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Digital Communication 2nd Edition [Lee & Messerschmitt]

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    DIGITAL COMMUNICATION Second Edition • Edward A. Lee University of California at Berkeley David G. Messerschmitt University of California at Berkeley Kluwer Academic Publishers BostonlDordrechtlLondon Distributors for North America: Kluwer Academic Publishers 101 Philip Drive Assinippi Park Norwell, Massachusetts 02061 USA Distributors for all other countries: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group Distribution Centre Post Oflice Box 322 3300 AH Dordrecht, THE NETHERLANDS Library or Congress Cataloging-In-Publlcation Data Lee, Edward A., 1957- Digilal communicalionl Edward A. Lee and David G. Messerschrnilt. -- 2nd ed. p. em. Includes bibliographical references and index, ISBN 0-7923,9391-0 (.c;d-free p.per) 1. Digital communications. I. Messelschmitl. David G. II. Title. TK5103.7.LA4 1994 621382--dc20 93-26197 elP Copyrigbt © 1994 by Kluwer Academic Publishers. Fifth Printing 1999. All nghls reserved. No pari of this pUblicatibn may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmilled in any form or by any means, mechanical. pholo-copying. recording, or otherwise, without the prior wrillen permission of Ihe publisher, Kluwcr Academic Publishers, lOt Philip Drive, Assinippi Park, Norwell. Massachusells 02061- CONTENTS PREFACE NOTES TO THE INSTRUCTOR PART I: THE BASICS 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 APPLICATIONS OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATION 2 1.2 DIGITAL vs. ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS 5 1.3 PLAN OF THE BOOK 7 1.4 FURTHER READING 8 2 DETERMINISTIC SIGNAL PROCESSING 11 2.1 SIGNALS 11 2.2 LTI SYSlEMS AND FOURIER TRANSFORMS 13 2.3 THE NYQUIST SAMPLING THEOREM 15 2.4 PASSBAND SIGNALS and MODULATION 17 2.5 Z TRANSFORMS AND RATIONAL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 21 2.6 SIGNAL SPACE REPRESENTATIONS 31 2.7 FURTHER READING 39 2-A SUMMARY OF FOURIER TRANSFORM PROPERTIES 39 2-B SPECTRAL FACTORIZATION 41 3 STOCHASTIC SIGNAL PROCESSING 48 3.1 RANDOM VARIABLES 48 3.2 RANDOM PROCESSES 57 3.3 MARKOV CHAINS 68 3.4 THE POISSON PROCESS AND QUEUEING 75 3.5 FURTHER READING 85 3-A POWER SPECfRUM OF A CYCLOSTATIONARY PROCESS 86 3-B POWER SPECTRUM OF A MARKOV CHAIN 87 3-C DERIVATION OF POISSON PROCESS 90 3-D MOMENT GENERATING FUNCTION OF SHOT NOISE 91 4 LIMITS OF COMMUNICATION 97 4.1 JUST ENOUGH INFORMATION ABOUT ENTROPY 99 4.2 CAPACITY OF DISCRETE-TIME CHANNELS 102 4.3 FURTHER READING 110 4-A ASYMPTOTIC EQUIPARTITION THEOREM 110 5 PHYSICAL MEDIA AND CHANNELS 5.1 COMPOSITE CHANNELS 116 5.2 TRANSMISSION LINES 119 5.3 OPTICAL FIBER 127 5.4 MlCROWAVE RADIO 142 5.5 TELEPHONE CHANNELS 160 5.6 MAGNETIC RECORDING CHANNELS 167 5.7 FURTHER READING 171 115 PART II: MODULATION AND DETECTION 6 MODULATION 6.1 AN OVERVIEW OF BASIC PAM TECHNIQUES 179 6.2 PULSE SHAPES 187 6.3 BASEBAND PAM 191 6.4 PASSBAND PAM 199 6.5 ALPHABET DESIGN 213 6.6 THE MATCHED FILTER - ISOLATED PULSE CASE 224 6.7 SPREAD SPECTRUM 229 6.8 ORTHOGONAL MULTIPULSE MODULAnON 230 6.9 COMBINED PAM AND MULTIPULSE MODULATION 249 6.10 OPTICAL FIBER RECEPTION 261 6.11 MAGNETIC RECORDING 262 6.12 FURTHER READING 263 6-A MODULATING RANDOM PROCESSES 263 6-B THE GENERALIZED NYQUIST CRITERION 266 178 7 SIGNAL and RECEIVER DESIGN 7.1 SIGNAL MODEL 282 7.2 SPECIFIC MODULATION TECHNIQUES 286 7.3 PAM WITH Ir-rIERSYMBOL INTERFERENCE 294 7.4 BANDWIDTH and SIGNAL DIMENSIONALITY 304 7.5 FURTHER READING 307 279 8 NOISE 8.1 COlVIPLEX-VALlJ'ED GAUSS IAN PROCESSES 311 8.2 FUNDAMENTAL RESULTS 316 8.3 PERFORMANCE of PAM 320 8.4 PERFORMANCE of MINIMUM-DISTANCE RECEIVERS 329 8.5 PA.1v1 with lSI 334 8.6 SPREAD SPECTRUM 337 8.7 CAPACITY AND MODULATION 344 8.8 QUAc~TIJM NOISE in OPTICAL SYSTEMS 360 8.9 FURTHER READING 371 311 9 DETECTION 378 9.1 DETECTION OF A SINGLE REAL-VALUED SYMBOL 380 92 DETECTION OF A SIGNAL VECTOR 3&5 9.3 KNOWN SIGNALS IN GAUSSIAN NOISE 390 9.4 OPTIMAL INCOHERENT DETECTION 402 9.5 OPTIMAL DETECTORS for PAM WITH lSI 406 9.6 SEQUENCE DETECTION: THE VITERBI ALGORITHM 409 9.7 SHOT NOISE SIGNAL WITH KNOWN INTENSITY 424 9.8 FlJRTHER READThl'G 427 9-A KARHUNEN-LOEVE EXPANSION 42& 9-B GENERAL ML AND MAP SEQUENCE DETECTORS 430 9-C BIT ERROR PROBABILITY FOR SEQUENCE DETECTORS 432 10 EQUALIZATION 10.1 OPTIMAL ZERO-FORCING EQUALIZATION 445 10.2 GENERALIZED EQUALIZATION METHODS 464 10.3 FRACfIONALLY SPACED EQUALIZER 482 10.4 TRANSVERSAL FILTER EQUALIZERS 486 10.5 lSI and CHANNEL CAPACITY 487 10.6 FURTHER READING 511 lO-A DFE ERROR PROPAGATION 511 442 11 ADAPTIVE EQUALIZATION 11.1 CONS7RAINED-COMPLEXITY EQUALIZERS 519 11.2 ADAPTIVE LINEAR EQUALIZER 532 11.3 ADAPTIVE DFE 541 11.4 FRACfIONALLY SPACED EQUALIZER 543 11.5 PASSBAND EQUALIZATION 546 11.6 FURTIffiR READING 549 ll-A SG ALGORITHM ERROR VECTOR NORM 549 PART III: CODING 517 12 SPECTRUM CONTROL 12.1 GOALS OF LINE CODES 556 12.2 LINE CODE OPTIONS 558 12.3 FILTERING FOR SPECTRUM CONTROL 573 12.4 CONTlNUOUS·PHASE MODULATION 589 12.5 SCRAMBLING 591 12.6 FURTIffiR READING 597 12-A MAXIMAL-LENGTH FEEDBACK SHIFT REGISTERS 598 555 13 ERROR CONTROL 13.1 BLOCK CODES 613 13.2 CONVOLUTIONAL CODES 626 13.3 mSTORICAL NOTES AND FURTIffiR READING 636 13-A LINEARITY OF CODES 637 13-B PATH ENUMERATORS 642 609 14 SIGNAL-SPACE CODING 14.1 MULTIDIMENSIONAL SIGNAL CONSTELLATIONS 652 14.2 lRELLIS CODES 668 14.3 COSET CODES 684 14.4 SIGNAL-SPACE CODING AND lSI 688 14.5 FURTIffiR READING 694 650 PART IV: SYNCHRONIZATION 15 PHASE-LOCKED LOOPS 15.1 IDEAL CONTINUOUS·TIME PLL 702 15.2 DISCRETE·TIME PLLs 7\1} 15.3 PHASE DETECTORS 713 15.4 VARIATIONS ON A THEME: VCOs 718 15.5 FURTHER READING 720 16 CARRI ER RECOVERY 16.1 DECISION-DIREClED CARRIER RECOVERY 726 16.2 POWER OF N CARRIER RECOVERY 733 16.3 FURTHER READING 734 17 TIMING RECOVERY 17.1 TIMING RECOVERY PERFOR.\