MidLayer1 to MidLayer30 Inner signal layers Bottom Layer Bottom signal layer Signal layer names are user-definable. Internal Planes Sixteen layers (named Internal Plane 1–16) are available for use as power planes. Nets can be assigned to these layers and multi-layer pads and vias automatically connect to these planes. Plane layers can be split into any number of regions, with each region being assigned to a different net. Nested split planes are supported. Internal Plane layer names are user-definable. Internal planes are designed and output in the negative, objects that are placed on the plane define regions of no copper. Silkscreen layers Top and Bottom Overlay (silkscreen) layers are typically used to display component outlines and component text (designator and comment fields that are part of the component description). Mechanical layers Sixteen mechanical drawing layers are provided for fabrication and assembly details, such as dimensions, alignment targets, annotation or other details. Mechanical layer items can be automatically added to other layers when printing or plotting artwork. Mechanical layer names are user-definable. Mechanical layers can also be paired; use this when creating library components that require side-of-board layer-related information, such as glue dots. Solder Mask Top and bottom Solder Mask layers are provided for creating the artwork used to make the solder masks. These automatically generated layers are used to create masks for soldering, usually covering everything except component pins and vias. You can control the expansions for these masks when printing/plotting by including a Solder Mask Expansion rule, or the manual override feature in the pad/via dialogs. Refer to the Design Rules section for more information on the Solder Mask Expansion rule. User-defined openings in the mask can also be created by placing design objects directly on the mask layer. These layers are designed in the negative, the visible objects become openings in the mask. Paste Masks Top and bottom Paste Mask layers are provided to generate the artwork which is used to manufacture stencils to deposit solder paste onto surface mount pads on PCBs with surface mount devices (SMDs). The size of the paste deposit is controlled by Paste Mask Expansion rule, PCB Design training module 4 - 39 refer to the Design Rules section for further information. It can also be defined using the manual override in the pad/via dialog, or by placing objects manually on the paste mask layer. Drill Drawing Coded plots of board hole locations are typically used to create a drilling drawing that shows a unique symbol for each hole size at each hole location. Individual layer pair plots are provided when blind/buried vias are specified. Three symbol styles are available: coded symbol; alphabetical codes (A, B, C etc.) or the assigned size. Drill Guide A drill guide plots all holes in the layout. Drill guides are sometimes called pad masters. Individual layer pair plots are provided when blind/buried vias are specified. These plots include all pads and vias with holes greater than zero (0) size. Keep Out layer This layer is used to define the regions where components and routes can validly be placed. For example, the board boundary can be defined by placing a perimeter of tracks and arcs, defining the region within which all components and tracks must be placed. No-go areas for components and tracks can be created inside this boundary by blocking off regions with tracks, arcs and fills. Keepouts apply to all copper layers. The basic rule is that components cannot be placed over an object on the Keep Out layer and routes cannot cross an object on the Keep Out layer. Note that there are also layer-specific keepouts, each standard design object has a keepout attribute, and when this is enabled the object behaves as a layer-specific keepout and is automatically excluded from Gerber and ODB++ output generation. Multi-layer Objects placed on this layer will appear on all copper layers. This is typically used for throughhole pads and vias, but other objects can be placed on this layer. System section The options described below cannot have objects placed on them but they are turned on or off in the System Colors section of the Board Layers & Colors dialog. DRC Errors This option controls the display of the Design Rule Check (DRC) error marker. Connections This option controls the display of the connection lines. The PCB Editor displays connection lines wherever it locates part of a net that is unrouted. Pad and Via Holes Controls the display of pad and via holes. To be able to distinguish pads from vias in draft mode, pad holes are outlined in the current Pad Holes color. Visible Grids Controls the display of the two visible grids. PCB Design training module 4 - 40 6.2.1 Exercise – Configuring the layer display To confirm that the required layers are displayed: 1. Press the L shortcut key to display the Board Layers and Colors dialog. 2. Click the Used On button, to display all layers that have objects on them. 3. Confirm that the Connections and From Tos check box is enabled. 4. Note that mechanical layer 16 is linked to the sheet, this layer contains all the objects used to create the sheet template. 6.3 Defining the Electrical Layer Stackup The number and order of electrical layers is defined in the Layer Stack Manager dialog. Figure 26 Layer Stack Manager dialog The Layer Stack Manager allows you to visualize the ‘stack up’ of your PCB, i.e. the relationship between copper, substrate and Prepreg. A picture of your layer stack can be copied to the Windows clipboard and pasted into project documentation by right-clicking and selecting Copy to Clipboard. 6.3.1 Adding layers Adding a Signal or Plane layer Use the buttons on the right to add signal and plane layers to the board. The new layer is added below the layer selected in the dialog (unless the selected layer is the Bottom Layer). You can also right-click to add new layers. Typically PCBs are fabricated from an even number of layers; these can be any mix of signal and plane layers. Double-click on the layer name to define the layer name, the copper thickness and assign the net name for plane layers. Adding Insulation layers As additional layers are added to the PCB, insulation layers are automatically added. The insulation layer can be either Core or Prepreg and this is determined by the Stack Up style setting. 6.3.2 Working with layers Editing layer properties Double click on a layer name to edit the layer properties, including the name and the physical properties. PCB Design training module 4 - 41 Deleting a layer To delete a layer, click on the name text of an existing layer and then click on the Delete button, or right-click and choose Delete from the right-click menu. Editing the Stack Up order To change the order in which layers are defined in your PCB, click on the name of the layer and click on the Move Up or Move Down buttons, or right-click and choose Move Up or Move Down. Editing the Stack Up style The Stack Up style defines the order in which the PCB substrate, copper and prepreg insulation layers are fabricated as well as the finish on the PCB. The style is selected in drop down list in the top right corner of the Layer Stack Manager. The choices are: • Layer Pairs • Internal Layer Pairs • Build Up. The board finish is defined by selecting the buttons next to the Top and Bottom Dielectric check boxes. Click on these to set the material, thickness and dielectric constant for the finish. 6.3.3 Where the physical properties are used The physical properties that are defined in the different layer dialogs, including insulation type, thickness and dielectric constant, and the copper thickness, is used by the signal integrity analysis feature. 6.3.4 Drill pairs The term drill pairs refers to the two layers that a drilling operation starts from and finishes at. By default, one Top-Bottom drill pair is defined. If blind or buried vias are to be used on your PCB, layer pairs must be defined for these. Click on the Drill Pairs button in the Layer Stack Manager to display the Drill Pair Manager. Figure 27 Define the drill pairs if the board uses blind/buried vias PCB Design training module 4 - 42 6.4 Defining Mechanical layers Mechanical layers are added to the PCB workspace in the Board Layers and Colors dialog. Before a Mechanical layer can be used, it must be enabled. • To enable a new layer first disable the Only show enabled mechanical layers check box. This will result in all layers being listed. Enable the new layer, then turn the Only show enabled mechanical layers on again. • To edit a mechanical layer name, click to select the name and press F2 to edit it. Figure 28. Setting up Mechanical Layers in the Board Layers & Colors dialog. • The Show check box allows you to control the display of a mechanical layer. • When checked, the Display In Single Layer Mode check box causes that layer to be displayed when Single Layer Mode is invoked (SHIFT+S). • Check the Linked to Sheet check box to relate a mechanical layer to the white sheet object. Related mechanical layers are then hidden when the Display Sheet option is disabled (Board Options dialog). They are also used to determine the extents of the sheet when the Autoposition sheet option is chosen in the Board Shape sub-menu. 6.5 Internal power planes The PCB Editor allows for up to sixteen power planes. These planes are defined in the negative, so that objects placed become regions of no copper. 6.5.1 Defining an internal power plane • An internal power plane is added, named and assigned to a net using the Layer Stack Manager. When a net has been assigned to an internal plane layer, pins in that net automatically connect to that plane layer using thermal relief connections. • Double-click on the plane in the Layer Stack Manager, or in the workspace to assign the net. The PCB Editor automatically connects pins that belong to the power plane net and isolates all other pins from the plane. • The style of plane connections is defined in the Power Plane Connect Style design rule. Nets that are not connected to the plane are isolated from it by a clearance that is defined in the Power Plane Clearance rule. • The pullback, or region of no-copper required around the edge of the PCB, is defined in the Edit Layer dialog. Double-click on the plane in the Layer Stack Manager to display this dialog. PCB Design training module 4 - 43 6.5.2 Defining a split power plane • Internal power planes can be split and shared amongst multiple nets. • A plane is split by placing objects (typically lines) to divide it into separate regions (select Place » Line). As soon as you stop placing lines on a plane. the layer is analyzed and each separate split region detected. • The width of the placed lines defines the clearance between the split regions. Press the TAB key during line placement to change this width. • Double-click on a split region to assign it to a net. Alternatively, set the display mode of the PCB panel to Split Plane Editor. • Splits can be created completely within another split region. Figure 29. Split planes on an Internal plane layer with the Split Plane dialog showing the net assignment for the large split region (Peak Detector With Banking.PcbDoc). 6.5.3 Re-defining a split plane A split plane is defined by the set of objects that make up its boundary. Move and modify these to redefine the split plane. 6.5.4 Deleting a split plane Delete the split boundary lines to delete a split plane. PCB Design training module 4 - 44 6.6 Exercise – Setting up layers 1. Set up the layers in the Layer Stack Manager. Select layer names, right-click and set the properties, i.e. names and copper thickness. Note that you can use the buttons to add and delete layers and move them up and down in the stack. 2. Open the Board Layers and Colors dialog and select the layers you need to show in the design window, e.g. Top and Bottom layers, Keep-Out Layer, Drill Drawing, Multi Layer and Top Overlay. 3. Show and enable Mechanical layers 1, 4 and 16. Make sure the Only Show enabled mechanical layers are deselected first to show all mechanical layers available. Then turn this option on again when you have set up the layers you wish to use. Link Mechanical 16 to the sheet so that the title block of the template will appear on this layer. PCB Design training module 4 - 45 7. Design rules and design rule checking In Altium Designer, design rules are used to define the requirements of your design. These rules cover every aspect of the design – from routing widths, clearances, plane connection styles, routing via styles, and so on. Rules can be monitored as you work and you can also run a batch test at any time and product a DRC report. Altium Designer design rules are not attributes of the objects; they are defined independently of the objects. Each rule has a scope that defines which objects it must target. Rules are applied in a hierarchical fashion, for example, there is a clearance rule for the entire board, then perhaps a clearance rule for a class of nets, then perhaps another for one of the nets in that class. Using the rule priority and the scope, the PCB Editor can determine which rule applies to each object in the design. This section describes how design rules are defined and how to check for design rule violations. 7.1 Adding design rules Design rules are defined in the PCB Rules and Constraints Editor dialog that is displayed by selecting Design » Rules. Figure 30. PCB Rules and Constraints Editor dialog. To set up a design rule: 1. Click on the to expand the required rule category in the tree on the left. 2. Click on the next to the rule kind to display the rules of that kind that have been defined. Notice how in Figure 30 the tree is expanded to show the four Width rules. 3. Click on a specific rule to display the properties of that rule. 4. Right-click on a rule kind to add a new rule of that kind. PCB Design training module 4 - 46 • You can use the PCB panel to see the objects targeted by a rule. To do this, set the panel display mode to Rules, then click on a rule in the list. • Alternatively, right-click on an object in the workspace and select Applicable Rules to work out what rules are being applied to an object. 7.2 Design rules concepts To effectively apply the design rules, the concepts of rule type, object set, query and priority need to be understood. 7.2.1 Rule type There are two types of design rules – unary and binary. Unary design rules These apply to one object, or each object in a set of objects. For example, Width Constraint. Binary design rules These apply between any object in the first set to any object in the second set. Binary rules have two object set sections that must be configured. An example of a binary rule is the Clearance rule – it defines the clearance required between any copper object in the first set and any copper object in the second set, as identified by the two rule queries. 7.2.2 Object set This refers to the group of objects that the rule applies to. The scope of the object set is determined by the rule Query. Figure 31. The scope of the rule defines the objects it targets. This rule targets the 3V3 net. PCB Design training module 4 - 47 7.2.3 Rule Query The Query is a description of the objects that this rule applies to. The Query can be typed in directly, it can be constructed automatically using the controls on the left of the Full Query edit field, or it can be constructed using the Query Builder. For more information on queries, refer to the article, An Insiders Guide to the Query Language. 7.2.4 Query errors Figure 32. Use the Query Builder to construct the rule query. If you are typing the query in and you make a mistake, for example, you leave off a bracket, a message will appear warning that there are errors when you attempt to close the Rules dialog. It is important to resolve these errors, as if you do not, the on-line DRC can become very slow. Rules that have a query error have their name displayed in red in the tree on the left of the dialog. 7.2.5 Setting the rule priority The priority, or order that the rules are tested to determine the applicable rule, is user-defined. When a new rule is added it is automatically set to the highest priority for rules of that kind. It is essential that the priority is set appropriately for them to be applied correctly. Figure 33 After adding a rule, make sure that the priority is appropriate In Figure 33 a routing via style rule for the bus D[0..7] has been added (RoutingVias_DBus). Note that it has a rule priority of 1 (the highest priority). If it had a priority lower than the RoutingVias rule, which has a scope of All, it would never be applied. PCB Design training module 4 - 48 7.3 How rules are checked Design rules are checked by the Design Rule Checker (DRC) either online as you work or as a report (batch). The report option is usually run as a final verification check when the board is completed. Refer to 7.8.1 Design Rules Check report for more information on Batch DRC. 7.3.1 Online DRC If the Online DRC option is turned on, all DRC violations are marked as you create them. This is especially helpful when manually routing to immediately highlight clearance, width and parallel segment violations. Checking the Online DRC check box in the General page of the Preferences dialog (Tools » Preferences) turns on the Online DRC. Each rule is then enabled for online and batch DRC checking in the Online tab of the Design Rule Checker dialog shown in Figure 34. This dialog is displayed by selecting the Tools » Design Rule Check menu command. Enable each rule that you want to have automatically monitored as you are working. The DRC errors display in the color set in the Board Layers and Colors dialog when the Show checkbox is enabled. Figure 34. DRC Report Options in the Design Rule Checker dialog. PCB Design training module 4 - 49 7.4 Where rules apply 7.4.1 Routing rules Rule Class Manual Route Clearance Constraint Y Routing Corners Routing Layers Routing Priority Routing Topology Routing Via Style Y SMD Neckdown Constraint SMD To Corner Constraint SMD To Plane Constraint Width Constraint Y Auto Route Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Online DRC Y Batch DRC Other Y Place Polygon Specctra DSN export Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 7.4.2 Manufacturing rules Rule Class Acute Angle Constraint Hole Size Constraint Layer Pairs Minimum Annular Ring Paste Mask Exp Polygon Connect Style Power Plane Clearance Power Plane Connect Style Solder Mask Exp Testpoint Style Testpoint Usage Auto Route Online DRC Y Y Y Y Y Y Batch DRC Y Y Y Y Output Other Generation Manual route Y Place Polygon Y Internal Planes Y Internal Planes Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Find Testpoint Y Find Testpoint PCB Design training module 4 - 50 7.4.3 High Speed rules Rule Class Daisy Chain Stub Length Length Constraint Matched Length Nets Auto Route Online DRC Y Y Y Maximum Via Count Y Parallel Segment Y Vias Under SMD Y 7.4.4 Placement rules Batch DRC Y Y Y Y Y Y Output Other Generation Equalize Net Lengths command Rule Class Component Clearance Constraint Component Orientation Nets To Ignore Permitted Layers Room Definition Auto Route Online DRC Y Batch DRC Y Output Generation Other Cluster Auto Placer Y Y Cluster Auto Placer Cluster Auto Placer Cluster Auto Placer Arrange within room 7.4.5 Signal Integrity rules All Signal Integrity rules apply only to Signal Integrity Analysis and Batch DRC. 7.4.6 Other design rules Rule Class Short Circuit Constraint Unconnected pin Constraint Unrouted Net Constraint Auto Route Online DRC Y Y Y Batch DRC Y Output Other Generation Y PCB Design training module 4 - 51 7.5 Object classes 7.5.1 Defining classes Classes are provided to enable various commands to operate on sub-sets of object types, e.g. a group of components or a group of nets. Any object of a particular type can belong to more than one class. Commands will operate on a class if a design rule for that class has been defined. Classes can be created for: • nets • components • pads • from-tos • layers. To create an object class, select Design » Classes. This displays the Object Class Explorer dialog shown in Figure 35 below. Click on the class type of the class you want to create, right-click and select Add Class. A new class will appear in the list with the default name of New Class. Click on the class name to edit the class and add the members, right-click on the class name and select Rename Class to rename it. Note that there are transfer buttons for selected objects; often it is easier to select the objects in the workspace first, then use these transfer selected buttons to build the class. Figure 35. Use the Object Class Explorer to create and manage Object Classes. Objects in the PCB document can be selected by class in the PCB panel. PCB Design training module 4 - 52 7.5.2 Component Class Generator The Edit Component Class dialog includes the Class Generator button, which, when clicked, displays the Component Class Generator dialog. This allows you to quickly create a component class containing components based on selected properties. 7.6 From-tos The PCB Editor allows commands to operate on a particular pin-to-pin connection in a net, in a different manner to the rest of the net. A specific pin-to-pin connection is defined as a from-to. Commands will operate on a from-to if a design rule for that from-to has been defined. From-tos are created using the From-To Editor. Select From-To Editor in the PCB panel to display this editor. The top region of the panel lists all nets in the design. Click on a net to list that nets nodes in the Nodes on Net region of the panel. When you click on any two nodes in the net (use CTRL+Click to multi-select), the Add From To button will be enabled. When this is clicked, the new from-to will appear in the From-Tos on Net section of the panel. The Generate button allows you to create from-tos for a complete net in the pattern of the selected topology. 7.7 Exercise – Setting up the design rules This exercise looks at setting up the required design rules. 1. Create a Net Class called Power, which includes the following nets: 3V3, 5V and GND. To do this: - select Design » Classes - right-click on Net Classes in the tree on the left and select Add Class. - click on the New Class entry that is added to the list, and press F2 to rename the class. - add the class members and close the dialog. 2. Confirm that the basic clearance constraint design rule is set to 8mils. 3. Add a second clearance constraint to keep polygons at least 15mils from other copper objects. To do this: - add a second clearance constraint rule - for the First Object Matches query, type in the query InPolygon - leave the Second Object Matches query as All - set the minimum clearance to 15mils - set the rule name to Clearance_Polygon. 4. Confirm that basic Board scope width constraint is set to 8 mils (all three settings). 5. The three power nets on the schematic included parameter set objects that defined the width rule required for these nets. Confirm that a width constraint has been created for each of these nets with a width of 15 mils. 6. Edit the Routing Via Style design rule, setting the via diameter to 35 and the hole size to 22 (all three settings). 7. Add a new routing via style for the Power class of nets with settings of Via diameter = 40 and a hole size of 25. Name this rule RoutingVias_Power. 8. Save the board. PCB Design training module 4 - 53 7.8 Design Rule Checking • The Design Rules Checking (DRC) functions are provided to check that your design conforms to the design rules. • There are both Online and Batch DRC functions. See 7.3.1 Online DRC for more information about Online DRC. • A design should only be submitted for manufacturing when all DRC violations have been resolved. • DRC violations can be located using the Violations section when the PCB panel is set to display the Rules. 7.8.1 Design Rules Check report The DRC report is often referred to as the Batch DRC. This performs design rules checks based on the options selected and marks any violations found. Selecting the Tools » Design Rule Check menu command runs the DRC. This displays the Design Rule Checker dialog shown in Figure 36. Figure 36. Report Options in the Design Rules Checker dialog The Rules to Check sections of this dialog enables you to select which design rules the DRC will check for violations. Click on the Run Design Rule Check button to start a DRC check on the PCB. A report (.DRC) is generated and displays in the Text Editor if the Create Report File option is enabled. PCB Design training module 4 - 54 7.8.2 Locating design rule violations The following features are provided to locate and interpret DRC violations: • Violations section in the PCB Editor panel. When the panel is set to display Rules, select [All Rules] in the Rule Class section of the panel to list all violations. Click once on a violation to display it (and mask all other objects). Double-click to open the Violations Details dialog. • The Message panel. This panel lists all violations detected in the design. Double-clicking on most message types will jump you to the violation (but will not mask like using the panel). • The DRC report. This report is generated if the Create Report File option is enabled in the Design Rule Checker dialog. • The right-click Violations menu entry. Right-click on a violation and select Violation to display information about the violations on that object, select a violation entry to open the Violation Details dialog. 7.8.3 Exercise – Running a DRC In this exercise, you will run a Design Rule Check (DRC) to check for PCB design violations. 1. Run a DRC and review the violations in the PCB panel. There should be at least three violations as the pads in J1, the power connector, have holes that are larger than the maximum permitted by the default hole size constraint rule. 2. Change the rule to suit the requirements of the connector and re-check the board. 3. Note that the Unrouted Net design rule is used to check for nets that have not been completely routed, if your board is not routed yet you should disable checking of this rule in the Design Rule Checker dialog. 4. Save the board. Note: Make sure that all used layers are on when you are trying to resolve design rule violations. You should also be aware that the DRC stops after 500 errors (default value). PCB Design training module 4 - 55 8. Component Placement tools 8.1 Placing components Component footprints can be placed on a PCB board manually from the PCB libraries. Alternatively, they are placed to the side of the board when the Synchronizer is run from a schematic document, ready for moving to their correct locations. 8.1.1 Adding libraries • For component footprints to be placed, they must be available in a library. Footprint libraries can be made available by including them in the project, installing them in the Libraries panel, or defining a search path to their location. Libraries are searched in the order just mentioned. Installed and search path libraries can have their search order defined. • Click the Libraries button at the top of the Libraries panel to install a footprint library. • Search paths are defined in the Project Options dialog. • Footprint libraries included with Altium Designer are located in \Program Files\Altium Designer 6\Library\Pcb. 8.1.2 Placing a Component • Component footprints can be placed in a PCB document from any open footprint library by double-clicking on the name in the Libraries panel, using the Place button on the panel, or using the Place » Component command. If you use the Place » Component command, the footprint name you type in must be in an available library. • The Place Component dialog appears. Enter the designator and comment as required. • During placement, the component may be moved, rotated (press SPACEBAR) or swapped to the bottom layer (press L). 8.2 Finding components for placement • If you can visually locate components that you are positioning on the board, click and hold to move them. • Otherwise, select Edit » Move » Component (M C) and click where there are no objects. This displays the Choose Component dialog. • From this list, you can select the component to be placed. • You also select the behavior you would like – to move the cursor to the component, the component to the cursor or no special action. • Another technique to finding component footprints is to use the schematic as a reference. Select the required component(s) on the schematics and select Tools » Select PCB Components from the menus. • You can also cross select from the schematic to the PCB by holding the ALT key as you click on a component in the Navigator panel (note the project must be compiled). Figure 37. Choose Component dialog PCB Design training module 4 - 56 8.3 Moving components • Click and hold on a component to move it. While you are moving the component the connection lines directly connected to it will drag with it while all other connection lines are not displayed. • As you move the component, connection lines are dynamically optimized so that every connection line is following the shortest path to any other object with the same net name. • Also, while you are moving a component, pressing the N key will toggle the display of connections. • Pressing the L key while moving a component toggles the component between the top and the bottom layer of the PCB. 8.3.1 Component unions The Union feature allows you to group components together so that they can be moved as a group, i.e. as if they were a single component. • Multiple unions can be defined. • To create a union of components, select the components then choose the Create Union from selected components icon in the Component Placement tools in the Utilities toolbar. • To remove a component from a union, or to remove the union, choose the Break Component from Union icon from the Component Placement tools in the Utilities toolbar. This displays a dialog that lists all components in the union. From here, select the component(s) to be removed from the union. Selecting all components removes the union. 8.3.2 Rooms A room is a region that defines an area where components can either be kept within or kept out. • Rooms are placed using the commands in the Design » Rooms sub-menu, or using the Room tools on the Utilities toolbar. • A Room Definition design rule is created for each room that is placed. Once a room definition object is placed, you define the components associated with it and whether they are to be kept in or kept out. To do this, double-click on the room to display the Room Definition dialog. This dialog can also be accessed in the Placement region of the Rules dialog. Set the scope of the rule to the required component, component class or footprint. Moving components into a room • Components that have been assigned to a room can be automatically moved into it by selecting the Tools » Interactive Placement » Arrange Within Room command, or clicking the Arrange Components Within Room button in the Alignment tools in the Utilities toolbar. You will be prompted to click on the room. Moving rooms • Once component(s) have been assigned to a room, they move when the room is moved. To move a room without moving the components, temporarily disable the Room Definition rule in the Placement section of the PCB Rules& Constraints dialog. • If a component is moved such that it is in violation of the Room Definition rule, it is displayed with a Design Rule Check (DRC) error marker. PCB Design training module 4 - 57 Using a Room to scope another Rule • Rooms have a dual nature in that they are defined as a rule themselves, but they can also be used as the scope of other design rules. • To use a room as the scope of another rule, for example to define a region where you require larger routing clearances, you can set the Room rule to target nothing by setting its rule Query to something like: Not IsComponent. You could then define a Routing Clearance design rule that uses a Query something like WithinRoom(MyRoomDefinition). 8.3.3 Component Placement grid When components are placed or moved, they snap to the Component Placement grid. This grid has an X and a Y value and they are set in the Board Option dialog. 8.3.4 Density map The Density Map command is provided to allow you to evaluate the quality of your component placement. It generates a graphical display of the connection density of the PCB layout. It is analogous to a thermal contour map. The ‘hot’ areas, which display in red, indicate areas that are too dense to successfully route. Look at any red areas and try to create more routing space. To display the Density Map, select the Tools » Density Map command. When you are finished with the density map, select the View » Refresh command or the END shortcut key to display the PCB Editor workspace. 8.4 Interactive Placement commands There are a number of semi-automated tools that allow you to edit the placement of your PCB design. They are accessed via the Edit » Align menu, the Tools » Component Placement menu, or the Alignment tools in the Utilities toolbar. These are described in the following subsections. 8.4.1 Alignment commands The Alignment commands (Edit » Align) operate on selected objects. 8.4.2 Spacing commands Using the Spacing commands in the Alignment tools you can make the horizontal and vertical spacing between selected components equal, increased or decreased. Increasing and decreasing the horizontal (or vertical) spacing for selected components means the horizontal (or vertical) distance between the component reference Figure 38 Align selected objects using the alignment tools. points is increased (or decreased) by the amount specified in the X (or Y) component placement grid. 8.4.3 Arrange commands These commands automatically move components as follows: Arrange Command Behavior Arrange Within Room Components assigned to the nominated room are placed within that room. Arrange Within Rectangle Selected components are placed within a defined area. Arrange Outside Board Selected components are moved outside the board area. PCB Design training module 4 - 58 8.4.4 Move to Grid All unlocked components are moved to the closest Component Placement grid point. 8.5 Re-Annotation The PCB Editor provides the Re- Annotation command to re- number component designators, so that they are numbered in some kind of order. To do this, choose the Tools » Re- Annotate menu command. This displays the Positional Re- Annotate dialog shown in Error! Reference source not found.39. You select the method by which you want the re- annotation to be performed and then click OK. Alternatively, you can edit Figure 39. Positional Re-Annotate dialog individual component designators by double-clicking on the component. Note: Update the Schematic with the designator changes using the Synchronizer. To do this, select Design » Update Schematic. PCB Design training module 4 - 59 8.6 Exercise – Component Placement In this exercise, you will position the Temperature Sensor components. Use the following image as a guide. Figure 40. One possible component placement for the Temperature Sensor board. 1. The board does not need to be placed exactly as shown, this is only one solution. 2. As you press the spacebar to rotate components, you will notice that the designator remains positioned above the top left of the component. This is controlled by the Designator Autopostion option in the Component dialog. To manually position a designator, click and drag it to the required location, pressing the spacebar to rotate it if required. To temporarily filter out all objects in the workspace except the designators, type the query IsDesignator into the Query editor at the top of the PCB List panel. Press Shift+C to clear this filter when finished. 3. Each component also has a Comment string, you control the display of this in the Component dialog. To toggle the Hide status of all comment strings, enter the Query IsComment into the Filter panel (confirm that the Select check box is enabled in the Apply button dropdown), then press F11 to open the Inspector. The Inspector can now be used to edit all selected Comment strings, toggle the state of the Hide checkbox and press ENTER on the keyboard. 4. There is a placed copy of the board in the Backup folder. You can use this as a reference. 5. Save the board when you have finished but do not route it yet. PCB Design training module 4 - 60 9. Routing 9.1 Interactive routing Routing is the process of defining connective paths between the nodes in each net. Altium Designer includes powerful Interactive Routing features to help you efficiently route your board. There are two interactive routing commands, both are launched from the Place menu. • Interactive Routing – you place track segments to route the selected connection. The lookahead feature allows you to predict the best location of the current segment. This mode also supports loop removal, allowing you to re-route existing routing, with old redundant routing being removed when you finish defining the new route path. • Smart Interactive Routing – this command attempts to find a routing path from where you started up to the current cursor location, walking around obstacles along the way. Clicking will place all segments. Also includes auto-complete capability, where it attempts to complete the connection from the cursor up to the far end of the connection line – hold CTRL as you click to accept the entire path. Once you have chosen one of the interactive routing commands, click on a connection line to commence routing that connection. Interactive routing shortcuts can be accessed at any time during routing by pressing the tilda key (~), or by displaying the Shortcuts panel. 9.1.1 Managing connectivity Once components are placed into a PCB file, connection lines display to indicate which pads belong in each net, and must be routed to create the connectivity defined in the schematic. • Whenever there is an operation on a copper layer that affects connectivity, the PCB Editor analyzes the PCB to determine if any connections have changed. If you have routed a connection (joined 2 pads with track segments on a copper layer), the connection line between those 2 pads is no longer displayed. Also, if a shorter path for any connection is possible because of a routed connection, a shorter connection line is displayed. • The arrangement or pattern of the connection lines in a net is called the topology. The default topology for all nets in a board is Shortest, as determined by the applicable Routing Topology design rule. Because it is shortest, as you move components around the connection lines may jump from one pad in the net to another pad in the net, maintaining the shortest possible length of connection lines for that net. • You can change the color of the connection lines for a net in the Edit Net dialog, double click on the net name in the PCB panel to open the dialog. 9.1.2 Interactive Routing track width When you select one of the Interactive Routing commands and start routing, the track width that you start with is determined by the PCB Editor – Interactive Routing settings in the Preferences dialog, working in harmony with the applicable Width Constraint design rules. While the preferences allow you to change the width as you route, it is always constrained by the applicable rule – if you attempt to change it outside the range defined by the rule it will automatically be clipped back to the rule min or max, whichever is closer. Figure 41. Interactive routing behavior is determined by these settings. PCB Design training module 4 - 61 Track Width / Via Size Mode • User Choice – With this mode enabled the routing width is selected from the list of favorite widths, press Shift+W while routing to display the list. Use the Favorite Interactive Routing Widths button in the preferences dialog to configure the list. • Rule Minimum – With this mode enabled the Minimum size setting in the applicable design rule will be used. • Rule Preferred – With this mode enabled the Preferred size setting in the applicable design rule will be used. • Rule Maximum – With this mode enabled the Maximum size setting in the applicable design rule will be used. Note: You can cycle between the above modes while interactive routing by pressing the 3 (for Track Width) or 4 (for Via Size) shortcut keys, the current setting is indicated on the Status bar. 9.1.3 Editing during Routing As well as SHIFT+W to change the track width, there is another level of editing available as you route. Pressing the TAB key will open the Interactive Routing for Net dialog (Figure 42), where you can configure many of the interactive routing options, as well as edit the routing width and via size attributes. Figure 42. Interactive Routing dialog PCB Design training module 4 - 62 9.1.4 Handling conflicts during Interactive Routing As you route interactively you will be placing track segments amongst other objects that are already on the board. You can control how Altium Designer should handle a potential routing conflict. The conflict resolution mode is set in the PCB Editor – Interactive Routing page of the Preferences dialog, the applicable settings are shown in Figure 43. Figure 43. Define how interactive routing conflicts are handled. Conflict resolution modes include: • None – in this mode conflicts are permitted, you can route over the top of existing objects. Violations are highlighted. • Stop at First Conflicting Object – in this mode the route you are placing is clipped back to maintain clearances specified in the design rules. • Push Conflicting Objects – If you are using the standard Interactive Routing command, in this mode existing tracks will be pushed to make room for the new route, if possible. • Walkaround Conflicting Object – if you are using the Smart Interactive Routing command, in this mode the new route will walk around an existing obstacle, or jumped if possible. Note: Press the Shift+R shortcut keys to cycle through the different modes while you are routing, keep an eye on the status bar to see which mode you are currently in. 9.1.5 Additional Interactive Routing Options Altium Designer’s routing capabilities have been developed to make the routing process efficient. There are another set of options that go toward that efficiency, which are also set in the PCB Editor – Interactive Routing page of the Preferences dialog (Figure 44). These include: • Restrict to 90/45 – there is a total of 5 possible routing corner modes, cycled through as you press SHIFT+SPACEBAR during interactive routing. Enabling this option will restrict this list to 2, you will only choose between 90 degree or 45 degree corners. • Auto Complete – if you are using the Smart Interactive Figure 44. Additional interactive Routing command and this option is enabled, the smart routing options. interactive routing engine will attempt to find a path to the target pad (shown as outlines). Hold CTRL as you click to place these auto-complete segments. • Automatically Terminate Routing – with this option enabled, when you click on the target pad both the current track segment and the look-ahead segment are placed and you are automatically released from that route, ready to start on another connection. • Automatically Remove Loops – with this option enabled, loops that are created during manual routing are automatically removed. Note: Automatic Loop Removal can be disabled on an individual net if you require routing loops in that net. Double-click on the net name in the PCB panel to access the net properties to alter this setting. PCB Design training module 4 - 63 9.1.6 Look-ahead routing The PCB Editor’s interactive routing mode incorporates a look-ahead feature that operates as you place tracks during routing. The track segment that is connected to the cursor is a look-ahead segment and displays in an outline/draft style. The segment between this look-ahead segment and the last-placed segment is the current track that you are placing, and displays in final mode. Use the look-ahead segment to work out where you intend to place the next segment and to determine where you wish to terminate the current segment. When you click to place the current segment, its end point will be positioned exactly where you need to commence the next segment. This feature allows you to quickly and accurately place tracks around existing objects and plan where the next track segment can be placed. As you use the look-ahead segment to guide your routing, you will notice that the track end does not always remain attached to the cursor, it clips as you approach an existing obstacle (if the conflict resolution mode is set to stop at first conflicting object). This feature prevents you from violating any clearance constraints. Note: The look-ahead mode can be toggled off and on while interactively routing by pressing the 1 key. If look-ahead is off each click will place both track segments. 9.1.7 Working with the Electrical Grid Whenever you are placing an electrical object, like a track during routing, the Electrical grid is active. An octagonal graphic on the cursor indicates that the Electrical Grid is in operation, pulling the cursor to an existing object on the board. This feature is ideal for routing to off-grid pads. You can inhibit the electrical grid if there is a situation where it is working against you, hold the CTRL key during interactive routing to do this. 9.1.8 Changing the routing - automatically remove loops, or drag tracks Altium Designer has 2 methods for changing existing routing: rerouting using the Interactive Routing command, and dragging track segments . • Loop removal is a feature that automatically removes redundant track segments as you re-route a connection. Using loop removal you can easily re-route existing routing, as soon as you terminate routing any redundant routing is automatically removed. This includes complex routes that pass through many layers, redundant vias are automatically removed along with track segments. • Dragging tracks, you can also drag track segments and preserve the 45 angle to the adjoining track segments. To do this first click to select the segment and the special cursor will indicate the mode (Figure 45). Then click and drag to move the segment. Alternatively, instead of clicking once to select the track segment first, hold the CTRL key as you click and drag on the segment. Figure 45. Note the special cursor, indicating that corner angles will be preserved when the selected segment is dragged. PCB Design training module 4 - 64 9.1.9 Exercise – Interactive Routing In this exercise, you will route all the connections between the LCD module (LCD1) and the PIC microcontroller (U1). 1. Select Place » Interactive Routing and then, starting at the right-hand side of LCD1, route the connections from the LCD1 pads to the U1 pads. 2. Attempt to route one of the power nets. 3. Try routing some of the connections using the Place » Smart Interactive Routing command. You should explore the various options as you do, press the ~ key to display them. 4. If you are going well, route the rest of the board. Figure 46. The placed board, ready to route. Tips for routing • It can help to change the connection line color for important nets. To do this, double-click on the net name in the PCB panel. • You can also control which connection lines are displayed by pressing the N shortcut to pop up a display control menu. • Disabling the display of specific layers, such as the component overlay, can also help. Press the L shortcut to pop up the Board Layers and Colors dialog. • Press the * key on the numeric keypad to switch to the next signal layer while routing. • Press the CTRL+G shortcut keys to display and edit the current snap grid. 5 mils works well for this design. • For a 2 layer board it is generally advisable to have one layer for horizontal routing, and the other for vertical routing. • Press SPACEBAR during routing to toggle the start-end for the 45 degree track. • Press SHIFT+SPACEBAR to toggle the corner mode. • Press CTRL+Click as you click on a routed net to highlight the net. CTRL+CLICK in free space to clear the highlight. Use the Mask Level button to control the fading. • While routing a net, press the SHIFT+R shortcut keys to cycle the conflict resolution modes – keep an eye on the status bar to check the current mode. PCB Design training module 4 - 65 9.1.10 Differential Pair Interactive Routing Differential signaling is fast becoming the preferred signaling interface method, driven by the ever increasing signal speeds in electronic products. Altium Designer has excellent support for differential signaling – from defining pairs on the schematic, through to interactive differential pair routing on the PCB. Differential pairs are routed as a pair – that is you route two nets simultaneously. To route a differential pair select Place » Differential Pair Routing from the menus. You will be prompted to select one of the nets in the pair, click on either to start routing. Figure 47. a differential pair being routed, note that both connections in the pair are routed simultaneously. Note: for more information on Altium Designer’s differential pair routing capabilities, refer to the application note, Interactive and Differential Pair Routing. PCB Design training module 4 - 66 9.2 Automatic routing The Situs autorouter is a topological autorouter – it uses topological mapping to find routing paths on a board. The Autorouter adheres to all electrical and routing design rules, except the Routing Corners design rule. At this stage it does route differential pairs as a pair. 9.2.1 Autorouting tips • The board must include a closed boundary on the Keep Out layer. • Design rules must be correctly defined for the router to be able to route, it is not able to route connections that would result in a design rule violation. Use the Setup Report in the Situs Routing Strategies dialog to check that the rules are appropriately defined. • Routing layer directions must be configured. Default directions are assigned, but these do not take into consideration any existing manual routing, so they should always be checked. Routing layer directions are configured by clicking the Edit Layer Directions button in the Situs Routing Strategies dialog. • You can protect pre-routed connections, fan-outs and entire nets by enabling the Lock all Preroutes option in the Situs Routing Strategies dialog (Auto Route » Setup). This option also protects fan outs and partially routed connections. • Objects with a net name that are not locked may be moved/ripped up during routing. • Objects placed on the Keep Out layer create blocks for the router on all layers. • Signal layer keepout objects create blocks for the router on that signal layer. • The router does not consider objects on the mechanical layers. • The router is sensitive to connection lines running at very shallow angles, experiment with the alignment of components to observe this. 9.2.2 Running the Autorouter The Autorouter requires minimal set up. To run the router using a default strategy, select Auto Route » All to display the Situs Routing Strategies dialog shown below. Simply click on the strategy you would like to use. PCB Design training module Figure 48. Autorouter strategy dialog 4 - 67 9.2.3 Creating a Custom Routing Strategy You cannot modify the default strategies, so to create a custom routing strategy, select Auto Route » Setup from the menus. The easiest way to create a custom strategy is to duplicate an existing one, for example, the Default 2 Layer Board. As well as defining the set of routing passes, you can also control the via cost, and the router’s tendency to route more diagonally or more orthogonally. If you enable the Orthogonal option in the Situs Strategy Editor you should add a Recorner pass to the strategy. Figure 49. Custom routing strategy using cheaper vias and orthogonal routing 9.2.4 Exercise – Autorouting 1. Select Autoroute » All from the menus. Select the Default 2 Layer Board strategy, enable the Lock All Pre-routes option if you would like to keep your hand routing, and click the Route All button. 2. Examine the routing results. To more easily check each layer, press the SHIFT+S shortcut to toggle to single layer mode, then press the * key to toggle back and forth from top layer to bottom layer. To highlight the routing of a particular net hold the CTRL key and click on the net. Repeat this where there are no objects under the cursor to clear the highlight. If you have the board in single layer mode, you can enable the Show All Primitives in Routed Net check box in the Preferences dialog to show the routing on all layers. 3. Now reroute the board, this time using a custom strategy, as shown in Figure 49. 4. First, you need to unrouted the board, to do this use the Tools » Un-route sub menu. 5. Duplicate the Default 2 Layer Board strategy, set the More Vias slider to the left end, enable the Orthogonal checkbox, and add a Recorner pass before the Straighten pass. 6. Autoroute the board with the custom strategy. 7. When you are happy with the routing results, save the board. PCB Design training module 4 - 68 10. Polygons • A polygon is an area of copper on a signal layer, usually connected to a net, which is poured over existing objects, such as tracks and pads. • A polygon can be any enclosed shape. • A polygon maintains clearance (set in the design rules) from other copper objects. • A polygon can be Solid or Hatched. • A Solid polygon is built from Region objects. The advantage of this style of polygon is that there is typically much less data to store in the PCB file, and also less data in the CAM (Gerber or ODB++) files. Also region objects have sharp corners, so the polygon can sometimes better fill the space between other objects. • A Hatched polygon I built from tracks and arcs. The advantage of this style of polygon is that the CAM processing software does not need to understand polygonal shape definitions. • They can be placed on other layers. Polygons, however, do not pour around other objects unless they are placed on signal layers. 10.1 Placing polygons Place a polygon using the Place » Polygon Plane menu command or the toolbar icon. This displays the Polygon Plane dialog in which you set up the parameters for the polygon. Once the parameters are set up, click OK and draw the polygon plane in the workspace. Note that there are 2 different styles of polygons available: • Solid polygon – the polygon is constructed from multiple, multi-sided region objects. This style of polygon requires that your fabricator supports polygonal objects in Gerber or ODB++ files (most do). Using these polygons will give much smaller design files. • Hatched polygon – the polygon is constructed with track segments and arcs. Figure 50. Polygon Pour dialog PCB Design training module 4 - 69 The parameters for Polygons are listed below. Net Options • Connect to Net – selects the net to be connected to the polygon. • Pour Over options – existing polygons, or existing polygons and existing tracks within the polygon which are part of the net being connected to can be covered by the new polygon. • Remove Dead Copper – removes any part of the polygon that cannot connect to the plane net. Properties • Layer – select the signal layer that the polygon is to be placed on. • Min Primitive Length – Tracks or arcs below this setting are not placed when pouring a polygon. • Lock Primitives – if unchecked, individual objects (i.e. tracks or arcs) that make up the plane can be deleted. Plane Settings (Hatched and Outlines Only) • Track Width – width of tracks that make up the polygon. If Track Width is equal to the Grid Size, the polygon ends up as solid copper. If Grid Size is greater than Track Width, the polygon ends up as hatched. • Grid Size – spacing between tracks that make up the polygon. • Surround Pads With • Octagons – Places a track to form an octagon around pads. • Arc – Places an arc around pads. • Hatch Mode • 90-Degree Hatch – Polygon is hatched with horizontal and vertical tracks. • 45-Degree Hatch – Polygon is hatched with tracks at 45 degrees and 135 degrees. • Vertical Hatch – Polygon consists of only vertical tracks. • Horizontal Hatch — Polygon consists of only horizontal tracks. Plane Settings (Solid) • Remove Islands – remove any region that has an area less than specified. • Arc Approximation – solid polygons use short straight edges to surround existing curved shapes (such as pads). This setting defines the maximum allowable amount of deviation. • Remove Necks – narrow necks that have a width less than this amount are removed. 10.1.1 Setting the polygon corner style (hatched polygon only) As you place a hatched polygon, press the SPACEBAR to cycle through the four polygon corner styles of any angle line, 90-degree arc, 45-degree or 90-degree line, as shown below. PCB Design training module 4 - 70 10.1.2 Editing a polygon To change any of the parameters once a polygon has been placed, double-click on the polygon, or select Edit » Change and click on the polygon. This displays the Polygon Pour dialog where you can change any of the parameters and then click OK. You are then prompted to re-pour the polygon. 10.1.3 Moving a polygon Move a polygon as you would any other object. Click, hold and move it to the next location. When you release the mouse button, you are prompted to re-pour the polygon. 10.1.4 Editing polygon vertices To move or insert vertices on a polygon, select the Edit » Move » Polygon Vertices command and click on the polygon to be modified. This polygon will display handles at each vertex and a small cross at the center point of each line segment of its border. To move a vertex, click and drag on the handle for that vertex. To insert a vertex, click-and-hold on the cross in the line segment and drag it to where the vertex is required. 10.1.5 Deleting a polygon To delete a polygon, select the Edit » Delete command and then click on the polygon to be deleted. 10.1.6 Pouring a polygon with a larger clearance Often you will want the polygons to have a larger clearance than the standard track to track clearances. This can be achieved by adding a new, higher priority clearance design rule, with one of the object Queries set to InPolygon, and the rule clearance set to the required higher value. PCB Design training module 4 - 71 10.2 Exercise – Working with polygons In this exercise, you will place a polygon plane covering the top layer of the Temperature Sensor PCB. Figure 51. Placement of a solid polygon on the Temperature Sensor PCB. 1. Place a solid polygon on the top layer covering the entire PCB, connected to net GND, with the Pour Over All Same Net Objects option selected. 2. Perform a final design rule check (DRC) to ensure there are no problems with your board. Refer to section 7 to refresh your memory on checking the design rules. 3. Save the board. PCB Design training module 4 - 72 11. Output Generation All output generation settings (print, Gerber, NC drill, ODB++, CAM, report and netlist, etc) can either be: • Configured and stored as part of the project. If you select print, Gerber, and other outputs from the PCB editor’s File, Design and Reports menu these output configurations are stored in the project file. • Alternatively you can add an Output Job file to the project and store the output setups there. The advantage of an Output Job file is that it supports setting up multiple outputs of any kind. It also allows multiple outputs to be generated in a single operation and can be copied from one project to another. Any combination of output setups can be included in the job output file and any number of job output files can be included in the project. Note that setting made in the OutJob file are completely independent of the settings made in the PCB Editors menus. 11.1 Creating a new Output Job file The Output Job file enables you to define all of your design output configurations - assembly, fabrication, reports, netlists, etc - all in the one convenient and portable file. Each output setup uses a specific data source including the entire project (all schematic sheets), an individual schematic or the PCB. • Select File » New » Output Job File to create a new output job configuration file. A new output job configuration file (Job1.OutJob) is created and added to the Job Files subfolder of the focused project in the Projects panel. It opens as the active document in the design window and defaults to include all possible output setups. Figure 52. A Output Job file with three output setups defined. • Selected setups can be deleted (CTRL+A to select all) and new outputs can be added at any time by clicking on the required Add New Output. • Double-click on an output to configure it in its Properties dialog, or right-click for a list of options. The Data Source and Variants columns also have a drop-down list to choose from — click once to select the item, then click a second time to display the down arrow and then select from the list. PCB Design training module 4 - 73 11.2 Setting up Print job options • Select a print output from the Output Job file, e.g. Composite Drawing. Double-click to configure this printout option in the PCB Printout Properties dialog. Figure 53. Printout Properties dialog • Click on the Preferences button to set the colors and layers to include in the printout. Figure 54. PCB Print Preferences dialog • Right-click on the print option in the Output Job file to configure which printer your output will print to (Printer Setup) as the printouts will be sent directly to that printer when you run the output generator. • Right-click and select Print Preview to view your printout. From the preview window you can copy the current Printout preview to the Windows clipboard by right-clicking and selecting Copy. You can also save the image as an Enhanced Windows Metafile (.emf) by rightclicking and selecting Export Metafile. PCB Design training module 4 - 74 Figure 55. Print Preview window with all layers displayed • When the printout is configured, you can run it as a batch job (if Batch is enabled) along with all the other setups (F9), run the current output generator (SHIFT+F9) or run a selection of output generators (CTRL+SHIFT+F9). These output options are also available in the right-click menu. The printouts are sent to the printer. 11.3 Creating CAM files You can setup and create manufacturing output files from the Output Job file, such as: • Bill of Materials • Gerber and ODB++ files • NC Drill files • Pick and Place files • Testpoint Report. The data is output into appropriate documents in a folder within the same folder as your PCB file or in separate folders for each output type as determined in the Options tab of the Options for Project dialog. PCB Design training module 4 - 75 11.3.1 Bill of Materials This option produces Bill of Materials reports (parts lists). Double-clicking on the Bill of Materials report option in the Job Output file displays the Bill of Materials for Project dialog. Output format options are Text, CSV (Comma Separated Variables) and Spreadsheet. You can configure your BOM by rearranging the columns or export it to Excel and use Excel templates to format your report. Figure 56. Bill of Material setup dialog 11.3.2 Gerber This option in the Job Output file produces a Photoplotter output in Gerber format. Double-clicking on a Gerber Files output displays the Gerber Setup dialog. Consult your PCB manufacturer for their preferred settings. Figure 57. Gerber Setup dialog PCB Design training module 4 - 76 11.3.3 NC Drill This option produces a NC drill output in an industry standard format. Double-clicking on NC Drill Files displays the NC Drill Setup dialog. Consult your PCB manufacturer for their preferred settings. Figure 58. NC Drill Setup dialog PCB Design training module 4 - 77 11.3.4 ODB++ Output This option produces ODB++ output, ready to load into any ODB++ compliant CAM tool. Double-clicking on ODB++ Files displays the Select Layers to Plot dialog. 11.3.5 Pick and Place This option produces component data that is used to program a Pick and Place machine. Doubleclicking on Generates Pick & Place Files displays the Pick and Place Setup dialog. 11.3.6 Testpoint report This option produces information on the location and size of Testpoints for use in fabricating test fixtures and programming testers. Double-clicking on a Testpoints Reports displays the Testpoint Report Setup dialog. 11.4 Running the Output Generator You can run the Output Generator to create your output files and printouts from within the Output Job file itself (right-click menu) or use the Tools menu which includes a number of Run options. When the Run Batch command is selected (F9) all output setups with the Batch checkbox ticked will be generated. You can also generate output for a selected group of outputs from within the Output Job file by highlighting them and selecting the Run Selected command (SHIFT+CTRL+F9). Fabrication CAM outputs can be set to open automatically in CAMtastic by enabling the relevant options in the Output Job Options dialog (Tools » Output Job Options). 11.5 Exercise – adding an OutJob file to the project 1. With the Temperature Sensor project open, select File » New » Output Job File. 2. Save the document, naming it as Temperature Sensor.OutJob. 3. Select all the output setups (CTRLL+A), and press Delete to remove them. 4. Add in an Assembly Drawing, ODB++ and a Bill of Materials. 5. Click on the ODB++ output setup to select it, then select Tools » Output Job Options. 6. In the Output Job Options dialog, enable the ODB++ output check box and close the dialog. 7. Right-click on the ODB++ output setup and choose Run Output Generator from the menu. The ODB++ files will be generated, a new CAMtastic document created and the ODB++ documents loaded into it. These can now be checked, panelized, and so on. PCB Design training module 4 - 78 Notes: PCB Design training module 4 - 79 PCB Design training module 4 - 80

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