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    嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Video for Linux Two API Specification Revision 0.24 Michael H Schimek mschimek@gmx.at http://bbs.51soc.com Bill Dirks Hans Verkuil Martin Rubli 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Video for Linux Two API Specification: Revision 0.24 by Michael H Schimek, Bill Dirks, Hans Verkuil, and Martin Rubli Copyright © 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Bill Dirks, Michael H. Schimek, Hans Verkuil, Martin Rubli This document is copyrighted © 1999-2008 by Bill Dirks, Michael H. Schimek, Hans Verkuil and Martin Rubli. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the appendix entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". Programming examples can be used and distributed without restrictions. Revision History Revision 0.24 2008-03-04 Revised by: mhs Added pixel format Y16 and SBGGR16, new controls and a camera controls class. Removed VIDIOC_G/S_MPEGCOMP. Revision 0.23 2007-08-30 Revised by: mhs Fixed a typo in VIDIOC_DBG_G/S_REGISTER. Clarified the byte order of packed pixel formats. Revision 0.22 2007-08-29 Revised by: mhs Added the Video Output Overlay interface, new MPEG controls, V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_TB and V4L2_FIELD_INTERLA Revision 0.21 2006-12-19 Revised by: mhs Fixed a link in the VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS section. Revision 0.20 2006-11-24 Revised by: mhs Clarified the purpose of the audioset field in struct v4l2_input and v4l2_output. Revision 0.19 2006-10-19 Revised by: mhs Documented V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB444. Revision 0.18 2006-10-18 Revised by: mhs http://bbs.51soc.com Added the description of extended controls by Hans Verkuil. Linked V4L2_PIX_FMT_MPEG to V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_T Revision 0.17 2006-10-12 Revised by: mhs Corrected V4L2_PIX_FMT_HM12 description. Revision 0.16 2006-10-08 Revised by: mhs VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES and VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMEINTERVALS are now part of the API. Revision 0.15 2006-09-23 Revised by: mhs Cleaned up the bibliography, added BT.653 and BT.1119. capture.c/start_capturing() for user pointer I/O did not initialize the buffe Revision 0.14 2006-09-14 Revised by: mr Added VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES and VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMEINTERVALS proposal for frame format enumeration of d Revision 0.13 2006-04-07 Revised by: mhs Corrected the description of struct v4l2_window clips. New V4L2_STD_ and V4L2_TUNER_MODE_LANG1_LANG2 defines. Revision 0.12 2006-02-03 Revised by: mhs Corrected the description of struct v4l2_captureparm and v4l2_outputparm. Revision 0.11 2006-01-27 Revised by: mhs Improved the description of struct v4l2_tuner. Revision 0.10 2006-01-10 Revised by: mhs VIDIOC_G_INPUT and VIDIOC_S_PARM clarifications. Revision 0.9 2005-11-27 Revised by: mhs Improved the 525 line numbering diagram. Hans Verkuil and I rewrote the sliced VBI section. He also contributed a VIDIOC_LOG Revision 0.8 2004-10-04 Revised by: mhs Somehow a piece of junk slipped into the capture example, removed. Revision 0.7 2004-09-19 Revised by: mhs Fixed video standard selection, control enumeration, downscaling and aspect example. Added read and user pointer i/o to video cap Revision 0.6 2004-08-01 Revised by: mhs v4l2_buffer changes, added video capture example, various corrections. Revision 0.5 2003-11-05 Revised by: mhs Pixel format erratum. Revision 0.4 2003-09-17 Revised by: mhs Corrected source and Makefile to generate a PDF. SGML fixes. Added latest API changes. Closed gaps in the history chapter. Revision 0.3 2003-02-05 Revised by: mhs 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Another draft, more corrections. Revision 0.2 2003-01-15 Revised by: mhs Second draft, with corrections pointed out by Gerd Knorr. Revision 0.1 2002-12-01 Revised by: mhs First draft, based on documentation by Bill Dirks and discussions on the V4L mailing list. http://bbs.51soc.com 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Table of Contents Introduction......................................................................................................................................... x 1. Common API Elements.................................................................................................................. 1 1.1. Opening and Closing Devices .............................................................................................. 1 1.1.1. Device Naming ........................................................................................................ 1 1.1.2. Related Devices ....................................................................................................... 2 1.1.3. Multiple Opens ........................................................................................................ 2 1.1.4. Shared Data Streams................................................................................................ 3 1.1.5. Functions ................................................................................................................. 3 1.2. Querying Capabilities .......................................................................................................... 3 1.3. Application Priority.............................................................................................................. 3 1.4. Video Inputs and Outputs..................................................................................................... 4 1.5. Audio Inputs and Outputs .................................................................................................... 5 1.6. Tuners and Modulators......................................................................................................... 6 1.6.1. Tuners ...................................................................................................................... 6 1.6.2. Modulators............................................................................................................... 6 1.6.3. Radio Frequency...................................................................................................... 7 1.6.4. Satellite Receivers ................................................................................................... 7 1.7. Video Standards ................................................................................................................... 7 1.8. User Controls ....................................................................................................................... 9 1.9. Extended Controls.............................................................................................................. 14 1.9.1. Introduction ........................................................................................................... 14 1.9.2. The Extended Control API .................................................................................... 15 1.9.3. Enumerating Extended Controls............................................................................ 15 http://bbs.51soc.com 1.9.4. Creating Control Panels.........................................................................................16 1.9.5. MPEG Control Reference...................................................................................... 16 1.9.5.1. Generic MPEG Controls ........................................................................... 16 1.9.5.2. CX2341x MPEG Controls ........................................................................ 19 1.9.6. Camera Control Reference .................................................................................... 20 1.10. Data Formats .................................................................................................................... 22 1.10.1. Data Format Negotiation ..................................................................................... 22 1.10.2. Image Format Enumeration ................................................................................. 22 1.11. Image Cropping, Insertion and Scaling............................................................................ 23 1.11.1. Cropping Structures............................................................................................. 23 1.11.2. Scaling Adjustments............................................................................................ 24 1.11.3. Examples ............................................................................................................. 24 1.12. Streaming Parameters....................................................................................................... 27 2. Image Formats .............................................................................................................................. 29 2.1. Standard Image Formats .................................................................................................... 29 2.2. Colorspaces ........................................................................................................................ 30 2.3. Indexed Format .................................................................................................................. 33 2.4. RGB Formats ..................................................................................................................... 34 Packed RGB formats ....................................................................................................... 34 V4L2_PIX_FMT_SBGGR8 (’BA81’) ............................................................................ 37 V4L2_PIX_FMT_SBGGR16 (’BA82’) .......................................................................... 38 2.5. YUV Formats ..................................................................................................................... 39 Packed YUV formats....................................................................................................... 39 V4L2_PIX_FMT_GREY (’GREY’) ............................................................................... 40 V4L2_PIX_FMT_Y16 (’Y16 ’) ...................................................................................... 41 V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUYV (’YUYV’).............................................................................. 42 iv 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_PIX_FMT_UYVY (’UYVY’).............................................................................. 43 V4L2_PIX_FMT_Y41P (’Y41P’)................................................................................... 44 V4L2_PIX_FMT_YVU420 (’YV12’), V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV420 (’YU12’).............. 45 V4L2_PIX_FMT_YVU410 (’YVU9’), V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV410 (’YUV9’)............ 46 V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV422P (’422P’)............................................................................ 47 V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV411P (’411P’)............................................................................ 48 V4L2_PIX_FMT_NV12 (’NV12’), V4L2_PIX_FMT_NV21 (’NV21’) ....................... 49 2.6. Compressed Formats.......................................................................................................... 50 2.7. Reserved Format Identifiers ............................................................................................... 50 3. Input/Output ................................................................................................................................. 51 3.1. Read/Write ......................................................................................................................... 51 3.2. Streaming I/O (Memory Mapping) .................................................................................... 51 3.3. Streaming I/O (User Pointers)............................................................................................ 54 3.4. Asynchronous I/O .............................................................................................................. 55 3.5. Buffers................................................................................................................................ 55 3.5.1. Timecodes.............................................................................................................. 59 3.6. Field Order ......................................................................................................................... 60 4. Interfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 66 4.1. Video Capture Interface ..................................................................................................... 66 4.1.1. Querying Capabilities............................................................................................ 66 4.1.2. Supplemental Functions ........................................................................................ 66 4.1.3. Image Format Negotiation..................................................................................... 66 4.1.4. Reading Images ..................................................................................................... 67 4.2. Video Overlay Interface ..................................................................................................... 67 4.2.1. Querying Capabilities............................................................................................ 67 http://bbs.51soc.com 4.2.2. Supplemental Functions ........................................................................................67 4.2.3. Setup ...................................................................................................................... 67 4.2.4. Overlay Window.................................................................................................... 68 4.2.5. Enabling Overlay................................................................................................... 70 4.3. Video Output Interface....................................................................................................... 70 4.3.1. Querying Capabilities............................................................................................ 71 4.3.2. Supplemental Functions ........................................................................................ 71 4.3.3. Image Format Negotiation..................................................................................... 71 4.3.4. Writing Images ...................................................................................................... 71 4.4. Video Output Overlay Interface ......................................................................................... 72 4.4.1. Querying Capabilities............................................................................................ 72 4.4.2. Framebuffer ........................................................................................................... 72 4.4.3. Overlay Window and Scaling ................................................................................ 73 4.4.4. Enabling Overlay................................................................................................... 74 4.5. Codec Interface .................................................................................................................. 74 4.6. Effect Devices Interface ..................................................................................................... 74 4.7. Raw VBI Data Interface..................................................................................................... 74 4.7.1. Querying Capabilities............................................................................................ 75 4.7.2. Supplemental Functions ........................................................................................ 75 4.7.3. Raw VBI Format Negotiation................................................................................ 75 4.7.4. Reading and writing VBI images .......................................................................... 81 4.8. Sliced VBI Data Interface .................................................................................................. 81 4.8.1. Querying Capabilities............................................................................................ 81 4.8.2. Supplemental Functions ........................................................................................ 82 4.8.3. Sliced VBI Format Negotiation............................................................................. 82 4.8.4. Reading and writing sliced VBI data..................................................................... 83 v 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com 4.9. Teletext Interface................................................................................................................ 84 4.10. Radio Interface ................................................................................................................. 85 4.10.1. Querying Capabilities.......................................................................................... 85 4.10.2. Supplemental Functions ...................................................................................... 85 4.10.3. Programming ....................................................................................................... 85 4.11. RDS Interface................................................................................................................... 85 I. Function Reference ....................................................................................................................... 87 V4L2 close() ............................................................................................................................. 89 V4L2 ioctl()............................................................................................................................... 90 ioctl VIDIOC_CROPCAP......................................................................................................... 92 ioctl VIDIOC_DBG_G_REGISTER, VIDIOC_DBG_S_REGISTER .................................... 94 ioctl VIDIOC_ENCODER_CMD, VIDIOC_TRY_ENCODER_CMD................................... 97 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMAUDIO .................................................................................................. 99 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMAUDOUT ............................................................................................ 100 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT................................................................................................... 101 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES .................................................................................. 103 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMEINTERVALS........................................................................ 106 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT ................................................................................................. 109 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMOUTPUT ............................................................................................. 112 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMSTD ..................................................................................................... 114 ioctl VIDIOC_G_AUDIO, VIDIOC_S_AUDIO .................................................................... 119 ioctl VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT, VIDIOC_S_AUDOUT ............................................................ 121 ioctl VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT............................................................................................. 123 ioctl VIDIOC_G_CROP, VIDIOC_S_CROP ......................................................................... 126 ioctl VIDIOC_G_CTRL, VIDIOC_S_CTRL ......................................................................... 128 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_ENC_INDEX .............................................................................................130 ioctl VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_TRY_EXT_CTRLS132 ioctl VIDIOC_G_FBUF, VIDIOC_S_FBUF.......................................................................... 135 ioctl VIDIOC_G_FMT, VIDIOC_S_FMT, VIDIOC_TRY_FMT.......................................... 140 ioctl VIDIOC_G_FREQUENCY, VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY .............................................. 143 ioctl VIDIOC_G_INPUT, VIDIOC_S_INPUT ...................................................................... 145 ioctl VIDIOC_G_JPEGCOMP, VIDIOC_S_JPEGCOMP ..................................................... 147 ioctl VIDIOC_G_MODULATOR, VIDIOC_S_MODULATOR ........................................... 149 ioctl VIDIOC_G_OUTPUT, VIDIOC_S_OUTPUT .............................................................. 152 ioctl VIDIOC_G_PARM, VIDIOC_S_PARM........................................................................ 154 ioctl VIDIOC_G_PRIORITY, VIDIOC_S_PRIORITY ......................................................... 158 ioctl VIDIOC_G_SLICED_VBI_CAP ................................................................................... 160 ioctl VIDIOC_G_STD, VIDIOC_S_STD .............................................................................. 162 ioctl VIDIOC_G_TUNER, VIDIOC_S_TUNER................................................................... 163 ioctl VIDIOC_LOG_STATUS ................................................................................................ 168 ioctl VIDIOC_OVERLAY ...................................................................................................... 169 ioctl VIDIOC_QBUF, VIDIOC_DQBUF............................................................................... 170 ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYBUF ................................................................................................... 172 ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ................................................................................................... 174 ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, VIDIOC_QUERYMENU...................................................... 177 ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYSTD.................................................................................................... 182 ioctl VIDIOC_REQBUFS....................................................................................................... 184 ioctl VIDIOC_STREAMON, VIDIOC_STREAMOFF ......................................................... 186 V4L2 mmap().......................................................................................................................... 188 V4L2 munmap()...................................................................................................................... 190 V4L2 open() ............................................................................................................................ 191 vi 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2 poll() ............................................................................................................................. 193 V4L2 read()............................................................................................................................. 195 V4L2 select()........................................................................................................................... 197 V4L2 write() ........................................................................................................................... 199 5. V4L2 Driver Programming........................................................................................................ 201 6. Changes........................................................................................................................................ 202 6.1. Differences between V4L and V4L2 ............................................................................... 202 6.1.1. Opening and Closing Devices ............................................................................. 202 6.1.2. Querying Capabilities.......................................................................................... 202 6.1.3. Video Sources...................................................................................................... 204 6.1.4. Tuning.................................................................................................................. 205 6.1.5. Image Properties.................................................................................................. 205 6.1.6. Audio ................................................................................................................... 206 6.1.7. Frame Buffer Overlay.......................................................................................... 207 6.1.8. Cropping .............................................................................................................. 207 6.1.9. Reading Images, Memory Mapping .................................................................... 208 6.1.9.1. Capturing using the read method ............................................................ 208 6.1.9.2. Capturing using memory mapping.......................................................... 208 6.1.10. Reading Raw VBI Data ..................................................................................... 209 6.1.11. Miscellaneous .................................................................................................... 210 6.2. Changes of the V4L2 API ................................................................................................ 210 6.2.1. Early Versions...................................................................................................... 210 6.2.2. V4L2 Version 0.16 1999-01-31........................................................................... 211 6.2.3. V4L2 Version 0.18 1999-03-16........................................................................... 211 6.2.4. V4L2 Version 0.19 1999-06-05........................................................................... 211 http://bbs.51soc.com 6.2.5. V4L2 Version 0.20 (1999-09-10) ........................................................................211 6.2.6. V4L2 Version 0.20 incremental changes............................................................. 212 6.2.7. V4L2 Version 0.20 2000-11-23........................................................................... 213 6.2.8. V4L2 Version 0.20 2002-07-25........................................................................... 214 6.2.9. V4L2 in Linux 2.5.46, 2002-10........................................................................... 214 6.2.10. V4L2 2003-06-19 .............................................................................................. 217 6.2.11. V4L2 2003-11-05 .............................................................................................. 218 6.2.12. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.6, 2004-05-09 ..................................................................... 218 6.2.13. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.8 .......................................................................................... 219 6.2.14. V4L2 spec erratum 2004-08-01......................................................................... 219 6.2.15. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.14 ........................................................................................ 219 6.2.16. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.15 ........................................................................................ 219 6.2.17. V4L2 spec erratum 2005-11-27......................................................................... 219 6.2.18. V4L2 spec erratum 2006-01-10......................................................................... 220 6.2.19. V4L2 spec erratum 2006-02-03......................................................................... 220 6.2.20. V4L2 spec erratum 2006-02-04......................................................................... 220 6.2.21. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.17 ........................................................................................ 220 6.2.22. V4L2 spec erratum 2006-09-23 (Draft 0.15) .................................................... 220 6.2.23. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.18 ........................................................................................ 221 6.2.24. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.19 ........................................................................................ 221 6.2.25. V4L2 spec erratum 2006-10-12 (Draft 0.17) .................................................... 221 6.2.26. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.21 ........................................................................................ 221 6.2.27. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.22 ........................................................................................ 221 6.2.28. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.24 ........................................................................................ 222 6.2.29. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.25 ........................................................................................ 222 6.3. Relation of V4L2 to other Linux multimedia APIs ......................................................... 222 vii 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com 6.3.1. X Video Extension............................................................................................... 222 6.3.2. Digital Video ....................................................................................................... 223 6.3.3. Audio Interfaces .................................................................................................. 223 6.4. Experimental API Elements............................................................................................. 223 6.5. Obsolete API Elements .................................................................................................... 224 A. Video For Linux Two Header File............................................................................................ 225 B. Video Capture Example............................................................................................................. 251 C. GNU Free Documentation License........................................................................................... 263 C.1. 0. PREAMBLE................................................................................................................ 263 C.2. 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS.................................................................... 263 C.3. 2. VERBATIM COPYING .............................................................................................. 264 C.4. 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY......................................................................................... 264 C.5. 4. MODIFICATIONS ...................................................................................................... 265 C.6. 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS .................................................................................... 266 C.7. 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS.......................................................................... 266 C.8. 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS ................................................. 267 C.9. 8. TRANSLATION ......................................................................................................... 267 C.10. 9. TERMINATION........................................................................................................ 267 C.11. 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE .......................................................... 267 C.12. Addendum ..................................................................................................................... 268 List of Types .................................................................................................................................... 269 References........................................................................................................................................ 270 http://bbs.51soc.com viii 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com List of Figures 1-1. Image Cropping, Insertion and Scaling....................................................................................... 23 3-1. Field Order, Top Field First Transmitted..................................................................................... 62 3-2. Field Order, Bottom Field First Transmitted............................................................................... 63 4-1. Line synchronization ................................................................................................................... 77 4-2. ITU-R 525 line numbering (M/NTSC and M/PAL).................................................................... 77 4-3. ITU-R 625 line numbering .......................................................................................................... 79 http://bbs.51soc.com ix 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Introduction Video For Linux Two is the second version of the Video For Linux API, a kernel interface for analog radio and video capture and output drivers. Early drivers used ad-hoc interfaces. These were replaced in Linux 2.2 by Alan Cox’ V4L API, based on the interface of the bttv driver. In 1999 Bill Dirks started the development of V4L2 to fix some shortcomings of V4L and to support a wider range of devices. The API was revised again in 2002 prior to its inclusion in Linux 2.5/2.6, and work continues on improvements and additions while maintaining compatibility with existing drivers and applications. In 2006/2007 efforts began on FreeBSD drivers with a V4L2 interface. This book documents the V4L2 API. Intended audience are driver and application writers. If you have questions or ideas regarding the API, please write to the Video4Linux mailing list: https://listman.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/video4linux-list. For inquiries about the V4L2 specification contact the maintainer mschimek@gmx.at (mailto:mschimek@gmx.at). The latest version of this document and the DocBook SGML sources are hosted at http://v4l2spec.bytesex.org, and http://linuxtv.org/downloads/video4linux/API/V4L2_API. http://bbs.51soc.com x 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements Programming a V4L2 device consists of these steps: • Opening the device • Changing device properties, selecting a video and audio input, video standard, picture brightness a. o. • Negotiating a data format • Negotiating an input/output method • The actual input/output loop • Closing the device In practice most steps are optional and can be executed out of order. It depends on the V4L2 device type, you can read about the details in Chapter 4. In this chapter we will discuss the basic concepts applicable to all devices. 1.1. Opening and Closing Devices 1.1.1. Device Naming V4L2 drivers are implemented as kernel modules, loaded manually by the system administrator or automatically when a device is first opened. The driver modules plug into the "videodev" kernel http://bbs.51soc.com module. It provides helper functions and a common application interface specified in this document. Each driver thus loaded registers one or more device nodes with major number 81 and a minor number between 0 and 255. Assigning minor numbers to V4L2 devices is entirely up to the system administrator, this is primarily intended to solve conflicts between devices.1 The module options to select minor numbers are named after the device special file with a "_nr" suffix. For example "video_nr" for /dev/video video capture devices. The number is an offset to the base minor number associated with the device type. 2 When the driver supports multiple devices of the same type more than one minor number can be assigned, separated by commas: > insmod mydriver.o video_nr=0,1 radio_nr=0,1 In /etc/modules.conf this may be written as: alias char-major-81-0 mydriver alias char-major-81-1 mydriver alias char-major-81-64 mydriver – options mydriver video_nr=0,1 radio_nr=0,1 — – When an application attempts to open a device special file with major number 81 and minor number 0, 1, or 64, load "mydriver" (and the "videodev" module it depends upon). — Register the first two video capture devices with minor number 0 and 1 (base number is 0), the first two radio device with minor number 64 and 65 (base 64). 1 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements When no minor number is given as module option the driver supplies a default. Chapter 4 recommends the base minor numbers to be used for the various device types. Obviously minor numbers must be unique. When the number is already in use the offending device will not be registered. By convention system administrators create various character device special files with these major and minor numbers in the /dev directory. The names recomended for the different V4L2 device types are listed in Chapter 4. The creation of character special files (with mknod) is a privileged operation and devices cannot be opened by major and minor number. That means applications cannot reliable scan for loaded or installed drivers. The user must enter a device name, or the application can try the conventional device names. Under the device filesystem (devfs) the minor number options are ignored. V4L2 drivers (or by proxy the "videodev" module) automatically create the required device files in the /dev/v4l directory using the conventional device names above. 1.1.2. Related Devices Devices can support several related functions. For example video capturing, video overlay and VBI capturing are related because these functions share, amongst other, the same video input and tuner frequency. V4L and earlier versions of V4L2 used the same device name and minor number for video capturing and overlay, but different ones for VBI. Experience showed this approach has several problems3, and to make things worse the V4L videodev module used to prohibit multiple hopents ofta depvice:. //bbs.51soc.com As a remedy the present version of the V4L2 API relaxed the concept of device types with specific names and minor numbers. For compatibility with old applications drivers must still register different minor numbers to assign a default function to the device. But if related functions are supported by the driver they must be available under all registered minor numbers. The desired function can be selected after opening the device as described in Chapter 4. Imagine a driver supporting video capturing, video overlay, raw VBI capturing, and FM radio reception. It registers three devices with minor number 0, 64 and 224 (this numbering scheme is inherited from the V4L API). Regardless if /dev/video (81, 0) or /dev/vbi (81, 224) is opened the application can select any one of the video capturing, overlay or VBI capturing functions. Without programming (e. g. reading from the device with dd or cat) /dev/video captures video images, while /dev/vbi captures raw VBI data. /dev/radio (81, 64) is invariable a radio device, unrelated to the video functions. Being unrelated does not imply the devices can be used at the same time, however. The open() function may very well return an EBUSY error code. Besides video input or output the hardware may also support audio sampling or playback. If so, these functions are implemented as OSS or ALSA PCM devices and eventually OSS or ALSA audio mixer. The V4L2 API makes no provisions yet to find these related devices. If you have an idea please write to the Video4Linux mailing list: https://listman.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/video4linux-list. 1.1.3. Multiple Opens In general, V4L2 devices can be opened more than once. When this is supported by the driver, users can for example start a "panel" application to change controls like brightness or audio volume, while 2 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements another application captures video and audio. In other words, panel applications are comparable to an OSS or ALSA audio mixer application. When a device supports multiple functions like capturing and overlay simultaneously, multiple opens allow concurrent use of the device by forked processes or specialized applications. Multiple opens are optional, although drivers should permit at least concurrent accesses without data exchange, i. e. panel applications. This implies open() can return an EBUSY error code when the device is already in use, as well as ioctl() functions initiating data exchange (namely the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl), and the read() and write() functions. Mere opening a V4L2 device does not grant exclusive access.4 Initiating data exchange however assigns the right to read or write the requested type of data, and to change related properties, to this file descriptor. Applications can request additional access privileges using the priority mechanism described in Section 1.3. 1.1.4. Shared Data Streams V4L2 drivers should not support multiple applications reading or writing the same data stream on a device by copying buffers, time multiplexing or similar means. This is better handled by a proxy application in user space. When the driver supports stream sharing anyway it must be implemented transparently. The V4L2 API does not specify how conflicts are solved. 1.1.5. Functions To open and close V4L2 devices applications use the open() and close() function, respectively. http://bbs.51soc.com Devices are programmed using the ioctl() function as explained in the following sections. 1.2. Querying Capabilities Because V4L2 covers a wide variety of devices not all aspects of the API are equally applicable to all types of devices. Furthermore devices of the same type have different capabilities and this specification permits the omission of a few complicated and less important parts of the API. The VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl is available to check if the kernel device is compatible with this specification, and to query the functions and I/O methods supported by the device. Other features can be queried by calling the respective ioctl, for example VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT to learn about the number, types and names of video connectors on the device. Although abstraction is a major objective of this API, the ioctl also allows driver specific applications to reliable identify the driver. All V4L2 drivers must support VIDIOC_QUERYCAP. Applications should always call this ioctl after opening the device. 1.3. Application Priority When multiple applications share a device it may be desirable to assign them different priorities. Contrary to the traditional "rm -rf /" school of thought a video recording application could for example block other applications from changing video controls or switching the current TV channel. Another objective is to permit low priority applications working in background, which can be 3 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements preempted by user controlled applications and automatically regain control of the device at a later time. Since these features cannot be implemented entirely in user space V4L2 defines the VIDIOC_G_PRIORITY and VIDIOC_S_PRIORITY ioctls to request and query the access priority associate with a file descriptor. Opening a device assigns a medium priority, compatible with earlier versions of V4L2 and drivers not supporting these ioctls. Applications requiring a different priority will usually call VIDIOC_S_PRIORITY after verifying the device with the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl. Ioctls changing driver properties, such as VIDIOC_S_INPUT, return an EBUSY error code after another application obtained higher priority. An event mechanism to notify applications about asynchronous property changes has been proposed but not added yet. 1.4. Video Inputs and Outputs Video inputs and outputs are physical connectors of a device. These can be for example RF connectors (antenna/cable), CVBS a.k.a. Composite Video, S-Video or RGB connectors. Only video and VBI capture devices have inputs, output devices have outputs, at least one each. Radio devices have no video inputs or outputs. To learn about the number and attributes of the available inputs and outputs applications can enumerate them with the VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT and VIDIOC_ENUMOUTPUT ioctl, respectively. The struct v4l2_input returned by the VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT ioctl also contains signal status information applicable when the current video input is queried. The VIDIOC_G_INPUT and VIDIOC_G_OUTPUT ioctl return the index of the current video input or output. To select a different input or output applications call the VIDIOC_S_INPUT and http://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_S_OUTPUT ioctl. Drivers must implement all the input ioctls when the device has one or more inputs, all the output ioctls when the device has one or more outputs. Example 1-1. Information about the current video input struct v4l2_input input; int index; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_G_INPUT, &index)) { perror ("VIDIOC_G_INPUT"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } memset (&input, 0, sizeof (input)); input.index = index; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT, &input)) { perror ("VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } printf ("Current input: %s\n", input.name); 4 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements Example 1-2. Switching to the first video input int index; index = 0; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_S_INPUT, &index)) { perror ("VIDIOC_S_INPUT"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } 1.5. Audio Inputs and Outputs Audio inputs and outputs are physical connectors of a device. Video capture devices have inputs, output devices have outputs, zero or more each. Radio devices have no audio inputs or outputs. They have exactly one tuner which in fact is an audio source, but this API associates tuners with video inputs or outputs only, and radio devices have none of these.5 A connector on a TV card to loop back the received audio signal to a sound card is not considered an audio output. Audio and video inputs and outputs are associated. Selecting a video source also selects an audio source. This is most evident when the video and audio source is a tuner. Further audio connectors can combine with more than one video input or output. Assumed two composite video inputs and two audio inputs exist, there may be up to four valid combinations. The relation of video and audio connectors is defined in the audioset field of the respective struct v4l2_input or struct v4l2_output, where each bit represents the index number, starting at zero, of one audio input or output. http://bbs.51soc.com To learn about the number and attributes of the available inputs and outputs applications can enumerate them with the VIDIOC_ENUMAUDIO and VIDIOC_ENUMAUDOUT ioctl, respectively. The struct v4l2_audio returned by the VIDIOC_ENUMAUDIO ioctl also contains signal status information applicable when the current audio input is queried. The VIDIOC_G_AUDIO and VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT ioctl report the current audio input and output, respectively. Note that, unlike VIDIOC_G_INPUT and VIDIOC_G_OUTPUT these ioctls return a structure as VIDIOC_ENUMAUDIO and VIDIOC_ENUMAUDOUT do, not just an index. To select an audio input and change its properties applications call the VIDIOC_S_AUDIO ioctl. To select an audio output (which presently has no changeable properties) applications call the VIDIOC_S_AUDOUT ioctl. Drivers must implement all input ioctls when the device has one or more inputs, all output ioctls when the device has one or more outputs. When the device has any audio inputs or outputs the driver must set the V4L2_CAP_AUDIO flag in the struct v4l2_capability returned by the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl. Example 1-3. Information about the current audio input struct v4l2_audio audio; memset (&audio, 0, sizeof (audio)); if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_G_AUDIO, &audio)) { perror ("VIDIOC_G_AUDIO"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } 5 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements printf ("Current input: %s\n", audio.name); Example 1-4. Switching to the first audio input struct v4l2_audio audio; memset (&audio, 0, sizeof (audio)); /* clear audio.mode, audio.reserved */ audio.index = 0; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_S_AUDIO, &audio)) { perror ("VIDIOC_S_AUDIO"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } 1.6. Tuners and Modulators 1.6.1. Tuners Video input devices can have one or more tuners demodulating a RF signal. Each tuner is associated with one or more video inputs, depending on the number of RF connectors on the tuner. The type http://bbs.51soc.com field of the respective struct v4l2_input returned by the VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT ioctl is set to V4L2_INPUT_TYPE_TUNER and its tuner field contains the index number of the tuner. Radio devices have exactly one tuner with index zero, no video inputs. To query and change tuner properties applications use the VIDIOC_G_TUNER and VIDIOC_S_TUNER ioctl, respectively. The struct v4l2_tuner returned by VIDIOC_G_TUNER also contains signal status information applicable when the tuner of the current video input, or a radio tuner is queried. Note that VIDIOC_S_TUNER does not switch the current tuner, when there is more than one at all. The tuner is solely determined by the current video input. Drivers must support both ioctls and set the V4L2_CAP_TUNER flag in the struct v4l2_capability returned by the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl when the device has one or more tuners. 1.6.2. Modulators Video output devices can have one or more modulators, uh, modulating a video signal for radiation or connection to the antenna input of a TV set or video recorder. Each modulator is associated with one or more video outputs, depending on the number of RF connectors on the modulator. The type field of the respective struct v4l2_output returned by the VIDIOC_ENUMOUTPUT ioctl is set to V4L2_OUTPUT_TYPE_MODULATOR and its modulator field contains the index number of the modulator. This specification does not define radio output devices. To query and change modulator properties applications use the VIDIOC_G_MODULATOR and VIDIOC_S_MODULATOR ioctl. Note that VIDIOC_S_MODULATOR does not switch the current modulator, when there is more than one at all. The modulator is solely determined by the current video output. Drivers must support both ioctls and set the V4L2_CAP_TUNER (sic) flag in the 6 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements struct v4l2_capability returned by the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl when the device has one or more modulators. 1.6.3. Radio Frequency To get and set the tuner or modulator radio frequency applications use the VIDIOC_G_FREQUENCY and VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY ioctl which both take a pointer to a struct v4l2_frequency. These ioctls are used for TV and radio devices alike. Drivers must support both ioctls when the tuner or modulator ioctls are supported, or when the device is a radio device. 1.6.4. Satellite Receivers To be discussed. See also proposals by Peter Schlaf, video4linux-list@redhat.com on 23 Oct 2002, subject: "Re: [V4L] Re: v4l2 api". 1.7. Video Standards Video devices typically support one or more different video standards or variations of standards. Each video input and output may support another set of standards. This set is reported by the std field of struct v4l2_input and struct v4l2_output returned by the VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT and VIDIOC_ENUMOUTPUT ioctl, respectively. http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2 defines one bit for each analog video standard currently in use worldwide, and sets aside bits for driver defined standards, e. g. hybrid standards to watch NTSC video tapes on PAL TVs and vice versa. Applications can use the predefined bits to select a particular standard, although presenting the user a menu of supported standards is preferred. To enumerate and query the attributes of the supported standards applications use the VIDIOC_ENUMSTD ioctl. Many of the defined standards are actually just variations of a few major standards. The hardware may in fact not distinguish between them, or do so internal and switch automatically. Therefore enumerated standards also contain sets of one or more standard bits. Assume a hypothetic tuner capable of demodulating B/PAL, G/PAL and I/PAL signals. The first enumerated standard is a set of B and G/PAL, switched automatically depending on the selected radio frequency in UHF or VHF band. Enumeration gives a "PAL-B/G" or "PAL-I" choice. Similar a Composite input may collapse standards, enumerating "PAL-B/G/H/I", "NTSC-M" and "SECAM-D/K".6 To query and select the standard used by the current video input or output applications call the VIDIOC_G_STD and VIDIOC_S_STD ioctl, respectively. The received standard can be sensed with the VIDIOC_QUERYSTD ioctl. Note parameter of all these ioctls is a pointer to a v4l2_std_id type (a standard set), not an index into the standard enumeration.7 Drivers must implement all video standard ioctls when the device has one or more video inputs or outputs. Special rules apply to USB cameras where the notion of video standards makes little sense. More generally any capture device, output devices accordingly, which is • incapable of capturing fields or frames at the nominal rate of the video standard, or • where timestamps refer to the instant the field or frame was received by the driver, not the capture time, or 7 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements • where sequence numbers refer to the frames received by the driver, not the captured frames. Here the driver shall set the std field of struct v4l2_input and struct v4l2_output to zero, the VIDIOC_G_STD, VIDIOC_S_STD, VIDIOC_QUERYSTD and VIDIOC_ENUMSTD ioctls shall return the EINVAL error code.8 Example 1-5. Information about the current video standard v4l2_std_id std_id; struct v4l2_standard standard; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_G_STD, &std_id)) { /* Note when VIDIOC_ENUMSTD always returns EINVAL this is no video device or it falls under the USB exception, and VIDIOC_G_STD returning EINVAL is no error. */ perror ("VIDIOC_G_STD"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } memset (&standard, 0, sizeof (standard)); standard.index = 0; while (0 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_ENUMSTD, &standard)) { if (standard.id & std_id) { printf ("Current video standard: %s\n", standard.name); exit (EXIT_SUCCESS); } http://bbs.51soc.com standard.index++; } /* EINVAL indicates the end of the enumeration, which cannot be empty unless this device falls under the USB exception. */ if (errno == EINVAL || standard.index == 0) { perror ("VIDIOC_ENUMSTD"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } Example 1-6. Listing the video standards supported by the current input struct v4l2_input input; struct v4l2_standard standard; memset (&input, 0, sizeof (input)); if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_G_INPUT, &input.index)) { perror ("VIDIOC_G_INPUT"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT, &input)) { perror ("VIDIOC_ENUM_INPUT"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } 8 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements printf ("Current input %s supports:\n", input.name); memset (&standard, 0, sizeof (standard)); standard.index = 0; while (0 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_ENUMSTD, &standard)) { if (standard.id & input.std) printf ("%s\n", standard.name); standard.index++; } /* EINVAL indicates the end of the enumeration, which cannot be empty unless this device falls under the USB exception. */ if (errno != EINVAL || standard.index == 0) { perror ("VIDIOC_ENUMSTD"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } Example 1-7. Selecting a new video standard struct v4l2_input input; v4l2_std_id std_id; memset (&input, 0, sizeof (input)); http://bbs.51soc.com if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_G_INPUT, &input.index)) { perror ("VIDIOC_G_INPUT"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT, &input)) { perror ("VIDIOC_ENUM_INPUT"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } if (0 == (input.std & V4L2_STD_PAL_BG)) { fprintf (stderr, "Oops. B/G PAL is not supported.\n"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } /* Note this is also supposed to work when only B or G/PAL is supported. */ std_id = V4L2_STD_PAL_BG; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_S_STD, &std_id)) { perror ("VIDIOC_S_STD"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } 9 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements 1.8. User Controls Devices typically have a number of user-settable controls such as brightness, saturation and so on, which would be presented to the user on a graphical user interface. But, different devices will have different controls available, and furthermore, the range of possible values, and the default value will vary from device to device. The control ioctls provide the information and a mechanism to create a nice user interface for these controls that will work correctly with any device. All controls are accessed using an ID value. V4L2 defines several IDs for specific purposes. Drivers can also implement their own custom controls using V4L2_CID_PRIVATE_BASE and higher values. The pre-defined control IDs have the prefix V4L2_CID_, and are listed in Table 1-1. The ID is used when querying the attributes of a control, and when getting or setting the current value. Generally applications should present controls to the user without assumptions about their purpose. Each control comes with a name string the user is supposed to understand. When the purpose is non-intuitive the driver writer should provide a user manual, a user interface plug-in or a driver specific panel application. Predefined IDs were introduced to change a few controls programmatically, for example to mute a device during a channel switch. Drivers may enumerate different controls after switching the current video input or output, tuner or modulator, or audio input or output. Different in the sense of other bounds, another default and current value, step size or other menu items. A control with a certain custom ID can also change name and type.9 Control values are stored globally, they do not change when switching except to stay within the reported bounds. They also do not change e. g. when the device is opened or closed, when the tuner radio frequency is changed or generally never without application request. Since V4L2 specifies no event mechanism, panel applications intended to cooperate with other panel applications (be they built into a larger application, as a TV viewer) may need to regularly poll control values to update their user interface.10 http://bbs.51soc.com Table 1-1. Control IDs ID V4L2_CID_BASE V4L2_CID_USER_BASE V4L2_CID_BRIGHTNESS V4L2_CID_CONTRAST V4L2_CID_SATURATION V4L2_CID_HUE V4L2_CID_AUDIO_VOLUME V4L2_CID_AUDIO_BALANCE V4L2_CID_AUDIO_BASS V4L2_CID_AUDIO_TREBLE V4L2_CID_AUDIO_MUTE Type integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer boolean Description First predefined ID, equal to V4L2_CID_BRIGHTNESS. Synonym of V4L2_CID_BASE. Picture brightness, or more precisely, the black level. Picture contrast or luma gain. Picture color saturation or chroma gain. Hue or color balance. Overall audio volume. Note some drivers also provide an OSS or ALSA mixer interface. Audio stereo balance. Minimum corresponds to all the way left, maximum to right. Audio bass adjustment. Audio treble adjustment. Mute audio, i. e. set the volume to zero, however without affecting V4L2_CID_AUDIO_VOLUME. Like ALSA drivers, V4L2 drivers must mute at load time to avoid excessive noise. Actually the entire device should be reset to a low power consumption state. 10 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements ID Type Description V4L2_CID_AUDIO_LOUDNESS boolean Loudness mode (bass boost). V4L2_CID_BLACK_LEVEL integer Another name for brightness (not a synonym of V4L2_CID_BRIGHTNESS). This control is deprecated and should not be used in new drivers and applications. V4L2_CID_AUTO_WHITE_BALANCE boolean Automatic white balance (cameras). V4L2_CID_DO_WHITE_BALANCE button This is an action control. When set (the value is ignored), the device will do a white balance and then hold the current setting. Contrast this with the boolean V4L2_CID_AUTO_WHITE_BALANCE, which, when activated, keeps adjusting the white balance. V4L2_CID_RED_BALANCE integer Red chroma balance. V4L2_CID_BLUE_BALANCE integer Blue chroma balance. V4L2_CID_GAMMA integer Gamma adjust. V4L2_CID_WHITENESS integer Whiteness for grey-scale devices. This is a synonym for V4L2_CID_GAMMA. This control is deprecated and should not be used in new drivers and applications. V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE integer Exposure (cameras). [Unit?] V4L2_CID_AUTOGAIN boolean Automatic gain/exposure control. V4L2_CID_GAIN integer Gain control. V4L2_CID_HFLIP boolean Mirror the picture horizontally. http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_CID_VFLIP boolean Mirror the picture vertically. V4L2_CID_HCENTER_DEPRECATED integer Horizontal image centering. This control is (formerly V4L2_CID_HCENTER) deprecated. New drivers and applications should use the Camera class controls V4L2_CID_PAN_ABSOLUTE, V4L2_CID_PAN_RELATIVE and V4L2_CID_PAN_RESET instead. V4L2_CID_VCENTER_DEPRECATED integer (formerly V4L2_CID_VCENTER) Vertical image centering. Centering is intended to physically adjust cameras. For image cropping see Section 1.11, for clipping Section 4.2. This control is deprecated. New drivers and applications should use the Camera class controls V4L2_CID_TILT_ABSOLUTE, V4L2_CID_TILT_RELATIVE and V4L2_CID_TILT_RESET instead. V4L2_CID_POWER_LINE_FREQUENCYinteger Enables a power line frequency filter to avoid flicker. Possible values are: V4L2_CID_POWER_LINE_FREQUENCY_DISABLED (0), V4L2_CID_POWER_LINE_FREQUENCY_50HZ (1) and V4L2_CID_POWER_LINE_FREQUENCY_60HZ (2). 11 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements ID V4L2_CID_HUE_AUTO Type boolean V4L2_CID_WHITE_BALANCE_TEMPERinAteTgUeRrE V4L2_CID_SHARPNESS integer V4L2_CID_BACKLIGHT_COMPENSATIinOteNger V4L2_CID_LASTP1 V4L2_CID_PRIVATE_BASE Description Enables automatic hue control by the device. The effect of setting V4L2_CID_HUE while automatic hue control is enabled is undefined, drivers should ignore such request. This control specifies the white balance settings as a color temperature in Kelvin. A driver should have a minimum of 2800 (incandescent) to 6500 (daylight). For more information about color temperature see Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_temperature). Adjusts the sharpness filters in a camera. The minimum value disables the filters, higher values give a sharper picture. Adjusts the backlight compensation in a camera. The minimum value disables backlight compensation. End of the predefined control IDs (currently V4L2_CID_BACKLIGHT_COMPENSATION + 1). ID of the first custom (driver specific) control. Applications depending on particular custom controls should check the driver name and version, see Section 1.2. Applications can enumerate the available controls with the VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL and http://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_QUERYMENU ioctls, get and set a control value with the VIDIOC_G_CTRL and VIDIOC_S_CTRL ioctls. Drivers must implement VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, VIDIOC_G_CTRL and VIDIOC_S_CTRL when the device has one or more controls, VIDIOC_QUERYMENU when it has one or more menu type controls. Example 1-8. Enumerating all controls struct v4l2_queryctrl queryctrl; struct v4l2_querymenu querymenu; static void enumerate_menu (void) { printf (" Menu items:\n"); memset (&querymenu, 0, sizeof (querymenu)); querymenu.id = queryctrl.id; for (querymenu.index = queryctrl.minimum; querymenu.index <= queryctrl.maximum; querymenu.index++) { if (0 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QUERYMENU, &querymenu)) { printf (" %s\n", querymenu.name); } else { perror ("VIDIOC_QUERYMENU"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } } 12 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements } memset (&queryctrl, 0, sizeof (queryctrl)); for (queryctrl.id = V4L2_CID_BASE; queryctrl.id < V4L2_CID_LASTP1; queryctrl.id++) { if (0 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, &queryctrl)) { if (queryctrl.flags & V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_DISABLED) continue; printf ("Control %s\n", queryctrl.name); if (queryctrl.type == V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_MENU) enumerate_menu (); } else { if (errno == EINVAL) continue; perror ("VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } } for (queryctrl.id = V4L2_CID_PRIVATE_BASE;; queryctrl.id++) { if (0 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, &queryctrl)) { if (queryctrl.flags & V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_DISABLED) continue; http://bbs.51soc.com printf ("Control %s\n", queryctrl.name); if (queryctrl.type == V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_MENU) enumerate_menu (); } else { if (errno == EINVAL) break; perror ("VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } } Example 1-9. Changing controls struct v4l2_queryctrl queryctrl; struct v4l2_control control; memset (&queryctrl, 0, sizeof (queryctrl)); queryctrl.id = V4L2_CID_BRIGHTNESS; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, &queryctrl)) { if (errno != EINVAL) { perror ("VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } else { printf ("V4L2_CID_BRIGHTNESS is not supported\n"); 13 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements } } else if (queryctrl.flags & V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_DISABLED) { printf ("V4L2_CID_BRIGHTNESS is not supported\n"); } else { memset (&control, 0, sizeof (control)); control.id = V4L2_CID_BRIGHTNESS; control.value = queryctrl.default_value; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_S_CTRL, &control)) { perror ("VIDIOC_S_CTRL"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } } memset (&control, 0, sizeof (control)); control.id = V4L2_CID_CONTRAST; if (0 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_G_CTRL, &control)) { control.value += 1; /* The driver may clamp the value or return ERANGE, ignored here */ if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_S_CTRL, &control) && errno != ERANGE) { perror ("VIDIOC_S_CTRL"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } /* Ignore if V4L2_CID_CONTRAST is unsupported */ } else if (errno != EINVAL) { http://bbs.51soc.com perror ("VIDIOC_G_CTRL"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } control.id = V4L2_CID_AUDIO_MUTE; control.value = TRUE; /* silence */ /* Errors ignored */ ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_S_CTRL, &control); 1.9. Extended Controls 1.9.1. Introduction The control mechanism as originally designed was meant to be used for user settings (brightness, saturation, etc). However, it turned out to be a very useful model for implementing more complicated driver APIs where each driver implements only a subset of a larger API. The MPEG encoding API was the driving force behind designing and implementing this extended control mechanism: the MPEG standard is quite large and the currently supported hardware MPEG encoders each only implement a subset of this standard. Further more, many parameters relating to how the video is encoded into an MPEG stream are specific to the MPEG encoding chip since the MPEG standard only defines the format of the resulting MPEG stream, not how the video is actually encoded into that format. 14 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements Unfortunately, the original control API lacked some features needed for these new uses and so it was extended into the (not terribly originally named) extended control API. 1.9.2. The Extended Control API Three new ioctls are available: VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS and VIDIOC_TRY_EXT_CTRLS. These ioctls act on arrays of controls (as opposed to the VIDIOC_G_CTRL and VIDIOC_S_CTRL ioctls that act on a single control). This is needed since it is often required to atomically change several controls at once. Each of the new ioctls expects a pointer to a struct v4l2_ext_controls. This structure contains a pointer to the control array, a count of the number of controls in that array and a control class. Control classes are used to group similar controls into a single class. For example, control class V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_USER contains all user controls (i. e. all controls that can also be set using the old VIDIOC_S_CTRL ioctl). Control class V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_MPEG contains all controls relating to MPEG encoding, etc. All controls in the control array must belong to the specified control class. An error is returned if this is not the case. It is also possible to use an empty control array (count == 0) to check whether the specified control class is supported. The control array is a struct v4l2_ext_control array. The v4l2_ext_control structure is very similar to struct v4l2_control, except for the fact that it also allows for 64-bit values and pointers to be passed (although the latter is not yet used anywhere). It is important to realize that due to the flexibility of controls it is necessary to check whether the http://bbs.51soc.com control you want to set actually is supported in the driver and what the valid range of values is. So use the VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL and VIDIOC_QUERYMENU ioctls to check this. Also note that it is possible that some of the menu indices in a control of type V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_MENU may not be supported (VIDIOC_QUERYMENU will return an error). A good example is the list of supported MPEG audio bitrates. Some drivers only support one or two bitrates, others support a wider range. 1.9.3. Enumerating Extended Controls The recommended way to enumerate over the extended controls is by using VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL in combination with the V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_NEXT_CTRL flag: struct v4l2_queryctrl qctrl; qctrl.id = V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_NEXT_CTRL; while (0 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, &qctrl)) { /* ... */ qctrl.id |= V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_NEXT_CTRL; } The initial control ID is set to 0 ORed with the V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_NEXT_CTRL flag. The VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL ioctl will return the first control with a higher ID than the specified one. When no such controls are found an error is returned. If you want to get all controls within a specific control class, then you can set the initial qctrl.id value to the control class and add an extra check to break out of the loop when a control of another control class is found: 15 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements qctrl.id = V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_MPEG | V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_NEXT_CTRL; while (0 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, &qctrl)) { if (V4L2_CTRL_ID2CLASS (qctrl.id) != V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_MPEG) break; /* ... */ qctrl.id |= V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_NEXT_CTRL; } The 32-bit qctrl.id value is subdivided into three bit ranges: the top 4 bits are reserved for flags (e. g. V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_NEXT_CTRL) and are not actually part of the ID. The remaining 28 bits form the control ID, of which the most significant 12 bits define the control class and the least significant 16 bits identify the control within the control class. It is guaranteed that these last 16 bits are always non-zero for controls. The range of 0x1000 and up are reserved for driver-specific controls. The macro V4L2_CTRL_ID2CLASS(id) returns the control class ID based on a control ID. If the driver does not support extended controls, then VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL will fail when used in combination with V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_NEXT_CTRL. In that case the old method of enumerating control should be used (see 1.8). But if it is supported, then it is guaranteed to enumerate over all controls, including driver-private controls. 1.9.4. Creating Control Panels It is possible to create control panels for a graphical user interface where the user can select the various controls. Basically you will have to iterate over all controls using the method described above. Each control class starts with a control of type V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_CTRL_CLASS. VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL will return the name of this control class which can be used as the title of a tab http://bbs.51soc.com page within a control panel. The flags field of struct v4l2_queryctrl also contains hints on the behavior of the control. See the VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL documentation for more details. 1.9.5. MPEG Control Reference Below all controls within the MPEG control class are described. First the generic controls, then controls specific for certain hardware. 1.9.5.1. Generic MPEG Controls Table 1-2. MPEG Control IDs ID Description Type V4L2_CID_MPEG_CLASS class The MPEG class descriptor. Calling VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL for this control will return a description of this contro V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_TYPE enum The MPEG-1, -2 or -4 output stream type. One cannot assume anything here. Each hardware MPEG encoder ten ENTRYTBL not supported. 16 嵌入式SOC社区 ID Description http://bbs.51soc.com Type Chapter 1. Common API Elements V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_PID_PMT integer Program Map Table Packet ID for the MPEG transport stream (default 16) V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_PID_AUDIO integer Audio Packet ID for the MPEG transport stream (default 256) V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_PID_VIDEO integer Video Packet ID for the MPEG transport stream (default 260) V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_PID_PCR integer Packet ID for the MPEG transport stream carrying PCR fields (default 259) V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_PES_ID_AUDIO Audio ID for MPEG PES integer V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_PES_ID_VIDEO Video ID for MPEG PES integer V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_VBI_FMT enum http://bbs.51soc.com Some cards can embed VBI data (e. g. Closed Caption, Teletext) into the MPEG stream. This control selects whe ENTRYTBL not supported. V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_SAMPLING_FREQ enum MPEG Audio sampling frequency. Possible values are: ENTRYTBL not supported. V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_ENCODING MPEG Audio encoding. Possible values are: ENTRYTBL not supported. enum V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE Layer I bitrate. Possible values are: ENTRYTBL not supported. enum V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE Layer II bitrate. Possible values are: ENTRYTBL not supported. enum V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE Layer III bitrate. Possible values are: ENTRYTBL not supported. enum 17 嵌入式SOC社区 ID Description http://bbs.51soc.com Type Chapter 1. Common API Elements V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_MODE MPEG Audio mode. Possible values are: ENTRYTBL not supported. enum V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_MODE_EXTENSION enum Joint Stereo audio mode extension. In Layer I and II they indicate which subbands are in intensity stereo. All oth ENTRYTBL not supported. V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_EMPHASIS Audio Emphasis. Possible values are: ENTRYTBL not supported. enum V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_CRC CRC method. Possible values are: ENTRYTBL not supported. enum V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_MUTE bool Mutes the audio when capturing. This is not done by muting audio hardware, which can still produce a slight his http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_ENCODING enum MPEG Video encoding method. Possible values are: ENTRYTBL not supported. V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_ASPECT Video aspect. Possible values are: ENTRYTBL not supported. enum V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_B_FRAMES Number of B-Frames (default 2) integer V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_GOP_SIZE GOP size (default 12) integer V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_GOP_CLOSURE bool GOP closure (default 1) V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_PULLDOWN bool Enable 3:2 pulldown (default 0) V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_BITRATE_MODE Video bitrate mode. Possible values are: enum 18 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ID Description ENTRYTBL not supported. Type Chapter 1. Common API Elements V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_BITRATE Video bitrate in bits per second. integer V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_BITRATE_PEAK integer Peak video bitrate in bits per second. Must be larger or equal to the average video bitrate. It is ignored if the vide V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_TEMPORAL_DECIMATION integer For every captured frame, skip this many subsequent frames (default 0). V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_MUTE bool "Mutes" the video to a fixed color when capturing. This is useful for testing, to produce a fixed video bitstream. 0 V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_MUTE_YUV integer Sets the "mute" color of the video. The supplied 32-bit integer is interpreted as follows (bit 0 = least significant b ENTRYTBL not supported. 1.9.5.2. CX2341x MPEG Controls http://bbs.51soc.com The following MPEG class controls deal with MPEG encoding settings that are specific to the Conexant CX23415 and CX23416 MPEG encoding chips. Table 1-3. CX2341x Control IDs ID Description Type V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_SPATIAL_FILTER_MODE enum Sets the Spatial Filter mode (default MANUAL). Possible values are: ENTRYTBL not supported. V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_SPATIAL_FILTER integer (015) The setting for the Spatial Filter. 0 = off, 15 = maximum. (Default is 0.) V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_LUMA_SPATIAL_FILTER_TYPE enum Select the algorithm to use for the Luma Spatial Filter (default 1D_HOR). Possible values: ENTRYTBL not supported. V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_CHROMA_SPATIAL_FILTER_TYPE enum Select the algorithm for the Chroma Spatial Filter (default 1D_HOR). Possible values are: 19 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ID Description ENTRYTBL not supported. Chapter 1. Common API Elements Type V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_TEMPORAL_FILTER_MODE enum Sets the Temporal Filter mode (default MANUAL). Possible values are: ENTRYTBL not supported. V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_TEMPORAL_FILTER integer (031) The setting for the Temporal Filter. 0 = off, 31 = maximum. (Default is 8 for full-scale capturing and 0 for scaled V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_MEDIAN_FILTER_TYPE Median Filter Type (default OFF). Possible values are: ENTRYTBL not supported. enum V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_LUMA_MEDIAN_FILTER_BOTTOM integer (0255) Threshold above which the luminance median filter is enabled (default 0) V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_LUMA_MEDIAN_FILTER_TOP integer (0- http://bbs.51soc.2c55)om Threshold below which the luminance median filter is enabled (default 255) V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_CHROMA_MEDIAN_FILTER_BOTTOM integer (0255) Threshold above which the chroma median filter is enabled (default 0) V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_CHROMA_MEDIAN_FILTER_TOP integer (0255) Threshold below which the chroma median filter is enabled (default 255) V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_STREAM_INSERT_NAV_PACKETS bool The CX2341X MPEG encoder can insert one empty MPEG-2 PES packet into the stream between every four vid 1.9.6. Camera Control Reference The Camera class includes controls for mechanical (or equivalent digital) features of a device such as controllable lenses or sensors. 20 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Table 1-4. Camera Control IDs ID Description Type Chapter 1. Common API Elements V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS class The Camera class descriptor. Calling VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL for this control will return a description of this contro V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_AUTO integer Enables automatic adjustments of the exposure time and/or iris aperture. The effect of manual changes of the exp ENTRYTBL not supported. V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_ABSOLUTE integer Determines the exposure time of the camera sensor. The exposure time is limited by the frame interval. Drivers s V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_AUTO_PRIORITY boolean When V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_AUTO is set to AUTO or SHUTTER_PRIORITY, this control determines if the device V4L2_CID_PAN_RELATIVE integer This control turns the camera horizontally by the specified amount. The unit is undefined. A positive value move V4L2_CID_TILT_RELATIVE integer This control turns the camera vertically by the specified amount. The unit is undefined. A positive value moves th http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_CID_PAN_RESET boolean When this control is set to TRUE (1), the camera moves horizontally to the default position. V4L2_CID_TILT_RESET boolean When this control is set to TRUE (1), the camera moves vertically to the default position. V4L2_CID_PAN_ABSOLUTE integer This control turns the camera horizontally to the specified position. Positive values move the camera to the right V4L2_CID_TILT_ABSOLUTE integer This control turns the camera vertically to the specified position. Positive values move the camera up, negative va V4L2_CID_FOCUS_ABSOLUTE integer This control sets the focal point of the camera to the specified position. The unit is undefined. Positive values set V4L2_CID_FOCUS_RELATIVE integer This control moves the focal point of the camera by the specified amount. The unit is undefined. Positive values V4L2_CID_FOCUS_AUTO boolean Enables automatic focus adjustments. The effect of manual focus adjustments while this feature is enabled is und 21 嵌入式SOC社区 1.10. Data Formats http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements 1.10.1. Data Format Negotiation Different devices exchange different kinds of data with applications, for example video images, raw or sliced VBI data, RDS datagrams. Even within one kind many different formats are possible, in particular an abundance of image formats. Although drivers must provide a default and the selection persists across closing and reopening a device, applications should always negotiate a data format before engaging in data exchange. Negotiation means the application asks for a particular format and the driver selects and reports the best the hardware can do to satisfy the request. Of course applications can also just query the current selection. A single mechanism exists to negotiate all data formats using the aggregate struct v4l2_format and the VIDIOC_G_FMT and VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctls. Additionally the VIDIOC_TRY_FMT ioctl can be used to examine what the hardware could do, without actually selecting a new data format. The data formats supported by the V4L2 API are covered in the respective device section in Chapter 4. For a closer look at image formats see Chapter 2. The VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl is a major turning-point in the initialization sequence. Prior to this point multiple panel applications can access the same device concurrently to select the current input, change controls or modify other properties. The first VIDIOC_S_FMT assigns a logical stream (video data, VBI data etc.) exclusively to one file descriptor. Exclusive means no other application, more precisely no other file descriptor, can grab this stream or change device properties inconsistent with the negotiated parameters. A video standard change for example, when the new standard uses a different number of scan lines, can invalidate the selected image format. Therefore only the file descriptor owning the stream can make invalidating changes. http://bbs.51soc.com Accordingly multiple file descriptors which grabbed different logical streams prevent each other from interfering with their settings. When for example video overlay is about to start or already in progress, simultaneous video capturing may be restricted to the same cropping and image size. When applications omit the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl its locking side effects are implied by the next step, the selection of an I/O method with the VIDIOC_REQBUFS ioctl or implicit with the first read() or write() call. Generally only one logical stream can be assigned to a file descriptor, the exception being drivers permitting simultaneous video capturing and overlay using the same file descriptor for compatibility with V4L and earlier versions of V4L2. Switching the logical stream or returning into "panel mode" is possible by closing and reopening the device. Drivers may support a switch using VIDIOC_S_FMT. All drivers exchanging data with applications must support the VIDIOC_G_FMT and VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. Implementation of the VIDIOC_TRY_FMT is highly recommended but optional. 1.10.2. Image Format Enumeration Apart of the generic format negotiation functions a special ioctl to enumerate all image formats supported by video capture, overlay or output devices is available.11 The VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT ioctl must be supported by all drivers exchanging image data with applications. Important: Drivers are not supposed to convert image formats in kernel space. They must enumerate only formats directly supported by the hardware. If necessary driver writers should publish an example conversion routine or library for integration into applications. 22 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements 1.11. Image Cropping, Insertion and Scaling Some video capture devices can sample a subsection of the picture and shrink or enlarge it to an image of arbitrary size. We call these abilities cropping and scaling. Some video output devices can scale an image up or down and insert it at an arbitrary scan line and horizontal offset into a video signal. Applications can use the following API to select an area in the video signal, query the default area and the hardware limits. Despite their name, the VIDIOC_CROPCAP, VIDIOC_G_CROP and VIDIOC_S_CROP ioctls apply to input as well as output devices. Scaling requires a source and a target. On a video capture or overlay device the source is the video signal, and the cropping ioctls determine the area actually sampled. The target are images read by the application or overlaid onto the graphics screen. Their size (and position for an overlay) is negotiated with the VIDIOC_G_FMT and VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctls. On a video output device the source are the images passed in by the application, and their size is again negotiated with the VIDIOC_G/S_FMT ioctls, or may be encoded in a compressed video stream. The target is the video signal, and the cropping ioctls determine the area where the images are inserted. Source and target rectangles are defined even if the device does not support scaling or the VIDIOC_G/S_CROP ioctls. Their size (and position where applicable) will be fixed in this case. All capture and output device must support the VIDIOC_CROPCAP ioctl such that applications can http://bbs.51soc.com determine if scaling takes place. 1.11.1. Cropping Structures Figure 1-1. Image Cropping, Insertion and Scaling v4l2_cropcap.defrect v4l2_crop.c v4l2_cropcap.bounds v4l2_format For capture devices the coordinates of the top left corner, width and height of the area which can be sampled is given by the bounds substructure of the struct v4l2_cropcap returned by the 23 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements VIDIOC_CROPCAP ioctl. To support a wide range of hardware this specification does not define an origin or units. However by convention drivers should horizontally count unscaled samples relative to 0H (the leading edge of the horizontal sync pulse, see Figure 4-1). Vertically ITU-R line numbers of the first field (Figure 4-2, Figure 4-3), multiplied by two if the driver can capture both fields. The top left corner, width and height of the source rectangle, that is the area actually sampled, is given by struct v4l2_crop using the same coordinate system as struct v4l2_cropcap. Applications can use the VIDIOC_G_CROP and VIDIOC_S_CROP ioctls to get and set this rectangle. It must lie completely within the capture boundaries and the driver may further adjust the requested size and/or position according to hardware limitations. Each capture device has a default source rectangle, given by the defrect substructure of struct v4l2_cropcap. The center of this rectangle shall align with the center of the active picture area of the video signal, and cover what the driver writer considers the complete picture. Drivers shall reset the source rectangle to the default when the driver is first loaded, but not later. For output devices these structures and ioctls are used accordingly, defining the target rectangle where the images will be inserted into the video signal. 1.11.2. Scaling Adjustments Video hardware can have various cropping, insertion and scaling limitations. It may only scale up or down, support only discrete scaling factors, or have different scaling abilities in horizontal and vertical direction. Also it may not support scaling at all. At the same time the struct v4l2_crop rectangle may have to be aligned, and both the source and target rectangles may have arbitrary upper and lower size limits. In particular the maximum width and height in struct v4l2_crop may be smaller than the struct v4l2_cropcap.bounds area. Therefore, as usual, drivers are expected to adjust http://bbs.51soc.com the requested parameters and return the actual values selected. Applications can change the source or the target rectangle first, as they may prefer a particular image size or a certain area in the video signal. If the driver has to adjust both to satisfy hardware limitations, the last requested rectangle shall take priority, and the driver should preferably adjust the opposite one. The VIDIOC_TRY_FMT ioctl however shall not change the driver state and therefore only adjust the requested rectangle. Suppose scaling on a video capture device is restricted to a factor 1:1 or 2:1 in either direction and the target image size must be a multiple of 16 × 16 pixels. The source cropping rectangle is set to defaults, which are also the upper limit in this example, of 640 × 400 pixels at offset 0, 0. An application requests an image size of 300 × 225 pixels, assuming video will be scaled down from the "full picture" accordingly. The driver sets the image size to the closest possible values 304 × 224, then chooses the cropping rectangle closest to the requested size, that is 608 × 224 (224 × 2:1 would exceed the limit 400). The offset 0, 0 is still valid, thus unmodified. Given the default cropping rectangle reported by VIDIOC_CROPCAP the application can easily propose another offset to center the cropping rectangle. Now the application may insist on covering an area using a picture aspect ratio closer to the original request, so it asks for a cropping rectangle of 608 × 456 pixels. The present scaling factors limit cropping to 640 × 384, so the driver returns the cropping size 608 × 384 and adjusts the image size to closest possible 304 × 192. 1.11.3. Examples Source and target rectangles shall remain unchanged across closing and reopening a device, such 24 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements that piping data into or out of a device will work without special preparations. More advanced applications should ensure the parameters are suitable before starting I/O. Example 1-10. Resetting the cropping parameters (A video capture device is assumed; change V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE for other devices.) struct v4l2_cropcap cropcap; struct v4l2_crop crop; memset (&cropcap, 0, sizeof (cropcap)); cropcap.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_CROPCAP, &cropcap)) { perror ("VIDIOC_CROPCAP"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } memset (&crop, 0, sizeof (crop)); crop.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; crop.c = cropcap.defrect; /* Ignore if cropping is not supported (EINVAL). */ if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_S_CROP, &crop) && errno != EINVAL) { perror ("VIDIOC_S_CROP"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } http://bbs.51soc.com Example 1-11. Simple downscaling (A video capture device is assumed.) struct v4l2_cropcap cropcap; struct v4l2_format format; reset_cropping_parameters (); /* Scale down to 1/4 size of full picture. */ memset (&format, 0, sizeof (format)); /* defaults */ format.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; format.fmt.pix.width = cropcap.defrect.width >> 1; format.fmt.pix.height = cropcap.defrect.height >> 1; format.fmt.pix.pixelformat = V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUYV; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_S_FMT, &format)) { perror ("VIDIOC_S_FORMAT"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } /* We could check the actual image size now, the actual scaling factor or if the driver can scale at all. */ 25 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements Example 1-12. Selecting an output area struct v4l2_cropcap cropcap; struct v4l2_crop crop; memset (&cropcap, 0, sizeof (cropcap)); cropcap.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_CROPCAP, &cropcap)) { perror ("VIDIOC_CROPCAP"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } memset (&crop, 0, sizeof (crop)); crop.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT; crop.c = cropcap.defrect; /* Scale the width and height to 50 % of their original size and center the output. */ crop.c.width /= 2; crop.c.height /= 2; crop.c.left += crop.c.width / 2; crop.c.top += crop.c.height / 2; http://bbs.51soc.com /* Ignore if cropping is not supported (EINVAL). */ if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_S_CROP, &crop) && errno != EINVAL) { perror ("VIDIOC_S_CROP"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } Example 1-13. Current scaling factor and pixel aspect (A video capture device is assumed.) struct v4l2_cropcap cropcap; struct v4l2_crop crop; struct v4l2_format format; double hscale, vscale; double aspect; int dwidth, dheight; memset (&cropcap, 0, sizeof (cropcap)); cropcap.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_CROPCAP, &cropcap)) { perror ("VIDIOC_CROPCAP"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } memset (&crop, 0, sizeof (crop)); 26 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements crop.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_G_CROP, &crop)) { if (errno != EINVAL) { perror ("VIDIOC_G_CROP"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } /* Cropping not supported. */ crop.c = cropcap.defrect; } memset (&format, 0, sizeof (format)); format.fmt.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_G_FMT, &format)) { perror ("VIDIOC_G_FMT"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } /* The scaling applied by the driver. */ hscale = format.fmt.pix.width / (double) crop.c.width; vscale = format.fmt.pix.height / (double) crop.c.height; aspect = cropcap.pixelaspect.numerator / (double) cropcap.pixelaspect.denominator; aspect = aspect * hscale / vscale; http://bbs.51soc.com /* Devices following ITU-R BT.601 do not capture square pixels. For playback on a computer monitor we should scale the images to this size. */ dwidth = format.fmt.pix.width / aspect; dheight = format.fmt.pix.height; 1.12. Streaming Parameters Streaming parameters are intended to optimize the video capture process as well as I/O. Presently applications can request a high quality capture mode with the VIDIOC_S_PARM ioctl. The current video standard determines a nominal number of frames per second. If less than this number of frames is to be captured or output, applications can request frame skipping or duplicating on the driver side. This is especially useful when using the read() or write(), which are not augmented by timestamps or sequence counters, and to avoid unneccessary data copying. Finally these ioctls can be used to determine the number of buffers used internally by a driver in read/write mode. For implications see the section discussing the read() function. To get and set the streaming parameters applications call the VIDIOC_G_PARM and VIDIOC_S_PARM ioctl, respectively. They take a pointer to a struct v4l2_streamparm, which contains a union holding separate parameters for input and output devices. These ioctls are optional, drivers need not implement them. If so, they return the EINVAL error code. 27 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 1. Common API Elements Notes 1. Access permissions are associated with character device special files, hence we must ensure device numbers cannot change with the module load order. To this end minor numbers are no longer automatically assigned by the "videodev" module as in V4L but requested by the driver. The defaults will suffice for most people unless two drivers compete for the same minor numbers. 2. In earlier versions of the V4L2 API the module options where named after the device special file with a "unit_" prefix, expressing the minor number itself, not an offset. Rationale for this change is unknown. Lastly the naming and semantics are just a convention among driver writers, the point to note is that minor numbers are not supposed to be hardcoded into drivers. 3. Given a device file name one cannot reliable find related devices. For once names are arbitrary and in a system with multiple devices, where only some support VBI capturing, a /dev/video2 is not necessarily related to /dev/vbi2. The V4L VIDIOCGUNIT ioctl would require a search for a device file with a particular major and minor number. 4. Drivers could recognize the O_EXCL open flag. Presently this is not required, so applications cannot know if it really works. 5. Actually struct v4l2_audio ought to have a tuner field like struct v4l2_input, not only making the API more consistent but also permitting radio devices with multiple tuners. 6. Some users are already confused by technical terms PAL, NTSC and SECAM. There is no point asking them to distinguish between B, G, D, or K when the software or hardware can do that automatically. 7. An alternative to the current scheme is to use pointers to indices as arguments of VIDIOC_G_STD and VIDIOC_S_STD, the struct v4l2_input and struct v4l2_output std field http://bbs.51soc.com would be a set of indices like audioset. Indices are consistent with the rest of the API and identify the standard unambiguously. In the present scheme of things an enumerated standard is looked up by v4l2_std_id. Now the standards supported by the inputs of a device can overlap. Just assume the tuner and composite input in the example above both exist on a device. An enumeration of "PAL-B/G", "PAL-H/I" suggests a choice which does not exist. We cannot merge or omit sets, because applications would be unable to find the standards reported by VIDIOC_G_STD. That leaves separate enumerations for each input. Also selecting a standard by v4l2_std_id can be ambiguous. Advantage of this method is that applications need not identify the standard indirectly, after enumerating. So in summary, the lookup itself is unavoidable. The difference is only whether the lookup is necessary to find an enumerated standard or to switch to a standard by v4l2_std_id. 8. See Section 3.5 for a rationale. Probably even USB cameras follow some well known video standard. It might have been better to explicitly indicate elsewhere if a device cannot live up to normal expectations, instead of this exception. 9. It will be more convenient for applications if drivers make use of the V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_DISABLED flag, but that was never required. 10. Applications could call an ioctl to request events. After another process called VIDIOC_S_CTRL or another ioctl changing shared properties the select() function would indicate readability until any ioctl (querying the properties) is called. 11. Enumerating formats an application has no a-priori knowledge of (otherwise it could explicitely ask for them and need not enumerate) seems useless, but there are applications serving as proxy between drivers and the actual video applications for which this is useful. 28 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 2. Image Formats The V4L2 API was primarily designed for devices exchanging image data with applications. The v4l2_pix_format structure defines the format and layout of an image in memory. Image formats are negotiated with the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. (The explanations here focus on video capturing and output, for overlay frame buffer formats see also VIDIOC_G_FBUF.) Table 2-1. struct v4l2_pix_format __u32 width Image width in pixels. __u32 height Image height in pixels. Applications set these fields to request an image size, drivers return the closest possible values. In case of planar format __u32 pixelformat The pixel format or type of compression, set by the application. This is a little endian four character code. V4L2 defines standard RGB formats in Table 2-1, YUV formats in Section 2.5, and reserved codes in Table 2-8 enum v4l2_field field Video images are typically interlaced. Applications can request to capture or output only the top or bottom field, or both fields interlaced or sequentially stored in one buffer or alternating in separate buffers. Drivers return the actual field order selected. For details see Section 3.6. __u32 bytesperline Distance in bytes between the leftmost pixels in http://bbs.51soc.com two adjacent lines. Both applications and drivers can set this field to request padding bytes at the end of each line. Drivers however may ig __u32 sizeimage Size in bytes of the buffer to hold a complete image, set by the driver. Usually this is bytesperline times height. When the image consists of variable length compressed data this is the maximum number of bytes required to hold an image. enum v4l2_colorspace colorspace This information supplements the pixelformat and must be set by the driver, see Section 2.2. __u32 priv Reserved for custom (driver defined) additional information about formats. When not used drivers and applications must set this field to zero. 2.1. Standard Image Formats In order to exchange images between drivers and applications, it is necessary to have standard image data formats which both sides will interpret the same way. V4L2 includes several such formats, and this section is intended to be an unambiguous specification of the standard image data formats in V4L2. V4L2 drivers are not limited to these formats, however. Driver-specific formats are possible. In that case the application may depend on a codec to convert images to one of the standard formats when needed. But the data can still be stored and retrieved in the proprietary format. For example, a device may support a proprietary compressed format. Applications can still capture and save the data in the 29 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 2. Image Formats compressed format, saving much disk space, and later use a codec to convert the images to the X Windows screen format when the video is to be displayed. Even so, ultimately, some standard formats are needed, so the V4L2 specification would not be complete without well-defined standard formats. The V4L2 standard formats are mainly uncompressed formats. The pixels are always arranged in memory from left to right, and from top to bottom. The first byte of data in the image buffer is always for the leftmost pixel of the topmost row. Following that is the pixel immediately to its right, and so on until the end of the top row of pixels. Following the rightmost pixel of the row there may be zero or more bytes of padding to guarantee that each row of pixel data has a certain alignment. Following the pad bytes, if any, is data for the leftmost pixel of the second row from the top, and so on. The last row has just as many pad bytes after it as the other rows. In V4L2 each format has an identifier which looks like PIX_FMT_XXX, defined in the videodev.h header file. These identifiers represent four character codes which are also listed below, however they are not the same as those used in the Windows world. 2.2. Colorspaces [intro] Gamma Correction [to do] E’ = f(R) htE’RGt=f(Gp) ://bbs.51soc.com E’ = f(B) B Construction of luminance and color-difference signals [to do] E’ = Coeff E’ + Coeff E’ + Coeff E’ Y RR GG BB (E’ - E’ ) = E’ - Coeff E’ - Coeff E’ - Coeff E’ R Y R RR GG BB (E’ - E’ ) = E’ - Coeff E’ - Coeff E’ - Coeff E’ B Y B RR GG BB Re-normalized color-difference signals The color-difference signals are scaled back to unity range [-0.5;+0.5]: K = 0.5 / (1 - Coeff ) B B K = 0.5 / (1 - Coeff ) R R P = K (E’ - E’ ) = 0.5 (Coeff / Coeff ) E’ + 0.5 (Coeff / Coeff ) E’ + 0.5 E’ B BB Y R BR G BG B P = K (E’ - E’ ) = 0.5 E’ + 0.5 (Coeff / Coeff ) E’ + 0.5 (Coeff / Coeff ) E’ R RR Y R G RG B RB Quantization [to do] Y’ = (Lum. Levels - 1) · E’ + Lum. Offset Y C = (Chrom. Levels - 1) · P + Chrom. Offset B B 30 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 2. Image Formats C = (Chrom. Levels - 1) · P + Chrom. Offset R R Rounding to the nearest integer and clamping to the range [0;255] finally yields the digital color components Y’CbCr stored in YUV images. Example 2-1. ITU-R Rec. BT.601 color conversion Forward Transformation int ER, EG, EB; int Y1, Cb, Cr; /* gamma corrected RGB input [0;255] */ /* output [0;255] */ double r, g, b; double y1, pb, pr; /* temporaries */ int clamp (double x) { int r = x; /* round to nearest */ if (r < 0) return 0; else if (r > 255) return 255; else return r; } r = ER / 255.0; g = EG / 255.0; b = EB / 255.0; http://bbs.51soc.com y1 = 0.299 * r + 0.587 * g + 0.114 * b; pb = -0.169 * r - 0.331 * g + 0.5 * b; pr = 0.5 * r - 0.419 * g - 0.081 * b; Y1 = clamp (219 * y1 + 16); Cb = clamp (224 * pb + 128); Cr = clamp (224 * pr + 128); /* or shorter */ y1 = 0.299 * ER + 0.587 * EG + 0.114 * EB; Y1 = clamp ( (219 / 255.0) * y1 + 16); Cb = clamp (((224 / 255.0) / (2 - 2 * 0.114)) * (EB - y1) + 128); Cr = clamp (((224 / 255.0) / (2 - 2 * 0.299)) * (ER - y1) + 128); Inverse Transformation int Y1, Cb, Cr; int ER, EG, EB; double r, g, b; double y1, pb, pr; int clamp (double x) { /* gamma pre-corrected input [0;255] */ /* output [0;255] */ /* temporaries */ 31 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 2. Image Formats int r = x; /* round to nearest */ if (r < 0) return 0; else if (r > 255) return 255; else return r; } y1 = (255 / 219.0) * (Y1 - 16); pb = (255 / 224.0) * (Cb - 128); pr = (255 / 224.0) * (Cr - 128); r = 1.0 * y1 + 0 * pb + 1.402 * pr; g = 1.0 * y1 - 0.344 * pb - 0.714 * pr; b = 1.0 * y1 + 1.772 * pb + 0 * pr; ER = clamp (r * 255); /* [ok? one should prob. limit y1,pb,pr] */ EG = clamp (g * 255); EB = clamp (b * 255); Table 2-2. enum v4l2_colorspace IdentifierValue DescriptionChromaticitiesa Red Green Blue Y’ Cb, Cr WhiteGamma LumiPoint Correc- nance tion E’Y V4L2_COLOR1SPACNE_TSSMCP/PTAE1L70M E’ = accord- x = 0.630,x = 0.310,x = 0.155,x = 0.31274,.5 I for I0≤.209.091E8’,R219 E’Y +21264 PB,R + 128 http://bbs.51soc.com ing to y = 0.340y = 0.595y = 0.070y = 0.32901,.099 I0.45+-0.587 E’G SMPTE 170M, Illumi- 0.099 for +0.0.11814, for inclusion in this section. If you think your format should be listed in a standard format section please make a proposal on the V4L mailing list. Table 2-8. Reserved Image Formats http://bbs.51soc.com Identifier V4L2_PIX_FMT_DV Code ’dvsd’ Details unknown V4L2_PIX_FMT_ET61X251 ’E625’ Compressed format of the ET61X251 driver. V4L2_PIX_FMT_HI240 ’HI24’ 8 bit RGB format used by the BTTV driver, http://bytesex.org/bttv/ V4L2_PIX_FMT_HM12 ’HM12’ YUV 4:2:0 format used by the IVTV driver, http://www.ivtvdriver.org/ The for- mat is documented in the kernel sources in the file Documentation/video4linux/cx2341x/README.hm12 V4L2_PIX_FMT_MJPEG V4L2_PIX_FMT_PWC1 V4L2_PIX_FMT_PWC2 V4L2_PIX_FMT_SN9C10X V4L2_PIX_FMT_WNVA V4L2_PIX_FMT_YYUV ’MJPG’ ’PWC1’ ’PWC2’ ’S910’ ’WNVA’ ’YYUV’ Compressed format used by the Zoran driver Compressed format of the PWC driver. Compressed format of the PWC driver. Compressed format of the SN9C102 driver. Used by the Winnov Videum driver, http://www.thedirks.org/winnov/ unknown 50 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output The V4L2 API defines several different methods to read from or write to a device. All drivers exchanging data with applications must support at least one of them. The classic I/O method using the read() and write() function is automatically selected after opening a V4L2 device. When the driver does not support this method attempts to read or write will fail at any time. Other methods must be negotiated. To select the streaming I/O method with memory mapped or user buffers applications call the VIDIOC_REQBUFS ioctl. The asynchronous I/O method is not defined yet. Video overlay can be considered another I/O method, although the application does not directly receive the image data. It is selected by initiating video overlay with the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. For more information see Section 4.2. Generally exactly one I/O method, including overlay, is associated with each file descriptor. The only exceptions are applications not exchanging data with a driver ("panel applications", see Section 1.1) and drivers permitting simultaneous video capturing and overlay using the same file descriptor, for compatibility with V4L and earlier versions of V4L2. VIDIOC_S_FMT and VIDIOC_REQBUFS would permit this to some degree, but for simplicity drivers need not support switching the I/O method (after first switching away from read/write) other than by closing and reopening the device. The following sections describe the various I/O methods in more detail. 3.1. Rheatd/Wtrpite://bbs.51soc.com Input and output devices support the read() and write() function, respectively, when the V4L2_CAP_READWRITE flag in the capabilities field of struct v4l2_capability returned by the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl is set. Drivers may need the CPU to copy the data, but they may also support DMA to or from user memory, so this I/O method is not necessarily less efficient than other methods merely exchanging buffer pointers. It is considered inferior though because no meta-information like frame counters or timestamps are passed. This information is necessary to recognize frame dropping and to synchronize with other data streams. However this is also the simplest I/O method, requiring little or no setup to exchange data. It permits command line stunts like this (the vidctrl tool is fictitious): > vidctrl /dev/video --input=0 --format=YUYV --size=352x288 > dd if=/dev/video of=myimage.422 bs=202752 count=1 To read from the device applications use the read() function, to write the write() function. Drivers must implement one I/O method if they exchange data with applications, but it need not be this.1 When reading or writing is supported, the driver must also support the select() and poll() function.2 3.2. Streaming I/O (Memory Mapping) Input and output devices support this I/O method when the V4L2_CAP_STREAMING flag in the capabilities field of struct v4l2_capability returned by the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl is set. There 51 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output are two streaming methods, to determine if the memory mapping flavor is supported applications must call the VIDIOC_REQBUFS ioctl. Streaming is an I/O method where only pointers to buffers are exchanged between application and driver, the data itself is not copied. Memory mapping is primarily intended to map buffers in device memory into the application’s address space. Device memory can be for example the video memory on a graphics card with a video capture add-on. However, being the most efficient I/O method available for a long time, many other drivers support streaming as well, allocating buffers in DMA-able main memory. A driver can support many sets of buffers. Each set is identified by a unique buffer type value. The sets are independent and each set can hold a different type of data. To access different sets at the same time different file descriptors must be used.3 To allocate device buffers applications call the VIDIOC_REQBUFS ioctl with the desired number of buffers and buffer type, for example V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE. This ioctl can also be used to change the number of buffers or to free the allocated memory, provided none of the buffers are still mapped. Before applications can access the buffers they must map them into their address space with the mmap() function. The location of the buffers in device memory can be determined with the VIDIOC_QUERYBUF ioctl. The m.offset and length returned in a struct v4l2_buffer are passed as sixth and second parameter to the mmap() function. The offset and length values must not be modified. Remember the buffers are allocated in physical memory, as opposed to virtual memory which can be swapped out to disk. Applications should free the buffers as soon as possible with the munmap() function. Example 3-1. Mapping buffers http://bbs.51soc.com struct v4l2_requestbuffers reqbuf; struct { void *start; size_t length; } *buffers; unsigned int i; memset (&reqbuf, 0, sizeof (reqbuf)); reqbuf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; reqbuf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP; reqbuf.count = 20; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_REQBUFS, &reqbuf)) { if (errno == EINVAL) printf ("Video capturing or mmap-streaming is not supported\n"); else perror ("VIDIOC_REQBUFS"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } /* We want at least five buffers. */ if (reqbuf.count < 5) { /* You may need to free the buffers here. */ printf ("Not enough buffer memory\n"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } 52 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output buffers = calloc (reqbuf.count, sizeof (*buffers)); assert (buffers != NULL); for (i = 0; i < reqbuf.count; i++) { struct v4l2_buffer buffer; memset (&buffer, 0, sizeof (buffer)); buffer.type = reqbuf.type; buffer.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP; buffer.index = i; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QUERYBUF, &buffer)) { perror ("VIDIOC_QUERYBUF"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } buffers[i].length = buffer.length; /* remember for munmap() */ buffers[i].start = mmap (NULL, buffer.length, PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, /* recommended */ MAP_SHARED, /* recommended */ fd, buffer.m.offset); if (MAP_FAILED == buffers[i].start) { /* If you do not exit here you should unmap() and free() the buffers mapped so far. */ perror ("mmap"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); h} tt}p://bbs.51soc.com /* Cleanup. */ for (i = 0; i < reqbuf.count; i++) munmap (buffers[i].start, buffers[i].length); Conceptually streaming drivers maintain two buffer queues, an incoming and an outgoing queue. They separate the synchronous capture or output operation locked to a video clock from the application which is subject to random disk or network delays and preemption by other processes, thereby reducing the probability of data loss. The queues are organized as FIFOs, buffers will be output in the order enqueued in the incoming FIFO, and were captured in the order dequeued from the outgoing FIFO. The driver may require a minimum number of buffers enqueued at all times to function, apart of this no limit exists on the number of buffers applications can enqueue in advance, or dequeue and process. They can also enqueue in a different order than buffers have been dequeued, and the driver can fill enqueued empty buffers in any order. 4 The index number of a buffer (struct v4l2_buffer index) plays no role here, it only identifies the buffer. Initially all mapped buffers are in dequeued state, inaccessible by the driver. For capturing applications it is customary to first enqueue all mapped buffers, then to start capturing and enter the read loop. Here the application waits until a filled buffer can be dequeued, and re-enqueues the buffer when the data is no longer needed. Output applications fill and enqueue buffers, when enough buffers are stacked up the output is started with VIDIOC_STREAMON. In the write loop, when the application runs out of free buffers, it must wait until an empty buffer can be dequeued and reused. 53 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output To enqueue and dequeue a buffer applications use the VIDIOC_QBUF and VIDIOC_DQBUF ioctl. The status of a buffer being mapped, enqueued, full or empty can be determined at any time using the VIDIOC_QUERYBUF ioctl. Two methods exist to suspend execution of the application until one or more buffers can be dequeued. By default VIDIOC_DQBUF blocks when no buffer is in the outgoing queue. When the O_NONBLOCK flag was given to the open() function, VIDIOC_DQBUF returns immediately with an EAGAIN error code when no buffer is available. The select() or poll() function are always available. To start and stop capturing or output applications call the VIDIOC_STREAMON and VIDIOC_STREAMOFF ioctl. Note VIDIOC_STREAMOFF removes all buffers from both queues as a side effect. Since there is no notion of doing anything "now" on a multitasking system, if an application needs to synchronize with another event it should examine the struct v4l2_buffer timestamp of captured buffers, or set the field before enqueuing buffers for output. Drivers implementing memory mapping I/O must support the VIDIOC_REQBUFS, VIDIOC_QUERYBUF, VIDIOC_QBUF, VIDIOC_DQBUF, VIDIOC_STREAMON and VIDIOC_STREAMOFF ioctl, the mmap(), munmap(), select() and poll() function.5 [capture example] 3.3. Streaming I/O (User Pointers) Input and output devices support this I/O method when the V4L2_CAP_STREAMING flag in the capabilities field of struct v4l2_capability returned by the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl is set. If the particular user pointer method (not only memory mapping) is supported must be determined by calling the VIDIOC_REQBUFS ioctl. http://bbs.51soc.com This I/O method combines advantages of the read/write and memory mapping methods. Buffers are allocated by the application itself, and can reside for example in virtual or shared memory. Only pointers to data are exchanged, these pointers and meta-information are passed in struct v4l2_buffer. The driver must be switched into user pointer I/O mode by calling the VIDIOC_REQBUFS with the desired buffer type. No buffers are allocated beforehands, consequently they are not indexed and cannot be queried like mapped buffers with the VIDIOC_QUERYBUF ioctl. Example 3-2. Initiating streaming I/O with user pointers struct v4l2_requestbuffers reqbuf; memset (&reqbuf, 0, sizeof (reqbuf)); reqbuf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; reqbuf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR; if (ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_REQBUFS, &reqbuf) == -1) { if (errno == EINVAL) printf ("Video capturing or user pointer streaming is not supported\n"); else perror ("VIDIOC_REQBUFS"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } Buffer addresses and sizes are passed on the fly with the VIDIOC_QBUF ioctl. Although buffers are commonly cycled, applications can pass different addresses and sizes at each VIDIOC_QBUF call. If 54 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output required by the hardware the driver swaps memory pages within physical memory to create a continuous area of memory. This happens transparently to the application in the virtual memory subsystem of the kernel. When buffer pages have been swapped out to disk they are brought back and finally locked in physical memory for DMA.6 Filled or displayed buffers are dequeued with the VIDIOC_DQBUF ioctl. The driver can unlock the memory pages at any time between the completion of the DMA and this ioctl. The memory is also unlocked when VIDIOC_STREAMOFF is called, VIDIOC_REQBUFS, or when the device is closed. Applications must take care not to free buffers without dequeuing. For once, the buffers remain locked until further, wasting physical memory. Second the driver will not be notified when the memory is returned to the application’s free list and subsequently reused for other purposes, possibly completing the requested DMA and overwriting valuable data. For capturing applications it is customary to enqueue a number of empty buffers, to start capturing and enter the read loop. Here the application waits until a filled buffer can be dequeued, and re-enqueues the buffer when the data is no longer needed. Output applications fill and enqueue buffers, when enough buffers are stacked up output is started. In the write loop, when the application runs out of free buffers it must wait until an empty buffer can be dequeued and reused. Two methods exist to suspend execution of the application until one or more buffers can be dequeued. By default VIDIOC_DQBUF blocks when no buffer is in the outgoing queue. When the O_NONBLOCK flag was given to the open() function, VIDIOC_DQBUF returns immediately with an EAGAIN error code when no buffer is available. The select() or poll() function are always available. To start and stop capturing or output applications call the VIDIOC_STREAMON and VIDIOC_STREAMOFF ioctl. Note VIDIOC_STREAMOFF removes all buffers from both queues and unlocks all buffers as a side effect. Since there is no notion of doing anything "now" on a multitasking system, if an application needs to synchronize with another event it should examine the struct v4l2_buffer timestamp of captured buffers, or set the field before enqueuing buffers for houtptut. tp://bbs.51soc.com Drivers implementing user pointer I/O must support the VIDIOC_REQBUFS, VIDIOC_QBUF, VIDIOC_DQBUF, VIDIOC_STREAMON and VIDIOC_STREAMOFF ioctl, the select() and poll() function.7 3.4. Asynchronous I/O This method is not defined yet. 3.5. Buffers A buffer contains data exchanged by application and driver using one of the Streaming I/O methods. Only pointers to buffers are exchanged, the data itself is not copied. These pointers, together with meta-information like timestamps or field parity, are stored in a struct v4l2_buffer, argument to the VIDIOC_QUERYBUF, VIDIOC_QBUF and VIDIOC_DQBUF ioctl. Nominally timestamps refer to the first data byte transmitted. In practice however the wide range of hardware covered by the V4L2 API limits timestamp accuracy. Often an interrupt routine will sample the system clock shortly after the field or frame was stored completely in memory. So applications must expect a constant difference up to one field or frame period plus a small (few scan lines) random error. The delay and error can be much larger due to compression or transmission over an external bus when the frames are not properly stamped by the sender. This is frequently the case 55 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output with USB cameras. Here timestamps refer to the instant the field or frame was received by the driver, not the capture time. These devices identify by not enumerating any video standards, see Section 1.7. Similar limitations apply to output timestamps. Typically the video hardware locks to a clock controlling the video timing, the horizontal and vertical synchronization pulses. At some point in the line sequence, possibly the vertical blanking, an interrupt routine samples the system clock, compares against the timestamp and programs the hardware to repeat the previous field or frame, or to display the buffer contents. Apart of limitations of the video device and natural inaccuracies of all clocks, it should be noted system time itself is not perfectly stable. It can be affected by power saving cycles, warped to insert leap seconds, or even turned back or forth by the system administrator affecting long term measurements. 8 Table 3-1. struct v4l2_buffer __u32 index Number of the buffer, set by the application. This field is only used for memory mapping I/O and can range from zero to the number of buffers allocated with the VIDIOC_REQBUFS ioctl (struct v4l2_requestbuffers count) minus one. enum v4l2_buf_typetype Type of the buffer, same as struct v4l2_format type or struct v4l2_requestbuffers type, set by the application. http://bbs.51soc.com __u32 bytesused The number of bytes occupied by the data in the buffer. It depends on the negotiated data format and may change with each buffer for compressed variable size data like JPEG images. Drivers must set this field when type refers to an input stream, applications when an output stream. __u32 flags Flags set by the application or driver, see Table 3-3. enum v4l2_field field Indicates the field order of the image in the buffer, see Table 3-8. This field is not used when the buffer contains VBI data. Drivers must set it when type refers to an input stream, applications when an output stream. 56 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output struct timeval timestamp For input streams this is the system time (as returned by the gettimeofday() function) when the first data byte was captured. For output streams the data will not be displayed before this time, secondary to the nominal frame rate determined by the current video standard in enqueued order. Applications can for example zero this field to display frames as soon as possible. The driver stores the time at which the first data byte was actually sent out in the timestamp field. This permits applications to monitor the drift between the video and system clock. struct v4l2_timecodetimecode When type is V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE and the V4L2_BUF_FLAG_TIMECODE flag is set in flags, this structure contains a frame timecode. In V4L2_FIELD_ALTERNATE mode the top and bottom field contain the same timecode. Timecodes are intended to help video editing and are typically recorded on video tapes, but also http://bbs.51soc.com embedded in compressed formats like MPEG. This field is independent of the timestamp and sequence fields. __u32 sequence Set by the driver, counting the frames in the sequence. In V4L2_FIELD_ALTERNATE mode the top and bottom field have the same sequence number. The count starts at zer enum v4l2_memorymemory This field must be set by applications and/or drivers in accordance with the selected I/O method. union m __u32 offset When memory is V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP this is the offset of the buffer from the start of the device memory. The value is returned by the driver and apart of serving as parameter to the mmap() function not useful for applications. See Section 3.2 for details. unsigned long userptr When memory is V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR this is a pointer to the buffer (casted to unsigned long type) in virtual memory, set by the application. See Section 3.3 for details. __u32 length Size of the buffer (not the payload) in bytes. 57 嵌入式SOC社区 __u32 __u32 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output input reserved Some video capture drivers support rapid and synchronous video input changes, a function useful for example in video surveillance applications. For this purpose applications set the V4L2_BUF_FLAG_INPUT flag, and this field to the number of a video input as in struct v4l2_input field index. A place holder for future extensions and custom (driver defined) buffer types V4L2_BUF_TYPE_PRIVATE and higher. Table 3-2. enum v4l2_buf_type V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE 1 Buffer of a video capture stream, see Section 4.1. V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT 2 Buffer of a video output stream, see Section 4.3. V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OVERLAY 3 Buffer for video overlay, see Section 4.2. V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VBI_CAPTURE 4 Buffer of a raw VBI capture stream, see Section 4.7. V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VBI_OUTPUT 5 Buffer of a raw VBI output stream, see Section 4.7. V4L2_BUF_TYPE_SLICED_VBI_CAPT6URE Buffer of a sliced VBI capture stream, see Section http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_BUF_TYPE_SLICED_VBI_OUTP7UT 4.8. Buffer of a sliced VBI output stream, see Section 4.8. V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT_OV8ERLAY Buffer for video output overlay (OSD), see Section 4.4. Status: Experimental. V4L2_BUF_TYPE_PRIVATE 0x80 This and higher values are reserved for custom (driver defined) buffer types. Table 3-3. Buffer Flags V4L2_BUF_FLAG_MAPPED 0x0001 The buffer resides in device memory and has been mapped into the application’s address space, see Section 3.2 for details. Drivers set or clear this flag when the VIDIOC_QUERYBUF, VIDIOC_QBUF or VIDIOC_DQBUF ioctl is called. Set by the driver. 58 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output V4L2_BUF_FLAG_QUEUED 0x0002 Internally drivers maintain two buffer queues, an incoming and outgoing queue. When this flag is set, the buffer is currently on the incoming queue. It automatically moves to the outgoing queue after the buffer has been filled (capture devices) or displayed (output devices). Drivers set or clear this flag when the VIDIOC_QUERYBUF ioctl is called. After (successful) calling the VIDIOC_QBUF ioctl it is always set and after VIDIOC_DQBUF always cleared. V4L2_BUF_FLAG_DONE 0x0004 When this flag is set, the buffer is currently on the outgoing queue, ready to be dequeued from the driver. Drivers set or clear this flag when the VIDIOC_QUERYBUF ioctl is called. After calling the VIDIOC_QBUF or VIDIOC_DQBUF it is always cleared. Of course a buffer cannot be on both queues at the same time, the V4L2_BUF_FLAG_QUEUED and V4L2_BUF_FLAG_DONE flag are mutually exclusive. They can be both cleared however, then the buffer is in "dequeued" state, in the application domain to say so. V4L2_BUF_FLAG_KEYFRAME 0x0008 Drivers set or clear this flag when calling the VIDIOC_DQBUF ioctl. It may be set by video http://bbs.51soc.com capture devices when the buffer contains a compressed image which is a key frame (or field), i. e. can be decompressed on its own. V4L2_BUF_FLAG_PFRAME 0x0010 Similar to V4L2_BUF_FLAG_KEYFRAME this flags predicted frames or fields which contain only differences to a previous key frame. V4L2_BUF_FLAG_BFRAME 0x0020 Similar to V4L2_BUF_FLAG_PFRAME this is a bidirectional predicted frame or field. [ooc tbd] V4L2_BUF_FLAG_TIMECODE 0x0100 The timecode field is valid. Drivers set or clear this flag when the VIDIOC_DQBUF ioctl is called. V4L2_BUF_FLAG_INPUT 0x0200 The input field is valid. Applications set or clear this flag before calling the VIDIOC_QBUF ioctl. Table 3-4. enum v4l2_memory V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP 1 V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR 2 V4L2_MEMORY_OVERLAY 3 The buffer is used for memory mapping I/O. The buffer is used for user pointer I/O. [to do] 3.5.1. Timecodes The v4l2_timecode structure is designed to hold a SMPTE 12M or similar timecode. (struct timeval timestamps are stored in struct v4l2_buffer field timestamp.) 59 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output Table 3-5. struct v4l2_timecode __u32 __u32 __u8 __u8 __u8 __u8 __u8 type flags frames seconds minutes hours userbits[4] Frame rate the timecodes are based on, see Table 3-6. Timecode flags, see Table 3-7. Frame count, 0 ... 23/24/29/49/59, depending on the type of timecode. Seconds count, 0 ... 59. This is a binary, not BCD number. Minutes count, 0 ... 59. This is a binary, not BCD number. Hours count, 0 ... 29. This is a binary, not BCD number. The "user group" bits from the timecode. Table 3-6. Timecode Types V4L2_TC_TYPE_24FPS 1 V4L2_TC_TYPE_25FPS 2 V4L2_TC_TYPE_30FPS 3 V4L2_TC_TYPE_50FPS 4 V4L2_TC_TYPE_60FPS 5 24 frames per second, i. e. film. 25 frames per second, i. e. PAL or SECAM video. 30 frames per second, i. e. NTSC video. http://bbs.51soc.com Table 3-7. Timecode Flags V4L2_TC_FLAG_DROPFRAME 0x0001 Indicates "drop frame" semantics for counting frames in 29.97 fps material. When set, frame numbers 0 and 1 at the start of each minute, except minutes 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 are omitted from the count. V4L2_TC_FLAG_COLORFRAME 0x0002 The "color frame" flag. V4L2_TC_USERBITS_field 0x000C Field mask for the "binary group flags". V4L2_TC_USERBITS_USERDEFINED0x0000 Unspecified format. V4L2_TC_USERBITS_8BITCHARS 0x0008 8-bit ISO characters. 3.6. Field Order We have to distinguish between progressive and interlaced video. Progressive video transmits all lines of a video image sequentially. Interlaced video divides an image into two fields, containing only the odd and even lines of the image, respectively. Alternating the so called odd and even field are transmitted, and due to a small delay between fields a cathode ray TV displays the lines interleaved, yielding the original frame. This curious technique was invented because at refresh rates similar to film the image would fade out too quickly. Transmitting fields reduces the flicker without the necessity of doubling the frame rate and with it the bandwidth required for each channel. 60 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output It is important to understand a video camera does not expose one frame at a time, merely transmitting the frames separated into fields. The fields are in fact captured at two different instances in time. An object on screen may well move between one field and the next. For applications analysing motion it is of paramount importance to recognize which field of a frame is older, the temporal order. When the driver provides or accepts images field by field rather than interleaved, it is also important applications understand how the fields combine to frames. We distinguish between top and bottom fields, the spatial order: The first line of the top field is the first line of an interlaced frame, the first line of the bottom field is the second line of that frame. However because fields were captured one after the other, arguing whether a frame commences with the top or bottom field is pointless. Any two successive top and bottom, or bottom and top fields yield a valid frame. Only when the source was progressive to begin with, e. g. when transferring film to video, two fields may come from the same frame, creating a natural order. Counter to intuition the top field is not necessarily the older field. Whether the older field contains the top or bottom lines is a convention determined by the video standard. Hence the distinction between temporal and spatial order of fields. The diagrams below should make this clearer. All video capture and output devices must report the current field order. Some drivers may permit the selection of a different order, to this end applications initialize the field field of struct v4l2_pix_format before calling the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. If this is not desired it should have the value V4L2_FIELD_ANY (0). Table 3-8. enum v4l2_field V4L2_FIELD_ANY 0 Applications request this field order when any one of the V4L2_FIELD_NONE, V4L2_FIELD_TOP, http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM, or V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED formats is acceptable. Drivers choose depending on hardware capabilities or e. g. the requested image size, and return the actual field order. struct v4l2_buffer field can never be V4L2_FIELD_ANY. V4L2_FIELD_NONE 1 Images are in progressive format, not interlaced. The driver may also indicate this order when it cannot distinguish between V4L2_FIELD_TOP and V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM. V4L2_FIELD_TOP 2 Images consist of the top field only. V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM 3 Images consist of the bottom field only. Applications may wish to prevent a device from capturing interlaced images because they will have "comb" or "feathering" artefacts around moving objects. V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED 4 Images contain both fields, interleaved line by line. The temporal order of the fields (whether the top or bottom field is first transmitted) depends on the current video standard. M/NTSC transmits the bottom field first, all other standards the top field first. 61 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_TB 5 Images contain both fields, the top field lines are stored first in memory, immediately followed by the bottom field lines. Fields are always stored in temporal order, the older one first in memory. Image sizes refer to the frame, not fields. V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_BT 6 Images contain both fields, the bottom field lines are stored first in memory, immediately followed by the top field lines. Fields are always stored in temporal order, the older one first in memory. Image sizes refer to the frame, not fields. V4L2_FIELD_ALTERNATE 7 The two fields of a frame are passed in separate buffers, in temporal order, i. e. the older one first. To indicate the field parity (whether the current field is a top or bottom field) the driver or application, depending on data direction, must set struct v4l2_buffer field to V4L2_FIELD_TOP or V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM. Any two successive fields pair to build a frame. If fields are successive, without any dropped fields between them (fields can drop individually), can be determined from the struct v4l2_buffer sequence field. Image sizes refer to the frame, not fields. This format cannot be selected when using the read/write I/O method. http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_TB 8 Images contain both fields, interleaved line by line, top field first. The top field is transmitted first. V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_BT 9 Images contain both fields, interleaved line by line, top field first. The bottom field is transmitted first. 62 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output Figure 3-1. Field Order, Top Field First Transmitted Temporal order, top field first transmitted (e.g. BG/PAL) V4L2_FIELD_TOP V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM V4L2_FIELD_ALTERNATE v4l2_buffer.field: V4L2_FIELD_TOP V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM V4L2_FIELD_TOP V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM V4L2_FIELD_TOP V V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED / V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_TB http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_BT (misaligned) V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_TB 63 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output Figure 3-2. Field Order, Bottom Field First Transmitted Temporal order, bottom field first transmitted (e.g. M/NTSC) V4L2_FIELD_TOP V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM V4L2_FIELD_ALTERNATE v4l2_buffer.field: V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM V4L2_FIELD_TOP V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM V4L2_FIELD_TOP V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED / V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_BT http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_TB (misaligned) V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_BT 64 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 3. Input/Output Notes 1. It would be desirable if applications could depend on drivers supporting all I/O interfaces, but as much as the complex memory mapping I/O can be inadequate for some devices we have no reason to require this interface, which is most useful for simple applications capturing still images. 2. At the driver level select() and poll() are the same, and select() is too important to be optional. 3. One could use one file descriptor and set the buffer type field accordingly when calling VIDIOC_QBUF etc., but it makes the select() function ambiguous. We also like the clean approach of one file descriptor per logical stream. Video overlay for example is also a logical stream, although the CPU is not needed for continuous operation. 4. Random enqueue order permits applications processing images out of order (such as video codecs) to return buffers earlier, reducing the probability of data loss. Random fill order allows drivers to reuse buffers on a LIFO-basis, taking advantage of caches holding scatter-gather lists and the like. 5. At the driver level select() and poll() are the same, and select() is too important to be optional. The rest should be evident. 6. We expect that frequently used buffers are typically not swapped out. Anyway, the process of swapping, locking or generating scatter-gather lists may be time consuming. The delay can be masked by the depth of the incoming buffer queue, and perhaps by maintaining caches assuming a buffer will be soon enqueued again. On the other hand, to optimize memory usage drivers can limit the number of buffers locked in advance and recycle the most recently used buffers first. Of course, the pages of empty buffers in the incoming queue need not be saved to disk. Output http://bbs.51soc.com buffers must be saved on the incoming and outgoing queue because an application may share them with other processes. 7. At the driver level select() and poll() are the same, and select() is too important to be optional. The rest should be evident. 8. Since no other Linux multimedia API supports unadjusted time it would be foolish to introduce here. We must use a universally supported clock to synchronize different media, hence time of day. 65 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces 4.1. Video Capture Interface Video capture devices sample an analog video signal and store the digitized images in memory. Today nearly all devices can capture at full 25 or 30 frames/second. With this interface applications can control the capture process and move images from the driver into user space. Conventionally V4L2 video capture devices are accessed through character device special files named /dev/video and /dev/video0 to /dev/video63 with major number 81 and minor numbers 0 to 63. /dev/video is typically a symbolic link to the preferred video device. Note the same device files are used for video output devices. 4.1.1. Querying Capabilities Devices supporting the video capture interface set the V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_CAPTURE flag in the capabilities field of struct v4l2_capability returned by the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl. As secondary device functions they may also support the video overlay (V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OVERLAY) and the raw VBI capture (V4L2_CAP_VBI_CAPTURE) interface. At least one of the read/write or streaming I/O methods must be supported. Tuners and audio inputs are optional. 4.1.2. Supplemental Functions http://bbs.51soc.com Video capture devices shall support audio input, tuner, controls, cropping and scaling and streaming parameter ioctls as needed. The video input and video standard ioctls must be supported by all video capture devices. 4.1.3. Image Format Negotiation The result of a capture operation is determined by cropping and image format parameters. The former select an area of the video picture to capture, the latter how images are stored in memory, i. e. in RGB or YUV format, the number of bits per pixel or width and height. Together they also define how images are scaled in the process. As usual these parameters are not reset at open() time to permit Unix tool chains, programming a device and then reading from it as if it was a plain file. Well written V4L2 applications ensure they really get what they want, including cropping and scaling. Cropping initialization at minimum requires to reset the parameters to defaults. An example is given in Section 1.11. To query the current image format applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_format to V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE and call the VIDIOC_G_FMT ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the struct v4l2_pix_format pix member of the fmt union. To request different parameters applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_format as above and initialize all fields of the struct v4l2_pix_format vbi member of the fmt union, or better just modify the results of VIDIOC_G_FMT, and call the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers may adjust the parameters and finally return the actual parameters as VIDIOC_G_FMT does. 66 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces Like VIDIOC_S_FMT the VIDIOC_TRY_FMT ioctl can be used to learn about hardware limitations without disabling I/O or possibly time consuming hardware preparations. The contents of struct v4l2_pix_format are discussed in Chapter 2. See also the specification of the VIDIOC_G_FMT, VIDIOC_S_FMT and VIDIOC_TRY_FMT ioctls for details. Video capture devices must implement both the VIDIOC_G_FMT and VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl, even if VIDIOC_S_FMT ignores all requests and always returns default parameters as VIDIOC_G_FMT does. VIDIOC_TRY_FMT is optional. 4.1.4. Reading Images A video capture device may support the read() function and/or streaming (memory mapping or user pointer) I/O. See Chapter 3 for details. 4.2. Video Overlay Interface Video overlay devices have the ability to genlock (TV-)video into the (VGA-)video signal of a graphics card, or to store captured images directly in video memory of a graphics card, typically with clipping. This can be considerable more efficient than capturing images and displaying them by other means. In the old days when only nuclear power plants needed cooling towers this used to be the only way to put live video into a window. Video overlay devices are accessed through the same character special files as video capture devices. Note the default function of a /dev/video device is video capturing. The overlay function is only http://bbs.51soc.com available after calling the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. The driver may support simultaneous overlay and capturing using the read/write and streaming I/O methods. If so, operation at the nominal frame rate of the video standard is not guaranteed. Frames may be directed away from overlay to capture, or one field may be used for overlay and the other for capture if the capture parameters permit this. Applications should use different file descriptors for capturing and overlay. This must be supported by all drivers capable of simultaneous capturing and overlay. Optionally these drivers may also permit capturing and overlay with a single file descriptor for compatibility with V4L and earlier versions of V4L2.1 4.2.1. Querying Capabilities Devices supporting the video overlay interface set the V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OVERLAY flag in the capabilities field of struct v4l2_capability returned by the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl. The overlay I/O method specified below must be supported. Tuners and audio inputs are optional. 4.2.2. Supplemental Functions Video overlay devices shall support audio input, tuner, controls, cropping and scaling and streaming parameter ioctls as needed. The video input and video standard ioctls must be supported by all video overlay devices. 67 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces 4.2.3. Setup Before overlay can commence applications must program the driver with frame buffer parameters, namely the address and size of the frame buffer and the image format, for example RGB 5:6:5. The VIDIOC_G_FBUF and VIDIOC_S_FBUF ioctls are available to get and set these parameters, respectively. The VIDIOC_S_FBUF ioctl is privileged because it allows to set up DMA into physical memory, bypassing the memory protection mechanisms of the kernel. Only the superuser can change the frame buffer address and size. Users are not supposed to run TV applications as root or with SUID bit set. A small helper application with suitable privileges should query the graphics system and program the V4L2 driver at the appropriate time. Some devices add the video overlay to the output signal of the graphics card. In this case the frame buffer is not modified by the video device, and the frame buffer address and pixel format are not needed by the driver. The VIDIOC_S_FBUF ioctl is not privileged. An application can check for this type of device by calling the VIDIOC_G_FBUF ioctl. A driver may support any (or none) of five clipping/blending methods: 1. Chroma-keying displays the overlaid image only where pixels in the primary graphics surface assume a certain color. 2. A bitmap can be specified where each bit corresponds to a pixel in the overlaid image. When the bit is set, the corresponding video pixel is displayed, otherwise a pixel of the graphics surface. 3. A list of clipping rectangles can be specified. In these regions no video is displayed, so the graphics surface can be seen here. 4. The framebuffer has an alpha channel that can be used to clip or blend the framebuffer with the video. http://bbs.51soc.com 5. A global alpha value can be specified to blend the framebuffer contents with video images. When simultaneous capturing and overlay is supported and the hardware prohibits different image and frame buffer formats, the format requested first takes precedence. The attempt to capture (VIDIOC_S_FMT) or overlay (VIDIOC_S_FBUF) may fail with an EBUSY error code or return accordingly modified parameters.. 4.2.4. Overlay Window The overlaid image is determined by cropping and overlay window parameters. The former select an area of the video picture to capture, the latter how images are overlaid and clipped. Cropping initialization at minimum requires to reset the parameters to defaults. An example is given in Section 1.11. The overlay window is described by a struct v4l2_window. It defines the size of the image, its position over the graphics surface and the clipping to be applied. To get the current parameters applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_format to V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OVERLAY and call the VIDIOC_G_FMT ioctl. The driver fills the v4l2_window substructure named win. It is not possible to retrieve a previously programmed clipping list or bitmap. To program the overlay window applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_format to V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OVERLAY, initialize the win substructure and call the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. The driver adjusts the parameters against hardware limits and returns the actual parameters as VIDIOC_G_FMT does. Like VIDIOC_S_FMT, the VIDIOC_TRY_FMT ioctl can be used to learn about 68 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces driver capabilities without actually changing driver state. Unlike VIDIOC_S_FMT this also works after the overlay has been enabled. The scaling factor of the overlaid image is implied by the width and height given in struct v4l2_window and the size of the cropping rectangle. For more information see Section 1.11. When simultaneous capturing and overlay is supported and the hardware prohibits different image and window sizes, the size requested first takes precedence. The attempt to capture or overlay as well (VIDIOC_S_FMT) may fail with an EBUSY error code or return accordingly modified parameters. Table 4-1. struct v4l2_window struct v4l2_rect w Size and position of the window relative to the top, left corner of the frame buffer defined with VIDIOC_S_FBUF. The window can extend the frame buffer width and height, the x and y coordinates can be negative, and it can lie completely outside the frame buffer. The driver clips the window accordingly, or if that is not possible, modifies its size and/or position. enum v4l2_field field Applications set this field to determine which video field shall be overlaid, typically one of V4L2_FIELD_ANY (0), V4L2_FIELD_TOP, V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM or V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED. Drivers may have to choose a different field order and return the actual setting here. http://bbs.51soc.com __u32 chromakey When chroma-keying has been negotiated with VIDIOC_S_FBUF applications set this field to the desired pixel value for the chroma key. The format is the same as the pixel format of the framebuffer (struct v4l2_framebuffer fmt.pixelformat field), with bytes in host order. E. g. for V4L2_PIX_FMT_BGR24 the value should be 0xRRGGBB on a little endian, 0xBBGGRR on a big endian host. struct v4l2_clip * clips When chroma-keying has not been negotiated and VIDIOC_G_FBUF indicated this capability, applications can set this field to point to an array of clipping rectangles. Like the window coordinates w, clipping rectangles are defined relative to the top, left corner of the frame buffer. Howe __u32 clipcount When the application set the clips field, this field must contain the number of clipping rectangles in the list. When clip lists are not supported the driver ignores this field, its contents after calling VIDIOC_S_FMT are undefined. When clip lists are supported but no clipping is desired this field must be set to zero. void * bitmap When chroma-keying has not been negotiated and VIDIOC_G_FBUF indicated this capability, applications can set this field to point to a clipping bit mask. 69 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces It must be of the same size as the window, w.width and w.height. Each bit corresponds to a pixel in the overlaid ima __u8 global_alpha The global alpha value used to blend the framebuffer with video images, if global alpha blending has been negotiated (V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_GLOBAL_ALPHA, see VIDIOC_S_FBUF, Table 3). Note this field was added in Linux 2.6.23, extending the structure. However the VIDIOC_G/S/TRY_FMT ioctls, which take a pointer to a v4l2_format parent structure with padding bytes at the end, are not affected. Notes: Table 4-2. struct v4l2_clip2 struct v4l2_rect c Coordinates of the clipping rectangle, relative to the top, left corner of the frame buffer. Only window pixels outside all clipping rectangles are displayed. struct v4l2_clip * next Pointer to the next clipping rectangle, NULL when this is the last rectangle. Drivers ignore this field, it cannot be used to pass a linked list of clipping rectangles. http://bbs.51soc.com Table 4-3. struct v4l2_rect __s32 __s32 __s32 __s32 left top width height Horizontal offset of the top, left corner of the rectangle, in pixels. Vertical offset of the top, left corner of the rectangle, in pixels. Offsets increase to the right and down. Width of the rectangle, in pixels. Height of the rectangle, in pixels. Width and height cannot be negative, the fields are signed for hysterical reasons. 4.2.5. Enabling Overlay To start or stop the frame buffer overlay applications call the VIDIOC_OVERLAY ioctl. 4.3. Video Output Interface Video output devices encode stills or image sequences as analog video signal. With this interface 70 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces applications can control the encoding process and move images from user space to the driver. Conventionally V4L2 video output devices are accessed through character device special files named /dev/video and /dev/video0 to /dev/video63 with major number 81 and minor numbers 0 to 63. /dev/video is typically a symbolic link to the preferred video device. Note the same device files are used for video capture devices. 4.3.1. Querying Capabilities Devices supporting the video output interface set the V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OUTPUT flag in the capabilities field of struct v4l2_capability returned by the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl. As secondary device functions they may also support the raw VBI output (V4L2_CAP_VBI_OUTPUT) interface. At least one of the read/write or streaming I/O methods must be supported. Modulators and audio outputs are optional. 4.3.2. Supplemental Functions Video output devices shall support audio output, modulator, controls, cropping and scaling and streaming parameter ioctls as needed. The video output and video standard ioctls must be supported by all video output devices. 4.3.3. Image Format Negotiation The output is determined by cropping and image format parameters. The former select an area of the http://bbs.51soc.com video picture where the image will appear, the latter how images are stored in memory, i. e. in RGB or YUV format, the number of bits per pixel or width and height. Together they also define how images are scaled in the process. As usual these parameters are not reset at open() time to permit Unix tool chains, programming a device and then writing to it as if it was a plain file. Well written V4L2 applications ensure they really get what they want, including cropping and scaling. Cropping initialization at minimum requires to reset the parameters to defaults. An example is given in Section 1.11. To query the current image format applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_format to V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT and call the VIDIOC_G_FMT ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the struct v4l2_pix_format pix member of the fmt union. To request different parameters applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_format as above and initialize all fields of the struct v4l2_pix_format vbi member of the fmt union, or better just modify the results of VIDIOC_G_FMT, and call the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers may adjust the parameters and finally return the actual parameters as VIDIOC_G_FMT does. Like VIDIOC_S_FMT the VIDIOC_TRY_FMT ioctl can be used to learn about hardware limitations without disabling I/O or possibly time consuming hardware preparations. The contents of struct v4l2_pix_format are discussed in Chapter 2. See also the specification of the VIDIOC_G_FMT, VIDIOC_S_FMT and VIDIOC_TRY_FMT ioctls for details. Video output devices must implement both the VIDIOC_G_FMT and VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl, even if VIDIOC_S_FMT ignores all requests and always returns default parameters as VIDIOC_G_FMT does. VIDIOC_TRY_FMT is optional. 71 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces 4.3.4. Writing Images A video output device may support the write() function and/or streaming (memory mapping or user pointer) I/O. See Chapter 3 for details. 4.4. Video Output Overlay Interface Experimental: This is an experimental interface and may change in the future. Some video output devices can overlay a framebuffer image onto the outgoing video signal. Applications can set up such an overlay using this interface, which borrows structures and ioctls of the Video Overlay interface. The OSD function is accessible through the same character special file as the Video Output function. Note the default function of such a /dev/video device is video capturing or output. The OSD function is only available after calling the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. 4.4.1. Querying Capabilities Devices supporting the Video Output Overlay interface set the V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OUTPUT_OVERLAY flag in the capabilities field of struct v4l2_capability returned by the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl. http://bbs.51soc.com 4.4.2. Framebuffer Contrary to the Video Overlay interface the framebuffer is normally implemented on the TV card and not the graphics card. On Linux it is accessible as a framebuffer device (/dev/fbN). Given a V4L2 device, applications can find the corresponding framebuffer device by calling the VIDIOC_G_FBUF ioctl. It returns, amongst other information, the physical address of the framebuffer in the base field of struct v4l2_framebuffer. The framebuffer device ioctl FBIOGET_FSCREENINFO returns the same address in the smem_start field of struct fb_fix_screeninfo. The FBIOGET_FSCREENINFO ioctl and struct fb_fix_screeninfo are defined in the linux/fb.h header file. The width and height of the framebuffer depends on the current video standard. A V4L2 driver may reject attempts to change the video standard (or any other ioctl which would imply a framebuffer size change) with an EBUSY error code until all applications closed the framebuffer device. Example 4-1. Finding a framebuffer device for OSD #include struct v4l2_framebuffer fbuf; unsigned int i; int fb_fd; if (-1 == ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_G_FBUF, &fbuf)) { perror ("VIDIOC_G_FBUF"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } 72 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces for (i = 0; i < 30; ++i) { char dev_name[16]; struct fb_fix_screeninfo si; snprintf (dev_name, sizeof (dev_name), "/dev/fb%u", i); fb_fd = open (dev_name, O_RDWR); if (-1 == fb_fd) { switch (errno) { case ENOENT: /* no such file */ case ENXIO: /* no driver */ continue; default: perror ("open"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } } if (0 == ioctl (fb_fd, FBIOGET_FSCREENINFO, &si)) { if (si.smem_start == (unsigned long) fbuf.base) break; } else { /* Apparently not a framebuffer device. */ } close (fb_fd); fb_fd = -1; h} ttp://bbs.51soc.com /* fb_fd is the file descriptor of the framebuffer device for the video output overlay, or -1 if no device was found. */ 4.4.3. Overlay Window and Scaling The overlay is controlled by source and target rectangles. The source rectangle selects a subsection of the framebuffer image to be overlaid, the target rectangle an area in the outgoing video signal where the image will appear. Drivers may or may not support scaling, and arbitrary sizes and positions of these rectangles. Further drivers may support any (or none) of the clipping/blending methods defined for the Video Overlay interface. A struct v4l2_window defines the size of the source rectangle, its position in the framebuffer and the clipping/blending method to be used for the overlay. To get the current parameters applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_format to V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT_OVERLAY and call the VIDIOC_G_FMT ioctl. The driver fills the v4l2_window substructure named win. It is not possible to retrieve a previously programmed clipping list or bitmap. To program the source rectangle applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_format to V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT_OVERLAY, initialize the win substructure and call the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. The driver adjusts the parameters against hardware limits and returns the actual parameters as VIDIOC_G_FMT does. Like VIDIOC_S_FMT, the VIDIOC_TRY_FMT ioctl can be used to learn about driver capabilities without actually changing driver state. Unlike VIDIOC_S_FMT this also works after the overlay has been enabled. 73 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces A struct v4l2_crop defines the size and position of the target rectangle. The scaling factor of the overlay is implied by the width and height given in struct v4l2_window and struct v4l2_crop. The cropping API applies to Video Output and Video Output Overlay devices in the same way as to Video Capture and Video Overlay devices, merely reversing the direction of the data flow. For more information see Section 1.11. 4.4.4. Enabling Overlay There is no V4L2 ioctl to enable or disable the overlay, however the framebuffer interface of the driver may support the FBIOBLANK ioctl. 4.5. Codec Interface Suspended: This interface has been be suspended from the V4L2 API implemented in Linux 2.6 until we have more experience with codec device interfaces. A V4L2 codec can compress, decompress, transform, or otherwise convert video data from one format into another format, in memory. Applications send data to be converted to the driver through a write() call, and receive the converted data through a read() call. For efficiency a driver may also support streaming I/O. h[todto] tp://bbs.51soc.com 4.6. Effect Devices Interface Suspended: This interface has been be suspended from the V4L2 API implemented in Linux 2.6 until we have more experience with effect device interfaces. A V4L2 video effect device can do image effects, filtering, or combine two or more images or image streams. For example video transitions or wipes. Applications send data to be processed and receive the result data either with read() and write() functions, or through the streaming I/O mechanism. [to do] 4.7. Raw VBI Data Interface VBI is an abbreviation of Vertical Blanking Interval, a gap in the sequence of lines of an analog video signal. During VBI no picture information is transmitted, allowing some time while the electron beam of a cathode ray tube TV returns to the top of the screen. Using an oscilloscope you will find here the vertical synchronization pulses and short data packages ASK modulated3 onto the video signal. These are transmissions of services such as Teletext or Closed Caption. 74 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces Subject of this interface type is raw VBI data, as sampled off a video signal, or to be added to a signal for output. The data format is similar to uncompressed video images, a number of lines times a number of samples per line, we call this a VBI image. Conventionally V4L2 VBI devices are accessed through character device special files named /dev/vbi and /dev/vbi0 to /dev/vbi31 with major number 81 and minor numbers 224 to 255. /dev/vbi is typically a symbolic link to the preferred VBI device. This convention applies to both input and output devices. To address the problems of finding related video and VBI devices VBI capturing and output is also available as device function under /dev/video. To capture or output raw VBI data with these devices applications must call the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. Accessed as /dev/vbi, raw VBI capturing or output is the default device function. 4.7.1. Querying Capabilities Devices supporting the raw VBI capturing or output API set the V4L2_CAP_VBI_CAPTURE or V4L2_CAP_VBI_OUTPUT flags, respectively, in the capabilities field of struct v4l2_capability returned by the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl. At least one of the read/write, streaming or asynchronous I/O methods must be supported. VBI devices may or may not have a tuner or modulator. 4.7.2. Supplemental Functions VBI devices shall support video input or output, tuner or modulator, and controls ioctls as needed. The video standard ioctls provide information vital to program a VBI device, therefore must be hsupptortetd. p://bbs.51soc.com 4.7.3. Raw VBI Format Negotiation Raw VBI sampling abilities can vary, in particular the sampling frequency. To properly interpret the data V4L2 specifies an ioctl to query the sampling parameters. Moreover, to allow for some flexibility applications can also suggest different parameters. As usual these parameters are not reset at open() time to permit Unix tool chains, programming a device and then reading from it as if it was a plain file. Well written V4L2 applications should always ensure they really get what they want, requesting reasonable parameters and then checking if the actual parameters are suitable. To query the current raw VBI capture parameters applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_format to V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VBI_CAPTURE or V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VBI_OUTPUT, and call the VIDIOC_G_FMT ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the struct v4l2_vbi_format vbi member of the fmt union. To request different parameters applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_format as above and initialize all fields of the struct v4l2_vbi_format vbi member of the fmt union, or better just modify the results of VIDIOC_G_FMT, and call the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers return an EINVAL error code only when the given parameters are ambiguous, otherwise they modify the parameters according to the hardware capabilites and return the actual parameters. When the driver allocates resources at this point, it may return an EBUSY error code to indicate the returned parameters are valid but the required resources are currently not available. That may happen for instance when the video and VBI areas to capture would overlap, or when the driver supports multiple opens and another process already requested VBI capturing or output. Anyway, applications 75 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces must expect other resource allocation points which may return EBUSY, at the VIDIOC_STREAMON ioctl and the first read(), write() and select() call. VBI devices must implement both the VIDIOC_G_FMT and VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl, even if VIDIOC_S_FMT ignores all requests and always returns default parameters as VIDIOC_G_FMT does. VIDIOC_TRY_FMT is optional. Table 4-4. struct v4l2_vbi_format __u32 sampling_rate Samples per second, i. e. unit 1 Hz. __u32 offset Horizontal offset of the VBI image, relative to the leading edge of the line synchronization pulse and counted in samples: The first sample in the VBI image will be located offset / sampling_rate seconds following the leading edge. See also Figure 4-1. __u32 samples_per_line __u32 sample_format Defines the sample format as in Chapter 2, a four-character-code.a Usually this is V4L2_PIX_FMT_GREY, i. e. each sample consists of 8 bits with lower values oriented towards the black level. Do not assume any other correlation of values with the signal level. For example, the MSB does not necessarily indicate if the signal is ’high’ or ’low’ because 128 may not be the mean value of the signal. Drivers shall not convert the http://bbs.51soc.com __u32 start[2] sample format by software. This is the scanning system line number associated with the first line of the VBI image, of the first and the second field respectively. See Figure 4-2 and Figure 4-3 for valid values. VBI input drivers can return start values 0 if the hardware cannot reliable identify scanning lines, VBI acquisition may not require this information. __u32 count[2] The number of lines in the first and second field image, respectively. Drivers should be as flexibility as possible. For example, it may be possible to extend or move the VBI capture window __u32 flags See Table 4-5 below. Currently only drivers set flags, applications must set this field to zero. __u32 reserved[2] This array is reserved for future extensions. Drivers and applications must set it to zero. Notes: Table 4-5. Raw VBI Format Flags 76 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces V4L2_VBI_UNSYNC 0x0001 This flag indicates hardware which does not properly distinguish between fields. Normally the VBI image stores the first field (lower scanning line numbers) first in memory. This may be a top or bottom field depending on the video standard. When this flag is set the first or second field may be stored first, however the fields are still in correct temporal order with the older field first in memory.a V4L2_VBI_INTERLACED 0x0002 By default the two field images will be passed sequentially; all lines of the first field followed by all lines of the second field (compare Section 3.6 V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_TB and V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_BT, whether the top or bottom field is first in memory depends on the video standard). When this flag is set, the two fields are interlaced (cf. V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED). The first line of the first field followed by the first line of the second field, then the two second lines, and so on. Such a layout may be necessary when the hardware has been programmed to capture or output interlaced video images and is unable to separate the fields for VBI capturing at the same time. For simplicity setting this flag implies that both count values are equal and non-zero. http://bbs.51soc.com Notes: a. Most VBI services transmit on both fields, but some have different semantics depending on the field number Figure 4-1. Line synchronization White Level offset Line synchr. pulse Line blanking Black Level Sync Level 77 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Figure 4-2. ITU-R 525 line numbering (M/NTSC and M/PAL) Chapter 4. Interfaces http://bbs.51soc.com 524 525 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 261 262 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 262 263 264 265 266 267 262 263 1 2 3 4 (1) 1st field 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2nd field 78 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces (1) For the purpose of this specification field 2 starts in line 264 and not 263.5 because half line capturing is not supported. http://bbs.51soc.com 79 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Figure 4-3. ITU-R 625 line numbering Chapter 4. Interfaces http://bbs.51soc.com 621 622 623 624 625 1 2 3 4 5 308 309 310 311 312 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 22 6 7 8 22 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 309 310 311 312 313 1 2 (1) 1st field 316 317 318 319 320 321 335 3 4 5 6 7 8 22 2nd field 80 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces (1) For the purpose of this specification field 2 starts in line 314 and not 313.5 because half line capturing is not supported. Remember the VBI image format depends on the selected video standard, therefore the application must choose a new standard or query the current standard first. Attempts to read or write data ahead of format negotiation, or after switching the video standard which may invalidate the negotiated VBI parameters, should be refused by the driver. A format change during active I/O is not permitted. 4.7.4. Reading and writing VBI images To assure synchronization with the field number and easier implementation, the smallest unit of data passed at a time is one frame, consisting of two fields of VBI images immediately following in memory. The total size of a frame computes as follows: (count[0] + count[1]) * samples_per_line * sample size in bytes The sample size is most likely always one byte, applications must check the sample_format field though, to function properly with other drivers. A VBI device may support read/write and/or streaming (memory mapping or user pointer) I/O. The latter bears the possibility of synchronizing video and VBI data by using buffer timestamps. Remember the VIDIOC_STREAMON ioctl and the first read(), write() and select() call can be resource allocation points returning an EBUSY error code if the required hardware resources are temporarily http://bbs.51soc.com unavailable, for example the device is already in use by another process. 4.8. Sliced VBI Data Interface VBI stands for Vertical Blanking Interval, a gap in the sequence of lines of an analog video signal. During VBI no picture information is transmitted, allowing some time while the electron beam of a cathode ray tube TV returns to the top of the screen. Sliced VBI devices use hardware to demodulate data transmitted in the VBI. V4L2 drivers shall not do this by software, see also the raw VBI interface. The data is passed as short packets of fixed size, covering one scan line each. The number of packets per video frame is variable. Sliced VBI capture and output devices are accessed through the same character special files as raw VBI devices. When a driver supports both interfaces, the default function of a /dev/vbi device is raw VBI capturing or output, and the sliced VBI function is only available after calling the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl as defined below. Likewise a /dev/video device may support the sliced VBI API, however the default function here is video capturing or output. Different file descriptors must be used to pass raw and sliced VBI data simultaneously, if this is supported by the driver. 4.8.1. Querying Capabilities Devices supporting the sliced VBI capturing or output API set the V4L2_CAP_SLICED_VBI_CAPTURE or V4L2_CAP_SLICED_VBI_OUTPUT flag respectively, in the capabilities field of struct v4l2_capability returned by the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl. At least 81 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces one of the read/write, streaming or asynchronous I/O methods must be supported. Sliced VBI devices may have a tuner or modulator. 4.8.2. Supplemental Functions Sliced VBI devices shall support video input or output and tuner or modulator ioctls if they have these capabilities, and they may support control ioctls. The video standard ioctls provide information vital to program a sliced VBI device, therefore must be supported. 4.8.3. Sliced VBI Format Negotiation To find out which data services are supported by the hardware applications can call the VIDIOC_G_SLICED_VBI_CAP ioctl. All drivers implementing the sliced VBI interface must support this ioctl. The results may differ from those of the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl when the number of VBI lines the hardware can capture or output per frame, or the number of services it can identify on a given line are limited. For example on PAL line 16 the hardware may be able to look for a VPS or Teletext signal, but not both at the same time. To determine the currently selected services applications set the type field of struct v4l2_format to V4L2_BUF_TYPE_SLICED_VBI_CAPTURE or V4L2_BUF_TYPE_SLICED_VBI_OUTPUT, and the VIDIOC_G_FMT ioctl fills the fmt.sliced member, a struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_format. Applications can request different parameters by initializing or modifying the fmt.sliced member and calling the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl with a pointer to the v4l2_format structure. The sliced VBI API is more complicated than the raw VBI API because the hardware must be told http://bbs.51soc.com which VBI service to expect on each scan line. Not all services may be supported by the hardware on all lines (this is especially true for VBI output where Teletext is often unsupported and other services can only be inserted in one specific line). In many cases, however, it is sufficient to just set the service_set field to the required services and let the driver fill the service_lines array according to hardware capabilities. Only if more precise control is needed should the programmer set the service_lines array explicitly. The VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl returns an EINVAL error code only when the given parameters are ambiguous, otherwise it modifies the parameters according to hardware capabilities. When the driver allocates resources at this point, it may return an EBUSY error code if the required resources are temporarily unavailable. Other resource allocation points which may return EBUSY can be the VIDIOC_STREAMON ioctl and the first read(), write() and select() call. Table 4-6. struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_format __u32 __u16 service_set If service_set is non-zero when passed with VIDIOC_S_FMT or V service_lines[2][24] Applications initialize this array with sets of data services the driver Element 525 line systems625 line systems service_lines[0][1] 1 1 service_lines[0][232] 3 23 service_lines[1][1]264 314 82 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces __u32 __u32 Notes: io_size reserved[2] service_lines[1][232]86 336 Drivers must set service_lines[0][0] and service_lines[1][0] Maximum number of bytes passed by one read() or write() call, This array is reserved for future extensions. Applications and drivers Table 4-7. Sliced VBI services Symbol Value Reference Lines, usually Payload V4L2_SLICED_TELETEX0Tx_0B001 (Teletext System B) ETS 300 706P,AL/SECAM line 7-22, Last 42 of the 45 byte ITU BT.653 320-335 (second field Teletext packet, that is 7-22) without clock run-in and framing code, lsb first transmitted. V4L2_SLICED_VPS 0x0400 ETS 300 231PAL line 16 Byte number 3 to 15 according to Figure 9 of ETS 300 231, lsb first transmitted. V4L2_SLICED_CAPTION0_x5120500 EIA 608-B NTSC line 21, 284 Two bytes in (second field 21) transmission order, including parity bit, lsb http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_SLICED_WSS_6250x4000 first transmitted. ITU BT.1119P,AL/SECAM line 23 Byte 0 1 EN 300 294 msb lsb msb Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 x x 13 12 V4L2_SLICED_VBI_5250x1000 Set of services applicable to 525 line systems. V4L2_SLICED_VBI_6250x4401 Set of services applicable to 625 line systems. Drivers may return an EINVAL error code when applications attempt to read or write data without prior format negotiation, after switching the video standard (which may invalidate the negotiated VBI parameters) and after switching the video input (which may change the video standard as a side effect). The VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl may return an EBUSY error code when applications attempt to change the format while i/o is in progress (between a VIDIOC_STREAMON and VIDIOC_STREAMOFF call, and after the first read() or write() call). 4.8.4. Reading and writing sliced VBI data A single read() or write() call must pass all data belonging to one video frame. That is an array of v4l2_sliced_vbi_data structures with one or more elements and a total size not exceeding io_size bytes. Likewise in streaming I/O mode one buffer of io_size bytes must contain data of one video frame. The id of unused v4l2_sliced_vbi_data elements must be zero. 83 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces Table 4-8. struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_data __u32 id A flag from Table 2 identifying the type of data in this packet. Only a single bit must be set. When the id of a captured packet is zero, the packet is empty and the contents of other fields are undefined. Applications shall ignore empty packets. When the id of a packet for output is zero the contents of the data field are undefined and the driver must no longer insert data on the requested field and line. __u32 field The video field number this data has been captured from, or shall be inserted at. 0 for the first field, 1 for the second field. __u32 line The field (as opposed to frame) line number this data has been captured from, or shall be inserted at. See Figure 4-2 and Figure 4-3 for valid values. Sliced VBI capture devices can set the line number of all packets to 0 if the hardware cannot reliably identify scan lines. The field number must always be valid. __u32 reserved This field is reserved for future extensions. Applications and drivers must set it to zero. __u8 data[48] The packet payload. See Table 2 for the contents and number of bytes passed for each data type. http://bbs.51soc.com The contents of padding bytes at the end of this array are undefined, drivers and applications shall ignore them. Packets are always passed in ascending line number order, without duplicate line numbers. The write() function and the VIDIOC_QBUF ioctl must return an EINVAL error code when applications violate this rule. They must also return an EINVAL error code when applications pass an incorrect field or line number, or a combination of field, line and id which has not been negotiated with the VIDIOC_G_FMT or VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. When the line numbers are unknown the driver must pass the packets in transmitted order. The driver can insert empty packets with id set to zero anywhere in the packet array. To assure synchronization and to distinguish from frame dropping, when a captured frame does not carry any of the requested data services drivers must pass one or more empty packets. When an application fails to pass VBI data in time for output, the driver must output the last VPS and WSS packet again, and disable the output of Closed Caption and Teletext data, or output data which is ignored by Closed Caption and Teletext decoders. A sliced VBI device may support read/write and/or streaming (memory mapping and/or user pointer) I/O. The latter bears the possibility of synchronizing video and VBI data by using buffer timestamps. 4.9. Teletext Interface This interface aims at devices receiving and demodulating Teletext data [ETS 300 706, ITU BT.653], evaluating the Teletext packages and storing formatted pages in cache memory. Such devices are 84 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces usually implemented as microcontrollers with serial interface (I2C) and can be found on older TV cards, dedicated Teletext decoding cards and home-brew devices connected to the PC parallel port. The Teletext API was designed by Martin Buck. It is defined in the kernel header file linux/videotext.h, the specification is available from http://home.pages.de/~videotext/. (Videotext is the name of the German public television Teletext service.) Conventional character device file names are /dev/vtx and /dev/vttuner, with device number 83, 0 and 83, 16 respectively. A similar interface exists for the Philips SAA5249 Teletext decoder [specification?] with character device file names /dev/tlkN, device number 102, N. Eventually the Teletext API was integrated into the V4L API with character device file names /dev/vtx0 to /dev/vtx31, device major number 81, minor numbers 192 to 223. For reference the V4L Teletext API specification is reproduced here in full: "Teletext interfaces talk the existing VTX API." Teletext devices with major number 83 and 102 will be removed in Linux 2.6. There are no plans to replace the Teletext API or to integrate it into V4L2. Please write to the Video4Linux mailing list: https://listman.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/video4linux-list when the need arises. 4.10. Radio Interface This interface is intended for AM and FM (analog) radio receivers. Conventionally V4L2 radio devices are accessed through character device special files named /dev/radio and /dev/radio0 to /dev/radio63 with major number 81 and minor numbers 64 to 127. http://bbs.51soc.com 4.10.1. Querying Capabilities Devices supporting the radio interface set the V4L2_CAP_RADIO and V4L2_CAP_TUNER flag in the capabilities field of struct v4l2_capability returned by the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl. Other combinations of capability flags are reserved for future extensions. 4.10.2. Supplemental Functions Radio devices can support controls, and must support the tuner ioctls. They do not support the video input or output, audio input or output, video standard, cropping and scaling, compression and streaming parameter, or overlay ioctls. All other ioctls and I/O methods are reserved for future extensions. 4.10.3. Programming Radio devices may have a couple audio controls (as discussed in Section 1.8) such as a volume control, possibly custom controls. Further all radio devices have one tuner (these are discussed in Section 1.6) with index number zero to select the radio frequency and to determine if a monaural or FM stereo program is received. Drivers switch automatically between AM and FM depending on the selected frequency. The VIDIOC_G_TUNER ioctl reports the supported frequency range. 85 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 4. Interfaces 4.11. RDS Interface The Radio Data System transmits supplementary information in binary format, for example the station name or travel information, on a inaudible audio subcarrier of a radio program. This interface aims at devices capable of receiving and decoding RDS information. The V4L API defines its RDS API as follows. From radio devices supporting it, RDS data can be read with the read() function. The data is packed in groups of three, as follows: 1. First Octet Least Significant Byte of RDS Block 2. Second Octet Most Significant Byte of RDS Block 3. Third Octet Bit 7: Error bit. Indicates that an uncorrectable error occurred during reception of this block. Bit 6: Corrected bit. Indicates that an error was corrected for this data block. Bits 5-3: Received Offset. Indicates the offset received by the sync system. Bits 2-0: Offset Name. Indicates the offset applied to this data. It was argued the RDS API should be extended before integration into V4L2, no new API has been devised yet. Please write to the Video4Linux mailing list for discussion: https://listman.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/video4linux-list. Meanwhile no V4L2 driver should set the V4L2_CAP_RDS_CAPTURE capability flag. Notes http://bbs.51soc.com 1. A common application of two file descriptors is the XFree86 Xv/V4L interface driver and a V4L2 application. While the X server controls video overlay, the application can take advantage of memory mapping and DMA. In the opinion of the designers of this API, no driver writer taking the efforts to support simultaneous capturing and overlay will restrict this ability by requiring a single file descriptor, as in V4L and earlier versions of V4L2. Making this optional means applications depending on two file descriptors need backup routines to be compatible with all drivers, which is considerable more work than using two fds in applications which do not. Also two fd’s fit the general concept of one file descriptor for each logical stream. Hence as a complexity trade-off drivers must support two file descriptors and may support single fd operation. 2. The X Window system defines "regions" which are vectors of struct BoxRec { short x1, y1, x2, y2; } with width = x2 - x1 and height = y2 - y1, so one cannot pass X11 clip lists directly. 3. ASK: Amplitude-Shift Keying. A high signal level represents a ’1’ bit, a low level a ’0’ bit. 86 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com http://bbs.51soc.com 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com I. Function Reference Table of Contents V4L2 close()....................................................................................................................................... 89 V4L2 ioctl()........................................................................................................................................ 90 ioctl VIDIOC_CROPCAP................................................................................................................ 92 ioctl VIDIOC_DBG_G_REGISTER, VIDIOC_DBG_S_REGISTER ........................................ 94 ioctl VIDIOC_ENCODER_CMD, VIDIOC_TRY_ENCODER_CMD....................................... 97 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMAUDIO.......................................................................................................... 99 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMAUDOUT.................................................................................................... 100 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT .......................................................................................................... 101 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES......................................................................................... 103 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMEINTERVALS.............................................................................. 106 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT ........................................................................................................ 109 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMOUTPUT .................................................................................................... 112 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMSTD ............................................................................................................. 114 ioctl VIDIOC_G_AUDIO, VIDIOC_S_AUDIO........................................................................... 119 ioctl VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT, VIDIOC_S_AUDOUT................................................................... 121 ioctl VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT ................................................................................................... 123 ioctl VIDIOC_G_CROP, VIDIOC_S_CROP............................................................................... 126 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_CTRL, VIDIOC_S_CTRL...............................................................................128 ioctl VIDIOC_G_ENC_INDEX..................................................................................................... 130 ioctl VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_TRY_EXT_CTRLS . 132 ioctl VIDIOC_G_FBUF, VIDIOC_S_FBUF ................................................................................ 135 ioctl VIDIOC_G_FMT, VIDIOC_S_FMT, VIDIOC_TRY_FMT.............................................. 140 ioctl VIDIOC_G_FREQUENCY, VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY................................................... 143 ioctl VIDIOC_G_INPUT, VIDIOC_S_INPUT ............................................................................ 145 ioctl VIDIOC_G_JPEGCOMP, VIDIOC_S_JPEGCOMP ........................................................ 147 ioctl VIDIOC_G_MODULATOR, VIDIOC_S_MODULATOR ................................................ 149 ioctl VIDIOC_G_OUTPUT, VIDIOC_S_OUTPUT.................................................................... 152 ioctl VIDIOC_G_PARM, VIDIOC_S_PARM ............................................................................. 154 ioctl VIDIOC_G_PRIORITY, VIDIOC_S_PRIORITY ............................................................. 158 ioctl VIDIOC_G_SLICED_VBI_CAP.......................................................................................... 160 ioctl VIDIOC_G_STD, VIDIOC_S_STD ..................................................................................... 162 ioctl VIDIOC_G_TUNER, VIDIOC_S_TUNER......................................................................... 163 ioctl VIDIOC_LOG_STATUS ....................................................................................................... 168 ioctl VIDIOC_OVERLAY.............................................................................................................. 169 ioctl VIDIOC_QBUF, VIDIOC_DQBUF...................................................................................... 170 ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYBUF........................................................................................................... 172 ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYCAP........................................................................................................... 174 ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, VIDIOC_QUERYMENU .......................................................... 177 ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYSTD ........................................................................................................... 182 ioctl VIDIOC_REQBUFS .............................................................................................................. 184 ioctl VIDIOC_STREAMON, VIDIOC_STREAMOFF .............................................................. 186 V4L2 mmap() .................................................................................................................................. 188 V4L2 munmap().............................................................................................................................. 190 V4L2 open()..................................................................................................................................... 191 V4L2 poll()....................................................................................................................................... 193 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2 close() Name v4l2-close — Close a V4L2 device Synopsis #include int close(int fd); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). Description Closes the device. Any I/O in progress is terminated and resources associated with the file descriptor http://bbs.51soc.com are freed. However data format parameters, current input or output, control values or other properties remain unchanged. Return Value The function returns 0 on success, -1 on failure and the errno is set appropriately. Possible error codes: EBADF fd is not a valid open file descriptor. 89 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2 ioctl() Name v4l2-ioctl — Program a V4L2 device Synopsis #include int ioctl(int fd, int request, void *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request V4L2 ioctl request code as defined in the videodev.h header file, for example VIDIOC_QUERYCAP. http://bbs.51soc.com argp Pointer to a function parameter, usually a structure. Description The ioctl() function is used to program V4L2 devices. The argument fd must be an open file descriptor. An ioctl request has encoded in it whether the argument is an input, output or read/write parameter, and the size of the argument argp in bytes. Macros and defines specifying V4L2 ioctl requests are located in the videodev.h header file. Applications should use their own copy, not include the version in the kernel sources on the system they compile on. All V4L2 ioctl requests, their respective function and parameters are specified in Reference I, Function Reference. Return Value On success the ioctl() function returns 0 and does not reset the errno variable. On failure -1 is returned, when the ioctl takes an output or read/write parameter it remains unmodified, and the errno variable is set appropriately. See below for possible error codes. Generic errors like EBADF or EFAULT are not listed in the sections discussing individual ioctl requests. Note ioctls may return undefined error codes. Since errors may have side effects such as a driver reset applications should abort on unexpected errors. 90 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2 ioctl() EBADF fd is not a valid open file descriptor. EBUSY The property cannot be changed right now. Typically this error code is returned when I/O is in progress or the driver supports multiple opens and another process locked the property. EFAULT argp references an inaccessible memory area. ENOTTY fd is not associated with a character special device. EINVAL The request or the data pointed to by argp is not valid. This is a very common error code, see the individual ioctl requests listed in Reference I, Function Reference for actual causes. ENOMEM Not enough physical or virtual memory was available to complete the request. ERANGE The application attempted to set a control with the VIDIOC_S_CTRL ioctl to a value which is out of bounds. http://bbs.51soc.com 91 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_CROPCAP Name VIDIOC_CROPCAP — Information about the video cropping and scaling abilities Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_cropcap *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_CROPCAP argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description Applications use this function to query the cropping limits, the pixel aspect of images and to calculate scale factors. They set the type field of a v4l2_cropcap structure to the respective buffer (stream) type and call the VIDIOC_CROPCAP ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the rest of the structure. The results are constant except when switching the video standard. Remember this switch can occur implicit when switching the video input or output. Table 1. struct v4l2_cropcap enum v4l2_buf_type type Type of the data stream, set by the application. Only these types are valid here: V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE, V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT, V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OVERLAY, and custom (driver defined) types with code V4L2_BUF_TYPE_PRIVATE and higher. 92 嵌入式SOC社区 struct v4l2_rect struct v4l2_rect struct v4l2_fract http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_CROPCAP bounds defrect pixelaspect Defines the window within capturing or output is possible, this may exclude for example the horizontal and vertical blanking areas. The cropping rectangle cannot exceed these limits. Width and height are defined in pixels, the driver writer is free to choose origin and units of the coordinate system in the analog domain. Default cropping rectangle, it shall cover the "whole picture". Assuming pixel aspect 1/1 this could be for example a 640 × 480 rectangle for NTSC, a 768 × 576 rectangle for PAL and SECAM centered over the active picture area. The same co-ordinate system as for bounds is used. This is the pixel aspect (y / x) when no scaling is applied, the ratio of the actual sampling frequency and the frequency required to get square pixels. When cropping coordinates refer to square pixels, the driver sets pixelaspect to 1/1. Other common values are 54/59 for PAL and SECAM, 11/10 for NTSC sampled according to [ITU BT.601]. http://bbs.51soc.com Table 2. struct v4l2_rect __s32 left Horizontal offset of the top, left corner of the rectangle, in pixels. __s32 top Vertical offset of the top, left corner of the rectangle, in pixels. __s32 width Width of the rectangle, in pixels. __s32 height Height of the rectangle, in pixels. Width and height cannot be negative, the fields are signed for hysterical reasons. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The struct v4l2_cropcap type is invalid or the ioctl is not supported. This is not permitted for video capture, output and overlay devices, which must support VIDIOC_CROPCAP. 93 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_DBG_G_REGISTER, VIDIOC_DBG_S_REGISTER Name VIDIOC_DBG_G_REGISTER, VIDIOC_DBG_S_REGISTER — Read or write hardware registers Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_register *argp); int ioctl(int fd, int request, const struct v4l2_register *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). hreqtuesttp://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_DBG_G_REGISTER, VIDIOC_DBG_S_REGISTER argp Description Experimental: This is an experimental interface and may change in the future. For driver debugging purposes these ioctls allow test applications to access hardware registers directly. Regular applications should not use them. Since writing or even reading registers can jeopardize the system security, its stability and damage the hardware, both ioctls require superuser privileges. Additionally the Linux kernel must be compiled with the CONFIG_VIDEO_ADV_DEBUG option to enable these ioctls. To write a register applications must initialize all fields of a struct v4l2_register and call VIDIOC_DBG_S_REGISTER with a pointer to this structure. The match_type and match_chip fields select a chip on the TV card, the reg field specifies a register number and the val field the value to be written into the register. 94 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_DBG_G_REGISTER, VIDIOC_DBG_S_REGISTER To read a register applications must initialize the match_type, match_chip and reg fields, and call VIDIOC_DBG_G_REGISTER with a pointer to this structure. On success the driver stores the register value in the val field. On failure the structure remains unchanged. When match_type is V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_HOST, match_chip selects the nth non-I2C chip on the TV card. Drivers may also interpret match_chip as a random ID, but we recommend against that. The number zero always selects the host chip, e. g. the chip connected to the PCI bus. You can find out which chips are present with the VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT ioctl. When match_type is V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_I2C_DRIVER, match_chip contains a driver ID as defined in the linux/i2c-id.h header file. For instance I2C_DRIVERID_SAA7127 will match any chip supported by the saa7127 driver, regardless of its I2C bus address. When multiple chips supported by the same driver are present, the effect of these ioctls is undefined. Again with the VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT ioctl you can find out which I2C chips are present. When match_type is V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_I2C_ADDR, match_chip selects a chip by its 7 bit I2C bus address. Success not guaranteed: Due to a flaw in the Linux I2C bus driver these ioctls may return successfully without actually reading or writing a register. To catch the most likely failure we recommend a VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT call confirming the presence of the selected I2C chip. These ioctls are optional, not all drivers may support them. However when a driver supports these ioctls it must also support VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT. Conversely it may support VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT but not these ioctls. VIDIOC_DBG_G_REGISTER and VIDIOC_DBG_S_REGISTER were introduced in Linux 2.6.21. http://bbs.51soc.com We recommended the v4l2-dbg utility over calling these ioctls directly. It is available from the LinuxTV v4l-dvb repository; see http://linuxtv.org/repo/ for access instructions. Table 1. struct v4l2_register __u32 match_type __u32 match_chip __u64 reg __u64 val See Table 2 for a list of possible types. Match a chip by this number, interpreted according to the match_type field. A register number. The value read from, or to be written into the register. Table 2. Chip Match Types V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_HOST 0 V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_I2C_DRIVER 1 V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_I2C_ADDR 2 Match the nth chip on the card, zero for the host chip. Does not match I2C chips. Match an I2C chip by its driver ID from the linux/i2c-id.h header file. Match a chip by its 7 bit I2C bus address. 95 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_DBG_G_REGISTER, VIDIOC_DBG_S_REGISTER Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The driver does not support this ioctl, or the kernel was not compiled with the CONFIG_VIDEO_ADV_DEBUG option, or the match_type is invalid, or the selected chip or register does not exist. EPERM Insufficient permissions. Root privileges are required to execute these ioctls. http://bbs.51soc.com 96 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENCODER_CMD, VIDIOC_TRY_ENCODER_CMD Name VIDIOC_ENCODER_CMD, VIDIOC_TRY_ENCODER_CMD — Execute an encoder command Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_encoder_cmd *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_ENCODER_CMD, VIDIOC_TRY_ENCODER_CMD hargtp tp://bbs.51soc.com Description Experimental: This is an experimental interface and may change in the future. These ioctls control an audio/video (usually MPEG-) encoder. VIDIOC_ENCODER_CMD sends a command to the encoder, VIDIOC_TRY_ENCODER_CMD can be used to try a command without actually executing it. To send a command applications must initialize all fields of a struct v4l2_encoder_cmd and call VIDIOC_ENCODER_CMD or VIDIOC_TRY_ENCODER_CMD with a pointer to this structure. The cmd field must contain the command code. The flags field is currently only used by the STOP command and contains one bit: If the V4L2_ENC_CMD_STOP_AT_GOP_END flag is set, encoding will continue until the end of the current Group Of Pictures, otherwise it will stop immediately. A read() call sends a START command to the encoder if it has not been started yet. After a STOP command, read() calls will read the remaining data buffered by the driver. When the buffer is empty, read() will return zero and the next read() call will restart the encoder. A close() call sends an immediate STOP to the encoder, and all buffered data is discarded. These ioctls are optional, not all drivers may support them. They were introduced in Linux 2.6.21. 97 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENCODER_CMD, VIDIOC_TRY_ENCODER_CMD Table 1. struct v4l2_encoder_cmd __u32 __u32 __u32 cmd flags data[8] The encoder command, see Table 2. Flags to go with the command, see Table 3. If no flags are defined for this command, drivers and applications must set this field to zero. Reserved for future extensions. Drivers and applications must set the array to zero. Table 2. Encoder Commands V4L2_ENC_CMD_START 0 Start the encoder. When the encoder is already running or paused, this command does nothing. No flags are defined for this command. V4L2_ENC_CMD_STOP 1 Stop the encoder. When the V4L2_ENC_CMD_STOP_AT_GOP_END flag is set, encoding will continue until the end of the current Group Of Pictures, otherwise encoding will stop immediately. When the encoder is already stopped, this command does nothing. V4L2_ENC_CMD_PAUSE 2 Pause the encoder. When the encoder has not been started yet, the driver will return an EPERM error code. When the encoder is already paused, this command does nothing. No flags are defined for this command. http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_ENC_CMD_RESUME 3 Resume encoding after a PAUSE command. When the encoder has not been started yet, the driver will return an EPERM error code. When the encoder is already running, this command does nothing. No flags are defined for this command. Table 3. Encoder Command Flags V4L2_ENC_CMD_STOP_AT_GOP_END0x0001 Stop encoding at the end of the current Group Of Pictures, rather than immediately. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The driver does not support this ioctl, or the cmd field is invalid. EPERM The application sent a PAUSE or RESUME command when the encoder was not running. 98 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMAUDIO Name VIDIOC_ENUMAUDIO — Enumerate audio inputs Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_audio *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_ENUMAUDIO argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description To query the attributes of an audio input applications initialize the index field and zero out the reserved array of a struct v4l2_audio and call the VIDIOC_ENUMAUDIO ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the rest of the structure or return an EINVAL error code when the index is out of bounds. To enumerate all audio inputs applications shall begin at index zero, incrementing by one until the driver returns EINVAL. See ioctl VIDIOC_G_AUDIO, VIDIOC_S_AUDIO(2) for a description of struct v4l2_audio. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The number of the audio input is out of bounds, or there are no audio inputs at all and this ioctl is not supported. 99 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMAUDOUT Name VIDIOC_ENUMAUDOUT — Enumerate audio outputs Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_audioout *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_ENUMAUDOUT argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description To query the attributes of an audio output applications initialize the index field and zero out the reserved array of a struct v4l2_audioout and call the VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the rest of the structure or return an EINVAL error code when the index is out of bounds. To enumerate all audio outputs applications shall begin at index zero, incrementing by one until the driver returns EINVAL. Note connectors on a TV card to loop back the received audio signal to a sound card are not audio outputs in this sense. See ioctl VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT, VIDIOC_S_AUDOUT(2) for a description of struct v4l2_audioout. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The number of the audio output is out of bounds, or there are no audio outputs at all and this ioctl is not supported. 100 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT Name VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT — Enumerate image formats Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_fmtdesc *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description To enumerate image formats applications initialize the type and index field of struct v4l2_fmtdesc and call the VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the rest of the structure or return an EINVAL error code. All formats are enumerable by beginning at index zero and incrementing by one until EINVAL is returned. Table 1. struct v4l2_fmtdesc __u32 index enum v4l2_buf_type type __u32 __u8 flags description[32] Number of the format in the enumeration, set by the application. This is in no way related to the pixelformat field. Type of the data stream, set by the application. Only these types are valid here: V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE, V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT, V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OVERLAY, and custom (driver defined) types with code V4L2_BUF_TYPE_PRIVATE and higher. See Table 2 Description of the format, a NUL-terminated ASCII string. This information is intended for the user, for example: "YUV 4:2:2". 101 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT __u32 pixelformat The image format identifier. This is a four character code as computed by the v4l2_fourcc() macro: #define v4l2_fourcc(a,b,c,d) (((__u32)(a)<<0)|((__u32)(b)<<8)|((__u32)(c)<<16)|((__u32) __u32 reserved[4] Reserved for future extensions. Drivers must set the array to zero. Table 2. Image Format Description Flags V4L2_FMT_FLAG_COMPRESSED 0x0001 This is a compressed format. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The struct v4l2_fmtdesc type is not supported or the index is out of bounds. http://bbs.51soc.com 102 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES Name VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES — Enumerate frame sizes Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_frmsizeenum *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES argp http://bbs.51soc.com Pointer to a struct v4l2_frmsizeenum that contains an index and pixel format and receives a frame width and height. Description Experimental: This is an experimental interface and may change in the future. This ioctl allows applications to enumerate all frame sizes (i. e. width and height in pixels) that the device supports for the given pixel format. The supported pixel formats can be obtained by using the VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT function. The return value and the content of the v4l2_frmsizeenum.type field depend on the type of frame sizes the device supports. Here are the semantics of the function for the different cases: • Discrete: The function returns success if the given index value (zero-based) is valid. The application should increase the index by one for each call until EINVAL is returned. The v4l2_frmsizeenum.type field is set to V4L2_FRMSIZE_TYPE_DISCRETE by the driver. Of the union only the discrete member is valid. • Step-wise: The function returns success if the given index value is zero and EINVAL for any other index value. The v4l2_frmsizeenum.type field is set to V4L2_FRMSIZE_TYPE_STEPWISE by the driver. Of the union only the stepwise member is valid. • Continuous: This is a special case of the step-wise type above. The function returns success if the given index value is zero and EINVAL for any other index value. The v4l2_frmsizeenum.type 103 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES field is set to V4L2_FRMSIZE_TYPE_CONTINUOUS by the driver. Of the union only the stepwise member is valid and the step_width and step_height values are set to 1. When the application calls the function with index zero, it must check the type field to determine the type of frame size enumeration the device supports. Only for the V4L2_FRMSIZE_TYPE_DISCRETE type does it make sense to increase the index value to receive more frame sizes. Note that the order in which the frame sizes are returned has no special meaning. In particular does it not say anything about potential default format sizes. Applications can assume that the enumeration data does not change without any interaction from the application itself. This means that the enumeration data is consistent if the application does not perform any other ioctl calls while it runs the frame size enumeration. Structs In the structs below, IN denotes a value that has to be filled in by the application, OUT denotes values that the driver fills in. The application should zero out all members except for the IN fields. Table 1. struct v4l2_frmsize_discrete __u32 __u32 width height Width of the frame [pixel]. Height of the frame [pixel]. Table 2. struct v4l2_frmsize_stepwise http://bbs.51soc.com __u32 __u32 min_width max_width Minimum frame width [pixel]. Maximum frame width [pixel]. __u32 step_width Frame width step size [pixel]. __u32 min_height Minimum frame height [pixel]. __u32 max_height Maximum frame height [pixel]. __u32 step_height Frame height step size [pixel]. Table 3. struct v4l2_frmsizeenum __u32 index __u32 pixel_format __u32 union type struct v4l2_frmsize_discrdetiescrete struct v4l2_frmsize_stepwsitsepwise IN: Index of the given frame size in the enumeration. IN: Pixel format for which the frame sizes are enumerated. OUT: Frame size type the device supports. OUT: Frame size with the given index. 104 嵌入式SOC社区 __u32 http://bbs.51soc.com reserved[2] ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES Reserved space for future use. Enums Table 4. enum v4l2_frmsizetypes V4L2_FRMSIZE_TYPE_DISCRETE 1 V4L2_FRMSIZE_TYPE_CONTINUOUS2 V4L2_FRMSIZE_TYPE_STEPWISE 3 Discrete frame size. Continuous frame size. Step-wise defined frame size. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: See the description section above for a list of return values that errno can have. http://bbs.51soc.com 105 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMEINTERVALS Name VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMEINTERVALS — Enumerate frame intervals Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_frmivalenum *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMEINTERVALS argp http://bbs.51soc.com Pointer to a struct v4l2_frmivalenum structure that contains a pixel format and size and receives a frame interval. Description This ioctl allows applications to enumerate all frame intervals that the device supports for the given pixel format and frame size. The supported pixel formats and frame sizes can be obtained by using the VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT and VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES functions. The return value and the content of the v4l2_frmivalenum.type field depend on the type of frame intervals the device supports. Here are the semantics of the function for the different cases: • Discrete: The function returns success if the given index value (zero-based) is valid. The application should increase the index by one for each call until EINVAL is returned. The ‘v4l2_frmivalenum.type‘ field is set to ‘V4L2_FRMIVAL_TYPE_DISCRETE‘ by the driver. Of the union only the ‘discrete‘ member is valid. • Step-wise: The function returns success if the given index value is zero and EINVAL for any other index value. The v4l2_frmivalenum.type field is set to V4L2_FRMIVAL_TYPE_STEPWISE by the driver. Of the union only the stepwise member is valid. • Continuous: This is a special case of the step-wise type above. The function returns success if the given index value is zero and EINVAL for any other index value. The v4l2_frmivalenum.type field is set to V4L2_FRMIVAL_TYPE_CONTINUOUS by the driver. Of the union only the stepwise member is valid and the step value is set to 1. 106 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMEINTERVALS When the application calls the function with index zero, it must check the type field to determine the type of frame interval enumeration the device supports. Only for the V4L2_FRMIVAL_TYPE_DISCRETE type does it make sense to increase the index value to receive more frame intervals. Note that the order in which the frame intervals are returned has no special meaning. In particular does it not say anything about potential default frame intervals. Applications can assume that the enumeration data does not change without any interaction from the application itself. This means that the enumeration data is consistent if the application does not perform any other ioctl calls while it runs the frame interval enumeration. Notes • Frame intervals and frame rates: The V4L2 API uses frame intervals instead of frame rates. Given the frame interval the frame rate can be computed as follows: frame_rate = 1 / frame_interval Structs In the structs below, IN denotes a value that has to be filled in by the application, OUT denotes values that the driver fills in. The application should zero out all members except for the IN fields. http://bbs.51soc.com Table 1. struct v4l2_frmival_stepwise struct v4l2_fract min Minimum frame interval [s]. struct v4l2_fract max Maximum frame interval [s]. struct v4l2_fract step Frame interval step size [s]. Table 2. struct v4l2_frmivalenum __u32 index __u32 pixel_format __u32 width __u32 height IN: Index of the given frame interval in the enumeration. IN: Pixel format for which the frame intervals are enumerated. IN: Frame width for which the frame intervals are enumerated. IN: Frame height for which the frame intervals are enumerated. 107 嵌入式SOC社区 __u32 union __u32 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMEINTERVALS type struct v4l2_fract discrete struct v4l2_frmival_stepwsitseepwise reserved[2] OUT: Frame interval type the device supports. OUT: Frame interval with the given index. Frame interval [s]. Reserved space for future use. Enums Table 3. enum v4l2_frmivaltypes V4L2_FRMIVAL_TYPE_DISCRETE 1 V4L2_FRMIVAL_TYPE_CONTINUOUS2 V4L2_FRMIVAL_TYPE_STEPWISE 3 Discrete frame interval. Continuous frame interval. Step-wise defined frame interval. hRetturtn Vpal:ue//bbs.51soc.com On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: See the description section above for a list of return values that errno can have. 108 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT Name VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT — Enumerate video inputs Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_input *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description To query the attributes of a video input applications initialize the index field of struct v4l2_input and call the VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the rest of the structure or return an EINVAL error code when the index is out of bounds. To enumerate all inputs applications shall begin at index zero, incrementing by one until the driver returns EINVAL. Table 1. struct v4l2_input __u32 __u8 index name[32] __u32 type Identifies the input, set by the application. Name of the video input, a NUL-terminated ASCII string, for example: "Vin (Composite 2)". This information is intended for the user, preferably the connector label on the device itself. Type of the input, see Table 2. 109 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT __u32 audioset Drivers can enumerate up to 32 video and audio inputs. This field shows which audio inputs were selectable as audio source if this was the currently selected video input. It is a bit mask. The LSB corresponds to audio input 0, the MSB to input 31. Any number of bits can be set, or none. When the driver does not enumerate audio inputs no bits must be set. Applications shall not interpret this as lack of audio support. Some drivers automatically select audio sources and do not enumerate them since there is no choice anyway. For details on audio inputs and how to select the current input see Section 1.5. __u32 tuner Capture devices can have zero or more tuners (RF demodulators). When the type is set to V4L2_INPUT_TYPE_TUNER this is an RF connector and this field identifies the tuner. It corresponds to struct v4l2_tuner field index. For details on tuners see Section 1.6. v4l2_std_id std Every video input supports one or more different http://bbs.51soc.com video standards. This field is a set of all supported standards. For details on video standards and how to switch see Section 1.7. __u32 status This field provides status information about the input. See Table 3 for flags. status is only valid when this is the current input. __u32 reserved[4] Reserved for future extensions. Drivers must set the array to zero. Table 2. Input Types V4L2_INPUT_TYPE_TUNER 1 V4L2_INPUT_TYPE_CAMERA 2 This input uses a tuner (RF demodulator). Analog baseband input, for example CVBS / Composite Video, S-Video, RGB. Table 3. Input Status Flags General V4L2_IN_ST_NO_POWER V4L2_IN_ST_NO_SIGNAL V4L2_IN_ST_NO_COLOR Analog Video 0x00000001 0x00000002 0x00000004 Attached device is off. The hardware supports color decoding, but does not detect color modulation in the signal. 110 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_IN_ST_NO_H_LOCK V4L2_IN_ST_COLOR_KILL 0x00000100 0x00000200 Digital Video V4L2_IN_ST_NO_SYNC V4L2_IN_ST_NO_EQU V4L2_IN_ST_NO_CARRIER VCR and Set-Top Box V4L2_IN_ST_MACROVISION 0x00010000 0x00020000 0x00040000 0x01000000 V4L2_IN_ST_NO_ACCESS V4L2_IN_ST_VTR 0x02000000 0x04000000 ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT No horizontal sync lock. A color killer circuit automatically disables color decoding when it detects no color modulation. When this flag is set the color killer is enabled and has shut off color decoding. No synchronization lock. No equalizer lock. Carrier recovery failed. Macrovision is an analog copy prevention system mangling the video signal to confuse video recorders. When this flag is set Macrovision has been detected. Conditional access denied. VTR time constant. [?] Return Value http://bbs.51soc.com On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The struct v4l2_input index is out of bounds. 111 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMOUTPUT Name VIDIOC_ENUMOUTPUT — Enumerate video outputs Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_output *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_ENUMOUTPUT argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description To query the attributes of a video outputs applications initialize the index field of struct v4l2_output and call the VIDIOC_ENUMOUTPUT ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the rest of the structure or return an EINVAL error code when the index is out of bounds. To enumerate all outputs applications shall begin at index zero, incrementing by one until the driver returns EINVAL. Table 1. struct v4l2_output __u32 __u8 index name[32] __u32 type Identifies the output, set by the application. Name of the video output, a NUL-terminated ASCII string, for example: "Vout". This information is intended for the user, preferably the connector label on the device itself. Type of the output, see Table 2. 112 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMOUTPUT __u32 audioset Drivers can enumerate up to 32 video and audio outputs. This field shows which audio outputs were selectable as the current output if this was the currently selected video output. It is a bit mask. The LSB corresponds to audio output 0, the MSB to output 31. Any number of bits can be set, or none. When the driver does not enumerate audio outputs no bits must be set. Applications shall not interpret this as lack of audio support. Drivers may automatically select audio outputs without enumerating them. For details on audio outputs and how to select the current output see Section 1.5. __u32 modulator Output devices can have zero or more RF modulators. When the type is V4L2_OUTPUT_TYPE_MODULATOR this is an RF connector and this field identifies the modulator. It corresponds to struct v4l2_modulator field index. For details on modulators see Section 1.6. v4l2_std_id std Every video output supports one or more different video standards. This field is a set of all supported http://bbs.51soc.com standards. For details on video standards and how to switch see Section 1.7. __u32 reserved[4] Reserved for future extensions. Drivers must set the array to zero. Table 2. Output Type V4L2_OUTPUT_TYPE_MODULATOR 1 V4L2_OUTPUT_TYPE_ANALOG 2 V4L2_OUTPUT_TYPE_ANALOGVGAOVE3RLAY This output is an analog TV modulator. Analog baseband output, for example Composite / CVBS, S-Video, RGB. [?] Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The struct v4l2_output index is out of bounds. 113 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMSTD Name VIDIOC_ENUMSTD — Enumerate supported video standards Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_standard *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_ENUMSTD argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description To query the attributes of a video standard, especially a custom (driver defined) one, applications initialize the index field of struct v4l2_standard and call the VIDIOC_ENUMSTD ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the rest of the structure or return an EINVAL error code when the index is out of bounds. To enumerate all standards applications shall begin at index zero, incrementing by one until the driver returns EINVAL. Drivers may enumerate a different set of standards after switching the video input or output.1 Table 1. struct v4l2_standard __u32 index v4l2_std_id id Number of the video standard, set by the application. The bits in this field identify the standard as one of the common standards listed in Table 3, or if bits 32 to 63 are set as custom standards. Multiple bits can be set if the hardware does not distinguish between these standards, however separate indices do not indicate the opposite. The id must be unique. No other enumerated v4l2_standard structure, for this input or output anyway, can contain the same set of bits. 114 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMSTD __u8 name[24] struct v4l2_fract frameperiod __u32 __u32 framelines reserved[4] Name of the standard, a NUL-terminated ASCII string, for example: "PAL-B/G", "NTSC Japan". This information is intended for the user. The frame period (not field period) is numerator / denominator. For example M/NTSC has a frame period of 1001 / 30000 seconds. Total lines per frame including blanking, e. g. 625 for B/PAL. Reserved for future extensions. Drivers must set the array to zero. Table 2. struct v4l2_fract __u32 __u32 numerator denominator Table 3. typedef v4l2_std_id __u64 v4l2_std_id This type is a set, each bit representing another video standard as listed below and in Table 4. The 32 most significant bits are reserved for custom (driver defined) video standards. http://bbs.51soc.com #define V4L2_STD_PAL_B ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000001) #define V4L2_STD_PAL_B1 ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000002) #define V4L2_STD_PAL_G ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000004) #define V4L2_STD_PAL_H ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000008) #define V4L2_STD_PAL_I ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000010) #define V4L2_STD_PAL_D ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000020) #define V4L2_STD_PAL_D1 ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000040) #define V4L2_STD_PAL_K ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000080) #define V4L2_STD_PAL_M #define V4L2_STD_PAL_N #define V4L2_STD_PAL_Nc #define V4L2_STD_PAL_60 ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000100) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000200) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000400) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000800) V4L2_STD_PAL_60 is a hybrid standard with 525 lines, 60 Hz refresh rate, and PAL color modulation with a 4.43 MHz color subcarrier. Some PAL video recorders can play back NTSC tapes in this mode for display on a 50/60 Hz agnostic PAL TV. #define V4L2_STD_NTSC_M #define V4L2_STD_NTSC_M_JP #define V4L2_STD_NTSC_443 ((v4l2_std_id)0x00001000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00002000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00004000) V4L2_STD_NTSC_443 is a hybrid standard with 525 lines, 60 Hz refresh rate, and NTSC color modulation with a 4.43 MHz color subcarrier. 115 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMSTD #define V4L2_STD_NTSC_M_KR ((v4l2_std_id)0x00008000) #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_B #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_D #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_G #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_H #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_K #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_K1 #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_L #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_LC ((v4l2_std_id)0x00010000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00020000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00040000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00080000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00100000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00200000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00400000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00800000) /* ATSC/HDTV */ #define V4L2_STD_ATSC_8_VSB #define V4L2_STD_ATSC_16_VSB ((v4l2_std_id)0x01000000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x02000000) V4L2_STD_ATSC_8_VSB and V4L2_STD_ATSC_16_VSB are U.S. terrestrial digital TV standards. Presently the V4L2 API does not support digital TV. See also the Linux DVB API at http://linuxtv.org. #define V4L2_STD_PAL_BG (V4L2_STD_PAL_B |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_B1 |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_G) #define V4L2_STD_B (V4L2_STD_PAL_B |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_B1 |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_B) #define V4L2_STD_GH (V4L2_STD_PAL_G |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_H |\ http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_STD_SECAM_G |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_H) #define V4L2_STD_PAL_DK (V4L2_STD_PAL_D |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_D1 |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_K) #define V4L2_STD_PAL (V4L2_STD_PAL_BG |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_DK |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_H |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_I) #define V4L2_STD_NTSC (V4L2_STD_NTSC_M |\ V4L2_STD_NTSC_M_JP |\ V4L2_STD_NTSC_M_KR) #define V4L2_STD_MN (V4L2_STD_PAL_M |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_N |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_Nc |\ V4L2_STD_NTSC) #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_DK (V4L2_STD_SECAM_D |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_K |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_K1) #define V4L2_STD_DK (V4L2_STD_PAL_DK |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_DK) #define V4L2_STD_SECAM (V4L2_STD_SECAM_B |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_G |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_H |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_DK |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_L |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_LC) 116 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMSTD #define V4L2_STD_525_60 #define V4L2_STD_625_50 #define V4L2_STD_UNKNOWN #define V4L2_STD_ALL (V4L2_STD_PAL_M |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_60 |\ V4L2_STD_NTSC |\ V4L2_STD_NTSC_443) (V4L2_STD_PAL |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_N |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_Nc |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM) 0 (V4L2_STD_525_60 |\ V4L2_STD_625_50) Table 4. Video Standards (based on [ITU BT.470]) CharacteristicsM/PAL N/PALb B, B1, D, D1, H/PAL I/PAL B, D, M/NTSCa G/PAL K/PAL G/SECAKM/SECAKM1/SECLA/SMECAM Frame 525 lines Frame period (s) 1001/30000 Chrominance 4433618.75 ± 5 http://bbs.51soc.com sub- 357954535796114.44933618.75 carrier ± 10 ± 10 ± 5 4433618.75 ±1 fre- (3582056.25 quency ± 5) (Hz) Nominal 6 6 6 B: 7; 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 radio- B1, G: frequency 8 channel band- width (MHz) Sound carrier relative to vision carrier (MHz) + 4.5 + 4.5 + 4.5 + 5.5 + 6.5 + 5.5 + 5.5 + 6.5 + 6.5 + 6.5 g ± 0.001± 0.001 + 5.9996± 0.001± 0.001 cdef ± 0.0005 Notes: a. Japan uses a standard similar to M/NTSC (V4L2_STD_NTSC_M_JP). b. The values in brackets apply to t Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: 117 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com EINVAL The struct v4l2_standard index is out of bounds. ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMSTD http://bbs.51soc.com 118 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Notes 1. The supported standards may overlap and we need an unambiguous set to find the current standard returned by VIDIOC_G_STD. ioctl VIDIOC_G_AUDIO, VIDIOC_S_AUDIO Name VIDIOC_G_AUDIO, VIDIOC_S_AUDIO — Query or select the current audio input and its attributes Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_audio *argp); int ioctl(int fd, int request, const struct v4l2_audio *argp); Arguments hfd ttp://bbs.51soc.com File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_G_AUDIO, VIDIOC_S_AUDIO argp Description To query the current audio input applications zero out the reserved array of a struct v4l2_audio and call the VIDIOC_G_AUDIO ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the rest of the structure or return an EINVAL error code when the device has no audio inputs, or none which combine with the current video input. Audio inputs have one writable property, the audio mode. To select the current audio input and change the audio mode, applications initialize the index and mode fields, and the reserved array of a v4l2_audio structure and call the VIDIOC_S_AUDIO ioctl. Drivers may switch to a different audio mode if the request cannot be satisfied. However, this is a write-only ioctl, it does not return the actual new audio mode. 119 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_AUDIO, VIDIOC_S_AUDIO Table 1. struct v4l2_audio __u32 __u8 __u32 __u32 __u32 index name[32] capability mode reserved[2] Identifies the audio input, set by the driver or application. Name of the audio input, a NUL-terminated ASCII string, for example: "Line In". This information is intended for the user, preferably the connector label on the device itself. Audio capability flags, see Table 2. Audio mode flags set by drivers and applications (on VIDIOC_S_AUDIO ioctl), see Table 3. Reserved for future extensions. Drivers and applications must set the array to zero. Table 2. Audio Capability Flags V4L2_AUDCAP_STEREO V4L2_AUDCAP_AVL 0x00001 0x00002 This is a stereo input. The flag is intended to automatically disable stereo recording etc. when the signal is always monaural. The API provides no means to detect if stereo is received, unless the audio input belongs to a tuner. Automatic Volume Level mode is supported. Table 3. Audio Mode Flags http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_AUDMODE_AVL 0x00001 AVL mode is on. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL No audio inputs combine with the current video input, or the number of the selected audio input is out of bounds or it does not combine, or there are no audio inputs at all and the ioctl is not supported. EBUSY I/O is in progress, the input cannot be switched. 120 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT, VIDIOC_S_AUDOUT Name VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT, VIDIOC_S_AUDOUT — Query or select the current audio output Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_audioout *argp); int ioctl(int fd, int request, const struct v4l2_audioout *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request http://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT, VIDIOC_S_AUDOUT argp Description To query the current audio output applications zero out the reserved array of a struct v4l2_audioout and call the VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the rest of the structure or return an EINVAL error code when the device has no audio inputs, or none which combine with the current video output. Audio outputs have no writable properties. Nevertheless, to select the current audio output applications can initialize the index field and reserved array (which in the future may contain writable properties) of a v4l2_audioout structure and call the VIDIOC_S_AUDOUT ioctl. Drivers switch to the requested output or return the EINVAL error code when the index is out of bounds. This is a write-only ioctl, it does not return the current audio output attributes as VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT does. Note connectors on a TV card to loop back the received audio signal to a sound card are not audio outputs in this sense. Table 1. struct v4l2_audioout __u32 index Identifies the audio output, set by the driver or application. 121 嵌入式SOC社区 __u8 __u32 __u32 __u32 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT, VIDIOC_S_AUDOUT name[32] capability mode reserved[2] Name of the audio output, a NUL-terminated ASCII string, for example: "Line Out". This information is intended for the user, preferably the connector label on the device itself. Audio capability flags, none defined yet. Drivers must set this field to zero. Audio mode, none defined yet. Drivers and applications (on VIDIOC_S_AUDOUT) must set this field to zero. Reserved for future extensions. Drivers and applications must set the array to zero. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL No audio outputs combine with the current video output, or the number of the selected audio output is out of bounds or it does not combine, or there are no audio outputs at all and the ioctl is not supported. EBUSY http://bbs.51soc.com I/O is in progress, the output cannot be switched. 122 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT Name VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT — Identify the chips on a TV card Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_chip_ident *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description Experimental: This is an experimental interface and may change in the future. For driver debugging purposes this ioctl allows test applications to query the driver about the chips present on the TV card. Regular applications should not use it. When you found a chip specific bug, please contact the Video4Linux mailing list (https://listman.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/video4linux-list) so it can be fixed. To query the driver applications must initialize the match_type and match_chip fields of a struct v4l2_chip_ident and call VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT with a pointer to this structure. On success the driver stores information about the selected chip in the ident and revision fields. On failure the structure remains unchanged. When match_type is V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_HOST, match_chip selects the nth non-I2C chip on the TV card. You can enumerate all chips by starting at zero and incrementing match_chip by one until VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT fails with an EINVAL error code. Drivers may also interpret match_chip as a random ID, but we recommend against that. The number zero always selects the host chip, e. g. the chip connected to the PCI bus. When match_type is V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_I2C_DRIVER, match_chip contains a driver ID as defined in the linux/i2c-id.h header file. For instance I2C_DRIVERID_SAA7127 will match any chip supported by the saa7127 driver, regardless of its I2C bus address. When multiple chips 123 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT supported by the same driver are present, the ioctl will return V4L2_IDENT_AMBIGUOUS in the ident field. When match_type is V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_I2C_ADDR, match_chip selects a chip by its 7 bit I2C bus address. On success, the ident field will contain a chip ID from the Linux media/v4l2-chip-ident.h header file, and the revision field will contain a driver specific value, or zero if no particular revision is associated with this chip. When the driver could not identify the selected chip, ident will contain V4L2_IDENT_UNKNOWN. When no chip matched match_type and match_chip, the ioctl will succeed but the ident field will contain V4L2_IDENT_NONE. If multiple chips matched, ident will contain V4L2_IDENT_AMBIGUOUS. In all these cases the revision field remains unchanged. This ioctl is optional, not all drivers may support it. It was introduced in Linux 2.6.21. We recommended the v4l2-dbg utility over calling this ioctl directly. It is available from the LinuxTV v4l-dvb repository; see http://linuxtv.org/repo/ for access instructions. Table 1. struct v4l2_chip_ident __u32 match_type See Table 2 for a list of possible types. __u32 match_chip Match a chip by this number, interpreted according to the match_type field. __u32 ident A chip identifier as defined in the Linux media/v4l2-chip-ident.h header file, or one of the values from Table 3. http://bbs.51soc.com __u32 revision A chip revision, chip and driver specific. Table 2. Chip Match Types V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_HOST 0 V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_I2C_DRIVER 1 V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_I2C_ADDR 2 Match the nth chip on the card, zero for the host chip. Does not match I2C chips. Match an I2C chip by its driver ID from the linux/i2c-id.h header file. Match a chip by its 7 bit I2C bus address. Table 3. Chip Identifiers V4L2_IDENT_NONE 0 V4L2_IDENT_AMBIGUOUS 1 V4L2_IDENT_UNKNOWN 2 No chip matched. Multiple chips matched. A chip is present at this address, but the driver could not identify it. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: 124 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT EINVAL The driver does not support this ioctl, or the match_type is invalid. http://bbs.51soc.com 125 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_CROP, VIDIOC_S_CROP Name VIDIOC_G_CROP, VIDIOC_S_CROP — Get or set the current cropping rectangle Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_crop *argp); int ioctl(int fd, int request, const struct v4l2_crop *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request http://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_G_CROP, VIDIOC_S_CROP argp Description To query the cropping rectangle size and position applications set the type field of a v4l2_crop structure to the respective buffer (stream) type and call the VIDIOC_G_CROP ioctl with a pointer to this structure. The driver fills the rest of the structure or returns the EINVAL error code if cropping is not supported. To change the cropping rectangle applications initialize the type and struct v4l2_rect substructure named c of a v4l2_crop structure and call the VIDIOC_S_CROP ioctl with a pointer to this structure. The driver first adjusts the requested dimensions against hardware limits, i. e. the bounds given by the capture/output window, and it rounds to the closest possible values of horizontal and vertical offset, width and height. In particular the driver must round the vertical offset of the cropping rectangle to frame lines modulo two, such that the field order cannot be confused. Second the driver adjusts the image size (the opposite rectangle of the scaling process, source or target depending on the data direction) to the closest size possible while maintaining the current horizontal and vertical scaling factor. Finally the driver programs the hardware with the actual cropping and image parameters. VIDIOC_S_CROP is a write-only ioctl, it does not return the actual parameters. To query them applications must call VIDIOC_G_CROP and VIDIOC_G_FMT. When the parameters are unsuitable 126 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_CROP, VIDIOC_S_CROP the application may modify the cropping or image parameters and repeat the cycle until satisfactory parameters have been negotiated. When cropping is not supported then no parameters are changed and VIDIOC_S_CROP returns the EINVAL error code. Table 1. struct v4l2_crop enum v4l2_buf_type type struct v4l2_rect c Type of the data stream, set by the application. Only these types are valid here: V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE, V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT, V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OVERLAY, and custom (driver defined) types with code V4L2_BUF_TYPE_PRIVATE and higher. Cropping rectangle. The same co-ordinate system as for struct v4l2_cropcap bounds is used. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL Cropping is not supported. http://bbs.51soc.com 127 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_CTRL, VIDIOC_S_CTRL Name VIDIOC_G_CTRL, VIDIOC_S_CTRL — Get or set the value of a control Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_control *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_G_CTRL, VIDIOC_S_CTRL argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description To get the current value of a control applications initialize the id field of a struct v4l2_control and call the VIDIOC_G_CTRL ioctl with a pointer to this structure. To change the value of a control applications initialize the id and value fields of a struct v4l2_control and call the VIDIOC_S_CTRL ioctl. When the id is invalid drivers return an EINVAL error code. When the value is out of bounds drivers can choose to take the closest valid value or return an ERANGE error code, whatever seems more appropriate. However, VIDIOC_S_CTRL is a write-only ioctl, it does not return the actual new value. These ioctls work only with user controls. For other control classes the VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS or VIDIOC_TRY_EXT_CTRLS must be used. Table 1. struct v4l2_control __u32 __s32 id value Identifies the control, set by the application. New value or current value. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: 128 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_CTRL, VIDIOC_S_CTRL EINVAL The struct v4l2_control id is invalid. ERANGE The struct v4l2_control value is out of bounds. EBUSY The control is temporarily not changeable, possibly because another applications took over control of the device function this control belongs to. http://bbs.51soc.com 129 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_ENC_INDEX Name VIDIOC_G_ENC_INDEX — Get meta data about a compressed video stream Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_enc_idx *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_G_ENC_INDEX argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description Experimental: This is an experimental interface and may change in the future. The VIDIOC_G_ENC_INDEX ioctl provides meta data about a compressed video stream the same or another application currently reads from the driver, which is useful for random access into the stream without decoding it. To read the data applications must call VIDIOC_G_ENC_INDEX with a pointer to a struct v4l2_enc_idx. On success the driver fills the entry array, stores the number of elements written in the entries field, and initializes the entries_cap field. Each element of the entry array contains meta data about one picture. A VIDIOC_G_ENC_INDEX call reads up to V4L2_ENC_IDX_ENTRIES entries from a driver buffer, which can hold up to entries_cap entries. This number can be lower or higher than V4L2_ENC_IDX_ENTRIES, but not zero. When the application fails to read the meta data in time the oldest entries will be lost. When the buffer is empty or no capturing/encoding is in progress, entries will be zero. Currently this ioctl is only defined for MPEG-2 program streams and video elementary streams. Table 1. struct v4l2_enc_idx 130 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_ENC_INDEX __u32 entries The number of entries the driver stored in the entry array. __u32 entries_cap The number of entries the driver can buffer. Must be greater than zero. __u32 Reserved for future extensions. Drivers must set the array to zero. struct v4l2_enc_idx_entryentry[V4L2_ENC_IDX_MENeTtaRIdEatSa]about a compressed video stream. Each element of the array corresponds to one picture, sorted in ascending order by their offset. Table 2. struct v4l2_enc_idx_entry __u64 offset The offset in bytes from the beginning of the compressed video stream to the beginning of this picture, that is a PES packet header as defined in ISO 13818-1 or a picture header as defined in ISO 13818-2. When the encoder is stopped, the driver resets the offset to zero. __u64 pts The 33 bit Presentation Time Stamp of this picture as defined in ISO 13818-1. __u32 length The length of this picture in bytes. __u32 flags Flags containing the coding type of this picture, see Table 3. __u32 reserved[2] Reserved for future extensions. Drivers must set http://bbs.5the1arrasy to zoero.c.com Table 3. Index Entry Flags V4L2_ENC_IDX_FRAME_I V4L2_ENC_IDX_FRAME_P V4L2_ENC_IDX_FRAME_B V4L2_ENC_IDX_FRAME_MASK 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x0F This is an Intra-coded picture. This is a Predictive-coded picture. This is a Bidirectionally predictive-coded picture. AND the flags field with this mask to obtain the picture coding type. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The driver does not support this ioctl. 131 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_TRY_EXT_CTRLS Name VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_TRY_EXT_CTRLS — Get or set the value of several controls, try control values Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_ext_controls *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_TRY_EXT_CTRLS hargtp tp://bbs.51soc.com Description These ioctls allow the caller to get or set multiple controls atomically. Control IDs are grouped into control classes (see Table 3) and all controls in the control array must belong to the same control class. Applications must always fill in the count, ctrl_class, controls and reserved fields of struct v4l2_ext_controls, and initialize the struct v4l2_ext_control array pointed to by the controls fields. To get the current value of a set of controls applications initialize the id field of each struct v4l2_ext_control and call the VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS ioctl. To change the value of a set of controls applications initialize the id and value fields of a struct v4l2_ext_control and call the VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS ioctl. The controls will only be set if all control values are valid. To check if the a set of controls have correct values applications initialize the id and value fields of a struct v4l2_ext_control and call the VIDIOC_TRY_EXT_CTRLS ioctl. It is up to the driver whether wrong values are automatically adjusted to a valid value or if an error is returned. When the id or ctrl_class is invalid drivers return an EINVAL error code. When the value is out of bounds drivers can choose to take the closest valid value or return an ERANGE error code, whatever seems more appropriate. In the first case the new value is set in struct v4l2_ext_control. 132 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_TRY_EXT_CTRLS The driver will only set/get these controls if all control values are correct. This prevents the situation where only some of the controls were set/get. Only low-level errors (e. g. a failed i2c command) can still cause this situation. Table 1. struct v4l2_ext_control __u32 id __u32 reserved2[2] union (anonymous) __s32 __s64 void * value value64 reserved Identifies the control, set by the application. Reserved for future extensions. Drivers and applications must set the array to zero. New value or current value. New value or current value. Reserved for future pointer-type controls. Currently unused. Table 2. struct v4l2_ext_controls __u32 ctrl_class The control class to which all controls belong, see Table 3. __u32 count The number of controls in the controls array. May also be zero. __u32 error_idx Set by the driver in case of an error. It is the index http://bbs.51soc.com of the control causing the error or equal to ’count’ when the error is not associated with a particular control. Undefined when the ioctl returns 0 (success). __u32 reserved[2] Reserved for future extensions. Drivers and applications must set the array to zero. struct v4l2_ext_control *controls Pointer to an array of count v4l2_ext_control structures. Ignored if count equals zero. Table 3. Control classes V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_USER V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_MPEG 0x980000 0x990000 The class containing user controls. These controls are described in Section 1.8. All controls that can be set using the VIDIOC_S_CTRL and VIDIOC_G_CTRL ioctl belong to this class. The class containing MPEG compression controls. These controls are described in section Section 1.9.5. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: 133 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_TRY_EXT_CTRLS EINVAL The struct v4l2_ext_control id is invalid or the struct v4l2_ext_controls ctrl_class is invalid. This error code is also returned by the VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS and VIDIOC_TRY_EXT_CTRLS ioctls if two or more control values are in conflict. ERANGE The struct v4l2_ext_control value is out of bounds. EBUSY The control is temporarily not changeable, possibly because another applications took over control of the device function this control belongs to. http://bbs.51soc.com 134 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_FBUF, VIDIOC_S_FBUF Name VIDIOC_G_FBUF, VIDIOC_S_FBUF — Get or set frame buffer overlay parameters Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_framebuffer *argp); int ioctl(int fd, int request, const struct v4l2_framebuffer *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request http://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_G_FBUF, VIDIOC_S_FBUF argp Description Applications can use the VIDIOC_G_FBUF and VIDIOC_S_FBUF ioctl to get and set the framebuffer parameters for a Video Overlay or Video Output Overlay (OSD). The type of overlay is implied by the device type (capture or output device) and can be determined with the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl. One /dev/videoN device must not support both kinds of overlay. The V4L2 API distinguishes destructive and non-destructive overlays. A destructive overlay copies captured video images into the video memory of a graphics card. A non-destructive overlay blends video images into a VGA signal or graphics into a video signal. Video Output Overlays are always non-destructive. To get the current parameters applications call the VIDIOC_G_FBUF ioctl with a pointer to a v4l2_framebuffer structure. The driver fills all fields of the structure or returns an EINVAL error code when overlays are not supported. To set the parameters for a Video Output Overlay, applications must initialize the flags field of a struct v4l2_framebuffer. Since the framebuffer is implemented on the TV card all other parameters are determined by the driver. When an application calls VIDIOC_S_FBUF with a pointer to this structure, the driver prepares for the overlay and returns the framebuffer parameters as VIDIOC_G_FBUF does, or it returns an error code. 135 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_FBUF, VIDIOC_S_FBUF To set the parameters for a non-destructive Video Overlay, applications must initialize the flags field, the fmt substructure, and call VIDIOC_S_FBUF. Again the driver prepares for the overlay and returns the framebuffer parameters as VIDIOC_G_FBUF does, or it returns an error code. For a destructive Video Overlay applications must additionally provide a base address. Setting up a DMA to a random memory location can jeopardize the system security, its stability or even damage the hardware, therefore only the superuser can set the parameters for a destructive video overlay. Table 1. struct v4l2_framebuffer __u32 capability Overlay capability flags set by the driver, see Table 2. __u32 flags Overlay control flags set by application and driver, see Table 3 void * base Physical base address of the framebuffer, that is the address of the pixel in the top left corner of the framebuffer.a This field is irrelevant to non-destructive Video Overlays. For destructive Video Overlays applications must provide a base address. The driver may accept only base addresses which are a multiple of two, four or eight bytes. For Video Output Overlays the driver must return http://bbs.51soc.com a valid base address, so applications can find the corresponding Linux framebuffer device (see Section 4.4). struct v4l2_pix_formfamtt __u32 __u32 width height Layout of the frame buffer. The v4l2_pix_format structure is defined in Chapter 2, for clarification the fields and acceptable values are listed below: Width of the frame buffer in pixels. Height of the frame buffer in pixels. 136 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_FBUF, VIDIOC_S_FBUF __u32 pixelformat The pixel format of the framebuffer. For non-destructive Video Overlays this field only defines a format for the struct v4l2_window chromakey field. For destructive Video Overlays applications must initialize this field. For Video Output Overlays the driver must return a valid format. Usually this is an RGB format (for example V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB565) but YUV formats (only packed YUV formats when chroma keying is used, not including V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUYV and V4L2_PIX_FMT_UYVY) and the V4L2_PIX_FMT_PAL8 format are also permitted. The behavior of the driver when an application requests a compressed format is undefined. See Chapter 2 for information on pixel formats. enum v4l2_field field Drivers and applications shall ignore this field. If applicable, the field order is http://bbs.51soc.com selected with the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl, using the field field of struct v4l2_window. __u32 bytesperline Distance in bytes between the leftmost pixels in two adjacent lines. This field is irrelevant to non-destructive Video Overlays. For destructive Video Overlays both applications and drivers __u32 sizeimage This field is irrelevant to non-destructive Video Overlays. For destructive Video Overlays applications must initialize this field. For Video Output Overlays the driver must return a valid format. Together with base it defines the framebuffer memory accessible by the driver. Notes: enum v4l2_colorspaceolorspace __u32 priv This information supplements the pixelformat and must be set by the driver, see Section 2.2. Reserved for additional information about custom (driver defined) formats. When not used drivers and applications must set this field to zero. 137 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_FBUF, VIDIOC_S_FBUF Table 2. Frame Buffer Capability Flags V4L2_FBUF_CAP_EXTERNOVERLAY 0x0001 V4L2_FBUF_CAP_CHROMAKEY 0x0002 V4L2_FBUF_CAP_LIST_CLIPPING 0x0004 V4L2_FBUF_CAP_BITMAP_CLIPPING0x0008 The device is capable of non-destructive overlays. When the driver clears this flag, only destructive overlays are supported. There are no drivers yet which support both destructive and non-destructive overlays. The device supports clipping by chroma-keying the images. That is, image pixels replace pixels in the VGA or video signal only where the latter assume a certain color. Chroma-keying makes no sense for destructive overlays. The device supports clipping using a list of clip rectangles. The device supports clipping using a bit mask. V4L2_FBUF_CAP_LOCAL_ALPHA 0x0010 The device supports clipping/blending using the alpha channel of the framebuffer or VGA signal. Alpha blending makes no sense for destructive overlays. V4L2_FBUF_CAP_GLOBAL_ALPHA 0x0020 The device supports alpha blending using a global alpha value. Alpha blending makes no sense for destructive overlays. V4L2_FBUF_CAP_LOCAL_INV_ALPHA0x0040 The device supports clipping/blending using the inverted alpha channel of the framebuffer or VGA http://bbs.51soc.com signal. Alpha blending makes no sense for destructive overlays. Table 3. Frame Buffer Flags V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_PRIMARY 0x0001 The framebuffer is the primary graphics surface. In other words, the overlay is destructive. [?] V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_OVERLAY 0x0002 The frame buffer is an overlay surface the same size as the capture. [?] The purpose of V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_PRIMARY and V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_OVERLAY was never quite clear. Most drivers see V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_CHROMAKEY 0x0004 Use chroma-keying. The chroma-key color is determined by the chromakey field of struct v4l2_window and negotiated with the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl, see Section 4.2 and Section 4.4. There are no flags to enable clipping using a list of clip rectangles or a bitmap. These methods are negotiated with the V V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_LOCAL_ALPHA 0x0008 Use the alpha channel of the framebuffer to clip or blend framebuffer pixels with video images. The blend function is: output = framebuffer pixel * alpha + video pixel * (1 - alpha). The actual alpha depth depends on the framebuffer pixel format. 138 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_FBUF, VIDIOC_S_FBUF V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_GLOBAL_ALPHA 0x0010 V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_LOCAL_INV_ALPH0xA0020 Use a global alpha value to blend the framebuffer with video images. The blend function is: output = (framebuffer pixel * alpha + video pixel * (255 alpha)) / 255. The alpha value is determined by the global_alpha field of struct v4l2_window and negotiated with the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl, see Section 4.2 and Section 4.4. Like V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_LOCAL_ALPHA, use the alpha channel of the framebuffer to clip or blend framebuffer pixels with video images, but with an inverted alpha value. The blend function is: output = framebuffer pixel * (1 - alpha) + video pixel * alpha. The actual alpha depth depends on the framebuffer pixel format. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EPERM VIDIOC_S_FBUF can only be called by a privileged user to negotiate the parameters for a destructive overlay. hEBUtSYtp://bbs.51soc.com The framebuffer parameters cannot be changed at this time because overlay is already enabled, or capturing is enabled and the hardware cannot capture and overlay simultaneously. EINVAL The ioctl is not supported or the VIDIOC_S_FBUF parameters are unsuitable. 139 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_FMT, VIDIOC_S_FMT, VIDIOC_TRY_FMT Name VIDIOC_G_FMT, VIDIOC_S_FMT, VIDIOC_TRY_FMT — Get or set the data format, try a format Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_format *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_G_FMT, VIDIOC_S_FMT, VIDIOC_TRY_FMT hargtp tp://bbs.51soc.com Description These ioctls are used to negotiate the format of data (typically image format) exchanged between driver and application. To query the current parameters applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_format to the respective buffer (stream) type. For example video capture devices use V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE. When the application calls the VIDIOC_G_FMT ioctl with a pointer to this structure the driver fills the respective member of the fmt union. In case of video capture devices that is the struct v4l2_pix_format pix member. When the requested buffer type is not supported drivers return an EINVAL error code. To change the current format parameters applications initialize the type field and all fields of the respective fmt union member. For details see the documentation of the various devices types in Chapter 4. Good practice is to query the current parameters first, and to modify only those parameters not suitable for the application. When the application calls the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl with a pointer to a v4l2_format structure the driver checks and adjusts the parameters against hardware abilities. Drivers should not return an error code unless the input is ambiguous, this is a mechanism to fathom device capabilities and to approach parameters acceptable for both the application and driver. On success the driver may program the hardware, allocate resources and generally prepare for data exchange. Finally the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl returns the current format parameters as VIDIOC_G_FMT does. Very simple, inflexible devices may even ignore all input and always return 140 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_FMT, VIDIOC_S_FMT, VIDIOC_TRY_FMT the default parameters. However all V4L2 devices exchanging data with the application must implement the VIDIOC_G_FMT and VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. When the requested buffer type is not supported drivers return an EINVAL error code on a VIDIOC_S_FMT attempt. When I/O is already in progress or the resource is not available for other reasons drivers return the EBUSY error code. The VIDIOC_TRY_FMT ioctl is equivalent to VIDIOC_S_FMT with one exception: it does not change driver state. It can also be called at any time, never returning EBUSY. This function is provided to negotiate parameters, to learn about hardware limitations, without disabling I/O or possibly time consuming hardware preparations. Although strongly recommended drivers are not required to implement this ioctl. Table 1. struct v4l2_format enum v4l2_buf_type type Type of the data stream, see Table 3-2. union fmt struct v4l2_pix_format pix Definition of an image format, see Chapter 2, used by video capture and output devices. struct v4l2_window win Definition of an overlaid image, see Section 4.2, used by video overlay devices. struct v4l2_vbi_format vbi Raw VBI capture or output parameters. This http://bbs.51soc.com is discussed in more detail in Section 4.7. Used by raw VBI capture and output devices. struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_fosrmliatced Sliced VBI capture or output parameters. See Section 4.8 for details. Used by sliced VBI capture and output devices. __u8 raw_data[200] Place holder for future extensions and custom (driver defined) formats with type V4L2_BUF_TYPE_PRIVATE and higher. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: 141 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_FMT, VIDIOC_S_FMT, VIDIOC_TRY_FMT EBUSY The data format cannot be changed at this time, for example because I/O is already in progress. EINVAL The struct v4l2_format type field is invalid, the requested buffer type not supported, or VIDIOC_TRY_FMT was called and is not supported with this buffer type. http://bbs.51soc.com 142 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_FREQUENCY, VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY Name VIDIOC_G_FREQUENCY, VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY — Get or set tuner or modulator radio frequency Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_frequency *argp); int ioctl(int fd, int request, const struct v4l2_frequency *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request http://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_G_FREQUENCY, VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY argp Description To get the current tuner or modulator radio frequency applications set the tuner field of a struct v4l2_frequency to the respective tuner or modulator number (only input devices have tuners, only output devices have modulators), zero out the reserved array and call the VIDIOC_G_FREQUENCY ioctl with a pointer to this structure. The driver stores the current frequency in the frequency field. To change the current tuner or modulator radio frequency applications initialize the tuner, type and frequency fields, and the reserved array of a struct v4l2_frequency and call the VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY ioctl with a pointer to this structure. When the requested frequency is not possible the driver assumes the closest possible value. However VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY is a write-only ioctl, it does not return the actual new frequency. Table 1. struct v4l2_frequency 143 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_FREQUENCY, VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY __u32 tuner enum v4l2_tuner_type type __u32 frequency __u32 reserved[8]; The tuner or modulator index number. This is the same value as in the struct v4l2_input tuner field and the struct v4l2_tuner index field, or the struct v4l2_output modulator field and the struct v4l2_modulator index field. The tuner type. This is the same value as in the struct v4l2_tuner type field. The field is not applicable to modulators, i. e. ignored by drivers. Tuning frequency in units of 62.5 kHz, or if the struct v4l2_tuner or struct v4l2_modulator capabilities flag V4L2_TUNER_CAP_LOW is set, in units of 62.5 Hz. Reserved for future extensions. Drivers and applications must set the array to zero. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The tuner index is out of bounds or the value in the type field is wrong. http://bbs.51soc.com 144 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_INPUT, VIDIOC_S_INPUT Name VIDIOC_G_INPUT, VIDIOC_S_INPUT — Query or select the current video input Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, int *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_G_INPUT, VIDIOC_S_INPUT argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description To query the current video input applications call the VIDIOC_G_INPUT ioctl with a pointer to an integer where the driver stores the number of the input, as in the struct v4l2_input index field. This ioctl will fail only when there are no video inputs, returning EINVAL. To select a video input applications store the number of the desired input in an integer and call the VIDIOC_S_INPUT ioctl with a pointer to this integer. Side effects are possible. For example inputs may support different video standards, so the driver may implicitly switch the current standard. It is good practice to select an input before querying or negotiating any other parameters. Information about video inputs is available using the VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT ioctl. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The number of the video input is out of bounds, or there are no video inputs at all and this ioctl is not supported. 145 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_INPUT, VIDIOC_S_INPUT EBUSY I/O is in progress, the input cannot be switched. http://bbs.51soc.com 146 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_JPEGCOMP, VIDIOC_S_JPEGCOMP Name VIDIOC_G_JPEGCOMP, VIDIOC_S_JPEGCOMP — Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, v4l2_jpegcompression *argp); int ioctl(int fd, int request, const v4l2_jpegcompression *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request http://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_G_JPEGCOMP, VIDIOC_S_JPEGCOMP argp Description [to do] Ronald Bultje elaborates: APP is some application-specific information. The application can set it itself, and it’ll be stored in the JPEG-encoded fields (eg; interlacing information for in an AVI or so). COM is the same, but it’s comments, like ’encoded by me’ or so. jpeg_markers describes whether the huffman tables, quantization tables and the restart interval information (all JPEG-specific stuff) should be stored in the JPEG-encoded fields. These define how the JPEG field is encoded. If you omit them, applications assume you’ve used standard encoding. You usually do want to add them. Table 1. struct v4l2_jpegcompression int quality int APPn int APP_len char APP_data[60] 147 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_JPEGCOMP, VIDIOC_S_JPEGCOMP int char __u32 COM_len COM_data[60] jpeg_markers See Table 2. Table 2. JPEG Markers Flags V4L2_JPEG_MARKER_DHT V4L2_JPEG_MARKER_DQT V4L2_JPEG_MARKER_DRI V4L2_JPEG_MARKER_COM V4L2_JPEG_MARKER_APP (1<<3) (1<<4) (1<<5) (1<<6) (1<<7) Define Huffman Tables Define Quantization Tables Define Restart Interval Comment segment App segment, driver will always use APP0 Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL This ioctl is not supported. http://bbs.51soc.com 148 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_MODULATOR, VIDIOC_S_MODULATOR Name VIDIOC_G_MODULATOR, VIDIOC_S_MODULATOR — Get or set modulator attributes Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_modulator *argp); int ioctl(int fd, int request, const struct v4l2_modulator *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). hreqtuesttp://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_G_MODULATOR, VIDIOC_S_MODULATOR argp Description To query the attributes of a modulator applications initialize the index field and zero out the reserved array of a struct v4l2_modulator and call the VIDIOC_G_MODULATOR ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the rest of the structure or return an EINVAL error code when the index is out of bounds. To enumerate all modulators applications shall begin at index zero, incrementing by one until the driver returns EINVAL. Modulators have two writable properties, an audio modulation set and the radio frequency. To change the modulated audio subprograms, applications initialize the index and txsubchans fields and the reserved array and call the VIDIOC_S_MODULATOR ioctl. Drivers may choose a different audio modulation if the request cannot be satisfied. However this is a write-only ioctl, it does not return the actual audio modulation selected. To change the radio frequency the VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY ioctl is available. 149 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_MODULATOR, VIDIOC_S_MODULATOR Table 1. struct v4l2_modulator __u32 __u8 index name[32] __u32 capability __u32 rangelow Identifies the modulator, set by the application. Name of the modulator, a NUL-terminated ASCII string. This information is intended for the user. Modulator capability flags. No flags are defined for this field, the tuner flags in struct v4l2_tuner are used accordingly. The audio flags indicate the ability to encode audio subprograms. They will not change for example with the current video standard. The lowest tunable frequency in units of 62.5 KHz, or if the capability flag V4L2_TUNER_CAP_LOW is set, in units of 62.5 Hz. __u32 rangehigh The highest tunable frequency in units of 62.5 KHz, or if the capability flag V4L2_TUNER_CAP_LOW is set, in units of 62.5 Hz. __u32 txsubchans With this field applications can determine how audio sub-carriers shall be modulated. It contains a set of flags as defined in Table 2. Note the tuner rxsubchans flags are reused, but the semantics are different. Video output devices are assumed to http://bbs.51soc.com have an analog or PCM audio input with 1-3 channels. The txsubchans flags select one or more channels for modulation, together with some audio subprogram indicator, for example a stereo pilot tone. __u32 reserved[4] Reserved for future extensions. Drivers and applications must set the array to zero. Table 2. Modulator Audio Transmission Flags V4L2_TUNER_SUB_MONO V4L2_TUNER_SUB_STEREO 0x0001 0x0002 Modulate channel 1 as mono audio, when the input has more channels, a down-mix of channel 1 and 2. This flag does not combine with V4L2_TUNER_SUB_STEREO or V4L2_TUNER_SUB_LANG1. Modulate channel 1 and 2 as left and right channel of a stereo audio signal. When the input has only one channel or two channels and V4L2_TUNER_SUB_SAP is also set, channel 1 is encoded as left and right channel. This flag does not combine with V4L2_TUNER_SUB_MONO or V4L2_TUNER_SUB_LANG1. When the driver does not support stereo audio it shall fall back to mono. 150 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_MODULATOR, VIDIOC_S_MODULATOR V4L2_TUNER_SUB_LANG1 0x0008 Modulate channel 1 and 2 as primary and secondary language of a bilingual audio signal. When the input has only one channel it is used for both languages. It is not possible to encode the primary or secondary language only. This flag does not combine with V4L2_TUNER_SUB_MONO or V4L2_TUNER_SUB_STEREO. If the hardware does not support the respective audio matrix, or the current video standard does not permit bilingual audio the VIDIOC_S_MODULATOR ioctl shall return an EINVAL error code and the driver shall fall back to mono or stereo mode. V4L2_TUNER_SUB_LANG2 0x0004 Same effect as V4L2_TUNER_SUB_LANG1. V4L2_TUNER_SUB_SAP 0x0004 When combined with V4L2_TUNER_SUB_MONO the first channel is encoded as mono audio, the last channel as Second Audio Program. When the input has only one channel it is used for both audio tracks. When the input has three channels the mono track is a down-mix of channel 1 and 2. When combined with V4L2_TUNER_SUB_STEREO channel 1 and 2 are encoded as left and right stereo audio, channel 3 as Second Audio Program. When the input has only two channels, the first is encoded as left and right channel and the second http://bbs.51soc.com as SAP. When the input has only one channel it is used for all audio tracks. It is not possible to encode a Second Audio Program only. This flag must combine with V4L2_TUNER_SUB_MONO or V4L2_TUNER_SUB_STEREO. If the hardware does not support the respective audio matrix, or the current video standard does not permit SAP the VIDIOC_S_MODULATOR ioctl shall return an EINVAL error code and driver shall fall back to mono or stereo mode. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The struct v4l2_modulator index is out of bounds. 151 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_OUTPUT, VIDIOC_S_OUTPUT Name VIDIOC_G_OUTPUT, VIDIOC_S_OUTPUT — Query or select the current video output Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, int *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_G_OUTPUT, VIDIOC_S_OUTPUT argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description To query the current video output applications call the VIDIOC_G_OUTPUT ioctl with a pointer to an integer where the driver stores the number of the output, as in the struct v4l2_output index field. This ioctl will fail only when there are no video outputs, returning the EINVAL error code. To select a video output applications store the number of the desired output in an integer and call the VIDIOC_S_OUTPUT ioctl with a pointer to this integer. Side effects are possible. For example outputs may support different video standards, so the driver may implicitly switch the current standard. It is good practice to select an output before querying or negotiating any other parameters. Information about video outputs is available using the VIDIOC_ENUMOUTPUT ioctl. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The number of the video output is out of bounds, or there are no video outputs at all and this ioctl is not supported. 152 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_OUTPUT, VIDIOC_S_OUTPUT EBUSY I/O is in progress, the output cannot be switched. http://bbs.51soc.com 153 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_PARM, VIDIOC_S_PARM Name VIDIOC_G_PARM, VIDIOC_S_PARM — Get or set streaming parameters Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, v4l2_streamparm *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_G_PARM, VIDIOC_S_PARM argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description The current video standard determines a nominal number of frames per second. If less than this number of frames is to be captured or output, applications can request frame skipping or duplicating on the driver side. This is especially useful when using the read() or write(), which are not augmented by timestamps or sequence counters, and to avoid unneccessary data copying. Further these ioctls can be used to determine the number of buffers used internally by a driver in read/write mode. For implications see the section discussing the read() function. To get and set the streaming parameters applications call the VIDIOC_G_PARM and VIDIOC_S_PARM ioctl, respectively. They take a pointer to a struct v4l2_streamparm which contains a union holding separate parameters for input and output devices. Table 1. struct v4l2_streamparm enum v4l2_buf_typetype union parm struct v4l2_capturepcarampture The buffer (stream) type, same as struct v4l2_format type, set by the application. Parameters for capture devices, used when type is V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE. 154 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_PARM, VIDIOC_S_PARM struct v4l2_outputpaormutput __u8 raw_data[200] Parameters for output devices, used when type is V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT. A place holder for future extensions and custom (driver defined) buffer types V4L2_BUF_TYPE_PRIVATE and higher. Table 2. struct v4l2_captureparm __u32 capability See Table 4. __u32 capturemode Set by drivers and applications, see Table 5. struct v4l2_fract timeperframe This is is the desired period between successive frames captured by the driver, in seconds. The field is intended to skip frames on the driver side, saving I/O bandwidth. Applications store here the desired frame period, drivers return the actual frame period, which must be greater or equal to the nominal frame period determined by the current video standard (struct v4l2_standard frameperiod field). Changing the video standard (also implicitly by switching the video input) may reset this parameter to the nominal frame period. To reset http://bbs.51soc.com manually applications can just set this field to zero. Drivers support this function only when they set the V4L2_CAP_TIMEPERFRAME flag in the capability field. __u32 __u32 __u32 extendedmode readbuffers reserved[4] Custom (driver specific) streaming parameters. When unused, applications and drivers must set this field to zero. Applications using this field should check the driver name and version, see Section 1.2. Applications set this field to the desired number of buffers used internally by the driver in read() mode. Drivers return the actual number of buffers. When an application requests zero buffers, drivers should just return the current setting rather than the minimum or an error code. For details see Section 3.1. Reserved for future extensions. Drivers and applications must set the array to zero. Table 3. struct v4l2_outputparm 155 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_PARM, VIDIOC_S_PARM __u32 capability See Table 4. __u32 outputmode Set by drivers and applications, see Table 5. struct v4l2_fract timeperframe This is is the desired period between successive frames output by the driver, in seconds. The field is intended to repeat frames on the driver side in write() mode (in streaming mode timestamps can be used __u32 extendedmode Custom (driver specific) streaming parameters. When unused, applications and drivers must set this field to zero. Applications using this field should check the driver name and version, see Section 1.2. __u32 writebuffers Applications set this field to the desired number of buffers used internally by the driver in write() mode. Drivers return the actual number of buffers. When an application requests zero buffers, drivers should just return the current setting rather than the minimum or an error code. For details see Section 3.1. __u32 reserved[4] Reserved for future extensions. Drivers and applications must set the array to zero. Table 4. Streaming Parameters Capabilites V4L2_CAP_TIMEPERFRAME 0x1000 The frame skipping/repeating controlled by the http://bbs.51soc.com timeperframe field is supported. Table 5. Capture Parameters Flags 156 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_PARM, VIDIOC_S_PARM V4L2_MODE_HIGHQUALITY 0x0001 High quality imaging mode. High quality mode is intended for still imaging applications. The idea is to get the best possible image quality that the hardware can deliver. It is not defined how the driver writer may achieve that; it will depend on the hardware and the ingenuity of the driver writer. High quality mode is a different mode from the the regular motion video capture modes. In high quality mode:• The driver may be able to capture higher resolutions than for motion capture. • The driver may support fewer pixel formats than motion capture (eg; true color). • The driver may capture and arithmetically combine multiple successive fields or frames to remove color edge artifacts and reduce the noise in the video data. • The driver may capture images in slices like a scanner in order to handle larger format images than would otherwise be possible. • An image capture operation may be significantly slower than motion capture. http://bbs.51soc.com • Moving objects in the image might have excessive motion blur. • Capture might only work through the read() call. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL This ioctl is not supported. 157 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_PRIORITY, VIDIOC_S_PRIORITY Name VIDIOC_G_PRIORITY, VIDIOC_S_PRIORITY — Query or request the access priority associated with a file descriptor Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, enum v4l2_priority *argp); int ioctl(int fd, int request, const enum v4l2_priority *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request http://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_G_PRIORITY, VIDIOC_S_PRIORITY argp Pointer to an enum v4l2_priority type. Description To query the current access priority applications call the VIDIOC_G_PRIORITY ioctl with a pointer to an enum v4l2_priority variable where the driver stores the current priority. To request an access priority applications store the desired priority in an enum v4l2_priority variable and call VIDIOC_S_PRIORITY ioctl with a pointer to this variable. Table 1. enum v4l2_priority V4L2_PRIORITY_UNSET 0 V4L2_PRIORITY_BACKGROUND 1 V4L2_PRIORITY_INTERACTIVE 2 Lowest priority, usually applications running in background, for example monitoring VBI transmissions. A proxy application running in user space will be necessary if multiple applications want to read from a device at this priority. 158 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_PRIORITY, VIDIOC_S_PRIORITY V4L2_PRIORITY_DEFAULT 2 V4L2_PRIORITY_RECORD 3 Medium priority, usually applications started and interactively controlled by the user. For example TV viewers, Teletext browsers, or just "panel" applications to change the channel or video controls. This is the default priority unless an application requests another. Highest priority. Only one file descriptor can have this priority, it blocks any other fd from changing device properties. Usually applications which must not be interrupted, like video recording. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The requested priority value is invalid, or the driver does not support access priorities. EBUSY Another application already requested higher priority. http://bbs.51soc.com 159 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_SLICED_VBI_CAP Name VIDIOC_G_SLICED_VBI_CAP — Query sliced VBI capabilities Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_cap *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_G_SLICED_VBI_CAP argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description To find out which data services are supported by a sliced VBI capture or output device, applications initialize the type field of a struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_cap, clear the reserved array and call the VIDIOC_G_SLICED_VBI_CAP ioctl. The driver fills in the remaining fields or returns an EINVAL error code if the sliced VBI API is unsupported or type is invalid. Note the type field was added, and the ioctl changed from read-only to write-read, in Linux 2.6.19. Table 1. struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_cap __u16 __u16 service_set A set of all data services supported by the driver. Equal to the union service_lines[2][24] Each element of this array contains a set of data services the hardwar Element 525 line systems625 line systems service_lines[0][1] 1 1 service_lines[0][232] 3 23 service_lines[1][1]264 314 service_lines[1][232]86 336 160 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_SLICED_VBI_CAP enum v4l2_buf_type type __u32 reserved[3] The number of VBI lines the hardware can capture or output per fram Drivers must set service_lines[0][0] and service_lines[1][0] Type of the data stream, see Table 3-2. Should be V4L2_BUF_TYPE_SLICED_VBI_CAPTURE or V4L2_BUF_TYPE_SLICED_VBI_OUTPUT. This array is reserved for future extensions. Applications and drivers Table 2. Sliced VBI services Symbol Value Reference Lines, usually Payload V4L2_SLICED_TELETEX0Tx_0B001 (Teletext System B) ETS 300 706P,AL/SECAM line 7-22, Last 42 of the 45 byte ITU BT.653 320-335 (second field Teletext packet, that is 7-22) without clock run-in and framing code, lsb first transmitted. http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_SLICED_VPS 0x0400 ETS 300 231PAL line 16 Byte number 3 to 15 according to Figure 9 of ETS 300 231, lsb first transmitted. V4L2_SLICED_CAPTION0_x5120500 EIA 608-B NTSC line 21, 284 (second field 21) Two bytes in transmission order, including parity bit, lsb first transmitted. V4L2_SLICED_WSS_6250x4000 EN 300 294,PAL/SECAM line 23 ITU BT.1119 Byte 0 1 msb lsb msb Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 x x 13 12 1 V4L2_SLICED_VBI_5250x1000 Set of services applicable to 525 line systems. V4L2_SLICED_VBI_6250x4401 Set of services applicable to 625 line systems. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The device does not support sliced VBI capturing or output, or the value in the type field is wrong. 161 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_STD, VIDIOC_S_STD Name VIDIOC_G_STD, VIDIOC_S_STD — Query or select the video standard of the current input Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, v4l2_std_id *argp); int ioctl(int fd, int request, const v4l2_std_id *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request http://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_G_STD, VIDIOC_S_STD argp Description To query and select the current video standard applications use the VIDIOC_G_STD and VIDIOC_S_STD ioctls which take a pointer to a v4l2_std_id type as argument. VIDIOC_G_STD can return a single flag or a set of flags as in struct v4l2_standard field id. The flags must be unambiguous such that they appear in only one enumerated v4l2_standard structure. VIDIOC_S_STD accepts one or more flags, being a write-only ioctl it does not return the actual new standard as VIDIOC_G_STD does. When no flags are given or the current input does not support the requested standard the driver returns an EINVAL error code. When the standard set is ambiguous drivers may return EINVAL or choose any of the requested standards. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL This ioctl is not supported, or the VIDIOC_S_STD parameter was unsuitable. 162 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_TUNER, VIDIOC_S_TUNER Name VIDIOC_G_TUNER, VIDIOC_S_TUNER — Get or set tuner attributes Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_tuner *argp); int ioctl(int fd, int request, const struct v4l2_tuner *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request http://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_G_TUNER, VIDIOC_S_TUNER argp Description To query the attributes of a tuner applications initialize the index field and zero out the reserved array of a struct v4l2_tuner and call the VIDIOC_G_TUNER ioctl with a pointer to this structure. Drivers fill the rest of the structure or return an EINVAL error code when the index is out of bounds. To enumerate all tuners applications shall begin at index zero, incrementing by one until the driver returns EINVAL. Tuners have two writable properties, the audio mode and the radio frequency. To change the audio mode, applications initialize the index, audmode and reserved fields and call the VIDIOC_S_TUNER ioctl. This will not change the current tuner, which is determined by the current video input. Drivers may choose a different audio mode if the requested mode is invalid or unsupported. Since this is a write-only ioctl, it does not return the actually selected audio mode. To change the radio frequency the VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY ioctl is available. Table 1. struct v4l2_tuner __u32 __u8 enum v4l2_tuner_type index name[32] type Identifies the tuner, set by the application. Name of the tuner, a NUL-terminated ASCII string. Type of the tuner, see Table 2. 163 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_TUNER, VIDIOC_S_TUNER __u32 __u32 __u32 __u32 __u32 __u32 __s32 __u32 capability rangelow rangehigh rxsubchans audmode signal afc reserved[4] Tuner capability flags, see Table 3. Audio flags indic The lowest tunable frequency in units of 62.5 kHz, o The highest tunable frequency in units of 62.5 kHz, Some tuners or audio decoders can determine the re V4L2_TUNER_SUB_MONO receiving mono au STEREO | SAP receiving stereo au MONO | STEREO receiving mono or LANG1 | LANG2 receiving bilingua MONO | STEREO | LANG1 | receiving mono, st LANG2 When the V4L2_TUNER_CAP_STEREO, _LANG1, _L The selected audio mode, see Table 5 for valid value The signal strength if known, ranging from 0 to 655 Automatic frequency control: When the afc value i Reserved for future extensions. Drivers and applicat Table 2. enum v4l2_tuner_type V4L2_TUNER_RADIO 1 V4L2_TUNER_ANALOG_TV 2 http://bbs.51soc.com Table 3. Tuner and Modulator Capability Flags V4L2_TUNER_CAP_LOW 0x0001 When set, tuning frequencies are expressed in units of 62.5 Hz, otherwise in units of 62.5 kHz. V4L2_TUNER_CAP_NORM 0x0002 This is a multi-standard tuner; the video standard can or must be switched. (B/G PAL tuners for example are typically not considered multi-standard because the video standard is automatically determined from the frequency band.) The set of supported video standards is available from the struct v4l2_input pointing to this tuner, see the description of ioctl VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT for details. Only V4L2_TUNER_ANALOG_TV tuners can have this capability. V4L2_TUNER_CAP_STEREO 0x0010 Stereo audio reception is supported. V4L2_TUNER_CAP_LANG1 0x0040 Reception of the primary language of a bilingual audio program is supported. Bilingual audio is a feature of two-channel systems, transmitting the primary language monaural on the main audio carrier and a secondary language monaural on a second carrier. Only V4L2_TUNER_ANALOG_TV tuners can have this capability. 164 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_TUNER, VIDIOC_S_TUNER V4L2_TUNER_CAP_LANG2 V4L2_TUNER_CAP_SAP 0x0020 0x0020 Reception of the secondary language of a bilingual audio program is supported. Only V4L2_TUNER_ANALOG_TV tuners can have this capability. Reception of a secondary audio program is supported. This is a feature of the BTSC system which accompanies the NTSC video standard. Two audio carriers are available for mono or stereo transmissions of a primary language, and an independent third carrier for a monaural secondary language. Only V4L2_TUNER_ANALOG_TV tuners can have this capability. Note the V4L2_TUNER_CAP_LANG2 and V4L2_TUNER_CAP_SAP flags are synonyms. V4L2_TUNER_CAP_SAP applies when the tuner supports the V4L2_STD_NTSC_M video standard. Table 4. Tuner Audio Reception Flags V4L2_TUNER_SUB_MONO 0x0001 The tuner receives a mono audio signal. V4L2_TUNER_SUB_STEREO 0x0002 The tuner receives a stereo audio signal. V4L2_TUNER_SUB_LANG1 0x0008 The tuner receives the primary language of a http://bbs.51soc.com bilingual audio signal. Drivers must clear this flag when the current video standard is V4L2_STD_NTSC_M. V4L2_TUNER_SUB_LANG2 0x0004 The tuner receives the secondary language of a bilingual audio signal (or a second audio program). V4L2_TUNER_SUB_SAP 0x0004 The tuner receives a Second Audio Program. Note the V4L2_TUNER_SUB_LANG2 and V4L2_TUNER_SUB_SAP flags are synonyms. The V4L2_TUNER_SUB_SAP flag applies when the current video standard is V4L2_STD_NTSC_M. Table 5. Tuner Audio Modes V4L2_TUNER_MODE_MONO 0 Play mono audio. When the tuner receives a stereo signal this a down-mix of the left and right channel. When the tuner receives a bilingual or SAP signal this mode selects the primary language. 165 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_TUNER, VIDIOC_S_TUNER V4L2_TUNER_MODE_STEREO 1 Play stereo audio. When the tuner receives bilingual audio it may play different languages on the left and right channel or the primary language on both channels. behave as in mono mode. Playing different languages in this mode is deprecated. New drivers should do this only in MODE_LANG1_LANG2. When the tuner receives no stereo signal or does not support stereo reception the driver shall fall back to MODE_MONO. V4L2_TUNER_MODE_LANG1 3 Play the primary language, mono or stereo. Only V4L2_TUNER_ANALOG_TV tuners support this mode. V4L2_TUNER_MODE_LANG2 2 Play the secondary language, mono. When the tuner receives no bilingual audio or SAP, or their reception is not supported the driver shall fall back to mono or stereo mode. Only V4L2_TUNER_ANALOG_TV tuners support this mode. V4L2_TUNER_MODE_SAP 2 Play the Second Audio Program. When the tuner receives no bilingual audio or SAP, or their http://bbs.51soc.com reception is not supported the driver shall fall back to mono or stereo mode. Only V4L2_TUNER_ANALOG_TV tuners support this mode. Note the V4L2_TUNER_MODE_LANG2 and V4L2_TUNER_MODE_SAP are synonyms. V4L2_TUNER_MODE_LANG1_LANG2 4 Play the primary language on the left channel, the secondary language on the right channel. When the tuner receives no bilingual audio or SAP, it shall fall back to MODE_LANG1 or MODE_MONO. Only V4L2_TUNER_ANALOG_TV tuners support this mode. Table 6. Tuner Audio Matrix Received MONO V4L2_TUNER_SUB_ MONO MONO | SAP Mono Mono STEREO Mono/Mono Mono/Mono LANG1 LANG2 = SAP LANG1_LANG2a Mono Mono Mono SAP Mono/Mono Mono/SAP (preferred) or Mono/Mono 166 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_G_TUNER, VIDIOC_S_TUNER Received MONO V4L2_TUNER_SUB_ STEREO LANG1 LANG2 = SAP LANG1_LANG2a STEREO L+R L/R Stereo L/R Stereo L/R L/R (preferred) (preferred) or (preferred) or or L+R/L+R Mono L+R Mono L+R STEREO | SAP L+R L/R Stereo L/R SAP L+R/SAP (preferred) or (preferred) or Mono L+R L/R or L+R/L+R LANG1 | LANG2 Language 1 Lang1/Lang2 Language 1 (deprecatedb) or Lang1/Lang1 Language 2 Lang1/Lang2 (preferred) or Lang1/Lang1 Notes: a. This mode has been added in Linux 2.6.17 and may not be supported by older drivers. b. Playback of both Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The struct v4l2_tuner index is out of bounds. http://bbs.51soc.com 167 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_LOG_STATUS Name VIDIOC_LOG_STATUS — Log driver status information Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request); Description As the video/audio devices become more complicated it becomes harder to debug problems. When this ioctl is called the driver will output the current device status to the kernel log. This is particular useful when dealing with problems like no sound, no video and incorrectly tuned channels. Also many modern devices autodetect video and audio standards and this ioctl will report what the device thinks what the standard is. Mismatches may give an indication where the problem is. This ioctl is optional and not all drivers support it. It was introduced in Linux 2.6.15. http://bbs.51soc.com Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The driver does not support this ioctl. 168 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_OVERLAY Name VIDIOC_OVERLAY — Start or stop video overlay Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, const int *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_OVERLAY argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description This ioctl is part of the video overlay I/O method. Applications call VIDIOC_OVERLAY to start or stop the overlay. It takes a pointer to an integer which must be set to zero by the application to stop overlay, to one to start. Drivers do not support VIDIOC_STREAMON or VIDIOC_STREAMOFF with V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OVERLAY. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL Video overlay is not supported, or the parameters have not been set up. See Section 4.2 for the necessary steps. 169 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_QBUF, VIDIOC_DQBUF Name VIDIOC_QBUF, VIDIOC_DQBUF — Exchange a buffer with the driver Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_buffer *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_QBUF, VIDIOC_DQBUF argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description Applications call the VIDIOC_QBUF ioctl to enqueue an empty (capturing) or filled (output) buffer in the driver’s incoming queue. The semantics depend on the selected I/O method. To enqueue a memory mapped buffer applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_buffer to the same buffer type as previously struct v4l2_format type and struct v4l2_requestbuffers type, the memory field to V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP and the index field. Valid index numbers range from zero to the number of buffers allocated with VIDIOC_REQBUFS (struct v4l2_requestbuffers count) minus one. The contents of the struct v4l2_buffer returned by a VIDIOC_QUERYBUF ioctl will do as well. When the buffer is intended for output (type is V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT or V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VBI_OUTPUT) applications must also initialize the bytesused, field and timestamp fields. See Section 3.5 for details. When VIDIOC_QBUF is called with a pointer to this structure the driver sets the V4L2_BUF_FLAG_MAPPED and V4L2_BUF_FLAG_QUEUED flags and clears the V4L2_BUF_FLAG_DONE flag in the flags field, or it returns an EINVAL error code. To enqueue a user pointer buffer applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_buffer to the same buffer type as previously struct v4l2_format type and struct v4l2_requestbuffers type, the memory field to V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR and the m.userptr field to the address of the buffer and length to its size. When the buffer is intended for output additional fields must be set as above. When VIDIOC_QBUF is called with a pointer to this structure the driver sets the V4L2_BUF_FLAG_QUEUED flag and clears the V4L2_BUF_FLAG_MAPPED and V4L2_BUF_FLAG_DONE flags in the flags field, or it returns an error code. This ioctl locks the memory pages of the buffer in physical memory, they 170 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_QBUF, VIDIOC_DQBUF cannot be swapped out to disk. Buffers remain locked until dequeued, until the VIDIOC_STREAMOFF or VIDIOC_REQBUFS ioctl are called, or until the device is closed. Applications call the VIDIOC_DQBUF ioctl to dequeue a filled (capturing) or displayed (output) buffer from the driver’s outgoing queue. They just set the type and memory fields of a struct v4l2_buffer as above, when VIDIOC_DQBUF is called with a pointer to this structure the driver fills the remaining fields or returns an error code. By default VIDIOC_DQBUF blocks when no buffer is in the outgoing queue. When the O_NONBLOCK flag was given to the open() function, VIDIOC_DQBUF returns immediately with an EAGAIN error code when no buffer is available. The v4l2_buffer structure is specified in Section 3.5. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EAGAIN Non-blocking I/O has been selected using O_NONBLOCK and no buffer was in the outgoing queue. EINVAL The buffer type is not supported, or the index is out of bounds, or no buffers have been allocated yet, or the userptr or length are invalid. http://bbs.51soc.com ENOMEM Not enough physical or virtual memory was available to enqueue a user pointer buffer. EIO VIDIOC_DQBUF failed due to an internal error. Can also indicate temporary problems like signal loss. Note the driver might dequeue an (empty) buffer despite returning an error, or even stop capturing. 171 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYBUF Name VIDIOC_QUERYBUF — Query the status of a buffer Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_buffer *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_QUERYBUF argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description This ioctl is part of the memory mapping I/O method. It can be used to query the status of a buffer at any time after buffers have been allocated with the VIDIOC_REQBUFS ioctl. Applications set the type field of a struct v4l2_buffer to the same buffer type as previously struct v4l2_format type and struct v4l2_requestbuffers type, and the index field. Valid index numbers range from zero to the number of buffers allocated with VIDIOC_REQBUFS (struct v4l2_requestbuffers count) minus one. After calling VIDIOC_QUERYBUF with a pointer to this structure drivers return an error code or fill the rest of the structure. In the flags field the V4L2_BUF_FLAG_MAPPED, V4L2_BUF_FLAG_QUEUED and V4L2_BUF_FLAG_DONE flags will be valid. The memory field will be set to V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP, the m.offset contains the offset of the buffer from the start of the device memory, the length field its size. The driver may or may not set the remaining fields and flags, they are meaningless in this context. The v4l2_buffer structure is specified in Section 3.5. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: 172 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYBUF EINVAL The buffer type is not supported, or the index is out of bounds. http://bbs.51soc.com 173 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYCAP Name VIDIOC_QUERYCAP — Query device capabilities Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_capability *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_QUERYCAP argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description All V4L2 devices support the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl. It is used to identify kernel devices compatible with this specification and to obtain information about driver and hardware capabilities. The ioctl takes a pointer to a struct v4l2_capability which is filled by the driver. When the driver is not compatible with this specification the ioctl returns an EINVAL error code. Table 1. struct v4l2_capability __u8 driver[16] Name of the driver, a unique NUL-terminated ASCII string. For example: "bttv". Driver specific applications can use this information to verify the driver identity. It is also useful to work around known bugs, or to identify drivers in error reports. The driver version is stored in the version field. Storing strings in fixed sized arrays is bad practice but unavoidable here. Drivers and applications should take precautions to never read or write beyond the end of the array and to make sure the strings are properly NUL-terminated. 174 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYCAP __u8 card[32] Name of the device, a NUL-terminated ASCII string. For example: "Yoyodyne TV/FM". One driver may support different brands or models of video hardware. This information is intended for users, for example in a menu of available devices. Since multiple TV cards of the same brand may be installed which are supported by the same driver, this name should be combined with the character device file name (e. g. /dev/video2) or the bus_info string to avoid ambiguities. __u8 bus_info[32] Location of the device in the system, a NUL-terminated ASCII string. For example: "PCI Slot 4". This information is intended for users, to distinguish multiple identical devices. If no such information is available the field may simply count the devices controlled by the driver, or contain the empty string (bus_info[0] = 0). __u32 version Version number of the driver. Together with the driver field this identifies a particular driver. The version number is formatted using the KERNEL_VERSION() macro: #define KERNEL_VERSION(a,b,c) (((a) << 16) + ((b) << 8) + (c)) __u32 version = KERNEL_V __u32 capabilities Device capabilities, see Table 2. __u32 reserved[4] Reserved for future extensions. Drivers must set http://bbs.5this1arrasy toozeroc. .com Table 2. Device Capabilities Flags V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_CAPTURE 0x00000001The device supports the Video Capture interface. V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OUTPUT 0x00000002The device supports the Video Output interface. V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OVERLAY 0x00000004The device supports the Video Overlay interface. A video overlay device typically stores captured images directly in the video memory of a graphics card, with hardware clipping and scaling. V4L2_CAP_VBI_CAPTURE 0x00000010The device supports the Raw VBI Capture interface, providing Teletext and Closed Caption data. V4L2_CAP_VBI_OUTPUT 0x00000020The device supports the Raw VBI Output interface. V4L2_CAP_SLICED_VBI_CAPTURE 0x00000040The device supports the Sliced VBI Capture interface. V4L2_CAP_SLICED_VBI_OUTPUT 0x00000080The device supports the Sliced VBI Output interface. V4L2_CAP_RDS_CAPTURE 0x00000100[to be defined] 175 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYCAP V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OUTPUT_OVERLAY0x00000200The device supports the Video Output Overlay (OSD) interface. Unlike the Video Overlay interface, this is a secondary function of video output devices and overlays an image onto an outgoing video signal. When the driver sets this flag, it must clear the V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OVERLAY flag and vice versa.a V4L2_CAP_TUNER V4L2_CAP_AUDIO V4L2_CAP_RADIO 0x00010000The device has some sort of tuner or modulator to receive or emit RF-modulated video signals. For more information about tuner and modulator programming see Section 1.6. 0x00020000The device has audio inputs or outputs. It may or may not support audio recording or playback, in PCM or compressed formats. PCM audio support must be implemented as ALSA or OSS interface. For more information on audio inputs and outputs see Section 1.5. 0x00040000This is a radio receiver. V4L2_CAP_READWRITE 0x01000000The device supports the read() and/or write() I/O methods. V4L2_CAP_ASYNCIO 0x02000000The device supports the asynchronous I/O methods. http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_CAP_STREAMING 0x04000000The device supports the streaming I/O method. Notes: a. The struct v4l2_framebuffer lacks an enum v4l2_buf_type field, therefore the type of overlay is implied by t Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The device is not compatible with this specification. 176 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, VIDIOC_QUERYMENU Name VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, VIDIOC_QUERYMENU — Enumerate controls and menu control items Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_queryctrl *argp); int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_querymenu *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request http://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, VIDIOC_QUERYMENU argp Description To query the attributes of a control applications set the id field of a struct v4l2_queryctrl and call the VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL ioctl with a pointer to this structure. The driver fills the rest of the structure or returns an EINVAL error code when the id is invalid. It is possible to enumerate controls by calling VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL with successive id values starting from V4L2_CID_BASE up to and exclusive V4L2_CID_BASE_LASTP1. Drivers may return EINVAL if a control in this range is not supported. Further applications can enumerate private controls, which are not defined in this specification, by starting at V4L2_CID_PRIVATE_BASE and incrementing id until the driver returns EINVAL. In both cases, when the driver sets the V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_DISABLED flag in the flags field this control is permanently disabled and should be ignored by the application.1 When the application ORs id with V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_NEXT_CTRL the driver returns the next supported control, or EINVAL if there is none. Drivers which do not support this flag yet always return EINVAL. Additional information is required for menu controls, the name of menu items. To query them applications set the id and index fields of struct v4l2_querymenu and call the VIDIOC_QUERYMENU ioctl with a pointer to this structure. The driver fills the rest of the structure or 177 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, VIDIOC_QUERYMENU returns an EINVAL error code when the id or index is invalid. Menu items are enumerated by calling VIDIOC_QUERYMENU with successive index values from struct v4l2_queryctrl minimum (0) to maximum, inclusive. See also the examples in Section 1.8. Table 1. struct v4l2_queryctrl __u32 id Identifies the control, set by the application. See Table 1-1 for predefined IDs. When the ID is ORed with V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_NEXT_CTRL the driver clears the flag and returns the first control with a higher ID. Drivers which do not support this flag yet always return an EINVAL error code. enum v4l2_ctrl_type type Type of control, see Table 3. __u8 name[32] Name of the control, a NUL-terminated ASCII string. This information is intended for the user. __s32 minimum Minimum value, inclusive. This field gives a lower bound for V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_INTEGER controls. It may not be valid for any other type of control, including V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_INTEGER64 controls. Note this is a signed value. __s32 maximum Maximum value, inclusive. This field gives an upper bound for V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_INTEGER controls and the highest valid index for http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_MENU controls. It may not be valid for any other type of control, including V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_INTEGER64 controls. Note this is a signed value. 178 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, VIDIOC_QUERYMENU __s32 step This field gives a step size for V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_INTEGER controls. It may not be valid for any other type of control, including V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_INTEGER64 controls. Generally drivers should not scale hardware control values. It may be necessary for example when the name or id imply a particular unit and the hardware actually accepts only multiples of said unit. If so, drivers must take care values are properly rounded when scaling, such that errors will not accumulate on repeated read-write cycles. This field gives the smallest change of an integer control actually affecting hardware. Often the information is needed when the user can change controls by keyboard or GUI buttons, rather than a slider. When for example a hardware register accepts values 0-511 and the driver reports 0-65535, step should be 128. Note although signed, the step value is supposed to be always positive. http://bbs.51soc.com __s32 default_value The default value of a V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_INTEGER, _BOOLEAN or _MENU control. Not valid for other types of controls. Drivers reset controls only when the driver is loaded, not later, in particular not when the func-open; is called. __u32 flags Control flags, see Table 4. __u32 reserved[2] Reserved for future extensions. Drivers must set the array to zero. Table 2. struct v4l2_querymenu __u32 id __u32 index __u8 name[32] __u32 reserved Identifies the control, set by the application from the respective struct v4l2_queryctrl id. Index of the menu item, starting at zero, set by the application. Name of the menu item, a NUL-terminated ASCII string. This information is intended for the user. Reserved for future extensions. Drivers must set the array to zero. Table 3. enum v4l2_ctrl_type 179 嵌入式SOC社区 Type http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, VIDIOC_QUERYMENU Description minismtuempmaximum V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_INTEGER any any any An integer-valued control ranging from minimum to maximum inclusive. The step value indicates the increment between values which are actually different on the hardware. V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_BOOLEAN 0 1 1 A boolean-valued control. Zero corresponds to "disabled", and one means "enabled". V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_MENU 0 1 N-1 The control has a menu of N choices. The names of the menu items can be enumerated with the VIDIOC_QUERYMENU ioctl. V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_BUTTON 0 0 0 A control which performs an action when set. Drivers must ignore the value passed with VIDIOC_S_CTRL and return an EINVAL error code on a VIDIOC_G_CTRL attempt. V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_INTEGER6n4/a n/a n/a A 64-bit integer valued control. Minimum, maximum and step size cannot be queried. V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_CTRL_CLAnS/Sa n/a n/a This is not a control. When VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL is called with a control ID equal to a control class code (see Table 3), the ioctl returns the name of the control class and this control type. Older drivers which do not support this feature return an EINVAL error code. http://bbs.51soc.com Table 4. Control Flags V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_DISABLED 0x0001 This control is permanently disabled and should be ignored by the application. Any attempt to change the control will result in an EINVAL error code. V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_GRABBED 0x0002 This control is temporarily unchangeable, for example because another application took over control of the respective resource. Such controls may be displayed specially in a user interface. Attempts to change the control may result in an EBUSY error code. V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_READ_ONLY 0x0004 This control is permanently readable only. Any attempt to change the control will result in an EINVAL error code. V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_UPDATE 0x0008 A hint that changing this control may affect the value of other controls within the same control class. Applications should update their user interface accordingly. V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_INACTIVE 0x0010 This control is not applicable to the current configuration and should be displayed accordingly in a user interface. For example the flag may be set on a MPEG audio level 2 bitrate control when MPEG audio encoding level 1 was selected with another control. 180 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, VIDIOC_QUERYMENU V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_SLIDER 0x0020 A hint that this control is best represented as a slider-like element in a user interface. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The struct v4l2_queryctrl id is invalid. The struct v4l2_querymenu id or index is invalid. http://bbs.51soc.com 181 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Notes 1. V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_DISABLED was intended for two purposes: Drivers can skip predefined controls not supported by the hardware (although returning EINVAL would do as well), or disable predefined and private controls after hardware detection without the trouble of reordering control arrays and indices (EINVAL cannot be used to skip private controls because it would prematurely end the enumeration). ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYSTD Name VIDIOC_QUERYSTD — Sense the video standard received by the current input Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, v4l2_std_id *argp); Arguments hfd ttp://bbs.51soc.com File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_QUERYSTD argp Description The hardware may be able to detect the current video standard automatically. To do so, applications call VIDIOC_QUERYSTD with a pointer to a v4l2_std_id type. The driver stores here a set of candidates, this can be a single flag or a set of supported standards if for example the hardware can only distinguish between 50 and 60 Hz systems. When detection is not possible or fails, the set must contain all standards supported by the current video input or output. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: 182 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com EINVAL This ioctl is not supported. ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYSTD http://bbs.51soc.com 183 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_REQBUFS Name VIDIOC_REQBUFS — Initiate Memory Mapping or User Pointer I/O Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, struct v4l2_requestbuffers *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). request VIDIOC_REQBUFS argp http://bbs.51soc.com Description This ioctl is used to initiate memory mapped or user pointer I/O. Memory mapped buffers are located in device memory and must be allocated with this ioctl before they can be mapped into the application’s address space. User buffers are allocated by applications themselves, and this ioctl is merely used to switch the driver into user pointer I/O mode. To allocate device buffers applications initialize three fields of a v4l2_requestbuffers structure. They set the type field to the respective stream or buffer type, the count field to the desired number of buffers, and memory must be set to V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP. When the ioctl is called with a pointer to this structure the driver attempts to allocate the requested number of buffers and stores the actual number allocated in the count field. It can be smaller than the number requested, even zero, when the driver runs out of free memory. A larger number is possible when the driver requires more buffers to function correctly.1 When memory mapping I/O is not supported the ioctl returns an EINVAL error code. Applications can call VIDIOC_REQBUFS again to change the number of buffers, however this cannot succeed when any buffers are still mapped. A count value of zero frees all buffers, after aborting or finishing any DMA in progress, an implicit VIDIOC_STREAMOFF. To negotiate user pointer I/O, applications initialize only the type field and set memory to V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR. When the ioctl is called with a pointer to this structure the driver prepares for user pointer I/O, when this I/O method is not supported the ioctl returns an EINVAL error code. 184 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_REQBUFS Table 1. struct v4l2_requestbuffers __u32 count enum v4l2_buf_type type enum v4l2_memory memory __u32 reserved[2] The number of buffers requested or granted. This field is only used when memory is set to V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP. Type of the stream or buffers, this is the same as the struct v4l2_format type field. See Table 3-2 for valid values. Applications set this field to V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP or V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR. A place holder for future extensions and custom (driver defined) buffer types V4L2_BUF_TYPE_PRIVATE and higher. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EBUSY The driver supports multiple opens and I/O is already in progress, or reallocation of buffers was attempted although one or more are still mapped. EINVAL http://bbs.51soc.com The buffer type (type field) or the requested I/O method (memory) is not supported. 185 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Notes 1. For example video output requires at least two buffers, one displayed and one filled by the application. ioctl VIDIOC_STREAMON, VIDIOC_STREAMOFF Name VIDIOC_STREAMON, VIDIOC_STREAMOFF — Start or stop streaming I/O Synopsis int ioctl(int fd, int request, const int *argp); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). http://bbs.51soc.com request VIDIOC_STREAMON, VIDIOC_STREAMOFF argp Description The VIDIOC_STREAMON and VIDIOC_STREAMOFF ioctl start and stop the capture or output process during streaming (memory mapping or user pointer) I/O. Specifically the capture hardware is disabled and no input buffers are filled (if there are any empty buffers in the incoming queue) until VIDIOC_STREAMON has been called. Accordingly the output hardware is disabled, no video signal is produced until VIDIOC_STREAMON has been called. The ioctl will succeed only when at least one output buffer is in the incoming queue. The VIDIOC_STREAMOFF ioctl, apart of aborting or finishing any DMA in progress, unlocks any user pointer buffers locked in physical memory, and it removes all buffers from the incoming and outgoing queues. That means all images captured but not dequeued yet will be lost, likewise all images enqueued for output but not transmitted yet. I/O returns to the same state as after calling VIDIOC_REQBUFS and can be restarted accordingly. Both ioctls take a pointer to an integer, the desired buffer or stream type. This is the same as struct v4l2_requestbuffers type. 186 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ioctl VIDIOC_STREAMON, VIDIOC_STREAMOFF Note applications can be preempted for unknown periods right before or after the VIDIOC_STREAMON or VIDIOC_STREAMOFF calls, there is no notion of starting or stopping "now". Buffer timestamps can be used to synchronize with other events. Return Value On success 0 is returned, on error -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL Streaming I/O is not supported, the buffer type is not supported, or no buffers have been allocated (memory mapping) or enqueued (output) yet. http://bbs.51soc.com 187 嵌入式SOC社区 V4L2 mmap() http://bbs.51soc.com Name v4l2-mmap — Map device memory into application address space Synopsis #include #include void *mmap(void *start, size_t length, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset); Arguments start Map the buffer to this address in the application’s address space. When the MAP_FIXED flag is specified, start must be a multiple of the pagesize and mmap will fail when the specified address cannot be used. Use of this option is discouraged; applications should just specify a NULL pointer here. hlentgthtp://bbs.51soc.com Length of the memory area to map. This must be the same value as returned by the driver in the struct v4l2_buffer length field. prot The prot argument describes the desired memory protection. Regardless of the device type and the direction of data exchange it should be set to PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, permitting read and write access to image buffers. Drivers should support at least this combination of flags. Note the Linux video-buf kernel module, which is used by the bttv, saa7134, saa7146, cx88 and vivi driver supports only PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE. When the driver does not support the desired protection the mmap() function fails. Note device memory accesses (e. g. the memory on a graphics card with video capturing hardware) may incur a performance penalty compared to main memory accesses, or reads may be significantly slower than writes or vice versa. Other I/O methods may be more efficient in this case. flags The flags parameter specifies the type of the mapped object, mapping options and whether modifications made to the mapped copy of the page are private to the process or are to be shared with other references. MAP_FIXED requests that the driver selects no other address than the one specified. If the specified address cannot be used, mmap() will fail. If MAP_FIXED is specified, start must be a multiple of the pagesize. Use of this option is discouraged. 188 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2 mmap() One of the MAP_SHARED or MAP_PRIVATE flags must be set. MAP_SHARED allows applications to share the mapped memory with other (e. g. child-) processes. Note the Linux video-buf module which is used by the bttv, saa7134, saa7146, cx88 and vivi driver supports only MAP_SHARED. MAP_PRIVATE requests copy-on-write semantics. V4L2 applications should not set the MAP_PRIVATE, MAP_DENYWRITE, MAP_EXECUTABLE or MAP_ANON flag. fd File descriptor returned by open(). offset Offset of the buffer in device memory. This must be the same value as returned by the driver in the struct v4l2_buffer m union offset field. Description The mmap() function asks to map length bytes starting at offset in the memory of the device specified by fd into the application address space, preferably at address start. This latter address is a hint only, and is usually specified as 0. Suitable length and offset parameters are queried with the VIDIOC_QUERYBUF ioctl. Buffers must be allocated with the VIDIOC_REQBUFS ioctl before they can be queried. To unmap buffers the munmap() function is used. http://bbs.51soc.com Return Value On success mmap() returns a pointer to the mapped buffer. On error MAP_FAILED (-1) is returned, and the errno variable is set appropriately. Possible error codes are: EBADF fd is not a valid file descriptor. EACCES fd is not open for reading and writing. EINVAL The start or length or offset are not suitable. (E. g. they are too large, or not aligned on a PAGESIZE boundary.) The flags or prot value is not supported. No buffers have been allocated with the VIDIOC_REQBUFS ioctl. ENOMEM Not enough physical or virtual memory was available to complete the request. 189 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2 munmap() Name v4l2-munmap — Unmap device memory Synopsis #include #include int munmap(void *start, size_t length); Arguments start Address of the mapped buffer as returned by the mmap() function. length Length of the mapped buffer. This must be the same value as given to mmap() and returned by the driver in the struct v4l2_buffer length field. http://bbs.51soc.com Description Unmaps a previously with the mmap() function mapped buffer and frees it, if possible. Return Value On success munmap() returns 0, on failure -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately: EINVAL The start or length is incorrect, or no buffers have been mapped yet. 190 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2 open() Name v4l2-open — Open a V4L2 device Synopsis #include int open(const char *device_name, int flags); Arguments device_name Device to be opened. flags Open flags. Access mode must be O_RDWR. This is just a technicality, input devices still support only reading and output devices only writing. http://bbs.51soc.com When the O_NONBLOCK flag is given, the read() function and the VIDIOC_DQBUF ioctl will return the EAGAIN error code when no data is available or no buffer is in the driver outgoing queue, otherwise these functions block until data becomes available. All V4L2 drivers exchanging data with applications must support the O_NONBLOCK flag. Other flags have no effect. Description To open a V4L2 device applications call open() with the desired device name. This function has no side effects; all data format parameters, current input or output, control values or other properties remain unchanged. At the first open() call after loading the driver they will be reset to default values, drivers are never in an undefined state. Return Value On success open returns the new file descriptor. On error -1 is returned, and the errno variable is set appropriately. Possible error codes are: EACCES The caller has no permission to access the device. EBUSY The driver does not support multiple opens and the device is already in use. 191 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com ENXIO No device corresponding to this device special file exists. ENOMEM Not enough kernel memory was available to complete the request. EMFILE The process already has the maximum number of files open. ENFILE The limit on the total number of files open on the system has been reached. V4L2 open() http://bbs.51soc.com 192 嵌入式SOC社区 V4L2 poll() http://bbs.51soc.com Name v4l2-poll — Wait for some event on a file descriptor Synopsis #include int poll(struct pollfd *ufds, unsigned int nfds, int timeout); Description With the poll() function applications can suspend execution until the driver has captured data or is ready to accept data for output. When streaming I/O has been negotiated this function waits until a buffer has been filled or displayed and can be dequeued with the VIDIOC_DQBUF ioctl. When buffers are already in the outgoing queue of the driver the function returns immediately. On success poll() returns the number of file descriptors that have been selected (that is, file descriptors for which the revents field of the respective pollfd structure is non-zero). Capture http://bbs.51soc.com devices set the POLLIN and POLLRDNORM flags in the revents field, output devices the POLLOUT and POLLWRNORM flags. When the function timed out it returns a value of zero, on failure it returns -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately. When the application did not call VIDIOC_QBUF or VIDIOC_STREAMON yet the poll() function succeeds, but sets the POLLERR flag in the revents field. When use of the read() function has been negotiated and the driver does not capture yet, the poll function starts capturing. When that fails it returns a POLLERR as above. Otherwise it waits until data has been captured and can be read. When the driver captures continuously (as opposed to, for example, still images) the function may return immediately. When use of the write() function has been negotiated the poll function just waits until the driver is ready for a non-blocking write() call. All drivers implementing the read() or write() function or streaming I/O must also support the poll() function. For more details see the poll() manual page. Return Value On success, poll() returns the number structures which have non-zero revents fields, or zero if the call timed out. On error -1 is returned, and the errno variable is set appropriately: EBADF One or more of the ufds members specify an invalid file descriptor. 193 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2 poll() EBUSY The driver does not support multiple read or write streams and the device is already in use. EFAULT ufds references an inaccessible memory area. EINTR The call was interrupted by a signal. EINVAL The nfds argument is greater than OPEN_MAX. http://bbs.51soc.com 194 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2 read() Name v4l2-read — Read from a V4L2 device Synopsis #include ssize_t read(int fd, void *buf, size_t count); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). buf count http://bbs.51soc.com Description read() attempts to read up to count bytes from file descriptor fd into the buffer starting at buf. The layout of the data in the buffer is discussed in the respective device interface section, see ##. If count is zero, read() returns zero and has no other results. If count is greater than SSIZE_MAX, the result is unspecified. Regardless of the count value each read() call will provide at most one frame (two fields) worth of data. By default read() blocks until data becomes available. When the O_NONBLOCK flag was given to the open() function it returns immediately with an EAGAIN error code when no data is available. The select() or poll() functions can always be used to suspend execution until data becomes available. All drivers supporting the read() function must also support select() and poll(). Drivers can implement read functionality in different ways, using a single or multiple buffers and discarding the oldest or newest frames once the internal buffers are filled. read() never returns a "snapshot" of a buffer being filled. Using a single buffer the driver will stop capturing when the application starts reading the buffer until the read is finished. Thus only the period of the vertical blanking interval is available for reading, or the capture rate must fall below the nominal frame rate of the video standard. The behavior of read() when called during the active picture period or the vertical blanking separating the top and bottom field depends on the discarding policy. A driver discarding the oldest frames keeps capturing into an internal buffer, continuously overwriting the previously, not read frame, and returns the frame being received at the time of the read() call as soon as it is complete. 195 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2 read() A driver discarding the newest frames stops capturing until the next read() call. The frame being received at read() time is discarded, returning the following frame instead. Again this implies a reduction of the capture rate to one half or less of the nominal frame rate. An example of this model is the video read mode of the bttv driver, initiating a DMA to user memory when read() is called and returning when the DMA finished. In the multiple buffer model drivers maintain a ring of internal buffers, automatically advancing to the next free buffer. This allows continuous capturing when the application can empty the buffers fast enough. Again, the behavior when the driver runs out of free buffers depends on the discarding policy. Applications can get and set the number of buffers used internally by the driver with the VIDIOC_G_PARM and VIDIOC_S_PARM ioctls. They are optional, however. The discarding policy is not reported and cannot be changed. For minimum requirements see Chapter 4. Return Value On success, the number of bytes read is returned. It is not an error if this number is smaller than the number of bytes requested, or the amount of data required for one frame. This may happen for example because read() was interrupted by a signal. On error, -1 is returned, and the errno variable is set appropriately. In this case the next read will start at the beginning of a new frame. Possible error codes are: EAGAIN Non-blocking I/O has been selected using O_NONBLOCK and no data was immediately http://bbs.51soc.com available for reading. EBADF fd is not a valid file descriptor or is not open for reading, or the process already has the maximum number of files open. EBUSY The driver does not support multiple read streams and the device is already in use. EFAULT buf references an inaccessible memory area. EINTR The call was interrupted by a signal before any data was read. EIO I/O error. This indicates some hardware problem or a failure to communicate with a remote device (USB camera etc.). EINVAL The read() function is not supported by this driver, not on this device, or generally not on this type of device. 196 嵌入式SOC社区 V4L2 select() http://bbs.51soc.com Name v4l2-select — Synchronous I/O multiplexing Synopsis #include #include #include int select(int nfds, fd_set *readfds, fd_set *writefds, fd_set *exceptfds, struct timeval *timeout); Description With the select() function applications can suspend execution until the driver has captured data or is ready to accept data for output. When streaming I/O has been negotiated this function waits until a buffer has been filled or displayed and can be dequeued with the VIDIOC_DQBUF ioctl. When buffers are already in the outgoing queue of the driver the function returns immediately. http://bbs.51soc.com On success select() returns the total number of bits set in the fd_sets. When the function timed out it returns a value of zero. On failure it returns -1 and the errno variable is set appropriately. When the application did not call VIDIOC_QBUF or VIDIOC_STREAMON yet the select() function succeeds, setting the bit of the file descriptor in readfds or writefds, but subsequent VIDIOC_DQBUF calls will fail.1 When use of the read() function has been negotiated and the driver does not capture yet, the select() function starts capturing. When that fails, select() returns successful and a subsequent read() call, which also attempts to start capturing, will return an appropriate error code. When the driver captures continuously (as opposed to, for example, still images) and data is already available the select() function returns immediately. When use of the write() function has been negotiated the select() function just waits until the driver is ready for a non-blocking write() call. All drivers implementing the read() or write() function or streaming I/O must also support the select() function. For more details see the select() manual page. Return Value On success, select() returns the number of descriptors contained in the three returned descriptor sets, which will be zero if the timeout expired. On error -1 is returned, and the errno variable is set appropriately; the sets and timeout are undefined. Possible error codes are: 197 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2 select() EBADF One or more of the file descriptor sets specified a file descriptor that is not open. EBUSY The driver does not support multiple read or write streams and the device is already in use. EFAULT The readfds, writefds, exceptfds or timeout pointer references an inaccessible memory area. EINTR The call was interrupted by a signal. EINVAL The nfds argument is less than zero or greater than FD_SETSIZE. http://bbs.51soc.com 198 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Notes 1. The Linux kernel implements select() like the poll() function, but select() cannot return a POLLERR. V4L2 write() Name v4l2-write — Write to a V4L2 device Synopsis #include ssize_t write(int fd, void *buf, size_t count); Arguments fd File descriptor returned by open(). hbufttp://bbs.51soc.com count Description write() writes up to count bytes to the device referenced by the file descriptor fd from the buffer starting at buf. When the hardware outputs are not active yet, this function enables them. When count is zero, write() returns 0 without any other effect. When the application does not provide more data in time, the previous video frame, raw VBI image, sliced VPS or WSS data is displayed again. Sliced Teletext or Closed Caption data is not repeated, the driver inserts a blank line instead. Return Value On success, the number of bytes written are returned. Zero indicates nothing was written. On error, -1 is returned, and the errno variable is set appropriately. In this case the next write will start at the beginning of a new frame. Possible error codes are: 199 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2 write() EAGAIN Non-blocking I/O has been selected using the O_NONBLOCK flag and no buffer space was available to write the data immediately. EBADF fd is not a valid file descriptor or is not open for writing. EBUSY The driver does not support multiple write streams and the device is already in use. EFAULT buf references an inaccessible memory area. EINTR The call was interrupted by a signal before any data was written. EIO I/O error. This indicates some hardware problem. EINVAL The write() function is not supported by this driver, not on this device, or generally not on this type of device. http://bbs.51soc.com 200 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 5. V4L2 Driver Programming to do http://bbs.51soc.com 201 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes The following chapters document the evolution of the V4L2 API, errata or extensions. They are also intended to help application and driver writers to port or update their code. 6.1. Differences between V4L and V4L2 The Video For Linux API was first introduced in Linux 2.1 to unify and replace various TV and radio device related interfaces, developed independently by driver writers in prior years. Starting with Linux 2.5 the much improved V4L2 API replaces the V4L API, although existing drivers will continue to support V4L applications in the future, either directly or through the V4L2 compatibility layer in the videodev kernel module translating ioctls on the fly. For a transition period not all drivers will support the V4L2 API. 6.1.1. Opening and Closing Devices For compatibility reasons the character device file names recommended for V4L2 video capture, overlay, radio, teletext and raw vbi capture devices did not change from those used by V4L. They are listed in Chapter 4 and below in Table 6-1. The V4L videodev module automatically assigns minor numbers to drivers in load order, http://bbs.51soc.com depending on the registered device type. We recommend that V4L2 drivers by default register devices with the same numbers, but the system administrator can assign arbitrary minor numbers using driver module options. The major device number remains 81. Table 6-1. V4L Device Types, Names and Numbers Device Type File Name Minor Numbers Video capture and overlay /dev/video and /dev/bttv0a, 0-63 /dev/video0 to /dev/video63 Radio receiver /dev/radiob, /dev/radio0 to 64-127 /dev/radio63 Teletext decoder /dev/vtx, /dev/vtx0 to 192-223 /dev/vtx31 Raw VBI capture /dev/vbi, /dev/vbi0 to 224-255 /dev/vbi31 Notes: a. According to Documentation/devices.txt these should be symbolic links to /dev/video0. Note the original V4L prohibits (or used to prohibit) multiple opens of a device file. V4L2 drivers may support multiple opens, see Section 1.1 for details and consequences. V4L drivers respond to V4L2 ioctls with an EINVAL error code. The compatibility layer in the V4L2 videodev module can translate V4L ioctl requests to their V4L2 counterpart, however a V4L2 driver usually needs more preparation to become fully V4L compatible. This is covered in more detail in Chapter 5. 202 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes 6.1.2. Querying Capabilities The V4L VIDIOCGCAP ioctl is equivalent to V4L2’s VIDIOC_QUERYCAP. The name field in struct video_capability became card in struct v4l2_capability, type was replaced by capabilities. Note V4L2 does not distinguish between device types like this, better think of basic video input, video output and radio devices supporting a set of related functions like video capturing, video overlay and VBI capturing. See Section 1.1 for an introduction. struct video_capability type struct v4l2_capability capabilities flags Purpose VID_TYPE_CAPTURE V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_CAPTURE The video capture interface is supported. VID_TYPE_TUNER V4L2_CAP_TUNER The device has a tuner or modulator. VID_TYPE_TELETEXT V4L2_CAP_VBI_CAPTURE The raw VBI capture interface is supported. VID_TYPE_OVERLAY V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OVERLAY The video overlay interface is supported. VID_TYPE_CHROMAKEY V4L2_FBUF_CAP_CHROMAKEY inWhether chromakey overlay is field capability of supported. For more information struct v4l2_framebuffer on overlay see Section 4.2. VID_TYPE_CLIPPING V4L2_FBUF_CAP_LIST_CLIPPIWNGhether clipping the overlaid and image is supported, see Section V4L2_FBUF_CAP_BITMAP_CLIP4P.I2N. G http://bbs.51soc.com in field capability of struct v4l2_framebuffer VID_TYPE_FRAMERAM V4L2_FBUF_CAP_EXTERNOVERLWAYhether overlay overwrites not set in field capability of frame buffer memory, see struct v4l2_framebuffer Section 4.2. VID_TYPE_SCALES - This flag indicates if the hardware can scale images. The V4L2 API implies the scale factor by setting the cropping dimensions and image size with the VIDIOC_S_CROP and VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl, respectively. The driver returns the closest sizes possible. For more information on cropping and scaling see Section 1.11. VID_TYPE_MONOCHROME - Applications can enumerate the supported image formats with the VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT ioctl to determine if the device supports grey scale capturing only. For more information on image formats see Chapter 2. 203 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com struct video_capability type struct v4l2_capability capabilities flags VID_TYPE_SUBCAPTURE - VID_TYPE_MPEG_DECODER - VID_TYPE_MPEG_ENCODER VID_TYPE_MJPEG_DECODER VID_TYPE_MJPEG_ENCODER - Chapter 6. Changes Purpose Applications can call the VIDIOC_G_CROP ioctl to determine if the device supports capturing a subsection of the full picture ("cropping" in V4L2). If not, the ioctl returns the EINVAL error code. For more information on cropping and scaling see Section 1.11. Applications can enumerate the supported image formats with the VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT ioctl to determine if the device supports MPEG streams. See above. See above. See above. The audios field was replaced by capabilities flag V4L2_CAP_AUDIO, indicating if the device has any audio inputs or outputs. To determine their number applications can enumerate audio inputs with the VIDIOC_G_AUDIO ioctl. The audio ioctls are described in Section 1.5. The maxwidth, maxheight, minwidth and minheight fields were removed. Calling the http://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_S_FMT or VIDIOC_TRY_FMT ioctl with the desired dimensions returns the closest size possible, taking into account the current video standard, cropping and scaling limitations. 6.1.3. Video Sources V4L provides the VIDIOCGCHAN and VIDIOCSCHAN ioctl using struct video_channel to enumerate the video inputs of a V4L device. The equivalent V4L2 ioctls are VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT, VIDIOC_G_INPUT and VIDIOC_S_INPUT using struct v4l2_input as discussed in Section 1.4. The channel field counting inputs was renamed to index, the video input types were renamed as follows: struct video_channel type VIDEO_TYPE_TV VIDEO_TYPE_CAMERA struct v4l2_input type V4L2_INPUT_TYPE_TUNER V4L2_INPUT_TYPE_CAMERA Unlike the tuners field expressing the number of tuners of this input, V4L2 assumes each video input is connected to at most one tuner. However a tuner can have more than one input, i. e. RF connectors, and a device can have multiple tuners. The index number of the tuner associated with the input, if any, is stored in field tuner of struct v4l2_input. Enumeration of tuners is discussed in Section 1.6. The redundant VIDEO_VC_TUNER flag was dropped. Video inputs associated with a tuner are of type V4L2_INPUT_TYPE_TUNER. The VIDEO_VC_AUDIO flag was replaced by the audioset field. 204 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes V4L2 considers devices with up to 32 audio inputs. Each set bit in the audioset field represents one audio input this video input combines with. For information about audio inputs and how to switch between them see Section 1.5. The norm field describing the supported video standards was replaced by std. The V4L specification mentions a flag VIDEO_VC_NORM indicating whether the standard can be changed. This flag was a later addition together with the norm field and has been removed in the meantime. V4L2 has a similar, albeit more comprehensive approach to video standards, see Section 1.7 for more information. 6.1.4. Tuning The V4L VIDIOCGTUNER and VIDIOCSTUNER ioctl and struct video_tuner can be used to enumerate the tuners of a V4L TV or radio device. The equivalent V4L2 ioctls are VIDIOC_G_TUNER and VIDIOC_S_TUNER using struct v4l2_tuner. Tuners are covered in Section 1.6. The tuner field counting tuners was renamed to index. The fields name, rangelow and rangehigh remained unchanged. The VIDEO_TUNER_PAL, VIDEO_TUNER_NTSC and VIDEO_TUNER_SECAM flags indicating the supported video standards were dropped. This information is now contained in the associated struct v4l2_input. No replacement exists for the VIDEO_TUNER_NORM flag indicating whether the video standard can be switched. The mode field to select a different video standard was replaced by a whole new set of ioctls and structures described in Section 1.7. Due to its ubiquity it should be mentioned the BTTV driver supports several standards in addition to the regular VIDEO_MODE_PAL (0), VIDEO_MODE_NTSC, VIDEO_MODE_SECAM and VIDEO_MODE_AUTO (3). Namely N/PAL Argentina, M/PAL, N/PAL, and NTSC Japan with numbers 3-6 (sic). http://bbs.51soc.com The VIDEO_TUNER_STEREO_ON flag indicating stereo reception became V4L2_TUNER_SUB_STEREO in field rxsubchans. This field also permits the detection of monaural and bilingual audio, see the definition of struct v4l2_tuner for details. Presently no replacement exists for the VIDEO_TUNER_RDS_ON and VIDEO_TUNER_MBS_ON flags. The VIDEO_TUNER_LOW flag was renamed to V4L2_TUNER_CAP_LOW in the struct v4l2_tuner capability field. The VIDIOCGFREQ and VIDIOCSFREQ ioctl to change the tuner frequency where renamed to VIDIOC_G_FREQUENCY and VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY. They take a pointer to a struct v4l2_frequency instead of an unsigned long integer. 6.1.5. Image Properties V4L2 has no equivalent of the VIDIOCGPICT and VIDIOCSPICT ioctl and struct video_picture. The following fields where replaced by V4L2 controls accessible with the VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, VIDIOC_G_CTRL and VIDIOC_S_CTRL ioctls: struct video_picture brightness hue colour contrast whiteness V4L2 Control ID V4L2_CID_BRIGHTNESS V4L2_CID_HUE V4L2_CID_SATURATION V4L2_CID_CONTRAST V4L2_CID_WHITENESS 205 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes The V4L picture controls are assumed to range from 0 to 65535 with no particular reset value. The V4L2 API permits arbitrary limits and defaults which can be queried with the VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL ioctl. For general information about controls see Section 1.8. The depth (average number of bits per pixel) of a video image is implied by the selected image format. V4L2 does not explicitely provide such information assuming applications recognizing the format are aware of the image depth and others need not know. The palette field moved into the struct v4l2_pix_format: struct video_picture palette struct v4l2_pix_format pixfmt VIDEO_PALETTE_GREY V4L2_PIX_FMT_GREY VIDEO_PALETTE_HI240 V4L2_PIX_FMT_HI240a VIDEO_PALETTE_RGB565 V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB565 VIDEO_PALETTE_RGB555 V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB555 VIDEO_PALETTE_RGB24 V4L2_PIX_FMT_BGR24 VIDEO_PALETTE_RGB32 V4L2_PIX_FMT_BGR32b VIDEO_PALETTE_YUV422 V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUYV VIDEO_PALETTE_YUYVc V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUYV VIDEO_PALETTE_UYVY V4L2_PIX_FMT_UYVY VIDEO_PALETTE_YUV420 None VIDEO_PALETTE_YUV411 VIDEO_PALETTE_RAW V4L2_PIX_FMT_Y41Pd Nonee http://bbs.51soc.com VIDEO_PALETTE_YUV422P VIDEO_PALETTE_YUV411P V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV422P V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV411Pf VIDEO_PALETTE_YUV420P V4L2_PIX_FMT_YVU420 VIDEO_PALETTE_YUV410P V4L2_PIX_FMT_YVU410 Notes: a. This is a custom format used by the BTTV driver, not one of the V4L2 standard formats. b. Presumably all V4L2 image formats are defined in Chapter 2. The image format can be selected with the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. 6.1.6. Audio The VIDIOCGAUDIO and VIDIOCSAUDIO ioctl and struct video_audio are used to enumerate the audio inputs of a V4L device. The equivalent V4L2 ioctls are VIDIOC_G_AUDIO and VIDIOC_S_AUDIO using struct v4l2_audio as discussed in Section 1.5. The audio "channel number" field counting audio inputs was renamed to index. On VIDIOCSAUDIO the mode field selects one of the VIDEO_SOUND_MONO, VIDEO_SOUND_STEREO, VIDEO_SOUND_LANG1 or VIDEO_SOUND_LANG2 audio demodulation modes. When the current audio standard is BTSC VIDEO_SOUND_LANG2 refers to SAP and VIDEO_SOUND_LANG1 is meaningless. Also undocumented in the V4L specification, there is no way to query the selected mode. On VIDIOCGAUDIO the driver returns the actually received audio programmes in this field. In the V4L2 API this information is stored in the struct v4l2_tuner rxsubchans and audmode fields, 206 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes respectively. See Section 1.6 for more information on tuners. Related to audio modes struct v4l2_audio also reports if this is a mono or stereo input, regardless if the source is a tuner. The following fields where replaced by V4L2 controls accessible with the VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, VIDIOC_G_CTRL and VIDIOC_S_CTRL ioctls: struct video_audio volume bass treble balance V4L2 Control ID V4L2_CID_AUDIO_VOLUME V4L2_CID_AUDIO_BASS V4L2_CID_AUDIO_TREBLE V4L2_CID_AUDIO_BALANCE To determine which of these controls are supported by a driver V4L provides the flags VIDEO_AUDIO_VOLUME, VIDEO_AUDIO_BASS, VIDEO_AUDIO_TREBLE and VIDEO_AUDIO_BALANCE. In the V4L2 API the VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL ioctl reports if the respective control is supported. Accordingly the VIDEO_AUDIO_MUTABLE and VIDEO_AUDIO_MUTE flags where replaced by the boolean V4L2_CID_AUDIO_MUTE control. All V4L2 controls have a step attribute replacing the struct video_audio step field. The V4L audio controls are assumed to range from 0 to 65535 with no particular reset value. The V4L2 API permits arbitrary limits and defaults which can be queried with the VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL ioctl. For general information about controls see Section 1.8. 6.1.7. Frame Buffer Overlay http://bbs.51soc.com The V4L2 ioctls equivalent to VIDIOCGFBUF and VIDIOCSFBUF are VIDIOC_G_FBUF and VIDIOC_S_FBUF. The base field of struct video_buffer remained unchanged, except V4L2 defines a flag to indicate non-destructive overlays instead of a NULL pointer. All other fields moved into the struct v4l2_pix_format fmt substructure of struct v4l2_framebuffer. The depth field was replaced by pixelformat. See Section 2.4 for a list of RGB formats and their respective color depths. Instead of the special ioctls VIDIOCGWIN and VIDIOCSWIN V4L2 uses the general-purpose data format negotiation ioctls VIDIOC_G_FMT and VIDIOC_S_FMT. They take a pointer to a struct v4l2_format as argument. Here the win member of the fmt union is used, a struct v4l2_window. The x, y, width and height fields of struct video_window moved into struct v4l2_rect substructure w of struct v4l2_window. The chromakey, clips, and clipcount fields remained unchanged. Struct video_clip was renamed to struct v4l2_clip, also containing a struct v4l2_rect, but the semantics are still the same. The VIDEO_WINDOW_INTERLACE flag was dropped. Instead applications must set the field field to V4L2_FIELD_ANY or V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED. The VIDEO_WINDOW_CHROMAKEY flag moved into struct v4l2_framebuffer, under the new name V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_CHROMAKEY. In V4L, storing a bitmap pointer in clips and setting clipcount to VIDEO_CLIP_BITMAP (-1) requests bitmap clipping, using a fixed size bitmap of 1024 × 625 bits. Struct v4l2_window has a separate bitmap pointer field for this purpose and the bitmap size is determined by w.width and w.height. The VIDIOCCAPTURE ioctl to enable or disable overlay was renamed to VIDIOC_OVERLAY. 207 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes 6.1.8. Cropping To capture only a subsection of the full picture V4L defines the VIDIOCGCAPTURE and VIDIOCSCAPTURE ioctls using struct video_capture. The equivalent V4L2 ioctls are VIDIOC_G_CROP and VIDIOC_S_CROP using struct v4l2_crop, and the related VIDIOC_CROPCAP ioctl. This is a rather complex matter, see Section 1.11 for details. The x, y, width and height fields moved into struct v4l2_rect substructure c of struct v4l2_crop. The decimation field was dropped. In the V4L2 API the scaling factor is implied by the size of the cropping rectangle and the size of the captured or overlaid image. The VIDEO_CAPTURE_ODD and VIDEO_CAPTURE_EVEN flags to capture only the odd or even field, respectively, were replaced by V4L2_FIELD_TOP and V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM in the field named field of struct v4l2_pix_format and struct v4l2_window. These structures are used to select a capture or overlay format with the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. 6.1.9. Reading Images, Memory Mapping 6.1.9.1. Capturing using the read method There is no essential difference between reading images from a V4L or V4L2 device using the read() function, however V4L2 drivers are not required to support this I/O method. Applications can determine if the function is available with the VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl. All V4L2 devices exchanging data with applications must support the select() and poll() functions. To select an image format and size, V4L provides the VIDIOCSPICT and VIDIOCSWIN ioctls. V4L2 http://bbs.51soc.com uses the general-purpose data format negotiation ioctls VIDIOC_G_FMT and VIDIOC_S_FMT. They take a pointer to a struct v4l2_format as argument, here the struct v4l2_pix_format named pix of its fmt union is used. For more information about the V4L2 read interface see Section 3.1. 6.1.9.2. Capturing using memory mapping Applications can read from V4L devices by mapping buffers in device memory, or more often just buffers allocated in DMA-able system memory, into their address space. This avoids the data copying overhead of the read method. V4L2 supports memory mapping as well, with a few differences. V4L V4L2 The image format must be selected before buffers are allocated, with the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl. When no format is selected the driver may use the last, possibly by another application requested format. Applications cannot change the number of The VIDIOC_REQBUFS ioctl allocates the desired buffers. The it is built into the driver, unless it has number of buffers, this is a required step in the a module option to change the number when the initialization sequence. driver module is loaded. 208 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes V4L V4L2 Drivers map all buffers as one contiguous range ofBuffers are individually mapped. The offset and memory. The VIDIOCGMBUF ioctl is available to size of each buffer can be determined with the query the number of buffers, the offset of each VIDIOC_QUERYBUF ioctl. buffer from the start of the virtual file, and the overall amount of memory used, which can be used as arguments for the mmap() function. The VIDIOCMCAPTURE ioctl prepares a buffer for Drivers maintain an incoming and outgoing capturing. It also determines the image format queue. VIDIOC_QBUF enqueues any empty buffer for this buffer. The ioctl returns immediately, into the incoming queue. Filled buffers are eventually with an EAGAIN error code if no dequeued from the outgoing queue with the video signal had been detected. When the driver VIDIOC_DQBUF ioctl. To wait until filled buffers supports more than one buffer applications can become available this function, select() or call the ioctl multiple times and thus have poll() can be used. The VIDIOC_STREAMON multiple outstanding capture requests. ioctl must be called once after enqueuing one or The VIDIOCSYNC ioctl suspends execution until more buffers to start capturing. Its counterpart a particular buffer has been filled. VIDIOC_STREAMOFF stops capturing and dequeues all buffers from both queues. Applications can query the signal status, if known, with the VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT ioctl. For a more in-depth discussion of memory mapping and examples, see Section 3.2. http://bbs.51soc.com 6.1.10. Reading Raw VBI Data Originally the V4L API did not specify a raw VBI capture interface, only the device file /dev/vbi was reserved for this purpose. The only driver supporting this interface was the BTTV driver, de-facto defining the V4L VBI interface. Reading from the device yields a raw VBI image with the following parameters: struct v4l2_vbi_format V4L, BTTV driver sampling_rate 28636363 Hz NTSC (or any other 525-line standard); 35468950 Hz PAL and SECAM (625-line standards) offset ? samples_per_line 2048 sample_format V4L2_PIX_FMT_GREY. The last four bytes (a machine endianess integer) contain a frame counter. start[] 10, 273 NTSC; 22, 335 PAL and SECAM count[] 16, 16a flags 0 Notes: a. Old driver versions used different values, eventually the custom BTTV_VBISIZE ioctl was added to query th Undocumented in the V4L specification, in Linux 2.3 the VIDIOCGVBIFMT and VIDIOCSVBIFMT ioctls using struct vbi_format were added to determine the VBI image parameters. These ioctls are 209 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes only partially compatible with the V4L2 VBI interface specified in Section 4.7. An offset field does not exist, sample_format is supposed to be VIDEO_PALETTE_RAW, equivalent to V4L2_PIX_FMT_GREY. The remaining fields are probably equivalent to struct v4l2_vbi_format. Apparently only the Zoran (ZR 36120) driver implements these ioctls. The semantics differ from those specified for V4L2 in two ways. The parameters are reset on open() and VIDIOCSVBIFMT always returns an EINVAL error code if the parameters are invalid. 6.1.11. Miscellaneous V4L2 has no equivalent of the VIDIOCGUNIT ioctl. Applications can find the VBI device associated with a video capture device (or vice versa) by reopening the device and requesting VBI data. For details see Section 1.1. No replacement exists for VIDIOCKEY, and the V4L functions for microcode programming. A new interface for MPEG compression and playback devices is documented in Section 1.9. 6.2. Changes of the V4L2 API Soon after the V4L API was added to the kernel it was criticised as too inflexible. In August 1998 Bill Dirks proposed a number of improvements and began to work on documentation, example drivers and applications. With the help of other volunteers this eventually became the V4L2 API, not http://bbs.51soc.com just an extension but a replacement for the V4L API. However it took another four years and two stable kernel releases until the new API was finally accepted for inclusion into the kernel in its present form. 6.2.1. Early Versions 1998-08-20: First version. 1998-08-27: The select() function was introduced. 1998-09-10: New video standard interface. 1998-09-18: The VIDIOC_NONCAP ioctl was replaced by the otherwise meaningless O_TRUNC open() flag, and the aliases O_NONCAP and O_NOIO were defined. Applications can set this flag if they intend to access controls only, as opposed to capture applications which need exclusive access. The VIDEO_STD_XXX identifiers are now ordinals instead of flags, and the video_std_construct() helper function takes id and transmission arguments. 1998-09-28: Revamped video standard. Made video controls individually enumerable. 1998-10-02: The id field was removed from struct video_standard and the color subcarrier fields were renamed. The VIDIOC_QUERYSTD ioctl was renamed to VIDIOC_ENUMSTD, VIDIOC_G_INPUT to VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT. A first draft of the Codec API was released. 1998-11-08: Many minor changes. Most symbols have been renamed. Some material changes to struct v4l2_capability. 1998-11-12: The read/write directon of some ioctls was misdefined. 210 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes 1998-11-14: V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB24 changed to V4L2_PIX_FMT_BGR24, and V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB32 changed to V4L2_PIX_FMT_BGR32. Audio controls are now accessible with the VIDIOC_G_CTRL and VIDIOC_S_CTRL ioctls under names starting with V4L2_CID_AUDIO. The V4L2_MAJOR define was removed from videodev.h since it was only used once in the videodev kernel module. The YUV422 and YUV411 planar image formats were added. 1998-11-28: A few ioctl symbols changed. Interfaces for codecs and video output devices were added. 1999-01-14: A raw VBI capture interface was added. 1999-01-19: The VIDIOC_NEXTBUF ioctl was removed. 6.2.2. V4L2 Version 0.16 1999-01-31 1999-01-27: There is now one QBUF ioctl, VIDIOC_QWBUF and VIDIOC_QRBUF are gone. VIDIOC_QBUF takes a v4l2_buffer as a parameter. Added digital zoom (cropping) controls. 6.2.3. V4L2 Version 0.18 1999-03-16 Added a v4l to V4L2 ioctl compatibility layer to videodev.c. Driver writers, this changes how you implement your ioctl handler. See the Driver Writer’s Guide. Added some more control id codes. 6.2.4. V4L2 Version 0.19 1999-06-05 http://bbs.51soc.com 1999-03-18: Fill in the category and catname fields of v4l2_queryctrl objects before passing them to the driver. Required a minor change to the VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL handlers in the sample drivers. 1999-03-31: Better compatibility for v4l memory capture ioctls. Requires changes to drivers to fully support new compatibility features, see Driver Writer’s Guide and v4l2cap.c. Added new control IDs: V4L2_CID_HFLIP, _VFLIP. Changed V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV422P to _YUV422P, and _YUV411P to _YUV411P. 1999-04-04: Added a few more control IDs. 1999-04-07: Added the button control type. 1999-05-02: Fixed a typo in videodev.h, and added the V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_GRAYED (later V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_GRABBED) flag. 1999-05-20: Definition of VIDIOC_G_CTRL was wrong causing a malfunction of this ioctl. 1999-06-05: Changed the value of V4L2_CID_WHITENESS. 6.2.5. V4L2 Version 0.20 (1999-09-10) Version 0.20 introduced a number of changes which were not backward compatible with 0.19 and earlier versions. Purpose of these changes was to simplify the API, while making it more extensible and following common Linux driver API conventions. 1. Some typos in V4L2_FMT_FLAG symbols were fixed. struct v4l2_clip was changed for compatibility with v4l. (1999-08-30) 2. V4L2_TUNER_SUB_LANG1 was added. (1999-09-05) 211 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes 3. All ioctl() commands that used an integer argument now take a pointer to an integer. Where it makes sense, ioctls will return the actual new value in the integer pointed to by the argument, a common convention in the V4L2 API. The affected ioctls are: VIDIOC_PREVIEW, VIDIOC_STREAMON, VIDIOC_STREAMOFF, VIDIOC_S_FREQ, VIDIOC_S_INPUT, VIDIOC_S_OUTPUT, VIDIOC_S_EFFECT. For example err = ioctl (fd, VIDIOC_XXX, V4L2_XXX); becomes int a = V4L2_XXX; err = ioctl(fd, VIDIOC_XXX, &a); 4. All the different get- and set-format commands were swept into one VIDIOC_G_FMT and VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl taking a union and a type field selecting the union member as parameter. Purpose is to simplify the API by eliminating several ioctls and to allow new and driver private data streams without adding new ioctls. This change obsoletes the following ioctls: VIDIOC_S_INFMT, VIDIOC_G_INFMT, VIDIOC_S_OUTFMT, VIDIOC_G_OUTFMT, VIDIOC_S_VBIFMT and VIDIOC_G_VBIFMT. The image format structure v4l2_format was renamed to struct v4l2_pix_format, while struct v4l2_format is now the envelopping structure for all format negotiations. 5. Similar to the changes above, the VIDIOC_G_PARM and VIDIOC_S_PARM ioctls were merged with VIDIOC_G_OUTPARM and VIDIOC_S_OUTPARM. A type field in the new struct v4l2_streamparm selects the respective union member. This change obsoletes the VIDIOC_G_OUTPARM and VIDIOC_S_OUTPARM ioctls. 6. Control enumeration was simplified, and two new control flags were introduced and one dropped. The catname field was replaced by a group field. Drivers can now flag unsupported and temporarily unavailable controls with http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_DISABLED and V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_GRABBED respectively. The group name indicates a possibly narrower classification than the category. In other words, there may be multiple groups within a category. Controls within a group would typically be drawn within a group box. Controls in different categories might have a greater separation, or may even appear in separate windows. 7. The struct v4l2_buffer timestamp was changed to a 64 bit integer, containing the sampling or output time of the frame in nanoseconds. Additionally timestamps will be in absolute system time, not starting from zero at the beginning of a stream. The data type name for timestamps is stamp_t, defined as a signed 64-bit integer. Output devices should not send a buffer out until the time in the timestamp field has arrived. I would like to follow SGI’s lead, and adopt a multimedia timestamping system like their UST (Unadjusted System Time). See http://reality.sgi.com/cpirazzi_engr/lg/time/intro.html. [This link is no longer valid.] UST uses timestamps that are 64-bit signed integers (not struct timeval’s) and given in nanosecond units. The UST clock starts at zero when the system is booted and runs continuously and uniformly. It takes a little over 292 years for UST to overflow. There is no way to set the UST clock. The regular Linux time-of-day clock can be changed periodically, which would cause errors if it were being used for timestamping a multimedia stream. A real UST style clock will require some support in the kernel that is not there yet. But in anticipation, I will change the timestamp field to a 64-bit integer, and I will change the v4l2_masterclock_gettime() function (used only by drivers) to return a 64-bit integer. 8. A sequence field was added to struct v4l2_buffer. The sequence field counts captured frames, it is ignored by output devices. When a capture driver drops a frame, the sequence number of that frame is skipped. 212 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes 6.2.6. V4L2 Version 0.20 incremental changes 1999-12-23: In struct v4l2_vbi_format the reserved1 field became offset. Previously drivers were required to clear the reserved1 field. 2000-01-13: The V4L2_FMT_FLAG_NOT_INTERLACED flag was added. 2000-07-31: The linux/poll.h header is now included by videodev.h for compatibility with the original videodev.h file. 2000-11-20: V4L2_TYPE_VBI_OUTPUT and V4L2_PIX_FMT_Y41P were added. 2000-11-25: V4L2_TYPE_VBI_INPUT was added. 2000-12-04: A couple typos in symbol names were fixed. 2001-01-18: To avoid namespace conflicts the fourcc macro defined in the videodev.h header file was renamed to v4l2_fourcc. 2001-01-25: A possible driver-level compatibility problem between the videodev.h file in Linux 2.4.0 and the videodev.h file included in the videodevX patch was fixed. Users of an earlier version of videodevX on Linux 2.4.0 should recompile their V4L and V4L2 drivers. 2001-01-26: A possible kernel-level incompatibility between the videodev.h file in the videodevX patch and the videodev.h file in Linux 2.2.x with devfs patches applied was fixed. 2001-03-02: Certain V4L ioctls which pass data in both direction although they are defined with read-only parameter, did not work correctly through the backward compatibility layer. [Solution?] 2001-04-13: Big endian 16-bit RGB formats were added. 2001-09-17: New YUV formats and the VIDIOC_G_FREQUENCY and VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY ioctls were added. (The old VIDIOC_G_FREQ and VIDIOC_S_FREQ ioctls did not take multiple tuners into http://bbs.51soc.com account.) 2000-09-18: V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VBI was added. This may break compatibility as the VIDIOC_G_FMT and VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctls may fail now if the struct v4l2_fmt type field does not contain V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VBI. In the documentation of the struct v4l2_vbi_format offset field the ambiguous phrase "rising edge" was changed to "leading edge". 6.2.7. V4L2 Version 0.20 2000-11-23 A number of changes were made to the raw VBI interface. 1. Figures clarifying the line numbering scheme were added to the V4L2 API specification. The start[0] and start[1] fields no longer count line numbers beginning at zero. Rationale: a) The previous definition was unclear. b) The start[] values are ordinal numbers. c) There is no point in inventing a new line numbering scheme. We now use line number as defined by ITU-R, period. Compatibility: Add one to the start values. Applications depending on the previous semantics may not function correctly. 2. The restriction "count[0] > 0 and count[1] > 0" has been relaxed to "(count[0] + count[1]) > 0". Rationale: Drivers may allocate resources at scan line granularity and some data services are transmitted only on the first field. The comment that both count values will usually be equal is misleading and pointless and has been removed. This change breaks compatibility with earlier versions: Drivers may return EINVAL, applications may not function correctly. 3. Drivers are again permitted to return negative (unknown) start values as proposed earlier. Why this feature was dropped is unclear. This change may break compatibility with applications 213 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes depending on the start values being positive. The use of EBUSY and EINVAL error codes with the VIDIOC_S_FMT ioctl was clarified. The EBUSY error code was finally documented, and the reserved2 field which was previously mentioned only in the videodev.h header file. 4. New buffer types V4L2_TYPE_VBI_INPUT and V4L2_TYPE_VBI_OUTPUT were added. The former is an alias for the old V4L2_TYPE_VBI, the latter was missing in the videodev.h file. 6.2.8. V4L2 Version 0.20 2002-07-25 Added sliced VBI interface proposal. 6.2.9. V4L2 in Linux 2.5.46, 2002-10 Around October-November 2002, prior to an announced feature freeze of Linux 2.5, the API was revised, drawing from experience with V4L2 0.20. This unnamed version was finally merged into Linux 2.5.46. 1. As specified in Section 1.1.2, drivers must make related device functions available under all minor device numbers. 2. The open() function requires access mode O_RDWR regardless of the device type. All V4L2 drivers exchanging data with applications must support the O_NONBLOCK flag. The O_NOIO flag, a V4L2 symbol which aliased the meaningless O_TRUNC to indicate accesses without data exchange (panel applications) was dropped. Drivers must stay in "panel mode" until the application attempts to initiate a data exchange, see Section 1.1. http://bbs.51soc.com 3. The struct v4l2_capability changed dramatically. Note that also the size of the structure changed, which is encoded in the ioctl request code, thus older V4L2 devices will respond with an EINVAL error code to the new VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl. There are new fields to identify the driver, a new (as of yet unspecified) device function V4L2_CAP_RDS_CAPTURE, the V4L2_CAP_AUDIO flag indicates if the device has any audio connectors, another I/O capability V4L2_CAP_ASYNCIO can be flagged. In response to these changes the type field became a bit set and was merged into the flags field. V4L2_FLAG_TUNER was renamed to V4L2_CAP_TUNER, V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OVERLAY replaced V4L2_FLAG_PREVIEW and V4L2_CAP_VBI_CAPTURE and V4L2_CAP_VBI_OUTPUT replaced V4L2_FLAG_DATA_SERVICE. V4L2_FLAG_READ and V4L2_FLAG_WRITE were merged into V4L2_CAP_READWRITE. The redundant fields inputs, outputs and audios were removed. These properties can be determined as described in Section 1.4 and Section 1.5. The somewhat volatile and therefore barely useful fields maxwidth, maxheight, minwidth, minheight, maxframerate were removed. This information is available as described in Section 1.10 and Section 1.7. V4L2_FLAG_SELECT was removed. We believe the select() function is important enough to require support of it in all V4L2 drivers exchanging data with applications. The redundant V4L2_FLAG_MONOCHROME flag was removed, this information is available as described in Section 1.10. 4. In struct v4l2_input the assoc_audio field and the capability field and its only flag V4L2_INPUT_CAP_AUDIO was replaced by the new audioset field. Instead of linking one video input to one audio input this field reports all audio inputs this video input combines with. 214 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes New fields are tuner (reversing the former link from tuners to video inputs), std and status. Accordingly struct v4l2_output lost its capability and assoc_audio fields. audioset, modulator and std where added instead. 5. The struct v4l2_audio field audio was renamed to index, for consistency with other structures. A new capability flag V4L2_AUDCAP_STEREO was added to indicated if the audio input in question supports stereo sound. V4L2_AUDCAP_EFFECTS and the corresponding V4L2_AUDMODE flags where removed. This can be easily implemented using controls. (However the same applies to AVL which is still there.) Again for consistency the struct v4l2_audioout field audio was renamed to index. 6. The struct v4l2_tuner input field was replaced by an index field, permitting devices with multiple tuners. The link between video inputs and tuners is now reversed, inputs point to their tuner. The std substructure became a simple set (more about this below) and moved into struct v4l2_input. A type field was added. Accordingly in struct v4l2_modulator the output was replaced by an index field. In struct v4l2_frequency the port field was replaced by a tuner field containing the respective tuner or modulator index number. A tuner type field was added and the reserved field became larger for future extensions (satellite tuners in particular). 7. The idea of completely transparent video standards was dropped. Experience showed that applications must be able to work with video standards beyond presenting the user a menu. Instead of enumerating supported standards with an ioctl applications can now refer to standards by v4l2_std_id and symbols defined in the videodev2.h header file. For details see Section 1.7. The VIDIOC_G_STD and VIDIOC_S_STD now take a pointer to this type as argument. VIDIOC_QUERYSTD was added to autodetect the received standard, if the hardware has this http://bbs.51soc.com capability. In struct v4l2_standard an index field was added for VIDIOC_ENUMSTD. A v4l2_std_id field named id was added as machine readable identifier, also replacing the transmission field. The misleading framerate field was renamed to frameperiod. The now obsolete colorstandard information, originally needed to distguish between variations of standards, were removed. Struct v4l2_enumstd ceased to be. VIDIOC_ENUMSTD now takes a pointer to a struct v4l2_standard directly. The information which standards are supported by a particular video input or output moved into struct v4l2_input and struct v4l2_output fields named std, respectively. 8. The struct v4l2_queryctrl fields category and group did not catch on and/or were not implemented as expected and therefore removed. 9. The VIDIOC_TRY_FMT ioctl was added to negotiate data formats as with VIDIOC_S_FMT, but without the overhead of programming the hardware and regardless of I/O in progress. In struct v4l2_format the fmt union was extended to contain struct v4l2_window. All image format negotiations are now possible with VIDIOC_G_FMT, VIDIOC_S_FMT and VIDIOC_TRY_FMT; ioctl. The VIDIOC_G_WIN and VIDIOC_S_WIN ioctls to prepare for a video overlay were removed. The type field changed to type enum v4l2_buf_type and the buffer type names changed as follows. Old defines V4L2_BUF_TYPE_CAPTURE V4L2_BUF_TYPE_CODECIN V4L2_BUF_TYPE_CODECOUT enum v4l2_buf_type V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE Omitted for now Omitted for now 215 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes Old defines V4L2_BUF_TYPE_EFFECTSIN V4L2_BUF_TYPE_EFFECTSIN2 V4L2_BUF_TYPE_EFFECTSOUT V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEOOUT V4L2_BUF_TYPE_PRIVATE_BASE enum v4l2_buf_type Omitted for now Omitted for now Omitted for now V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OVERLAY V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VBI_CAPTURE V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VBI_OUTPUT V4L2_BUF_TYPE_SLICED_VBI_CAPTURE V4L2_BUF_TYPE_SLICED_VBI_OUTPUT V4L2_BUF_TYPE_PRIVATE 10. In struct v4l2_fmtdesc a enum v4l2_buf_type field named type was added as in struct v4l2_format. The VIDIOC_ENUM_FBUFFMT ioctl is no longer needed and was removed. These calls can be replaced by VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT with type V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OVERLAY. 11. In struct v4l2_pix_format the depth field was removed, assuming applications which recognize the format by its four-character-code already know the color depth, and others do not care about it. The same rationale lead to the removal of the V4L2_FMT_FLAG_COMPRESSED flag. The V4L2_FMT_FLAG_SWCONVECOMPRESSED flag was removed because drivers are not supposed to convert images in kernel space. A user library of conversion functions should be provided instead. The V4L2_FMT_FLAG_BYTESPERLINE flag was redundant. Applications can set the http://bbs.51soc.com bytesperline field to zero to get a reasonable default. Since the remaining flags were replaced as well, the flags field itself was removed. The interlace flags were replaced by a enum v4l2_field value in a newly added field field. Old flag V4L2_FMT_FLAG_NOT_INTERLACED V4L2_FMT_FLAG_INTERLACED = V4L2_FMT_FLAG_COMBINED V4L2_FMT_FLAG_TOPFIELD = V4L2_FMT_FLAG_ODDFIELD V4L2_FMT_FLAG_BOTFIELD = V4L2_FMT_FLAG_EVENFIELD - enum v4l2_field ? V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED V4L2_FIELD_TOP V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_TB V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_BT V4L2_FIELD_ALTERNATE The color space flags were replaced by a enum v4l2_colorspace value in a newly added colorspace field, where one of V4L2_COLORSPACE_SMPTE170M, V4L2_COLORSPACE_BT878, V4L2_COLORSPACE_470_SYSTEM_M or V4L2_COLORSPACE_470_SYSTEM_BG replaces V4L2_FMT_CS_601YUV. 12. In struct v4l2_requestbuffers the type field was properly defined as enum v4l2_buf_type. Buffer types changed as mentioned above. A new memory field of type enum v4l2_memory was added to distinguish between I/O methods using buffers allocated by the driver or the 216 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes application. See Chapter 3 for details. 13. In struct v4l2_buffer the type field was properly defined as enum v4l2_buf_type. Buffer types changed as mentioned above. A field field of type enum v4l2_field was added to indicate if a buffer contains a top or bottom field. The old field flags were removed. Since no unadjusted system time clock was added to the kernel as planned, the timestamp field changed back from type stamp_t, an unsigned 64 bit integer expressing the sample time in nanoseconds, to struct timeval. With the addition of a second memory mapping method the offset field moved into union m, and a new memory field of type enum v4l2_memory was added to distinguish between I/O methods. See Chapter 3 for details. The V4L2_BUF_REQ_CONTIG flag was used by the V4L compatibility layer, after changes to this code it was no longer needed. The V4L2_BUF_ATTR_DEVICEMEM flag would indicate if the buffer was indeed allocated in device memory rather than DMA-able system memory. It was barely useful and so was removed. 14. In struct v4l2_framebuffer the base[3] array anticipating double- and triple-buffering in off-screen video memory, however without defining a synchronization mechanism, was replaced by a single pointer. The V4L2_FBUF_CAP_SCALEUP and V4L2_FBUF_CAP_SCALEDOWN flags were removed. Applications can determine this capability more accurately using the new cropping and scaling interface. The V4L2_FBUF_CAP_CLIPPING flag was replaced by V4L2_FBUF_CAP_LIST_CLIPPING and V4L2_FBUF_CAP_BITMAP_CLIPPING. 15. In struct v4l2_clip the x, y, width and height field moved into a c substructure of type struct v4l2_rect. The x and y fields were renamed to left and top, i. e. offsets to a context dependent origin. 16. In struct v4l2_window the x, y, width and height field moved into a w substructure as above. A field field of type %v4l2-field; was added to distinguish between field and frame http://bbs.51soc.com (interlaced) overlay. 17. The digital zoom interface, including struct v4l2_zoomcap, struct v4l2_zoom, V4L2_ZOOM_NONCAP and V4L2_ZOOM_WHILESTREAMING was replaced by a new cropping and scaling interface. The previously unused struct v4l2_cropcap and v4l2_crop where redefined for this purpose. See Section 1.11 for details. 18. In struct v4l2_vbi_format the SAMPLE_FORMAT field now contains a four-character-code as used to identify video image formats and V4L2_PIX_FMT_GREY replaces the V4L2_VBI_SF_UBYTE define. The reserved field was extended. 19. In struct v4l2_captureparm the type of the timeperframe field changed from unsigned long to struct v4l2_fract. This allows the accurate expression of multiples of the NTSC-M frame rate 30000 / 1001. A new field readbuffers was added to control the driver behaviour in read I/O mode. Similar changes were made to struct v4l2_outputparm. 20. The struct v4l2_performance and VIDIOC_G_PERF ioctl were dropped. Except when using the read/write I/O method, which is limited anyway, this information is already available to applications. 21. The example transformation from RGB to YCbCr color space in the old V4L2 documentation was inaccurate, this has been corrected in Chapter 2. 217 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com 6.2.10. V4L2 2003-06-19 Chapter 6. Changes 1. A new capability flag V4L2_CAP_RADIO was added for radio devices. Prior to this change radio devices would identify solely by having exactly one tuner whose type field reads V4L2_TUNER_RADIO. 2. An optional driver access priority mechanism was added, see Section 1.3 for details. 3. The audio input and output interface was found to be incomplete. Previously the VIDIOC_G_AUDIO ioctl would enumerate the available audio inputs. An ioctl to determine the current audio input, if more than one combines with the current video input, did not exist. So VIDIOC_G_AUDIO was renamed to VIDIOC_G_AUDIO_OLD, this ioctl will be removed in the future. The VIDIOC_ENUMAUDIO ioctl was added to enumerate audio inputs, while VIDIOC_G_AUDIO now reports the current audio input. The same changes were made to VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT and VIDIOC_ENUMAUDOUT. Until further the "videodev" module will automatically translate between the old and new ioctls, but drivers and applications must be updated to successfully compile again. 4. The VIDIOC_OVERLAY ioctl was incorrectly defined with write-read parameter. It was changed to write-only, while the write-read version was renamed to VIDIOC_OVERLAY_OLD. The old ioctl will be removed in the future. Until further the "videodev" kernel module will automatically translate to the new version, so drivers must be recompiled, but not applications. 5. Section 4.2 incorrectly stated that clipping rectangles define regions where the video can be seen. Correct is that clipping rectangles define regions where no video shall be displayed and so the graphics surface can be seen. http://bbs.51soc.com 6. The VIDIOC_S_PARM and VIDIOC_S_CTRL ioctls were defined with write-only parameter, inconsistent with other ioctls modifying their argument. They were changed to write-read, while a _OLD suffix was added to the write-only versions. The old ioctls will be removed in the future. Drivers and applications assuming a constant parameter need an update. 6.2.11. V4L2 2003-11-05 1. In Section 2.4 the following pixel formats were incorrectly transferred from Bill Dirks’ V4L2 specification. Descriptions below refer to bytes in memory, in ascending address order. Symbol V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB24 V4L2_PIX_FMT_BGR24 V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB32 V4L2_PIX_FMT_BGR32 In this document prior to revision 0.5 B, G, R R, G, B B, G, R, X R, G, B, X Corrected R, G, B B, G, R R, G, B, X B, G, R, X The V4L2_PIX_FMT_BGR24 example was always correct. In Section 6.1.5 the mapping of the V4L VIDEO_PALETTE_RGB24 and VIDEO_PALETTE_RGB32 formats to V4L2 pixel formats was accordingly corrected. 2. Unrelated to the fixes above, drivers may still interpret some V4L2 RGB pixel formats differently. These issues have yet to be addressed, for details see Section 2.4. 218 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com 6.2.12. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.6, 2004-05-09 Chapter 6. Changes 1. The VIDIOC_CROPCAP ioctl was incorrectly defined with read-only parameter. It is now defined as write-read ioctl, while the read-only version was renamed to VIDIOC_CROPCAP_OLD. The old ioctl will be removed in the future. 6.2.13. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.8 1. A new field input (former reserved[0]) was added to the struct v4l2_buffer structure. Purpose of this field is to alternate between video inputs (e. g. cameras) in step with the video capturing process. This function must be enabled with the new V4L2_BUF_FLAG_INPUT flag. The flags field is no longer read-only. 6.2.14. V4L2 spec erratum 2004-08-01 1. The return value of the V4L2 open()(2) function was incorrectly documented. 2. Audio output ioctls end in -AUDOUT, not -AUDIOOUT. 3. In the Current Audio Input example the VIDIOC_G_AUDIO ioctl took the wrong argument. 4. The documentation of the VIDIOC_QBUF and VIDIOC_DQBUF ioctls did not mention the struct v4l2_buffer memory field. It was also missing from examples. Also on the http://bbs.51soc.com VIDIOC_DQBUF page the EIO error code was not documented. 6.2.15. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.14 1. A new sliced VBI interface was added. It is documented in Section 4.8 and replaces the interface first proposed in V4L2 specification 0.8. 6.2.16. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.15 1. The VIDIOC_LOG_STATUS ioctl was added. 2. New video standards V4L2_STD_NTSC_443, V4L2_STD_SECAM_LC, V4L2_STD_SECAM_DK (a set of SECAM D, K and K1), and V4L2_STD_ATSC (a set of V4L2_STD_ATSC_8_VSB and V4L2_STD_ATSC_16_VSB) were defined. Note the V4L2_STD_525_60 set now includes V4L2_STD_NTSC_443. See also Table 3. 3. The VIDIOC_G_COMP and VIDIOC_S_COMP ioctl were renamed to VIDIOC_G_MPEGCOMP and VIDIOC_S_MPEGCOMP respectively. Their argument was replaced by a struct v4l2_mpeg_compression pointer. (The VIDIOC_G_MPEGCOMP and VIDIOC_S_MPEGCOMP ioctls where removed in Linux 2.6.25.) 219 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes 6.2.17. V4L2 spec erratum 2005-11-27 The capture example in Appendix B called the VIDIOC_S_CROP ioctl without checking if cropping is supported. In the video standard selection example in Section 1.7 the VIDIOC_S_STD call used the wrong argument type. 6.2.18. V4L2 spec erratum 2006-01-10 1. The V4L2_IN_ST_COLOR_KILL flag in struct v4l2_input not only indicates if the color killer is enabled, but also if it is active. (The color killer disables color decoding when it detects no color in the video signal to improve the image quality.) 2. VIDIOC_S_PARM is a write-read ioctl, not write-only as stated on its reference page. The ioctl changed in 2003 as noted above. 6.2.19. V4L2 spec erratum 2006-02-03 1. In struct v4l2_captureparm and struct v4l2_outputparm the timeperframe field gives the time in seconds, not microseconds. 6.2.20. V4L2 spec erratum 2006-02-04 http://bbs.51soc.com 1. The clips field in struct v4l2_window must point to an array of struct v4l2_clip, not a linked list, because drivers ignore the struct v4l2_clip.next pointer. 6.2.21. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.17 1. New video standard macros were added: V4L2_STD_NTSC_M_KR (NTSC M South Korea), and the sets V4L2_STD_MN, V4L2_STD_B, V4L2_STD_GH and V4L2_STD_DK. The V4L2_STD_NTSC and V4L2_STD_SECAM sets now include V4L2_STD_NTSC_M_KR and V4L2_STD_SECAM_LC respectively. 2. A new V4L2_TUNER_MODE_LANG1_LANG2 was defined to record both languages of a bilingual program. The use of V4L2_TUNER_MODE_STEREO for this purpose is deprecated now. See the VIDIOC_G_TUNER section for details. 6.2.22. V4L2 spec erratum 2006-09-23 (Draft 0.15) 1. In various places V4L2_BUF_TYPE_SLICED_VBI_CAPTURE and V4L2_BUF_TYPE_SLICED_VBI_OUTPUT of the sliced VBI interface were not mentioned along with other buffer types. 220 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes 2. In ioctl VIDIOC_G_AUDIO, VIDIOC_S_AUDIO(2) it was clarified that the struct v4l2_audio mode field is a flags field. 3. ioctl VIDIOC_QUERYCAP(2) did not mention the sliced VBI and radio capability flags. 4. In ioctl VIDIOC_G_FREQUENCY, VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY(2) it was clarified that applications must initialize the tuner type field of struct v4l2_frequency before calling VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY. 5. The reserved array in struct v4l2_requestbuffers has 2 elements, not 32. 6. In Section 4.3 and Section 4.7 the device file names /dev/vout which never caught on were replaced by /dev/video. 7. With Linux 2.6.15 the possible range for VBI device minor numbers was extended from 224-239 to 224-255. Accordingly device file names /dev/vbi0 to /dev/vbi31 are possible now. 6.2.23. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.18 1. New ioctls VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS, VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS and VIDIOC_TRY_EXT_CTRLS were added, a flag to skip unsupported controls with VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL, new control types V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_INTEGER64 and V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_CTRL_CLASS (Table 3), and new control flags V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_READ_ONLY, V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_UPDATE, V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_INACTIVE and V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_SLIDER (Table 4). See Section 1.9 for details. h6.2t.24t. Vp4L:2 i/n L/inbuxb2.6s.19.51soc.com 1. In struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_cap a buffer type field was added replacing a reserved field. Note on architectures where the size of enum types differs from int types the size of the structure changed. The VIDIOC_G_SLICED_VBI_CAP ioctl was redefined from being read-only to write-read. Applications must initialize the type field and clear the reserved fields now. These changes may break the compatibility with older drivers and applications. 2. The ioctls VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES and VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMEINTERVALS were added. 3. A new pixel format V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB444 (Table 2-1) was added. 6.2.25. V4L2 spec erratum 2006-10-12 (Draft 0.17) 1. V4L2_PIX_FMT_HM12 (Table 2-8) is a YUV 4:2:0, not 4:2:2 format. 6.2.26. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.21 1. The videodev2.h header file is now dual licensed under GNU General Public License version two or later, and under a 3-clause BSD-style license. 221 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com 6.2.27. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.22 Chapter 6. Changes 1. Two new field orders V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_TB and V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_BT were added. See Table 3-8 for details. 2. Three new clipping/blending methods with a global or straight or inverted local alpha value were added to the video overlay interface. See the description of the VIDIOC_G_FBUF and VIDIOC_S_FBUF ioctls for details. A new global_alpha field was added to v4l2_window, extending the structure. This may break compatibility with applications using a struct v4l2_window directly. However the VIDIOC_G/S/TRY_FMT ioctls, which take a pointer to a v4l2_format parent structure with padding bytes at the end, are not affected. 3. The format of the chromakey field in struct v4l2_window changed from "host order RGB32" to a pixel value in the same format as the framebuffer. This may break compatibility with existing applications. Drivers supporting the "host order RGB32" format are not known. 6.2.28. V4L2 in Linux 2.6.24 1. The pixel formats V4L2_PIX_FMT_PAL8, V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV444, V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV555, V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV565 and V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV32 were added. h6.2t.29t. Vp4L:2 i/n L/inbuxb2.6s.25.51soc.com 1. The pixel formats V4L2_PIX_FMT_Y16 and V4L2_PIX_FMT_SBGGR16 were added. 2. New controls V4L2_CID_POWER_LINE_FREQUENCY, V4L2_CID_HUE_AUTO, V4L2_CID_WHITE_BALANCE_TEMPERATURE, V4L2_CID_SHARPNESS and V4L2_CID_BACKLIGHT_COMPENSATION were added. The controls V4L2_CID_BLACK_LEVEL, V4L2_CID_WHITENESS, V4L2_CID_HCENTER and V4L2_CID_VCENTER were deprecated. 3. A Camera controls class was added, with the new controls V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_AUTO, V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_ABSOLUTE, V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_AUTO_PRIORITY, V4L2_CID_PAN_RELATIVE, V4L2_CID_TILT_RELATIVE, V4L2_CID_PAN_RESET, V4L2_CID_TILT_RESET, V4L2_CID_PAN_ABSOLUTE, V4L2_CID_TILT_ABSOLUTE, V4L2_CID_FOCUS_ABSOLUTE, V4L2_CID_FOCUS_RELATIVE and V4L2_CID_FOCUS_AUTO. 4. The VIDIOC_G_MPEGCOMP and VIDIOC_S_MPEGCOMP ioctls, which were superseded by the extended controls interface in Linux 2.6.18, where finally removed from the videodev2.h header file. 6.3. Relation of V4L2 to other Linux multimedia APIs 6.3.1. X Video Extension The X Video Extension (abbreviated XVideo or just Xv) is an extension of the X Window system, 222 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes implemented for example by the XFree86 project. Its scope is similar to V4L2, an API to video capture and output devices for X clients. Xv allows applications to display live video in a window, send window contents to a TV output, and capture or output still images in XPixmaps1. With their implementation XFree86 makes the extension available across many operating systems and architectures. Because the driver is embedded into the X server Xv has a number of advantages over the V4L2 video overlay interface. The driver can easily determine the overlay target, i. e. visible graphics memory or off-screen buffers for a destructive overlay. It can program the RAMDAC for a non-destructive overlay, scaling or color-keying, or the clipping functions of the video capture hardware, always in sync with drawing operations or windows moving or changing their stacking order. To combine the advantages of Xv and V4L a special Xv driver exists in XFree86 and XOrg, just programming any overlay capable Video4Linux device it finds. To enable it /etc/X11/XF86Config must contain these lines: Section "Module" Load "v4l" EndSection As of XFree86 4.2 this driver still supports only V4L ioctls, however it should work just fine with all V4L2 devices through the V4L2 backward-compatibility layer. Since V4L2 permits multiple opens it is possible (if supported by the V4L2 driver) to capture video while an X client requested video overlay. Restrictions of simultaneous capturing and overlay are discussed in Section 4.2 apply. Only marginally related to V4L2, XFree86 extended Xv to support hardware YUV to RGB http://bbs.51soc.com conversion and scaling for faster video playback, and added an interface to MPEG-2 decoding hardware. This API is useful to display images captured with V4L2 devices. 6.3.2. Digital Video V4L2 does not support digital terrestrial, cable or satellite broadcast. A separate project aiming at digital receivers exists. You can find its homepage at http://linuxtv.org. The Linux DVB API has no connection to the V4L2 API except that drivers for hybrid hardware may support both. 6.3.3. Audio Interfaces [to do - OSS/ALSA] 6.4. Experimental API Elements The following V4L2 API elements are currently experimental and may change in the future. • Video Output Overlay (OSD) Interface, Section 4.4. • V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT_OVERLAY, enum v4l2_buf_type, Table 3-2. • V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OUTPUT_OVERLAY, VIDIOC_QUERYCAP ioctl, Table 2. 223 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Chapter 6. Changes • VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES and VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMEINTERVALS ioctls. • VIDIOC_G_ENC_INDEX ioctl. • VIDIOC_ENCODER_CMD and VIDIOC_TRY_ENCODER_CMD ioctls. • VIDIOC_DBG_G_REGISTER and VIDIOC_DBG_S_REGISTER ioctls. • VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT ioctl. 6.5. Obsolete API Elements The following V4L2 API elements were superseded by new interfaces and should not be implemented in new drivers. • VIDIOC_G_MPEGCOMP and VIDIOC_S_MPEGCOMP ioctls. Use Extended Controls, Section 1.9. Notes 1. This is not implemented in XFree86. http://bbs.51soc.com 224 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File /* * Video for Linux Two header file * * Copyright (C) 1999-2007 the contributors * * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or * (at your option) any later version. * * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the * GNU General Public License for more details. * * Alternatively you can redistribute this file under the terms of the * BSD license as stated below: * * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions * are met: * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in * the documentation and/or other materials provided with the http://bbs.51soc.com * distribution. * 3. The names of its contributors may not be used to endorse or promote * products derived from this software without specific prior written * permission. * * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS * "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT * LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR * A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT * OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, * SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED * TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR * PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING * NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS * SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. * * Header file for v4l or V4L2 drivers and applications * with public API. * All kernel-specific stuff were moved to media/v4l2-dev.h, so * no #if __KERNEL tests are allowed here * * See http://linuxtv.org for more info * * Author: Bill Dirks * Justin Schoeman * Hans Verkuil * et al. 225 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File */ #ifndef __LINUX_VIDEODEV2_H #define __LINUX_VIDEODEV2_H #ifdef __KERNEL__ #include /* need struct timeval */ #include /* need __user */ #else #define __user #include #endif #include #include /* * Common stuff for both V4L1 and V4L2 * Moved from videodev.h */ #define VIDEO_MAX_FRAME 32 #define VID_TYPE_CAPTURE 1 /* Can capture */ #define VID_TYPE_TUNER 2 /* Can tune */ #define VID_TYPE_TELETEXT 4 /* Does teletext */ #define VID_TYPE_OVERLAY 8 /* Overlay onto frame buffer */ #define VID_TYPE_CHROMAKEY 16 /* Overlay by chromakey */ #define VID_TYPE_CLIPPING 32 /* Can clip */ #define VID_TYPE_FRAMERAM 64 /* Uses the frame buffer memory */ #define VID_TYPE_SCALES 128 /* Scalable */ #define VID_TYPE_MONOCHROME 256 /* Monochrome only */ http://bbs.51soc.com #define VID_TYPE_SUBCAPTURE #define VID_TYPE_MPEG_DECODER #define VID_TYPE_MPEG_ENCODER 512 1024 2048 /* Can capture subareas of the image */ /* Can decode MPEG streams */ /* Can encode MPEG streams */ #define VID_TYPE_MJPEG_DECODER 4096 /* Can decode MJPEG streams */ #define VID_TYPE_MJPEG_ENCODER 8192 /* Can encode MJPEG streams */ /* * MISCELLANEOUS */ /* Four-character-code (FOURCC) */ #define v4l2_fourcc(a,b,c,d)\ (((__u32)(a)<<0)|((__u32)(b)<<8)|((__u32)(c)<<16)|((__u32)(d)<<24)) /* * ENUMS */ enum v4l2_field { V4L2_FIELD_ANY V4L2_FIELD_NONE V4L2_FIELD_TOP V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_TB V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_BT = 0, /* driver can choose from none, top, bottom, interlaced depending on whatever it thinks is approximate ... */ = 1, /* this device has no fields ... */ = 2, /* top field only */ = 3, /* bottom field only */ = 4, /* both fields interlaced */ = 5, /* both fields sequential into one buffer, top-bottom order */ = 6, /* same as above + bottom-top order */ 226 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File V4L2_FIELD_ALTERNATE = 7, /* both fields alternating into separate buffers */ V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_TB = 8, /* both fields interlaced, top field first and the top field is transmitted first */ V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_BT = 9, /* both fields interlaced, top field first and the bottom field is transmitted first */ }; #define V4L2_FIELD_HAS_TOP(field) \ ((field) == V4L2_FIELD_TOP ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_TB ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_BT ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_TB ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_BT) #define V4L2_FIELD_HAS_BOTTOM(field) \ ((field) == V4L2_FIELD_BOTTOM ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_TB ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_BT ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_TB ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_BT) #define V4L2_FIELD_HAS_BOTH(field) \ ((field) == V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_TB ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED_BT ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_TB ||\ (field) == V4L2_FIELD_SEQ_BT) http://bbs.51soc.com enum v4l2_buf_type { V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE = 1, V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT = 2, V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OVERLAY = 3, V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VBI_CAPTURE = 4, V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VBI_OUTPUT = 5, V4L2_BUF_TYPE_SLICED_VBI_CAPTURE = 6, V4L2_BUF_TYPE_SLICED_VBI_OUTPUT = 7, #if 1 /*KEEP*/ /* Experimental */ V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT_OVERLAY = 8, #endif V4L2_BUF_TYPE_PRIVATE = 0x80, }; enum v4l2_ctrl_type { V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_INTEGER V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_BOOLEAN V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_MENU V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_BUTTON V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_INTEGER64 V4L2_CTRL_TYPE_CTRL_CLASS }; = 1, = 2, = 3, = 4, = 5, = 6, enum v4l2_tuner_type { V4L2_TUNER_RADIO V4L2_TUNER_ANALOG_TV = 1, = 2, 227 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File V4L2_TUNER_DIGITAL_TV }; = 3, enum v4l2_memory { V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR V4L2_MEMORY_OVERLAY }; = 1, = 2, = 3, /* see also http://vektor.theorem.ca/graphics/ycbcr/ */ enum v4l2_colorspace { /* ITU-R 601 -- broadcast NTSC/PAL */ V4L2_COLORSPACE_SMPTE170M = 1, /* 1125-Line (US) HDTV */ V4L2_COLORSPACE_SMPTE240M = 2, /* HD and modern captures. */ V4L2_COLORSPACE_REC709 = 3, /* broken BT878 extents (601, luma range 16-253 instead of 16-235) */ V4L2_COLORSPACE_BT878 = 4, /* These should be useful. Assume 601 extents. */ V4L2_COLORSPACE_470_SYSTEM_M = 5, V4L2_COLORSPACE_470_SYSTEM_BG = 6, /* I know there will be cameras that send this. So, this is http://bbs.51soc.com * unspecified chromaticities and full 0-255 on each of the * Y’CbCr components */ V4L2_COLORSPACE_JPEG = 7, /* For RGB colourspaces, this is probably a good start. */ V4L2_COLORSPACE_SRGB = 8, }; enum v4l2_priority { V4L2_PRIORITY_UNSET = 0, /* not initialized */ V4L2_PRIORITY_BACKGROUND = 1, V4L2_PRIORITY_INTERACTIVE = 2, V4L2_PRIORITY_RECORD = 3, V4L2_PRIORITY_DEFAULT = V4L2_PRIORITY_INTERACTIVE, }; struct v4l2_rect { __s32 left; __s32 top; __s32 width; __s32 height; }; struct v4l2_fract { __u32 numerator; __u32 denominator; }; 228 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File /* * DRIVER CAPABILITIES */ struct v4l2_capability { __u8 driver[16]; /* i.e.ie; "bttv" */ __u8 card[32]; /* i.e.ie; "Hauppauge WinTV" */ __u8 bus_info[32]; /* "PCI:" + pci_name(pci_dev) */ __u32 version; /* should use KERNEL_VERSION() */ __u32 capabilities; /* Device capabilities */ __u32 reserved[4]; }; /* Values for ’capabilities’ field */ #define V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_CAPTURE #define V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OUTPUT #define V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OVERLAY #define V4L2_CAP_VBI_CAPTURE #define V4L2_CAP_VBI_OUTPUT #define V4L2_CAP_SLICED_VBI_CAPTURE #define V4L2_CAP_SLICED_VBI_OUTPUT #define V4L2_CAP_RDS_CAPTURE #define V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_OUTPUT_OVERLAY 0x00000001 0x00000002 0x00000004 0x00000010 0x00000020 0x00000040 0x00000080 0x00000100 0x00000200 /* Is a video capture device */ /* Is a video output device */ /* Can do video overlay */ /* Is a raw VBI capture device */ /* Is a raw VBI output device */ /* Is a sliced VBI capture device */ /* Is a sliced VBI output device */ /* RDS data capture */ /* Can do video output overlay */ #define V4L2_CAP_TUNER #define V4L2_CAP_AUDIO #define V4L2_CAP_RADIO 0x00010000 /* has a tuner */ 0x00020000 /* has audio support */ 0x00040000 /* is a radio device */ http://bbs.51soc.com #define V4L2_CAP_READWRITE #define V4L2_CAP_ASYNCIO #define V4L2_CAP_STREAMING 0x01000000 /* read/write systemcalls */ 0x02000000 /* async I/O */ 0x04000000 /* streaming I/O ioctls */ /* * VIDEO IMAGE */ struct v4l2_pix_format { __u32 __u32 __u32 enum v4l2_field __u32 __u32 enum v4l2_colorspace __u32 }; FORMAT width; height; pixelformat; field; bytesperline; sizeimage; colorspace; priv; /* for padding, zero if unused */ /* private data, depends on pixelformat * /* Pixel format FOURCC depth Description */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB332 v4l2_fourcc(’R’,’G’,’B’,’1’) /* 8 RGB-3-3-2 */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB444 v4l2_fourcc(’R’,’4’,’4’,’4’) /* 16 xxxxrrrr ggggbbbb */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB555 v4l2_fourcc(’R’,’G’,’B’,’O’) /* 16 RGB-5-5-5 */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB565 v4l2_fourcc(’R’,’G’,’B’,’P’) /* 16 RGB-5-6-5 */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB555X v4l2_fourcc(’R’,’G’,’B’,’Q’) /* 16 RGB-5-5-5 BE */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB565X v4l2_fourcc(’R’,’G’,’B’,’R’) /* 16 RGB-5-6-5 BE */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_BGR24 v4l2_fourcc(’B’,’G’,’R’,’3’) /* 24 BGR-8-8-8 */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB24 v4l2_fourcc(’R’,’G’,’B’,’3’) /* 24 RGB-8-8-8 */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_BGR32 v4l2_fourcc(’B’,’G’,’R’,’4’) /* 32 BGR-8-8-8-8 */ 229 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB32 v4l2_fourcc(’R’,’G’,’B’,’4’) /* 32 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_GREY v4l2_fourcc(’G’,’R’,’E’,’Y’) /* 8 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_Y16 v4l2_fourcc(’Y’,’1’,’6’,’ ’) /* 16 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_PAL8 v4l2_fourcc(’P’,’A’,’L’,’8’) /* 8 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_YVU410 v4l2_fourcc(’Y’,’V’,’U’,’9’) /* 9 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_YVU420 v4l2_fourcc(’Y’,’V’,’1’,’2’) /* 12 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUYV v4l2_fourcc(’Y’,’U’,’Y’,’V’) /* 16 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_UYVY v4l2_fourcc(’U’,’Y’,’V’,’Y’) /* 16 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV422P v4l2_fourcc(’4’,’2’,’2’,’P’) /* 16 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV411P v4l2_fourcc(’4’,’1’,’1’,’P’) /* 16 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_Y41P v4l2_fourcc(’Y’,’4’,’1’,’P’) /* 12 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV444 v4l2_fourcc(’Y’,’4’,’4’,’4’) /* 16 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV555 v4l2_fourcc(’Y’,’U’,’V’,’O’) /* 16 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV565 v4l2_fourcc(’Y’,’U’,’V’,’P’) /* 16 #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV32 v4l2_fourcc(’Y’,’U’,’V’,’4’) /* 32 RGB-8-8-8-8 */ Greyscale */ Greyscale */ 8-bit palette */ YVU 4:1:0 */ YVU 4:2:0 */ YUV 4:2:2 */ YUV 4:2:2 */ YVU422 planar */ YVU411 planar */ YUV 4:1:1 */ xxxxyyyy uuuuvvvv */ YUV-5-5-5 */ YUV-5-6-5 */ YUV-8-8-8-8 */ /* two planes -- one Y, one Cr + Cb interleaved */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_NV12 v4l2_fourcc(’N’,’V’,’1’,’2’) /* 12 Y/CbCr 4:2:0 */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_NV21 v4l2_fourcc(’N’,’V’,’2’,’1’) /* 12 Y/CrCb 4:2:0 */ /* The following formats are not defined in the V4L2 specification */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV410 v4l2_fourcc(’Y’,’U’,’V’,’9’) /* 9 YUV 4:1:0 */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV420 v4l2_fourcc(’Y’,’U’,’1’,’2’) /* 12 YUV 4:2:0 */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_YYUV v4l2_fourcc(’Y’,’Y’,’U’,’V’) /* 16 YUV 4:2:2 */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_HI240 v4l2_fourcc(’H’,’I’,’2’,’4’) /* 8 8-bit color */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_HM12 v4l2_fourcc(’H’,’M’,’1’,’2’) /* 8 YUV 4:2:0 16x16 macroblo /* see http://www.siliconimaging.com/RGB%20Bayer.htm */ http://bbs.51soc.com #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_SBGGR8 v4l2_fourcc(’B’,’A’,’8’,’1’) /* 8 BGBG.. GRGR.. */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_SBGGR16 v4l2_fourcc(’B’,’Y’,’R’,’2’) /* 16 BGBG.. GRGR.. */ /* compressed formats */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_MJPEG #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_JPEG #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_DV #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_MPEG v4l2_fourcc(’M’,’J’,’P’,’G’) /* Motion-JPEG */ v4l2_fourcc(’J’,’P’,’E’,’G’) /* JFIF JPEG */ v4l2_fourcc(’d’,’v’,’s’,’d’) /* 1394 */ v4l2_fourcc(’M’,’P’,’E’,’G’) /* MPEG-1/2/4 */ /* Vendor-specific formats */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_WNVA v4l2_fourcc(’W’,’N’,’V’,’A’) /* Winnov hw compress */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_SN9C10X v4l2_fourcc(’S’,’9’,’1’,’0’) /* SN9C10x compression */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_PWC1 v4l2_fourcc(’P’,’W’,’C’,’1’) /* pwc older webcam */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_PWC2 v4l2_fourcc(’P’,’W’,’C’,’2’) /* pwc newer webcam */ #define V4L2_PIX_FMT_ET61X251 v4l2_fourcc(’E’,’6’,’2’,’5’) /* ET61X251 compression */ /* * FORMAT ENUMERATION */ struct v4l2_fmtdesc { __u32 index; enum v4l2_buf_type type; __u32 flags; __u8 description[32]; __u32 pixelformat; __u32 reserved[4]; }; /* Format number */ /* buffer type */ /* Description string */ /* Format fourcc */ 230 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File #define V4L2_FMT_FLAG_COMPRESSED 0x0001 #if 1 /*KEEP*/ /* Experimental Frame Size and frame rate enumeration */ /* * FRAME SIZE ENUMERATION */ enum v4l2_frmsizetypes { V4L2_FRMSIZE_TYPE_DISCRETE = 1, V4L2_FRMSIZE_TYPE_CONTINUOUS = 2, V4L2_FRMSIZE_TYPE_STEPWISE = 3, }; struct v4l2_frmsize_discrete { __u32 __u32 }; width; height; /* Frame width [pixel] */ /* Frame height [pixel] */ struct v4l2_frmsize_stepwise { __u32 min_width; /* Minimum frame width [pixel] */ __u32 max_width; /* Maximum frame width [pixel] */ __u32 step_width; /* Frame width step size [pixel] */ __u32 min_height; /* Minimum frame height [pixel] */ __u32 max_height; /* Maximum frame height [pixel] */ __u32 step_height; /* Frame height step size [pixel] */ }; http://bbs.51soc.com struct v4l2_frmsizeenum { __u32 index; /* Frame size number */ __u32 pixel_format; /* Pixel format */ __u32 type; /* Frame size type the device supports. * union { struct v4l2_frmsize_discrete struct v4l2_frmsize_stepwise }; /* Frame size */ discrete; stepwise; __u32 reserved[2]; }; /* Reserved space for future use */ /* * FRAME RATE ENUMERATION */ enum v4l2_frmivaltypes { V4L2_FRMIVAL_TYPE_DISCRETE = 1, V4L2_FRMIVAL_TYPE_CONTINUOUS = 2, V4L2_FRMIVAL_TYPE_STEPWISE = 3, }; struct v4l2_frmival_stepwise { struct v4l2_fract min; /* Minimum frame interval [s] */ 231 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File struct v4l2_fract struct v4l2_fract }; max; step; /* Maximum frame interval [s] */ /* Frame interval step size [s] */ struct v4l2_frmivalenum { __u32 __u32 __u32 __u32 __u32 index; pixel_format; width; height; type; /* Frame format index */ /* Pixel format */ /* Frame width */ /* Frame height */ /* Frame interval type the device support union { struct v4l2_fract struct v4l2_frmival_stepwise }; /* Frame interval */ discrete; stepwise; __u32 }; #endif reserved[2]; /* Reserved space for future use */ /* * TIMECODE */ struct v4l2_timecode { __u32 type; __u32 flags; __u8 frames; http://bbs.51soc.com __u8 __u8 seconds; minutes; __u8 hours; __u8 userbits[4]; }; /* Type */ #define V4L2_TC_TYPE_24FPS 1 #define V4L2_TC_TYPE_25FPS 2 #define V4L2_TC_TYPE_30FPS 3 #define V4L2_TC_TYPE_50FPS 4 #define V4L2_TC_TYPE_60FPS 5 /* Flags */ #define V4L2_TC_FLAG_DROPFRAME 0x0001 /* "drop-frame" mode */ #define V4L2_TC_FLAG_COLORFRAME 0x0002 #define V4L2_TC_USERBITS_field 0x000C #define V4L2_TC_USERBITS_USERDEFINED 0x0000 #define V4L2_TC_USERBITS_8BITCHARS 0x0008 /* The above is based on SMPTE timecodes */ struct v4l2_jpegcompression { int quality; int APPn; int APP_len; /* Number of APP segment to be written, * must be 0..15 */ /* Length of data in JPEG APPn segment */ 232 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File char APP_data[60]; /* Data in the JPEG APPn segment. */ int COM_len; char COM_data[60]; /* Length of data in JPEG COM segment */ /* Data in JPEG COM segment */ __u32 jpeg_markers; /* Which markers should go into the JPEG * output. Unless you exactly know what * you do, leave them untouched. * Inluding less markers will make the * resulting code smaller, but there will * be fewer aplications which can read it. * The presence of the APP and COM marker * is influenced by APP_len and COM_len * ONLY, not by this property! */ #define V4L2_JPEG_MARKER_DHT (1<<3) #define V4L2_JPEG_MARKER_DQT (1<<4) #define V4L2_JPEG_MARKER_DRI (1<<5) #define V4L2_JPEG_MARKER_COM (1<<6) #define V4L2_JPEG_MARKER_APP (1<<7) }; /* Define Huffman Tables */ /* Define Quantization Tables */ /* Define Restart Interval */ /* Comment segment */ /* App segment, driver will * allways use APP0 */ /* * MEMORY-MAPPING BUFFERS */ struct v4l2_requestbuffers { __u32 count; http://bbs.51soc.com enum v4l2_buf_type enum v4l2_memory type; memory; __u32 reserved[2]; }; struct v4l2_buffer { __u32 enum v4l2_buf_type __u32 __u32 enum v4l2_field struct timeval struct v4l2_timecode __u32 index; type; bytesused; flags; field; timestamp; timecode; sequence; /* memory location */ enum v4l2_memory memory; union { __u32 offset; unsigned long userptr; } m; __u32 length; __u32 input; __u32 reserved; }; /* Flags for ’flags’ field */ 233 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File #define V4L2_BUF_FLAG_MAPPED #define V4L2_BUF_FLAG_QUEUED #define V4L2_BUF_FLAG_DONE #define V4L2_BUF_FLAG_KEYFRAME #define V4L2_BUF_FLAG_PFRAME #define V4L2_BUF_FLAG_BFRAME #define V4L2_BUF_FLAG_TIMECODE #define V4L2_BUF_FLAG_INPUT 0x0001 0x0002 0x0004 0x0008 0x0010 0x0020 0x0100 0x0200 /* Buffer is mapped (flag) */ /* Buffer is queued for processing */ /* Buffer is ready */ /* Image is a keyframe (I-frame) */ /* Image is a P-frame */ /* Image is a B-frame */ /* timecode field is valid */ /* input field is valid */ /* * OVERLAY PREVIEW */ struct v4l2_framebuffer { __u32 capability; __u32 flags; /* FIXME: in theory we should pass something like PCI device + memory * region + offset instead of some physical address */ void* base; struct v4l2_pix_format fmt; }; /* Flags for the ’capability’ field. Read only */ #define V4L2_FBUF_CAP_EXTERNOVERLAY 0x0001 #define V4L2_FBUF_CAP_CHROMAKEY 0x0002 #define V4L2_FBUF_CAP_LIST_CLIPPING 0x0004 #define V4L2_FBUF_CAP_BITMAP_CLIPPING 0x0008 #define V4L2_FBUF_CAP_LOCAL_ALPHA 0x0010 #define V4L2_FBUF_CAP_GLOBAL_ALPHA 0x0020 #define V4L2_FBUF_CAP_LOCAL_INV_ALPHA 0x0040 http://bbs.51soc.com /* Flags for the ’flags’ field. */ #define V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_PRIMARY 0x0001 #define V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_OVERLAY 0x0002 #define V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_CHROMAKEY 0x0004 #define V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_LOCAL_ALPHA 0x0008 #define V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_GLOBAL_ALPHA 0x0010 #define V4L2_FBUF_FLAG_LOCAL_INV_ALPHA 0x0020 struct v4l2_clip { struct v4l2_rect struct v4l2_clip }; c; __user *next; struct v4l2_window { struct v4l2_rect enum v4l2_field __u32 struct v4l2_clip __u32 void __u8 }; w; field; chromakey; __user *clips; clipcount; __user *bitmap; global_alpha; /* * CAPTURE PARAMETERS */ 234 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File struct v4l2_captureparm { __u32 capability; /* Supported modes */ __u32 capturemode; /* Current mode */ struct v4l2_fract timeperframe; /* Time per frame in .1us units */ __u32 extendedmode; /* Driver-specific extensions */ __u32 readbuffers; /* # of buffers for read */ __u32 reserved[4]; }; /* Flags for ’capability’ and ’capturemode’ fields */ #define V4L2_MODE_HIGHQUALITY 0x0001 /* High quality imaging mode */ #define V4L2_CAP_TIMEPERFRAME 0x1000 /* timeperframe field is supported */ struct v4l2_outputparm { __u32 __u32 struct v4l2_fract __u32 __u32 __u32 }; capability; /* outputmode; /* timeperframe; /* extendedmode; /* writebuffers; /* reserved[4]; Supported modes */ Current mode */ Time per frame in seconds */ Driver-specific extensions */ # of buffers for write */ /* * INPUT IMAGE CROPPING */ struct v4l2_cropcap { enum v4l2_buf_type type; http://bbs.51soc.com struct v4l2_rect struct v4l2_rect bounds; defrect; struct v4l2_fract pixelaspect; }; struct v4l2_crop { enum v4l2_buf_type struct v4l2_rect }; type; c; /* * ANALOG VIDEO STANDARD */ typedef __u64 v4l2_std_id; /* one bit for each */ #define V4L2_STD_PAL_B #define V4L2_STD_PAL_B1 #define V4L2_STD_PAL_G #define V4L2_STD_PAL_H #define V4L2_STD_PAL_I #define V4L2_STD_PAL_D #define V4L2_STD_PAL_D1 #define V4L2_STD_PAL_K ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000001) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000002) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000004) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000008) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000010) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000020) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000040) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000080) #define V4L2_STD_PAL_M #define V4L2_STD_PAL_N ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000100) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000200) 235 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File #define V4L2_STD_PAL_Nc #define V4L2_STD_PAL_60 ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000400) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00000800) #define V4L2_STD_NTSC_M #define V4L2_STD_NTSC_M_JP #define V4L2_STD_NTSC_443 #define V4L2_STD_NTSC_M_KR ((v4l2_std_id)0x00001000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00002000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00004000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00008000) #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_B #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_D #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_G #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_H #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_K #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_K1 #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_L #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_LC ((v4l2_std_id)0x00010000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00020000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00040000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00080000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00100000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00200000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00400000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x00800000) /* ATSC/HDTV */ #define V4L2_STD_ATSC_8_VSB #define V4L2_STD_ATSC_16_VSB ((v4l2_std_id)0x01000000) ((v4l2_std_id)0x02000000) /* FIXME: Although std_id is 64 bits, there is an issue on PPC32 architecture that makes switch(__u64) to break. So, there’s a hack on v4l2-common.c rounding this value to 32 bits. As, currently, the max value is for V4L2_STD_ATSC_16_VSB (30 bits wide), it should work fine. However, if needed to add more than two standards, v4l2-common.c should be fixed. http://bbs.51soc.com */ /* some merged standards */ #define V4L2_STD_MN (V4L2_STD_PAL_M|V4L2_STD_PAL_N|V4L2_STD_PAL_Nc|V4L2_STD_NTSC) #define V4L2_STD_B (V4L2_STD_PAL_B|V4L2_STD_PAL_B1|V4L2_STD_SECAM_B) #define V4L2_STD_GH (V4L2_STD_PAL_G|V4L2_STD_PAL_H|V4L2_STD_SECAM_G|V4L2_STD_SECAM_H) #define V4L2_STD_DK (V4L2_STD_PAL_DK|V4L2_STD_SECAM_DK) /* some common needed stuff */ #define V4L2_STD_PAL_BG (V4L2_STD_PAL_B |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_B1 |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_G) #define V4L2_STD_PAL_DK (V4L2_STD_PAL_D |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_D1 |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_K) #define V4L2_STD_PAL (V4L2_STD_PAL_BG |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_DK |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_H |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_I) #define V4L2_STD_NTSC (V4L2_STD_NTSC_M |\ V4L2_STD_NTSC_M_JP |\ V4L2_STD_NTSC_M_KR) #define V4L2_STD_SECAM_DK (V4L2_STD_SECAM_D |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_K |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_K1) #define V4L2_STD_SECAM (V4L2_STD_SECAM_B |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_G |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_H |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_DK |\ 236 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File V4L2_STD_SECAM_L |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM_LC) #define V4L2_STD_525_60 #define V4L2_STD_625_50 #define V4L2_STD_ATSC (V4L2_STD_PAL_M |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_60 |\ V4L2_STD_NTSC |\ V4L2_STD_NTSC_443) (V4L2_STD_PAL |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_N |\ V4L2_STD_PAL_Nc |\ V4L2_STD_SECAM) (V4L2_STD_ATSC_8_VSB |\ V4L2_STD_ATSC_16_VSB) #define V4L2_STD_UNKNOWN #define V4L2_STD_ALL 0 (V4L2_STD_525_60 |\ V4L2_STD_625_50) struct v4l2_standard { __u32 v4l2_std_id __u8 struct v4l2_fract __u32 __u32 }; index; id; name[24]; frameperiod; /* Frames, not fields */ framelines; reserved[4]; http://bbs.51soc.com /* * VIDEO INPUTS */ struct v4l2_input { __u32 index; /* Which input */ __u8 name[32]; /* Label */ __u32 type; /* Type of input */ __u32 audioset; /* Associated audios (bitfield) */ __u32 tuner; /* Associated tuner */ v4l2_std_id std; __u32 status; __u32 reserved[4]; }; /* Values for the ’type’ field */ #define V4L2_INPUT_TYPE_TUNER 1 #define V4L2_INPUT_TYPE_CAMERA 2 /* field ’status’ - general */ #define V4L2_IN_ST_NO_POWER 0x00000001 #define V4L2_IN_ST_NO_SIGNAL 0x00000002 #define V4L2_IN_ST_NO_COLOR 0x00000004 /* Attached device is off */ /* field ’status’ - analog */ #define V4L2_IN_ST_NO_H_LOCK 0x00000100 /* No horizontal sync lock */ #define V4L2_IN_ST_COLOR_KILL 0x00000200 /* Color killer is active */ /* field ’status’ - digital */ 237 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File #define V4L2_IN_ST_NO_SYNC 0x00010000 /* No synchronization lock */ #define V4L2_IN_ST_NO_EQU 0x00020000 /* No equalizer lock */ #define V4L2_IN_ST_NO_CARRIER 0x00040000 /* Carrier recovery failed */ /* field ’status’ - VCR and set-top box */ #define V4L2_IN_ST_MACROVISION 0x01000000 /* Macrovision detected */ #define V4L2_IN_ST_NO_ACCESS 0x02000000 /* Conditional access denied */ #define V4L2_IN_ST_VTR 0x04000000 /* VTR time constant */ /* * VIDEO OUTPUTS */ struct v4l2_output { __u32 index; /* __u8 name[32]; /* __u32 type; /* __u32 audioset; /* __u32 modulator; /* v4l2_std_id std; __u32 reserved[4]; }; /* Values for the ’type’ field */ #define V4L2_OUTPUT_TYPE_MODULATOR #define V4L2_OUTPUT_TYPE_ANALOG #define V4L2_OUTPUT_TYPE_ANALOGVGAOVERLAY Which output */ Label */ Type of output */ Associated audios (bitfield) */ Associated modulator */ 1 2 3 /* http://bbs.51soc.com * CONTROLS */ struct v4l2_control { __u32 id; __s32 value; }; struct v4l2_ext_control { __u32 id; __u32 reserved2[2]; union { __s32 value; __s64 value64; void *reserved; }; } __attribute__ ((packed)); struct v4l2_ext_controls { __u32 ctrl_class; __u32 count; __u32 error_idx; __u32 reserved[2]; struct v4l2_ext_control *controls; }; /* Values for ctrl_class field */ 238 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File #define V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_USER 0x00980000 /* Old-style ’user’ controls */ #define V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_MPEG 0x00990000 /* MPEG-compression controls */ #define V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_CAMERA 0x009a0000 /* Camera class controls */ #define V4L2_CTRL_ID_MASK (0x0fffffff) #define V4L2_CTRL_ID2CLASS(id) ((id) & 0x0fff0000UL) #define V4L2_CTRL_DRIVER_PRIV(id) (((id) & 0xffff) >= 0x1000) /* Used in the VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL ioctl for querying controls */ struct v4l2_queryctrl { __u32 id; enum v4l2_ctrl_type type; __u8 name[32]; /* Whatever */ __s32 minimum; /* Note signedness */ __s32 maximum; __s32 step; __s32 default_value; __u32 flags; __u32 reserved[2]; }; /* Used in the VIDIOC_QUERYMENU ioctl for querying menu items */ struct v4l2_querymenu { __u32 id; __u32 index; __u8 name[32]; /* Whatever */ __u32 reserved; h}; ttp://bbs.51soc.com /* Control flags */ #define V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_DISABLED #define V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_GRABBED #define V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_READ_ONLY #define V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_UPDATE #define V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_INACTIVE #define V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_SLIDER 0x0001 0x0002 0x0004 0x0008 0x0010 0x0020 /* Query flag, to be ORed with the control ID */ #define V4L2_CTRL_FLAG_NEXT_CTRL 0x80000000 /* User-class control IDs defined by V4L2 */ #define V4L2_CID_BASE (V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_USER | 0x900) #define V4L2_CID_USER_BASE V4L2_CID_BASE /* IDs reserved for driver specific controls */ #define V4L2_CID_PRIVATE_BASE 0x08000000 #define V4L2_CID_USER_CLASS #define V4L2_CID_BRIGHTNESS #define V4L2_CID_CONTRAST #define V4L2_CID_SATURATION #define V4L2_CID_HUE #define V4L2_CID_AUDIO_VOLUME #define V4L2_CID_AUDIO_BALANCE #define V4L2_CID_AUDIO_BASS #define V4L2_CID_AUDIO_TREBLE (V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_USER | 1) (V4L2_CID_BASE+0) (V4L2_CID_BASE+1) (V4L2_CID_BASE+2) (V4L2_CID_BASE+3) (V4L2_CID_BASE+5) (V4L2_CID_BASE+6) (V4L2_CID_BASE+7) (V4L2_CID_BASE+8) 239 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File #define V4L2_CID_AUDIO_MUTE #define V4L2_CID_AUDIO_LOUDNESS #define V4L2_CID_BLACK_LEVEL #define V4L2_CID_AUTO_WHITE_BALANCE #define V4L2_CID_DO_WHITE_BALANCE #define V4L2_CID_RED_BALANCE #define V4L2_CID_BLUE_BALANCE #define V4L2_CID_GAMMA #define V4L2_CID_WHITENESS #define V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE #define V4L2_CID_AUTOGAIN #define V4L2_CID_GAIN #define V4L2_CID_HFLIP #define V4L2_CID_VFLIP (V4L2_CID_BASE+9) (V4L2_CID_BASE+10) (V4L2_CID_BASE+11) /* Deprecated */ (V4L2_CID_BASE+12) (V4L2_CID_BASE+13) (V4L2_CID_BASE+14) (V4L2_CID_BASE+15) (V4L2_CID_BASE+16) (V4L2_CID_GAMMA) /* Deprecated */ (V4L2_CID_BASE+17) (V4L2_CID_BASE+18) (V4L2_CID_BASE+19) (V4L2_CID_BASE+20) (V4L2_CID_BASE+21) /* Deprecated, use V4L2_CID_PAN_RESET and V4L2_CID_TILT_RESET */ #define V4L2_CID_HCENTER_DEPRECATED (V4L2_CID_BASE+22) #define V4L2_CID_VCENTER_DEPRECATED (V4L2_CID_BASE+23) #define V4L2_CID_POWER_LINE_FREQUENCY (V4L2_CID_BASE+24) enum v4l2_power_line_frequency { V4L2_CID_POWER_LINE_FREQUENCY_DISABLED = 0, V4L2_CID_POWER_LINE_FREQUENCY_50HZ = 1, V4L2_CID_POWER_LINE_FREQUENCY_60HZ = 2, }; #define V4L2_CID_HUE_AUTO (V4L2_CID_BASE+25) #define V4L2_CID_WHITE_BALANCE_TEMPERATURE (V4L2_CID_BASE+26) #define V4L2_CID_SHARPNESS (V4L2_CID_BASE+27) #define V4L2_CID_BACKLIGHT_COMPENSATION (V4L2_CID_BASE+28) http://bbs.51soc.com #define V4L2_CID_LASTP1 (V4L2_CID_BASE+29) /* last CID + 1 */ /* MPEG-class control IDs defined by V4L2 */ #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CLASS (V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_MPEG | 0x900) (V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_MPEG | 1) /* MPEG streams */ #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_TYPE (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+0) enum v4l2_mpeg_stream_type { V4L2_MPEG_STREAM_TYPE_MPEG2_PS = 0, /* MPEG-2 program stream */ V4L2_MPEG_STREAM_TYPE_MPEG2_TS = 1, /* MPEG-2 transport stream */ V4L2_MPEG_STREAM_TYPE_MPEG1_SS = 2, /* MPEG-1 system stream */ V4L2_MPEG_STREAM_TYPE_MPEG2_DVD = 3, /* MPEG-2 DVD-compatible stream */ V4L2_MPEG_STREAM_TYPE_MPEG1_VCD = 4, /* MPEG-1 VCD-compatible stream */ V4L2_MPEG_STREAM_TYPE_MPEG2_SVCD = 5, /* MPEG-2 SVCD-compatible stream */ }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_PID_PMT (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+1) #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_PID_AUDIO (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+2) #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_PID_VIDEO (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+3) #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_PID_PCR (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+4) #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_PES_ID_AUDIO (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+5) #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_PES_ID_VIDEO (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+6) #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_STREAM_VBI_FMT (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+7) enum v4l2_mpeg_stream_vbi_fmt { V4L2_MPEG_STREAM_VBI_FMT_NONE = 0, /* No VBI in the MPEG stream */ V4L2_MPEG_STREAM_VBI_FMT_IVTV = 1, /* VBI in private packets, IVTV format */ }; 240 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File /* MPEG audio */ #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_SAMPLING_FREQ (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+100) enum v4l2_mpeg_audio_sampling_freq { V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_SAMPLING_FREQ_44100 = 0, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_SAMPLING_FREQ_48000 = 1, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_SAMPLING_FREQ_32000 = 2, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_ENCODING (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+101) enum v4l2_mpeg_audio_encoding { V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_ENCODING_LAYER_1 = 0, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_ENCODING_LAYER_2 = 1, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_ENCODING_LAYER_3 = 2, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+102) enum v4l2_mpeg_audio_l1_bitrate { V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_32K = 0, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_64K = 1, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_96K = 2, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_128K = 3, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_160K = 4, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_192K = 5, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_224K = 6, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_256K = 7, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_288K = 8, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_320K = 9, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_352K = 10, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_384K = 11, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_416K = 12, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L1_BITRATE_448K = 13, http://bbs.51soc.com }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+103) enum v4l2_mpeg_audio_l2_bitrate { V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_32K = 0, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_48K = 1, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_56K = 2, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_64K = 3, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_80K = 4, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_96K = 5, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_112K = 6, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_128K = 7, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_160K = 8, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_192K = 9, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_224K = 10, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_256K = 11, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_320K = 12, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L2_BITRATE_384K = 13, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+104) enum v4l2_mpeg_audio_l3_bitrate { V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_32K = 0, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_40K = 1, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_48K = 2, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_56K = 3, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_64K = 4, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_80K = 5, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_96K = 6, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_112K = 7, 241 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_128K = 8, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_160K = 9, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_192K = 10, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_224K = 11, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_256K = 12, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_L3_BITRATE_320K = 13, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_MODE (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+105) enum v4l2_mpeg_audio_mode { V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_MODE_STEREO = 0, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_MODE_JOINT_STEREO = 1, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_MODE_DUAL = 2, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_MODE_MONO = 3, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_MODE_EXTENSION (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+106) enum v4l2_mpeg_audio_mode_extension { V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_MODE_EXTENSION_BOUND_4 = 0, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_MODE_EXTENSION_BOUND_8 = 1, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_MODE_EXTENSION_BOUND_12 = 2, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_MODE_EXTENSION_BOUND_16 = 3, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_EMPHASIS (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+107) enum v4l2_mpeg_audio_emphasis { V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_EMPHASIS_NONE = 0, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_EMPHASIS_50_DIV_15_uS = 1, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_EMPHASIS_CCITT_J17 = 2, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_CRC (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+108) enum v4l2_mpeg_audio_crc { http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_CRC_NONE = 0, V4L2_MPEG_AUDIO_CRC_CRC16 = 1, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_AUDIO_MUTE (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+109) /* MPEG video */ #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_ENCODING enum v4l2_mpeg_video_encoding { V4L2_MPEG_VIDEO_ENCODING_MPEG_1 = 0, V4L2_MPEG_VIDEO_ENCODING_MPEG_2 = 1, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_ASPECT enum v4l2_mpeg_video_aspect { V4L2_MPEG_VIDEO_ASPECT_1x1 = 0, V4L2_MPEG_VIDEO_ASPECT_4x3 = 1, V4L2_MPEG_VIDEO_ASPECT_16x9 = 2, V4L2_MPEG_VIDEO_ASPECT_221x100 = 3, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_B_FRAMES #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_GOP_SIZE #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_GOP_CLOSURE #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_PULLDOWN #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_BITRATE_MODE enum v4l2_mpeg_video_bitrate_mode { V4L2_MPEG_VIDEO_BITRATE_MODE_VBR = 0, V4L2_MPEG_VIDEO_BITRATE_MODE_CBR = 1, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_BITRATE (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+200) (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+201) (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+202) (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+203) (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+204) (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+205) (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+206) (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+207) 242 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_BITRATE_PEAK (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+208) #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_TEMPORAL_DECIMATION (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+209) #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_MUTE (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+210) #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_VIDEO_MUTE_YUV (V4L2_CID_MPEG_BASE+211) /* MPEG-class control IDs specific to the CX2584x driver as defined by V4L2 */ #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_BASE (V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_MPEG | 0 #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_SPATIAL_FILTER_MODE (V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_BA enum v4l2_mpeg_cx2341x_video_spatial_filter_mode { V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_SPATIAL_FILTER_MODE_MANUAL = 0, V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_SPATIAL_FILTER_MODE_AUTO = 1, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_SPATIAL_FILTER (V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_BA #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_LUMA_SPATIAL_FILTER_TYPE (V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_BA enum v4l2_mpeg_cx2341x_video_luma_spatial_filter_type { V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_LUMA_SPATIAL_FILTER_TYPE_OFF = 0, V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_LUMA_SPATIAL_FILTER_TYPE_1D_HOR = 1, V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_LUMA_SPATIAL_FILTER_TYPE_1D_VERT = 2, V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_LUMA_SPATIAL_FILTER_TYPE_2D_HV_SEPARABLE = 3, V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_LUMA_SPATIAL_FILTER_TYPE_2D_SYM_NON_SEPARABLE = 4, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_CHROMA_SPATIAL_FILTER_TYPE (V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_BA enum v4l2_mpeg_cx2341x_video_chroma_spatial_filter_type { V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_CHROMA_SPATIAL_FILTER_TYPE_OFF = 0, V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_CHROMA_SPATIAL_FILTER_TYPE_1D_HOR = 1, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_TEMPORAL_FILTER_MODE (V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_BA enum v4l2_mpeg_cx2341x_video_temporal_filter_mode { V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_TEMPORAL_FILTER_MODE_MANUAL = 0, http://bbs.51soc.com V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_TEMPORAL_FILTER_MODE_AUTO = 1, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_TEMPORAL_FILTER (V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_BA #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_MEDIAN_FILTER_TYPE (V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_BA enum v4l2_mpeg_cx2341x_video_median_filter_type { V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_MEDIAN_FILTER_TYPE_OFF = 0, V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_MEDIAN_FILTER_TYPE_HOR = 1, V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_MEDIAN_FILTER_TYPE_VERT = 2, V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_MEDIAN_FILTER_TYPE_HOR_VERT = 3, V4L2_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_MEDIAN_FILTER_TYPE_DIAG = 4, }; #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_LUMA_MEDIAN_FILTER_BOTTOM (V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_BA #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_LUMA_MEDIAN_FILTER_TOP (V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_BA #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_CHROMA_MEDIAN_FILTER_BOTTOM (V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_BA #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_VIDEO_CHROMA_MEDIAN_FILTER_TOP (V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_BA #define V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_STREAM_INSERT_NAV_PACKETS (V4L2_CID_MPEG_CX2341X_BA /* Camera class control IDs */ #define V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS_BASE #define V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS (V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_CAMERA | 0x900) (V4L2_CTRL_CLASS_CAMERA | 1) #define V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_AUTO enum v4l2_exposure_auto_type { V4L2_EXPOSURE_AUTO = 0, V4L2_EXPOSURE_MANUAL = 1, V4L2_EXPOSURE_SHUTTER_PRIORITY = 2, V4L2_EXPOSURE_APERTURE_PRIORITY = 3 }; (V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS_BASE+1) 243 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File #define V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_ABSOLUTE #define V4L2_CID_EXPOSURE_AUTO_PRIORITY (V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS_BASE+2) (V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS_BASE+3) #define V4L2_CID_PAN_RELATIVE #define V4L2_CID_TILT_RELATIVE #define V4L2_CID_PAN_RESET #define V4L2_CID_TILT_RESET (V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS_BASE+4) (V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS_BASE+5) (V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS_BASE+6) (V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS_BASE+7) #define V4L2_CID_PAN_ABSOLUTE #define V4L2_CID_TILT_ABSOLUTE (V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS_BASE+8) (V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS_BASE+9) #define V4L2_CID_FOCUS_ABSOLUTE #define V4L2_CID_FOCUS_RELATIVE #define V4L2_CID_FOCUS_AUTO (V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS_BASE+10) (V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS_BASE+11) (V4L2_CID_CAMERA_CLASS_BASE+12) /* * TUNING */ struct v4l2_tuner { __u32 index; __u8 name[32]; enum v4l2_tuner_type type; __u32 capability; __u32 rangelow; __u32 rangehigh; __u32 rxsubchans; __u32 audmode; __s32 signal; http://bbs.51soc.com __s32 __u32 afc; reserved[4]; }; struct v4l2_modulator { __u32 __u8 __u32 __u32 __u32 __u32 __u32 }; index; name[32]; capability; rangelow; rangehigh; txsubchans; reserved[4]; /* Flags for the ’capability’ field */ #define V4L2_TUNER_CAP_LOW 0x0001 #define V4L2_TUNER_CAP_NORM 0x0002 #define V4L2_TUNER_CAP_STEREO 0x0010 #define V4L2_TUNER_CAP_LANG2 0x0020 #define V4L2_TUNER_CAP_SAP 0x0020 #define V4L2_TUNER_CAP_LANG1 0x0040 /* Flags for the ’rxsubchans’ field */ #define V4L2_TUNER_SUB_MONO 0x0001 #define V4L2_TUNER_SUB_STEREO 0x0002 #define V4L2_TUNER_SUB_LANG2 0x0004 #define V4L2_TUNER_SUB_SAP 0x0004 244 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File #define V4L2_TUNER_SUB_LANG1 0x0008 /* Values for the ’audmode’ field */ #define V4L2_TUNER_MODE_MONO #define V4L2_TUNER_MODE_STEREO #define V4L2_TUNER_MODE_LANG2 #define V4L2_TUNER_MODE_SAP #define V4L2_TUNER_MODE_LANG1 #define V4L2_TUNER_MODE_LANG1_LANG2 0x0000 0x0001 0x0002 0x0002 0x0003 0x0004 struct v4l2_frequency { __u32 enum v4l2_tuner_type __u32 __u32 }; tuner; type; frequency; reserved[8]; /* * AUDIO */ struct v4l2_audio { __u32 index; __u8 name[32]; __u32 capability; __u32 mode; __u32 reserved[2]; }; http://bbs.51soc.com /* Flags for the ’capability’ field */ #define V4L2_AUDCAP_STEREO 0x00001 #define V4L2_AUDCAP_AVL 0x00002 /* Flags for the ’mode’ field */ #define V4L2_AUDMODE_AVL 0x00001 struct v4l2_audioout { __u32 index; __u8 name[32]; __u32 capability; __u32 mode; __u32 reserved[2]; }; /* * MPEG SERVICES * * NOTE: EXPERIMENTAL API */ #if 1 /*KEEP*/ #define V4L2_ENC_IDX_FRAME_I (0) #define V4L2_ENC_IDX_FRAME_P (1) #define V4L2_ENC_IDX_FRAME_B (2) #define V4L2_ENC_IDX_FRAME_MASK (0xf) 245 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File struct v4l2_enc_idx_entry { __u64 offset; __u64 pts; __u32 length; __u32 flags; __u32 reserved[2]; }; #define V4L2_ENC_IDX_ENTRIES (64) struct v4l2_enc_idx { __u32 entries; __u32 entries_cap; __u32 reserved[4]; struct v4l2_enc_idx_entry entry[V4L2_ENC_IDX_ENTRIES]; }; #define V4L2_ENC_CMD_START (0) #define V4L2_ENC_CMD_STOP (1) #define V4L2_ENC_CMD_PAUSE (2) #define V4L2_ENC_CMD_RESUME (3) /* Flags for V4L2_ENC_CMD_STOP */ #define V4L2_ENC_CMD_STOP_AT_GOP_END (1 << 0) struct v4l2_encoder_cmd { __u32 cmd; __u32 flags; union { http://bbs.51soc.com struct { __u32 data[8]; } raw; }; }; #endif /* * DATA SERVICES (VBI) * * Data services API by Michael Schimek */ /* Raw VBI */ struct v4l2_vbi_format { __u32 sampling_rate; __u32 offset; __u32 samples_per_line; __u32 sample_format; __s32 start[2]; __u32 count[2]; __u32 flags; __u32 reserved[2]; }; /* in 1 Hz */ /* V4L2_PIX_FMT_* */ /* V4L2_VBI_* */ /* must be zero */ 246 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File /* VBI flags */ #define V4L2_VBI_UNSYNC #define V4L2_VBI_INTERLACED (1<< 0) (1<< 1) /* Sliced VBI * * This implements is a proposal V4L2 API to allow SLICED VBI * required for some hardware encoders. It should change without * notice in the definitive implementation. */ struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_format { __u16 service_set; /* service_lines[0][...] specifies lines 0-23 (1-23 used) of the first field service_lines[1][...] specifies lines 0-23 (1-23 used) of the second field (equals frame lines 313-336 for 625 line video standards, 263-286 for 525 line standards) */ __u16 service_lines[2][24]; __u32 io_size; __u32 reserved[2]; /* must be zero */ }; /* Teletext World System Teletext (WST), defined on ITU-R BT.653-2 */ #define V4L2_SLICED_TELETEXT_B (0x0001) /* Video Program System, defined on ETS 300 231*/ #define V4L2_SLICED_VPS (0x0400) http://bbs.51soc.com /* Closed Caption, defined on EIA-608 */ #define V4L2_SLICED_CAPTION_525 (0x1000) /* Wide Screen System, defined on ITU-R BT1119.1 */ #define V4L2_SLICED_WSS_625 (0x4000) #define V4L2_SLICED_VBI_525 #define V4L2_SLICED_VBI_625 (V4L2_SLICED_CAPTION_525) (V4L2_SLICED_TELETEXT_B | V4L2_SLICED_VPS | V4L2_ struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_cap { __u16 service_set; /* service_lines[0][...] specifies lines 0-23 (1-23 used) of the first field service_lines[1][...] specifies lines 0-23 (1-23 used) of the second field (equals frame lines 313-336 for 625 line video standards, 263-286 for 525 line standards) */ __u16 service_lines[2][24]; enum v4l2_buf_type type; __u32 reserved[3]; /* must be 0 */ }; struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_data { __u32 id; __u32 field; __u32 line; __u32 reserved; __u8 data[48]; }; /* 0: first field, 1: second field */ /* 1-23 */ /* must be 0 */ 247 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File /* * AGGREGATE STRUCTURES */ /* Stream data format */ struct v4l2_format { enum v4l2_buf_type type; union { struct v4l2_pix_format struct v4l2_window struct v4l2_vbi_format struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_format __u8 raw_data[200]; } fmt; }; pix; win; vbi; sliced; // V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE // V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OVERLAY // V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VBI_CAPTURE // V4L2_BUF_TYPE_SLICED_VBI_CAPT // user-defined /* Stream type-dependent parameters */ struct v4l2_streamparm { enum v4l2_buf_type type; union { struct v4l2_captureparm capture; struct v4l2_outputparm output; http://bbs.51soc.com __u8 } parm; raw_data[200]; /* user-defined */ }; /* * ADVANCED DEBUGGING * * NOTE: EXPERIMENTAL API */ /* VIDIOC_DBG_G_REGISTER and VIDIOC_DBG_S_REGISTER */ #define V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_HOST 0 /* Match against chip ID on host (0 for the host) * #define V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_I2C_DRIVER 1 /* Match against I2C driver ID */ #define V4L2_CHIP_MATCH_I2C_ADDR 2 /* Match against I2C 7-bit address */ struct v4l2_register { __u32 match_type; /* Match type */ __u32 match_chip; /* Match this chip, meaning determined by match_type */ __u64 reg; __u64 val; }; /* VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT */ struct v4l2_chip_ident { __u32 match_type; __u32 match_chip; __u32 ident; /* Match type */ /* Match this chip, meaning determined by match_type */ /* chip identifier as specified in 248 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File __u32 revision; /* chip revision, chip specific */ }; /* * IOCTL CODES FOR VIDEO DEVICES * */ #define VIDIOC_QUERYCAP _IOR (’V’, 0, struct v4l2_capability) #define VIDIOC_RESERVED _IO (’V’, 1) #define VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT _IOWR (’V’, 2, struct v4l2_fmtdesc) #define VIDIOC_G_FMT _IOWR (’V’, 4, struct v4l2_format) #define VIDIOC_S_FMT _IOWR (’V’, 5, struct v4l2_format) #define VIDIOC_REQBUFS _IOWR (’V’, 8, struct v4l2_requestbuffers) #define VIDIOC_QUERYBUF _IOWR (’V’, 9, struct v4l2_buffer) #define VIDIOC_G_FBUF _IOR (’V’, 10, struct v4l2_framebuffer) #define VIDIOC_S_FBUF _IOW (’V’, 11, struct v4l2_framebuffer) #define VIDIOC_OVERLAY _IOW (’V’, 14, int) #define VIDIOC_QBUF _IOWR (’V’, 15, struct v4l2_buffer) #define VIDIOC_DQBUF _IOWR (’V’, 17, struct v4l2_buffer) #define VIDIOC_STREAMON _IOW (’V’, 18, int) #define VIDIOC_STREAMOFF _IOW (’V’, 19, int) #define VIDIOC_G_PARM _IOWR (’V’, 21, struct v4l2_streamparm) #define VIDIOC_S_PARM _IOWR (’V’, 22, struct v4l2_streamparm) #define VIDIOC_G_STD _IOR (’V’, 23, v4l2_std_id) #define VIDIOC_S_STD _IOW (’V’, 24, v4l2_std_id) #define VIDIOC_ENUMSTD _IOWR (’V’, 25, struct v4l2_standard) #define VIDIOC_ENUMINPUT _IOWR (’V’, 26, struct v4l2_input) #define VIDIOC_G_CTRL _IOWR (’V’, 27, struct v4l2_control) #define VIDIOC_S_CTRL _IOWR (’V’, 28, struct v4l2_control) http://bbs.51soc.com #define VIDIOC_G_TUNER #define VIDIOC_S_TUNER _IOWR (’V’, 29, struct v4l2_tuner) _IOW (’V’, 30, struct v4l2_tuner) #define VIDIOC_G_AUDIO _IOR (’V’, 33, struct v4l2_audio) #define VIDIOC_S_AUDIO _IOW (’V’, 34, struct v4l2_audio) #define VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL _IOWR (’V’, 36, struct v4l2_queryctrl) #define VIDIOC_QUERYMENU _IOWR (’V’, 37, struct v4l2_querymenu) #define VIDIOC_G_INPUT _IOR (’V’, 38, int) #define VIDIOC_S_INPUT _IOWR (’V’, 39, int) #define VIDIOC_G_OUTPUT _IOR (’V’, 46, int) #define VIDIOC_S_OUTPUT _IOWR (’V’, 47, int) #define VIDIOC_ENUMOUTPUT _IOWR (’V’, 48, struct v4l2_output) #define VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT _IOR (’V’, 49, struct v4l2_audioout) #define VIDIOC_S_AUDOUT _IOW (’V’, 50, struct v4l2_audioout) #define VIDIOC_G_MODULATOR _IOWR (’V’, 54, struct v4l2_modulator) #define VIDIOC_S_MODULATOR _IOW (’V’, 55, struct v4l2_modulator) #define VIDIOC_G_FREQUENCY _IOWR (’V’, 56, struct v4l2_frequency) #define VIDIOC_S_FREQUENCY _IOW (’V’, 57, struct v4l2_frequency) #define VIDIOC_CROPCAP _IOWR (’V’, 58, struct v4l2_cropcap) #define VIDIOC_G_CROP _IOWR (’V’, 59, struct v4l2_crop) #define VIDIOC_S_CROP _IOW (’V’, 60, struct v4l2_crop) #define VIDIOC_G_JPEGCOMP _IOR (’V’, 61, struct v4l2_jpegcompression) #define VIDIOC_S_JPEGCOMP _IOW (’V’, 62, struct v4l2_jpegcompression) #define VIDIOC_QUERYSTD _IOR (’V’, 63, v4l2_std_id) #define VIDIOC_TRY_FMT _IOWR (’V’, 64, struct v4l2_format) #define VIDIOC_ENUMAUDIO _IOWR (’V’, 65, struct v4l2_audio) #define VIDIOC_ENUMAUDOUT _IOWR (’V’, 66, struct v4l2_audioout) #define VIDIOC_G_PRIORITY _IOR (’V’, 67, enum v4l2_priority) #define VIDIOC_S_PRIORITY _IOW (’V’, 68, enum v4l2_priority) 249 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix A. Video For Linux Two Header File #define VIDIOC_G_SLICED_VBI_CAP _IOWR (’V’, 69, struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_cap) #define VIDIOC_LOG_STATUS _IO (’V’, 70) #define VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS _IOWR (’V’, 71, struct v4l2_ext_controls) #define VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS _IOWR (’V’, 72, struct v4l2_ext_controls) #define VIDIOC_TRY_EXT_CTRLS _IOWR (’V’, 73, struct v4l2_ext_controls) #if 1 /*KEEP*/ #define VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES _IOWR (’V’, 74, struct v4l2_frmsizeenum) #define VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMEINTERVALS _IOWR (’V’, 75, struct v4l2_frmivalenum) #define VIDIOC_G_ENC_INDEX _IOR (’V’, 76, struct v4l2_enc_idx) #define VIDIOC_ENCODER_CMD _IOWR (’V’, 77, struct v4l2_encoder_cmd) #define VIDIOC_TRY_ENCODER_CMD _IOWR (’V’, 78, struct v4l2_encoder_cmd) /* Experimental, only implemented if CONFIG_VIDEO_ADV_DEBUG is defined */ #define VIDIOC_DBG_S_REGISTER _IOW (’V’, 79, struct v4l2_register) #define VIDIOC_DBG_G_REGISTER _IOWR (’V’, 80, struct v4l2_register) #define VIDIOC_G_CHIP_IDENT #endif _IOWR (’V’, 81, struct v4l2_chip_ident) #ifdef __OLD_VIDIOC_ /* for compatibility, will go away some day */ #define VIDIOC_OVERLAY_OLD _IOWR (’V’, 14, int) #define VIDIOC_S_PARM_OLD _IOW (’V’, 22, struct v4l2_streamparm) #define VIDIOC_S_CTRL_OLD _IOW (’V’, 28, struct v4l2_control) #define VIDIOC_G_AUDIO_OLD _IOWR (’V’, 33, struct v4l2_audio) #define VIDIOC_G_AUDOUT_OLD _IOWR (’V’, 49, struct v4l2_audioout) #define VIDIOC_CROPCAP_OLD _IOR (’V’, 58, struct v4l2_cropcap) #endif http://bbs.51soc.com #define BASE_VIDIOC_PRIVATE 192 /* 192-255 are private */ #endif /* __LINUX_VIDEODEV2_H */ /* * Local variables: * c-basic-offset: 8 * End: */ 250 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix B. Video Capture Example /* * V4L2 video capture example * * This program can be used and distributed without restrictions. */ #include #include #include #include #include /* getopt_long() */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include /* low-level i/o */ http://bbs.51soc.com #include /* for videodev2.h */ #include #define CLEAR(x) memset (&(x), 0, sizeof (x)) typedef enum { IO_METHOD_READ, IO_METHOD_MMAP, IO_METHOD_USERPTR, } io_method; struct buffer { void * size_t }; start; length; static char * static io_method static int struct buffer * static unsigned int dev_name io fd buffers n_buffers = NULL; = IO_METHOD_MMAP; = -1; = NULL; = 0; static void errno_exit (const char * s) { fprintf (stderr, "%s error %d, %s\n", s, errno, strerror (errno)); 251 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix B. Video Capture Example exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } static int xioctl { int r; (int int void * fd, request, arg) do r = ioctl (fd, request, arg); while (-1 == r && EINTR == errno); return r; } static void process_image (const void * p) { fputc (’.’, stdout); fflush (stdout); } static int read_frame (void) { struct v4l2_buffer buf; unsigned int i; httswpitc:h (i/o) /{ bbs.51soc.com case IO_METHOD_READ: if (-1 == read (fd, buffers[0].start, buffers[0].length)) { switch (errno) { case EAGAIN: return 0; case EIO: /* Could ignore EIO, see spec. */ /* fall through */ default: errno_exit ("read"); } } process_image (buffers[0].start); break; case IO_METHOD_MMAP: CLEAR (buf); buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP; 252 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix B. Video Capture Example if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_DQBUF, &buf)) { switch (errno) { case EAGAIN: return 0; case EIO: /* Could ignore EIO, see spec. */ /* fall through */ default: errno_exit ("VIDIOC_DQBUF"); } } assert (buf.index < n_buffers); process_image (buffers[buf.index].start); if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf)) errno_exit ("VIDIOC_QBUF"); break; case IO_METHOD_USERPTR: CLEAR (buf); buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR; http://bbs.51soc.com if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_DQBUF, &buf)) { switch (errno) { case EAGAIN: return 0; case EIO: /* Could ignore EIO, see spec. */ /* fall through */ default: errno_exit ("VIDIOC_DQBUF"); } } for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i) if (buf.m.userptr == (unsigned long) buffers[i].start && buf.length == buffers[i].length) break; assert (i < n_buffers); process_image ((void *) buf.m.userptr); if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf)) errno_exit ("VIDIOC_QBUF"); 253 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix B. Video Capture Example break; } return 1; } static void mainloop { unsigned int count; (void) count = 100; while (count-- > 0) { for (;;) { fd_set fds; struct timeval tv; int r; FD_ZERO (&fds); FD_SET (fd, &fds); /* Timeout. */ tv.tv_sec = 2; tv.tv_usec = 0; r = select (fd + 1, &fds, NULL, NULL, &tv); if (-1 == r) { http://bbs.51soc.com if (EINTR == errno) continue; errno_exit ("select"); } if (0 == r) { fprintf (stderr, "select timeout\n"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } if (read_frame ()) break; /* EAGAIN - continue select loop. */ } } } static void stop_capturing (void) { enum v4l2_buf_type type; switch (io) { case IO_METHOD_READ: /* Nothing to do. */ break; 254 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix B. Video Capture Example case IO_METHOD_MMAP: case IO_METHOD_USERPTR: type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_STREAMOFF, &type)) errno_exit ("VIDIOC_STREAMOFF"); break; } } static void start_capturing (void) { unsigned int i; enum v4l2_buf_type type; switch (io) { case IO_METHOD_READ: /* Nothing to do. */ break; case IO_METHOD_MMAP: for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i) { struct v4l2_buffer buf; CLEAR (buf); http://bbs.51soc.com buf.type buf.memory = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP; buf.index = i; if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf)) errno_exit ("VIDIOC_QBUF"); } type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_STREAMON, &type)) errno_exit ("VIDIOC_STREAMON"); break; case IO_METHOD_USERPTR: for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i) { struct v4l2_buffer buf; CLEAR (buf); buf.type buf.memory buf.index buf.m.userptr buf.length = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; = V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR; = i; = (unsigned long) buffers[i].start; = buffers[i].length; if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf)) 255 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix B. Video Capture Example errno_exit ("VIDIOC_QBUF"); } type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_STREAMON, &type)) errno_exit ("VIDIOC_STREAMON"); break; } } static void uninit_device { unsigned int i; (void) switch (io) { case IO_METHOD_READ: free (buffers[0].start); break; case IO_METHOD_MMAP: for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i) if (-1 == munmap (buffers[i].start, buffers[i].length)) errno_exit ("munmap"); break; case IO_METHOD_USERPTR: http://bbs.51soc.com for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i) free (buffers[i].start); break; } free (buffers); } static void init_read (unsigned int { buffers = calloc (1, sizeof (*buffers)); if (!buffers) { fprintf (stderr, "Out of memory\n"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } buffer_size) buffers[0].length = buffer_size; buffers[0].start = malloc (buffer_size); if (!buffers[0].start) { fprintf (stderr, "Out of memory\n"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } } static void 256 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix B. Video Capture Example init_mmap (void) { struct v4l2_requestbuffers req; CLEAR (req); req.count req.type req.memory = 4; = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP; if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_REQBUFS, &req)) { if (EINVAL == errno) { fprintf (stderr, "%s does not support " "memory mapping\n", dev_name); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } else { errno_exit ("VIDIOC_REQBUFS"); } } if (req.count < 2) { fprintf (stderr, "Insufficient buffer memory on %s\n", dev_name); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } buffers = calloc (req.count, sizeof (*buffers)); if (!buffers) { http://bbs.51soc.com fprintf (stderr, "Out of memory\n"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } for (n_buffers = 0; n_buffers < req.count; ++n_buffers) { struct v4l2_buffer buf; CLEAR (buf); buf.type buf.memory buf.index = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP; = n_buffers; if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QUERYBUF, &buf)) errno_exit ("VIDIOC_QUERYBUF"); buffers[n_buffers].length = buf.length; buffers[n_buffers].start = mmap (NULL /* start anywhere */, buf.length, PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE /* required */, MAP_SHARED /* recommended */, fd, buf.m.offset); if (MAP_FAILED == buffers[n_buffers].start) errno_exit ("mmap"); } } 257 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix B. Video Capture Example static void init_userp (unsigned int { struct v4l2_requestbuffers req; unsigned int page_size; buffer_size) page_size = getpagesize (); buffer_size = (buffer_size + page_size - 1) & ~(page_size - 1); CLEAR (req); req.count req.type req.memory = 4; = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; = V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR; if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_REQBUFS, &req)) { if (EINVAL == errno) { fprintf (stderr, "%s does not support " "user pointer i/o\n", dev_name); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } else { errno_exit ("VIDIOC_REQBUFS"); } } buffers = calloc (4, sizeof (*buffers)); if (!buffers) { http://bbs.51soc.com fprintf (stderr, "Out of memory\n"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } for (n_buffers = 0; n_buffers < 4; ++n_buffers) { buffers[n_buffers].length = buffer_size; buffers[n_buffers].start = memalign (/* boundary */ page_size, buffer_size); if (!buffers[n_buffers].start) { fprintf (stderr, "Out of memory\n"); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } } } static void init_device (void) { struct v4l2_capability cap; struct v4l2_cropcap cropcap; struct v4l2_crop crop; struct v4l2_format fmt; unsigned int min; if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_QUERYCAP, &cap)) { if (EINVAL == errno) { fprintf (stderr, "%s is no V4L2 device\n", 258 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix B. Video Capture Example dev_name); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } else { errno_exit ("VIDIOC_QUERYCAP"); } } if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_CAPTURE)) { fprintf (stderr, "%s is no video capture device\n", dev_name); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } switch (io) { case IO_METHOD_READ: if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_READWRITE)) { fprintf (stderr, "%s does not support read i/o\n", dev_name); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } break; case IO_METHOD_MMAP: case IO_METHOD_USERPTR: if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_STREAMING)) { fprintf (stderr, "%s does not support streaming i/o\n", dev_name); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); http:}//bbs.51soc.com break; } /* Select video input, video standard and tune here. */ CLEAR (cropcap); cropcap.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; if (0 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_CROPCAP, &cropcap)) { crop.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; crop.c = cropcap.defrect; /* reset to default */ if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_S_CROP, &crop)) { switch (errno) { case EINVAL: /* Cropping not supported. */ break; default: /* Errors ignored. */ break; } } } else { 259 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix B. Video Capture Example /* Errors ignored. */ } CLEAR (fmt); fmt.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE; fmt.fmt.pix.width = 640; fmt.fmt.pix.height = 480; fmt.fmt.pix.pixelformat = V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUYV; fmt.fmt.pix.field = V4L2_FIELD_INTERLACED; if (-1 == xioctl (fd, VIDIOC_S_FMT, &fmt)) errno_exit ("VIDIOC_S_FMT"); /* Note VIDIOC_S_FMT may change width and height. */ /* Buggy driver paranoia. */ min = fmt.fmt.pix.width * 2; if (fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline < min) fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline = min; min = fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline * fmt.fmt.pix.height; if (fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage < min) fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage = min; switch (io) { case IO_METHOD_READ: init_read (fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage); break; http://bbs.51soc.com case IO_METHOD_MMAP: init_mmap (); break; case IO_METHOD_USERPTR: init_userp (fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage); break; } } static void close_device (void) { if (-1 == close (fd)) errno_exit ("close"); fd = -1; } static void open_device { struct stat st; (void) if (-1 == stat (dev_name, &st)) { fprintf (stderr, "Cannot identify ’%s’: %d, %s\n", dev_name, errno, strerror (errno)); 260 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix B. Video Capture Example exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } if (!S_ISCHR (st.st_mode)) { fprintf (stderr, "%s is no device\n", dev_name); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } fd = open (dev_name, O_RDWR /* required */ | O_NONBLOCK, 0); if (-1 == fd) { fprintf (stderr, "Cannot open ’%s’: %d, %s\n", dev_name, errno, strerror (errno)); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } } static void usage (FILE * fp, int argc, char ** argv) { fprintf (fp, "Usage: %s [options]\n\n" "Options:\n" "-d | --device name Video device name [/dev/video]\n" "-h | --help Print this message\n" "-m | --mmap Use memory mapped buffers\n" "-r | --read Use read() calls\n" http://bbs.51soc.com "-u | --userp "", Use application allocated buffers\n" argv[0]); } static const char short_options [] = "d:hmru"; static const struct option long_options [] = { { "device", required_argument, { "help", no_argument, { "mmap", no_argument, { "read", no_argument, { "userp", no_argument, { 0, 0, 0, 0 } }; NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, ’d’ }, ’h’ }, ’m’ }, ’r’ }, ’u’ }, int main { (int char ** dev_name = "/dev/video"; argc, argv) for (;;) { int index; int c; c = getopt_long (argc, argv, 261 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix B. Video Capture Example short_options, long_options, &index); if (-1 == c) break; switch (c) { case 0: /* getopt_long() flag */ break; case ’d’: dev_name = optarg; break; case ’h’: usage (stdout, argc, argv); exit (EXIT_SUCCESS); case ’m’: io = IO_METHOD_MMAP; break; case ’r’: io = IO_METHOD_READ; break; case ’u’: io = IO_METHOD_USERPTR; break; http:d/efa/ultb: bs.51soc.com usage (stderr, argc, argv); exit (EXIT_FAILURE); } } open_device (); init_device (); start_capturing (); mainloop (); stop_capturing (); uninit_device (); close_device (); exit (EXIT_SUCCESS); return 0; } 262 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix C. GNU Free Documentation License C.1. 0. PREAMBLE The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written document “free” in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others. This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference. C.2. 1h. AtPPtLpIC:AB/IL/ITbY bANsD.D5EF1INsIToIOcNS.com This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language. A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) 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Preserve the section entitled “History”, and its title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence. • J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission. • K. In any section entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, preserve the section’s title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein. 265 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix C. GNU Free Documentation License • L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles. • M. Delete any section entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version. • N. Do not retitle any existing section as “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section. If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. 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COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single 266 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix C. GNU Free Documentation License copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects. You may extract a single document from such a collection, and dispbibute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document. C.8. 7. 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However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. C.11. 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE The Free Software Foundation (http://www.gnu.org/fsf/fsf.html) may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/ (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft). Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has 267 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com Appendix C. GNU Free Documentation License been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. C.12. Addendum To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page: Copyright © YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”. If you have no Invariant Sections, write “with no Invariant Sections” instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover Texts, write “no Front-Cover Texts” instead of “Front-Cover Texts being LIST”; likewise for Back-Cover Texts. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html), to permit their use in free software. http://bbs.51soc.com 268 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com List of Types struct v4l2_standard struct v4l2_streamparm v4l2_std_id enum v4l2_buf_type enum v4l2_colorspace enum v4l2_ctrl_type struct v4l2_timecode struct v4l2_tuner struct v4l2_vbi_format struct v4l2_window enum v4l2_field enum v4l2_frmivaltypes enum v4l2_frmsizetypes enum v4l2_memory enum v4l2_priority enum v4l2_tuner_type struct v4l2_audio struct v4l2_audioout struct v4l2_buffer struct v4l2_capability struct v4l2_captureparm struct v4l2_chip_ident struct v4l2_clip struct v4l2_control struct v4l2_crop struct v4l2_cropcap struct v4l2_enc_idx struct v4l2_enc_idx_entry struct v4l2_encoder_cmd http://bbs.51soc.com struct v4l2_ext_control struct v4l2_ext_controls struct v4l2_fmtdesc struct v4l2_format struct v4l2_fract struct v4l2_framebuffer struct v4l2_frequency struct v4l2_frmival_stepwise struct v4l2_frmivalenum struct v4l2_frmsize_discrete struct v4l2_frmsize_stepwise struct v4l2_frmsizeenum struct v4l2_input struct v4l2_jpegcompression struct v4l2_modulator struct v4l2_output struct v4l2_outputparm struct v4l2_pix_format struct v4l2_queryctrl struct v4l2_querymenu struct v4l2_rect struct v4l2_register struct v4l2_requestbuffers struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_cap struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_data struct v4l2_sliced_vbi_format 269 嵌入式SOC社区 References http://bbs.51soc.com [EIA 608-B] Electronic Industries Alliance (http://www.eia.org), EIA 608-B "Recommended Practice for Line 21 Data Service". [EN 300 294] European Telecommunication Standards Institute (http://www.etsi.org), EN 300 294 "625-line television Wide Screen Signalling (WSS)". [ETS 300 231] European Telecommunication Standards Institute (http://www.etsi.org), ETS 300 231 "Specification of the domestic video Programme Delivery Control system (PDC)". [ETS 300 706] European Telecommunication Standards Institute (http://www.etsi.org), ETS 300 706 "Enhanced Teletext specification". [ISO 13818-1] International Telecommunication Union (http://www.itu.ch), International Organisation for Standardisation (http://www.iso.ch), ITU-T Rec. H.222.0 | ISO/IEC 13818-1 "Information technology — Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems". [ISO 13818-2] International Telecommunication Union (http://www.itu.ch), International Organisation for Standardisation (http://www.iso.ch), ITU-T Rec. H.262 | ISO/IEC 13818-2 "Information technology — Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Video". [ITU BT.470] International Telecommunication Union (http://www.itu.ch), ITU-R Recommendation BT.470-6 "Conventional Television Systems". http://bbs.51soc.com [ITU BT.601] International Telecommunication Union (http://www.itu.ch), ITU-R Recommendation BT.601-5 "Studio Encoding Parameters of Digital Television for Standard 4:3 and Wide-Screen 16:9 Aspect Ratios". [ITU BT.653] International Telecommunication Union (http://www.itu.ch), ITU-R Recommendation BT.653-3 "Teletext systems". [ITU BT.709] International Telecommunication Union (http://www.itu.ch), ITU-R Recommendation BT.709-5 "Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange". [ITU BT.1119] International Telecommunication Union (http://www.itu.ch), ITU-R Recommendation BT.1119 "625-line television Wide Screen Signalling (WSS)". [JFIF] Independent JPEG Group (http://www.ijg.org), JPEG File Interchange Format: Version 1.02. [SMPTE 12M] Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (http://www.smpte.org), SMPTE 12M-1999 "Television, Audio and Film - Time and Control Code". [SMPTE 170M] Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (http://www.smpte.org), SMPTE 170M-1999 "Television - Composite Analog Video Signal - NTSC for Studio Applications". [SMPTE 240M] Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (http://www.smpte.org), SMPTE 240M-1999 "Television - Signal Parameters - 1125-Line High-Definition Production". [V4L] Alan Cox, Video4Linux API Specification. 270 嵌入式SOC社区 http://bbs.51soc.com References This file is part of the Linux kernel sources under Documentation/video4linux. [V4LPROG] Alan Cox, Video4Linux Programming (a.k.a. The Video4Linux Book), 2000. About V4L driver programming. This book is part of the Linux kernel DocBook documentation, for example at http://kernelnewbies.org/documents/. SGML sources are included in the kernel sources. http://bbs.51soc.com 271

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