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深入浅出密码学——常见加密技术原理与应用

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标签: 密码学

密码学

密码学已经渗透到我们生活的方方面面,从Web  浏览器和电子邮件程序,到手机、银行卡、汽车,甚至包括器官移植。在不久的将来,我们将看到密码学更多令人激动不已的新应用,比如防伪的射频识别(RFID)标签,或车对车的通信(已经有人在为保证这两种应用的安全而努力)。过去,密码学总是被传统地限制在十分特殊的应用领域,尤其是政务信息和银行系统。时至今日,这种情况已经发生了很大的改变。由于加密算法的普遍性,越来越多的人必须理解加密算法的工作原理,以及怎样将它们应用到实践中;本书全面介绍当前应用的密码学,为读者释疑解惑,堪称读者的良师益友。本书面向学生和密码行业的从业者。

本书可以帮助读者深入地理解现代加密方案的工作原理。本书在对大学级别微积分背景要求最少的情况下,以最通俗易懂的方式介绍了必要的数学概念。所以,对本科生或即将开始学习研究生课程的学生而言,本书是一本非常合适的教科书;而对期望更深入理解现代密码学的职业工程师或计算机科学家而言,本书则是极具价值的参考书。

本书拥有的诸多特征使得它成为密码学从业者和学生独一无二的资源—本书介绍了绝大多数实际应用中使用的加密算法,并重点突出了它们的实用性。对于每种加密模式,我们都给出了最新的安全评估和推荐使用的密钥长度。同时,本书也探讨了每种算法在软件实现和硬件实现中的一些重要问题。除加密算法外,本书还介绍了很多其他重要主题,比如加密协议、运作模式、安全服务和密钥建立技术等。此外,本书还包含了许多非常新的主题,比如针对受限的应用而优化的轻量级加密(例如RFID  标签或智能卡),或新的操作模式。

第1章密码学和数据安全导论·············1

1.1密码学及本书内容概述···············1

1.2对称密码学··································3

1.2.1基础知识······························4

1.2.2简单对称加密:替换密码······5

1.3密码分析······································8

1.3.1破译密码体制的一般思路·······8

1.3.2合适的密钥长度····················10

1.4模运算与多种古典密码·············11

1.4.1模运算···································12

1.4.2整数环···································15

1.4.3移位密码(凯撒密码)·············16

1.4.4仿射密码·······························18

1.5讨论及扩展阅读························19

1.6要点回顾····································21

1.7习题············································21

第2章序列密码·································27

2.1引言············································27

2.1.1序列密码与分组密码·············27

2.1.2序列密码的加密与解密·········29

2.2随机数与牢不可破的分组密码····32

2.2.1随机数生成器························32

2.2.2一次一密································34

2.2.3关于实际序列密码················35

2.3基于移位寄存器的序列密码·····38

2.3.1线性反馈移位寄存器(LFSR)···39

2.3.2针对单个LFSR的已知明文

攻击······································43

2.3.3Trivium··································44

2.4讨论及扩展阅读···························46

2.5要点回顾····································47

2.6习题············································48

第3章数据加密标准与替换算法·······51

3.1DES简介····································51

3.2DES算法概述····························54

3.3DES的内部结构························56

3.3.1初始置换与逆初始置换·········56

3.3.2f函数······································58

3.3.3密钥编排································63

3.4解密············································65

3.5DES的安全性····························68

3.5.1穷尽密钥搜索························68

3.5.2分析攻击································70

3.6软件实现与硬件实现·················71

3.6.1软件········································71

3.6.2硬件········································72

3.7DES替换算法····························72

目录

深入浅出密码学—常用加密技术原理与应用

VIII

3.7.1AES和AES入围密码···········72

3.7.23DES与DESX·······················73

3.7.3轻量级密码PRESENT···········73

3.8讨论及扩展阅读························76

3.9要点回顾····································77

3.10习题··········································78

第4章高级加密标准·························83

4.1引言············································83

4.2AES算法概述····························85

4.3一些数学知识:伽罗瓦域简介···87

4.3.1有限域的存在性·····················87

4.3.2素域········································89

4.3.3扩展域GF(2m)························90

4.3.4GF(2m)内的加法与减法··········91

4.3.5GF(2m)内的乘法·····················91

4.3.6GF(2m)内的逆操作·················93

4.4AES的内部结构························95

4.4.1字节代换层·····························96

4.4.2扩散层····································99

4.4.3密钥加法层···························101

4.4.4密钥编排·······························101

4.5解密··········································106

4.6软件实现与硬件实现···············110

4.6.1软件······································110

4.6.2硬件······································111

4.7讨论及扩展阅读······················111

4.8要点回顾··································112

4.9习题··········································112

第5章分组密码的更多内容·············117

5.1分组密码加密:操作模式·······117

5.1.1电子密码本模式(ECB)·······118

5.1.2密码分组链接模式(CBC)·····122

5.1.3输出反馈模式(OFB)············123

5.1.4密码反馈模式(CFB)············125

5.1.5计数器模式(CTR)················126

5.1.6伽罗瓦计数器模式(GCM)···127

5.2回顾穷尽密钥搜索··················129

5.3增强分组密码的安全性···········130

5.3.1双重加密与中间人攻击······131

5.3.2三重加密······························133

5.3.3密钥漂白······························134

5.4讨论及扩展阅读······················136

5.5要点回顾··································137

5.6习题··········································137

第6章公钥密码学简介···················141

6.1对称密码学与非对称密码学···141

6.2公钥密码学的实用性···············145

6.2.1安全机制·····························145

6.2.2遗留问题:公钥的可靠性···146

6.2.3重要的公钥算法·················146

6.2.4密钥长度与安全等级··········147

6.3公钥算法的基本数论知识·······148

6.3.1欧几里得算法·····················148

6.3.2扩展的欧几里得算法··········151

6.3.3欧拉函数·····························155

6.3.4费马小定理与欧拉定理······157

6.4讨论及扩展阅读······················159

6.5要点回顾··································160

6.6习题··········································160

第7章RSA密码体制······················163

7.1引言··········································164

7.2加密与解密······························164

7.3密钥生成与正确性验证···········165

7.4加密与解密:快速指数运算···169

目录

IX

7.5RSA的加速技术······················173

7.5.1使用短公开指数的快速加密···173

7.5.2使用中国余数定理的快速

加密······································174

7.6寻找大素数······························177

7.6.1素数的普遍性······················177

7.6.2素性测试·····························178

7.7实际中的RSA:填充··············182

7.8攻击··········································183

7.9软件实现与硬件实现···············186

7.10讨论及扩展阅读······················187

7.11要点回顾··································188

7.12习题··········································189

第8章基于离散对数问题的公钥

密码体制·······························193

8.1Diffie-Hellman密钥交换·········194

8.2一些代数知识··························196

8.2.1群·········································196

8.2.2循环群·································198

8.2.3子群·····································202

8.3离散对数问题··························204

8.3.1素数域内的离散对数问题····204

8.3.2推广的离散对数问题············205

8.3.3针对离散对数问题的攻击····207  [2] 

8.4Diffie-Hellman密钥交换的安

全性···············································211

8.5Elgamal加密方案····················212

8.5.1从Diffie-Hellman密钥交换

到Elgamal加密··················212

8.5.2Elgamal协议·······················213

8.5.3计算方面·····························215

8.5.4安全性·································216

8.6讨论及扩展阅读······················218

8.7要点回顾··································219

8.8习题··········································219

第9章椭圆曲线密码体制················225

9.1椭圆曲线的计算方式···············226

9.1.1椭圆曲线的定义··················227

9.1.2椭圆曲线上的群操作···········228

9.2使用椭圆曲线构建离散对数

问题················································232

9.3基于椭圆曲线的Diffie-Hellman

密钥交换··································236

9.4安全性······································238

9.5软件实现与硬件实现···············238

9.6讨论及扩展阅读······················239

9.7要点回顾··································241

9.8习题··········································241

第10章数字签名····························245

10.1引言········································245

10.1.1对称密码学尚不能完全

满足需要的原因··············246

10.1.2数字签名的基本原理······247

10.1.3安全服务·························248

10.2RSA签名方案························249

10.2.1教科书的RSA数字签名···250

10.2.2计算方面··························251

10.2.3安全性······························252

10.3Elgamal数字签名方案··········255

10.3.1教科书的Elgamal

数字签名··························255

10.3.2计算方面··························257

10.3.3安全性······························258  [2] 

10.4数字签名算法························261

10.4.1DSA算法·························261

深入浅出密码学—常用加密技术原理与应用

X

10.4.2计算方面··························264

10.4.3安全性······························265

10.5椭圆曲线数字签名算法·········266

10.5.1ECDSA算法····················267

10.5.2计算方面··························270

10.5.3安全性······························270

10.6讨论及扩展阅读····················271

10.7要点回顾································272

10.8习题········································272

第11章哈希函数·····························277

11.1动机:对长消息签名·············277

11.2哈希函数的安全性要求·········280

11.2.1抗第一原像性或单向性···280

11.2.2抗第二原像性或弱抗

冲突性······························281

11.2.3抗冲突性与生日攻击·······282

11.3哈希函数概述·························286

11.3.1专用的哈希函数:MD4

家族··································287

11.3.2从分组密码构建的哈希

函数··································288

11.4安全哈希算法SHA-1·············290

11.4.1预处理······························291

11.4.2哈希计算··························292

11.4.3实现··································294

11.5讨论及扩展阅读·····················295

11.6要点回顾································296

11.7习题········································297

第12章消息验证码·························301

12.1消息验证码的基本原理·········301

12.2来自哈希函数的MAC:

HMAC····································303

12.3来自分组密码的MAC:

CBC-MAC·····························307

12.4伽罗瓦计数器消息验证码·····308

12.5讨论及扩展阅读····················309

12.6要点回顾································309

12.7习题········································310

第13章密钥建立····························313

13.1引言········································314

13.1.1一些术语··························314

13.1.2密钥刷新和密钥衍生·······314

13.1.3n2密钥分配问题··············316

13.2使用对称密钥技术的密钥

建立··············································317

13.2.1使用密钥分配中心的密钥

建立··································318

13.2.2Kerberos···························321

13.2.3使用对称密钥分配的其他

问题·································323

13.3使用非对称密钥技术的密钥

建立·······································323

13.3.1中间人攻击······················324

13.3.2证书·································326

13.3.3PKI和CA························329

13.4讨论及扩展阅读····················332

13.5要点回顾································333

13.6习题········································333

参考文献·················································339

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前几天开发板置换群大家讨论了一下充电宝,见大家这么有热情,我正好又做过配件批发,我今天正好有空,把手头上的资源整理了一下,和大家分享一下,写得不好还请大家海涵。 首先给大家介绍品牌的充电宝,这类充电宝性能可靠,容量上面也是实打实的,没有任何打折(我还在店里面的时候每一款都经过我的实际测量,测试项目主要有 电流输出能力、输出电压稳定度、容量等,但是测试结果当时并没有做任何记录,这个有点可惜)。
zike413032825 移动便携
【看视频,答题有奖】了解keysight汽车电子解决方案,答题赢好礼(已颁奖)
本活动已颁奖>>点此进入 活动页面:>>点击进入 活动时间:即日起-2月12日 活动内容: 1、认真观看下方的是德科技的《E6950A eCall紧急呼叫相符性测试解决方案》视频; 2、点击“开始答题”按钮,进入答题环节; 3、活动结束后我们将从答对3题(共4题)及以上抽取40名幸运网友,2~3周公布获奖名单并随机派送奖品! E6950A eC
EEWORLD社区 汽车电子
非整数倍率YUV422图像的自由缩放DSP算法
下面的代码,实现将一幅YUV422的双通道图片(640x480大小),取中间区域(560x400大小)使用插值的办法放大至(640x480)。这个算法可以用来实现将图片外围区域截掉。 #define X_RATIO (8) #define Y_RATIO (6) PUBLIC void YUVScale(JINF_YUV_CHN_T *const yuv_ptr,const uint
Aguilera DSP 与 ARM 处理器

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