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20080701172506ZigBeeCC2431无线定位原理read

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标签: 物联网

物联网是新一代信息技术的重要组成部分,也是“信息化”时代的重要发展阶段。其英文名称是:“Internet of things(IoT)”。利用局部网络或互联网等通信技术把传感器、控制器、机器、人员和物等通过新的方式联在一起,形成人与物、物与物相联,实现信息化、远程管理控制和智能化的网络。物联网是互联网的延伸,它包括互联网及互联网上所有的资源,兼容互联网所有的应用,但物联网中所有的元素(所有的设备、资源及通信等)都是个性化和私有化。

20080701172506ZigBeeCC2431无线定位原理read

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CC2431 Location Engine 1 KEYWORDS CC2430 CC2431 INTRODUCTION 2 This document describes the location engine the CC2431 CC2431 is a ZigBee system on chip so it will be natural to use the location engine in a ZigBee network This manual is written to be as general as possible and will not describe specific considerations protocol implemented in any Application Note AN042 By K Aamodt ZigBee Location Engine The main purposes of this document it to pre......

CC2431 Location Engine 1 KEYWORDS • CC2430 • CC2431 INTRODUCTION 2 This document describes the location engine the CC2431. CC2431 is a ZigBee system on chip, so it will be natural to use the location engine in a ZigBee network. This manual is written to be as general as possible and will not describe specific considerations. protocol implemented in any Application Note AN042 By K. Aamodt • ZigBee • Location Engine The main purposes of this document it to present some basic aspects of the location technology, and provide some hints and tips for easy developing of systems using the CC2431 location engine. This document should be read as an extension to the CC2431 and CC2430 data sheets. Application Note AN042 (Rev. 1.0) SWRA095 Page 1 of 20 Application Note AN042 Table of Contents 1 2 3 KEYWORDS ................................................................................................................... 1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 1 LOCATION ENGINE....................................................................................................... 3 NODE TYPES.............................................................................................................. 4 Reference node .................................................................................................................4 Blind Node........................................................................................................................4 THE LOCATION HARDWARE ......................................................................................... 4 Input..................................................................................................................................5 Output...............................................................................................................................5 RECEIVED SIGNAL STRENGTH INDICATOR (RSSI) ................................................. 6 OFFSET..................................................................................................................... 6 LINEARITY.................................................................................................................. 6 THEORETICAL SIGNAL PROPAGATION........................................................................... 7 RSSI – PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS ......................................................................... 7 Simple ways to filter the RSSI values................................................................................7 Calculated RSSI vs. measured RSSI .................................................................................8 DIFFERENT PARAMETERS – INFLUENCE ................................................................. 9 A – RSSI VALUE MEASURED ONE METER FROM THE SENDER ...................................... 10 Measuring A ...................................................................................................................10 A versus calculated position...........................................................................................11 N – SIGNAL PROPAGATION COEFFICIENT ................................................................... 12 Measuring n....................................................................................................................13 NUMBER OF REFERENCE NODES ............................................................................... 14 SOFTWARE ALGORITHMS ........................................................................................ 15 SELECTION OF “BEST” REFERENCE NODES................................................................. 15 EXTENSION OF THE COVERED AREA........................................................................... 15 LEVEL/ FLOOR INDICATION ........................................................................................ 16 CONTROL SYSTEM/ CENTRAL ................................................................................. 18 GENERAL INFORMATION .......................................................................................... 19 DOCUMENT HISTORY................................................................................................ 19 IMPORTANT NOTICE .................................................................................................. 20 4.4.1 4.4.2 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.2.1 3.1 3.2 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.1 6.2 6.3 8.1 4 5 6 7 8 9 Application Note AN042 (Rev. 1.0) SWRA095 Page 2 of 20 Application Note AN042 3 LOCATION ENGINE The location algorithm used in the CC2431 Location Engine is based on Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values. The RSSI value will decrease when the distance increases. Figure 1: Location Estimation Figure 1 shows a simplified system for location detection. “Reference node” is a static node placed at a known position. For simplicity this node knows its own position and can tell other nodes where it is on request. A reference node does not need to implement the hardware needed for location detection, it will not perform any calculation at all. A “Blind node” is a node built with CC2431. This node will collect signals from all reference nodes responding to a request, read out the respective RSSI values, feed the collected values into the hardware engine, and afterwards it reads out the calculated position and sends the position information to a control application. The minimum data contained in a packet sent from a reference node to a blind node shall be the reference nodes’ X and Y parameters. The RSSI value is calculated by the receiver, i.e. the blind node. The main feature of the location engine is that the location calculation can be performed at each blind node, hence the algorithm is decentralised. This property reduces the amount of data transferred in the network, since only the calculated position is transferred, not the data used to perform the calculation. To map each location to a distinct place in the natural environment, a two dimensional grid is used. The directions will, in the following, be denoted X and Y. In all the figures X is defined to be the horizontal direction and Y the vertical. The CC2431 Location Engine can only handle two dimensions, but it’s possible to handle a third dimension in software (i.e. to represent floors in a building). The point named (X, Y) = (0, 0) is located in the upper left corner of the grid. Application Note AN042 (Rev. 1.0) SWRA095 Page 3 of 20 3.1 Node types Application Note AN042 3.1.1 Reference node A node which has a static location is called a reference node. This node must be configured with X and Y value that correspond to the physical location. The main task for a reference node is to provide a “reference” packet that contains X and Y coordinates to the blind node, also referred to as an anchor node. Since this node is not using the hardware location engine at all, it is not necessary to use a CC2431 for the purpose. This means that a reference node can be run on either a CC2430 or a CC2431. Since CC2430/31 is based on the same transceiver as CC2420, even a CC2420 together with a suitable microcontroller can be used as reference node. 3.1.2 Blind Node A blind node will communicate with the closest reference nodes, collecting X, Y and RSSI for each of these nodes, and calculate its position based on the parameter input using the location engine hardware. Afterwards the calculated position should be sent to a control station. This control station could be a PC or another node in the system. A blind node must be using CC2431. 3.2 The location hardware The location engine utilizes an extremely simple interface seen from the software layer; write parameters in, wait for the calculation to performed, and read out the calculated position out. This chapter will discuss the different parameters and how the shall be interpreted. Figure 2: Location Engine, input and output Application Note AN042 (Rev. 1.0) SWRA095 Page 4 of 20 Application Note AN042 Input 3.2.1 Table 1 shows all necessary input to the location hardware. All the values will be described in details later in this document. The following is a brief introduction. Name Description Min. value Max. value A n_index RSSI 30 0 40 50 31 95 X, Y 0 63.75 represent the signal propagation The absolute RSSI value in dBm one meter apart for a transmitter. This value exponent, this value depends on the environment. Received Signal Strength Indicator this value is measured in dBm. The location engine using the absolute value as input. These values represent the X and Y coordinates relative to a fixed point. The values are in meters and the accuracy is 0.25 meters. Table 1: Hardware inputs parameters 3.2.2 Output Name Min. value X, Y 0 Max. value 63.5 Description These values represent the calculated X and Y coordinates relatively to a fixed point. The values are in meters. Table 2: Location Engine Output Application Note AN042 (Rev. 1.0) SWRA095 Page 5 of 20
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