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《Spoken Language Processing》高清书签完整英文版

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标签: SPEECHRECOGNITION语音处理

《Spoken Language Processing》高清书签完整英文版

经典!必读!

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 121 122 123 111 112 113 1 INTRODUCTION 1 11 MOTIVATIONS 2 Spoken Language Interface 2 Speechtospeech Translation3 Knowledge Partners3 12 SPOKEN LANGUAGE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE 4 Automatic Speech Recognition 4 TexttoSpeech Conversion 6 Spoken Language Understanding7 13 BOOK ORGANIZATION 9 Part I Fundamental Theory 9 Part II Speech Processing 9 Part III Speech Recognition 10 Part IV TexttoSpeech Systems10 Part V Spoken Language Systems 10 14 TARGET AUDIENCES11 15 HISTORICAL PERSPECT......

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.2.1. 1.2.2. 1.2.3. 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................... 1 1.1. MOTIVATIONS .......................................................................................................2 Spoken Language Interface ...................................................................2 Speech-to-speech Translation................................................................3 Knowledge Partners...............................................................................3 1.2. SPOKEN LANGUAGE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE ........................................................4 Automatic Speech Recognition ..............................................................4 Text-to-Speech Conversion ....................................................................6 Spoken Language Understanding..........................................................7 1.3. BOOK ORGANIZATION ............................................................................................9 Part I: Fundamental Theory ..................................................................9 Part II: Speech Processing ....................................................................9 Part III: Speech Recognition ...............................................................10 Part IV: Text-to-Speech Systems..........................................................10 Part V: Spoken Language Systems ......................................................10 1.4. TARGET AUDIENCES.............................................................................................11 1.5. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND FURTHER READING .............................................11 1.3.1. 1.3.2. 1.3.3. 1.3.4. 1.3.5. PART I: FUNDAMENTAL THEORY 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.1.3. 2. SPOKEN LANGUAGE STRUCTURE .........................................................19 2.1. SOUND AND HUMAN SPEECH SYSTEMS................................................................21 Sound ...................................................................................................21 Speech Production ...............................................................................24 Speech Perception................................................................................28 2.2. PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY...............................................................................36 Phonemes.............................................................................................36 The Allophone: Sound and Context .....................................................47 Speech Rate and Coarticulation ..........................................................49 2.3. SYLLABLES AND WORDS ......................................................................................50 Syllables...............................................................................................51 2.3.1. 2.3.2. Words...................................................................................................52 2.4. SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS.....................................................................................57 Syntactic Constituents..........................................................................58 Semantic Roles.....................................................................................63 Lexical Semantics ................................................................................64 Logical Form .......................................................................................66 2.5. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND FURTHER READING .............................................68 2.4.1. 2.4.2. 2.4.3. 2.4.4. i ii TABLE OF CONTENTS 3. PROBABILITY, STATISTICS AND INFORMATION THEORY ..73 3.1. PROBABILITY THEORY .........................................................................................74 Conditional Probability And Bayes' Rule ............................................75 3.1.1. Random Variables................................................................................77 3.1.2. 3.1.3. Mean and Variance..............................................................................79 Covariance and Correlation ................................................................83 3.1.4. Random Vectors and Multivariate Distributions .................................84 3.1.5. Some Useful Distributions ...................................................................85 3.1.6. 3.1.7. Gaussian Distributions ........................................................................92 3.2. ESTIMATION THEORY ...........................................................................................98 3.2.1. Minimum/Least Mean Squared Error Estimation................................99 3.2.2. Maximum Likelihood Estimation .......................................................104 Bayesian Estimation and MAP Estimation ........................................108 3.2.3. 3.3. SIGNIFICANCE TESTING.......................................................................................114 Level of Significance..........................................................................114 Normal Test (Z-Test)..........................................................................116 2χ Goodness-of-Fit Test ...................................................................117 3.3.3. 3.3.4. Matched-Pairs Test............................................................................119 INFORMATION THEORY ......................................................................................121 Entropy ..............................................................................................121 3.4.1. Conditional Entropy ..........................................................................124 3.4.2. The Source Coding Theorem .............................................................125 3.4.3. 3.4.4. Mutual Information and Channel Coding..........................................127 3.5. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND FURTHER READING ...........................................129 3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.4. 4. PATTERN RECOGNITION ...........................................................................133 4.1. BAYES DECISION THEORY..................................................................................134 4.1.1. Minimum-Error-Rate Decision Rules ................................................135 4.1.2. Discriminant Functions .....................................................................138 4.2. HOW TO CONSTRUCT CLASSIFIERS .....................................................................140 4.2.1. Gaussian Classifiers ..........................................................................142 The Curse of Dimensionality..............................................................144 4.2.2. Estimating the Error Rate..................................................................146 4.2.3. Comparing Classifiers .......................................................................148 4.2.4. 4.3. DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING ................................................................................150 4.3.1. Maximum Mutual Information Estimation.........................................150 4.3.2. Minimum-Error-Rate Estimation.......................................................156 Neural Networks ................................................................................158 4.3.3. 4.4. UNSUPERVISED ESTIMATION METHODS .............................................................163 Vector Quantization...........................................................................164 4.4.1. The EM Algorithm .............................................................................170 4.4.2. 4.4.3. Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Density Estimation...........................172 TABLE OF CONTENTS iii 4.5. CLASSIFICATION AND REGRESSION TREES..........................................................176 Choice of Question Set.......................................................................177 4.5.1. Splitting Criteria ................................................................................179 4.5.2. 4.5.3. Growing the Tree ...............................................................................181 4.5.4. Missing Values and Conflict Resolution ............................................182 Complex Questions ............................................................................183 4.5.5. The Right-Sized Tree..........................................................................185 4.5.6. 4.6. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND FURTHER READING ...........................................190 PART II SPEECH PROCESSING 5.3.1. 5.3.2. 5.3.3. 5.3.4. 5.3.5. 5. DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING..............................................................201 5.1. DIGITAL SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS ........................................................................202 Sinusoidal Signals..............................................................................203 5.1.1. 5.1.2. Other Digital Signals .........................................................................206 5.1.3. Digital Systems ..................................................................................206 5.2. CONTINUOUS-FREQUENCY TRANSFORMS...........................................................209 The Fourier Transform ......................................................................209 Z-Transform .......................................................................................211 Z-Transforms of Elementary Functions .............................................212 Properties of the Z and Fourier Transform .......................................215 5.3. DISCRETE-FREQUENCY TRANSFORMS................................................................216 The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).............................................218 Fourier Transforms of Periodic Signals ............................................219 The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)....................................................222 Circular Convolution.........................................................................227 The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)..............................................228 5.4. DIGITAL FILTERS AND WINDOWS........................................................................229 The Ideal Low-Pass Filter .................................................................229 5.4.1. 5.4.2. Window Functions .............................................................................230 FIR Filters..........................................................................................232 5.4.3. IIR Filters...........................................................................................238 5.4.4. 5.5. DIGITAL PROCESSING OF ANALOG SIGNALS........................................................242 Fourier Transform of Analog Signals................................................242 5.5.1. The Sampling Theorem ......................................................................243 5.5.2. Analog-to-Digital Conversion ...........................................................245 5.5.3. 5.5.4. Digital-to-Analog Conversion ...........................................................246 5.6. MULTIRATE SIGNAL PROCESSING.......................................................................247 5.6.1. Decimation.........................................................................................248 Interpolation ......................................................................................249 5.6.2. Resampling ........................................................................................250 5.6.3. 5.7. FILTERBANKS .....................................................................................................250 Two-Band Conjugate Quadrature Filters..........................................250 5.2.1. 5.2.2. 5.2.3. 5.2.4. 5.7.1. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS 5.7.2. Multiresolution Filterbanks ...............................................................253 The FFT as a Filterbank....................................................................255 5.7.3. 5.7.4. Modulated Lapped Transforms..........................................................257 5.8. STOCHASTIC PROCESSES ....................................................................................259 Statistics of Stochastic Processes.......................................................260 Stationary Processes..........................................................................263 LTI Systems with Stochastic Inputs....................................................266 Power Spectral Density......................................................................267 Noise ..................................................................................................269 5.9. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND FURTHER READING...........................................269 5.8.1. 5.8.2. 5.8.3. 5.8.4. 5.8.5. 6.3.1. 6.3.2. 6.3.3. 6.3.4. 6.3.5. 6. SPEECH SIGNAL REPRESENTATIONS ...............................................273 6.1. SHORT-TIME FOURIER ANALYSIS.......................................................................274 Spectrograms .....................................................................................279 Pitch-Synchronous Analysis...............................................................281 6.2. ACOUSTICAL MODEL OF SPEECH PRODUCTION ..................................................281 6.2.1. Glottal Excitation...............................................................................282 Lossless Tube Concatenation.............................................................282 6.2.2. Source-Filter Models of Speech Production......................................286 6.2.3. 6.3. LINEAR PREDICTIVE CODING..............................................................................288 The Orthogonality Principle ..............................................................289 Solution of the LPC Equations...........................................................291 Spectral Analysis via LPC .................................................................298 The Prediction Error..........................................................................299 Equivalent Representations ...............................................................301 6.4. CEPSTRAL PROCESSING......................................................................................304 The Real and Complex Cepstrum.......................................................305 Cepstrum of Pole-Zero Filters ...........................................................306 Cepstrum of Periodic Signals ............................................................309 Cepstrum of Speech Signals...............................................................310 Source-Filter Separation via the Cepstrum .......................................311 6.5. PERCEPTUALLY-MOTIVATED REPRESENTATIONS ...............................................313 The Bilinear Transform......................................................................313 6.5.1. 6.5.2. Mel-Frequency Cepstrum ..................................................................314 Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP)..................................................316 6.5.3. 6.6. FORMANT FREQUENCIES ....................................................................................316 Statistical Formant Tracking .............................................................318 6.7. THE ROLE OF PITCH ...........................................................................................321 Autocorrelation Method.....................................................................321 Normalized Cross-Correlation Method .............................................324 Signal Conditioning ...........................................................................327 Pitch Tracking....................................................................................327 6.8. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND FUTURE READING.............................................329 6.4.1. 6.4.2. 6.4.3. 6.4.4. 6.4.5. 6.1.1. 6.1.2. 6.6.1. 6.7.1. 6.7.2. 6.7.3. 6.7.4.
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